WorldWideScience

Sample records for network traffic conditions

  1. Feasibility of Optical Packet Switched WDM Networks without Packet Synchronisation Under Bursty Traffic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Kloch, Allan

    1999-01-01

    We show that complex packet synchronisation may be avoided in optical packetswitched networks. Detailed traffic analysis demonstrates that packet lossratios of 1e-10 are feasible under bursty traffic conditions for a highcapacity network consisting of asynchronously operated add-drop switch...

  2. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  3. Traffic Dynamics of Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Two important aspects of the Internet, namely the properties of its topology and the characteristics of its data traffic, have attracted growing attention of the physics community. My thesis has considered problems of both aspects. First I studied the stochastic behavior of TCP, the primary algorithm governing traffic in the current Internet, in an elementary network scenario consisting of a standalone infinite-sized buffer and an access link. The effect of the fast recovery and fast retransmission (FR/FR) algorithms is also considered. I showed that my model can be extended further to involve the effect of link propagation delay, characteristic of WAN. I continued my thesis with the investigation of finite-sized semi-bottleneck buffers, where packets can be dropped not only at the link, but also at the buffer. I demonstrated that the behavior of the system depends only on a certain combination of the parameters. Moreover, an analytic formula was derived that gives the ratio of packet loss rate at the buffer to the total packet loss rate. This formula makes it possible to treat buffer-losses as if they were link-losses. Finally, I studied computer networks from a structural perspective. I demonstrated through fluid simulations that the distribution of resources, specifically the link bandwidth, has a serious impact on the global performance of the network. Then I analyzed the distribution of edge betweenness in a growing scale-free tree under the condition that a local property, the in-degree of the "younger" node of an arbitrary edge, is known in order to find an optimum distribution of link capacity. The derived formula is exact even for finite-sized networks. I also calculated the conditional expectation of edge betweenness, rescaled for infinite networks.

  4. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  5. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  6. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  7. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  8. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  9. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models of traffic for academic purposes. We define the objective of this thesis as finding a way to evaluate the performance of various applications in a high-speed Internet infrastructure. To satisfy the obje...

  10. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...

  11. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  12. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  13. Traffic Dynamics on Complex Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic dynamics on complex networks are intriguing in recent years due to their practical implications in real communication networks. In this survey, we give a brief review of studies on traffic routing dynamics on complex networks. Strategies for improving transport efficiency, including designing efficient routing strategies and making appropriate adjustments to the underlying network structure, are introduced in this survey. Finally, a few open problems are discussed in this survey.

  14. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  15. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Zhihai; Wang, Shuqin; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiaolei

    2017-06-26

    Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs), for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  16. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  17. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    -arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values...

  18. Ant colony optimization algorithm for signal coordination of oversaturated traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Traffic congestion is a daily and growing problem of the modern era in mostly all major cities in the world. : Increasing traffic demand strains the existing transportation system, leading to oversaturated network : conditions, especially at peak hou...

  19. Switching performance of OBS network model under prefetched real traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenhua; Xu, Du; Lei, Wen

    2005-11-01

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) [1] is now widely considered as an efficient switching technique in building the next generation optical Internet .So it's very important to precisely evaluate the performance of the OBS network model. The performance of the OBS network model is variable in different condition, but the most important thing is that how it works under real traffic load. In the traditional simulation models, uniform traffics are usually generated by simulation software to imitate the data source of the edge node in the OBS network model, and through which the performance of the OBS network is evaluated. Unfortunately, without being simulated by real traffic, the traditional simulation models have several problems and their results are doubtable. To deal with this problem, we present a new simulation model for analysis and performance evaluation of the OBS network, which uses prefetched IP traffic to be data source of the OBS network model. The prefetched IP traffic can be considered as real IP source of the OBS edge node and the OBS network model has the same clock rate with a real OBS system. So it's easy to conclude that this model is closer to the real OBS system than the traditional ones. The simulation results also indicate that this model is more accurate to evaluate the performance of the OBS network system and the results of this model are closer to the actual situation.

  20. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  1. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  2. Understanding the context of network traffic alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Best, D.M.; Staheli, D.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Harrison, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the protection of critical infrastructures against complex virus attacks, automated network traffic analysis and deep packet inspection are unavoidable. However, even with the use of network intrusion detection systems, the number of alerts is still too large to analyze manually. In addition,

  3. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. ... ness - also suffer from a big handicap vis-a-vis the Indian scenario: most of these models do .... more well-known queuing network models and onsite data, a more exact Road Cell ...

  4. Traffic Policing in Dynamic Military Networks Using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Skappel, Hans Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...

  5. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  6. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause ...

  7. Traffic of indistinguishable particles in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Kuan, Meng; Jian-Yang, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a simple walk mechanism to the study of the traffic of many indistinguishable particles in complex networks. The network with particles stands for a particle system, and every vertex in the network stands for a quantum state with the corresponding energy determined by the vertex degree. Although the particles are indistinguishable, the quantum states can be distinguished. When the many indistinguishable particles walk randomly in the system for a long enough time and the system reaches dynamic equilibrium, we find that under different restrictive conditions the particle distributions satisfy different forms, including the Bose–Einstein distribution, the Fermi–Dirac distribution and the non-Fermi distribution (as we temporarily call it). As for the Bose–Einstein distribution, we find that only if the particle density is larger than zero, with increasing particle density, do more and more particles condense in the lowest energy level. While the particle density is very low, the particle distribution transforms from the quantum statistical form to the classically statistical form, i.e., transforms from the Bose distribution or the Fermi distribution to the Boltzmann distribution. The numerical results fit well with the analytical predictions

  8. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  9. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  10. Traffic dynamics on coupled spatial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Chen, Zhen; Cai, Kai-Quan; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern traffic, various means of transportation systems make it more convenient and diversified for passengers to travel out. In this paper, we establish a two-layered spatial network model where the low-speed lower layer is a regular lattice and the high-speed upper layer is a scale-free network embedded in the lattice. Passengers will travel along the path with the minimal travel time, and they can transfer from one layer to the other, which will induce extra transfer cost. We extensively investigate the traffic process on these coupled spatial networks and focus on the effect of the parameter α, the speed ratio between two networks. It is found that, as α grows, the network capacity of the coupled networks increases in the early stage and then decreases, indicating that cooperation between the coupled networks will induce the highest network capacity at an optimal α. We then provide an explanation for this non-monotonous dependence from a micro-scope point of view. The travel time reliability is also examined. Both in free-flow state and congestion state, the travel time is linearly related to the Euclidean distance. However, the variance of travel time in the congestion state is remarkably larger than that in the free-flow state, namely, people have to set aside more redundant time in an unreliable traffic system

  11. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs, for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs and long short-term memory (LSTM neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  12. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  13. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    various classification modes (decision trees, rulesets, boosting, softening thresholds) regarding the classification accuracy and the time required to create the classifier. We showed how to use our VBS tool to obtain per-flow, per-application, and per-content statistics of traffic in computer networks...

  14. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  15. Network traffic anomaly prediction using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Hening Titi; Fatichah, Chastine; Sabila, Altea

    2017-03-01

    As the excessive increase of internet usage, the malicious software (malware) has also increase significantly. Malware is software developed by hacker for illegal purpose(s), such as stealing data and identity, causing computer damage, or denying service to other user[1]. Malware which attack computer or server often triggers network traffic anomaly phenomena. Based on Sophos's report[2], Indonesia is the riskiest country of malware attack and it also has high network traffic anomaly. This research uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict network traffic anomaly based on malware attack in Indonesia which is recorded by Id-SIRTII/CC (Indonesia Security Incident Response Team on Internet Infrastructure/Coordination Center). The case study is the highest malware attack (SQL injection) which has happened in three consecutive years: 2012, 2013, and 2014[4]. The data series is preprocessed first, then the network traffic anomaly is predicted using Artificial Neural Network and using two weight update algorithms: Gradient Descent and Momentum. Error of prediction is calculated using Mean Squared Error (MSE) [7]. The experimental result shows that MSE for SQL Injection is 0.03856. So, this approach can be used to predict network traffic anomaly.

  16. Networks and their traffic in multiplayer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Melo López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games called multiplayer real-time, or (MCG are at the forefront of the use of the possibilities of the network. Research on this subject have been made for military simulations, virtual reality systems, computer support teamwork, the solutions diverge on the problems posed by MCG. With this in mind, this document provides an overview of the four issues affecting networking at the MCG. First, network resources (bandwidth, latency and computing capacity, together with the technical limits within which the MCG must operate. Second, the distribution concepts include communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client / server, server / network, and data and control architectures (centralized, distributed and reproduced .Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to changes in parameterization resources. Finally, security is intended to fend off the traps and vandalism, which are common in online games; to check traffic, particularly these games we decided to take the massively multiplayer game League of Legends, a scene corresponding to a situation of real life in a network of ADSL access network is deployed has been simulated by using NS2 Three variants of TCP, it means SACK TCP, New Reno TCP, and TCP Vegas, have been considered for the cross traffic. The results show that TCP Vegas is able to maintain a constant speed while racing against the game traffic, since it avoids the packet loss and the delays in the tail caused by high peaks, without increasing the size of the sender window. SACK TCP and TCP New Reno, on the other hand, tend to increase continuously the sender window size, which could allow a greater loss of packages and also to cause unwanted delays for the game traffic.

  17. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  18. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ... Routing strategy; network traffic flow; hysteretic loop; phase transition from ... ered from two aspects: modifying the underlying network structure or developing ... capacity corresponds to α = −1 in the case of identical nodes' delivering ability.

  19. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  20. Traffic measurement for big network data

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shigang; Xiao, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents several compact and fast methods for online traffic measurement of big network data. It describes challenges of online traffic measurement, discusses the state of the field, and provides an overview of the potential solutions to major problems. The authors introduce the problem of per-flow size measurement for big network data and present a fast and scalable counter architecture, called Counter Tree, which leverages a two-dimensional counter sharing scheme to achieve far better memory efficiency and significantly extend estimation range. Unlike traditional approaches to cardinality estimation problems that allocate a separated data structure (called estimator) for each flow, this book takes a different design path by viewing all the flows together as a whole: each flow is allocated with a virtual estimator, and these virtual estimators share a common memory space. A framework of virtual estimators is designed to apply the idea of sharing to an array of cardinality estimation solutions, achi...

  1. Nonlinearity and chaos in wireless network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Somenath; Ray, Rajdeep; Samanta, Rajkumar; Khondekar, Mofazzal H.; Sanyal, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The natural complexity of wireless mobile network traffic dynamics has been assessed in this article by tracing the presence of nonlinearity and chaos in the profile of daily peak hour call arrival and daily call drop of a sub-urban local mobile switching centre. The tools like Recurrence Plot and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) has been used to reveal the probable presence of non-stationarity, nonlinearity and chaosity in the network traffic. Information Entropy (IE) and 0–1 test have been employed to provide the quantitative support to the findings. Both the daily peak hour call arrival profile and the daily call drop profile exhibit non-stationarity, determinism and nonlinearity with the former one being more regular while the later one is chaotic.

  2. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  3. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  4. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...... research and consists of six papers. The first four considers data transmission in grid context. The last two solves the data transmission problem, where the number of paths per data connection is bounded from above. The thesis shows that it is possible to solve the integrated job scheduling and network...

  5. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  6. Minimal-delay traffic grooming for WDM star networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Garg, Nikhil; Choi, Hyeong-Ah

    2003-10-01

    All-optical networks face the challenge of reducing slower opto-electronic conversions by managing assignment of traffic streams to wavelengths in an intelligent manner, while at the same time utilizing bandwidth resources to the maximum. This challenge becomes harder in networks closer to the end users that have insufficient data to saturate single wavelengths as well as traffic streams outnumbering the usable wavelengths, resulting in traffic grooming which requires costly traffic analysis at access nodes. We study the problem of traffic grooming that reduces the need to analyze traffic, for a class of network architecture most used by Metropolitan Area Networks; the star network. The problem being NP-complete, we provide an efficient twice-optimal-bound greedy heuristic for the same, that can be used to intelligently groom traffic at the LANs to reduce latency at the access nodes. Simulation results show that our greedy heuristic achieves a near-optimal solution.

  7. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRAFFIC-AWARE FORWARDING STRATEGY IN NAMED DATA NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Bazmi; Manijeh Keshtgary

    2016-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a new Internet architecture which has been proposed to eliminate TCP/IP Internet architecture restrictions. This architecture is abstracting away the notion of host and working based on naming datagrams. However, one of the major challenges of NDN is supporting QoS-aware forwarding strategy so as to forward Interest packets intelligently over multiple paths based on the current network condition. In this paper, Neural Network (NN) Based Traffic-aware Forwarding ...

  8. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  9. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  10. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  11. Real-time network traffic classification technique for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    Network traffic or data traffic in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the amount of network packets moving across a wireless network from each wireless node to another wireless node, which provide the load of sampling in a wireless network. WLAN's Network traffic is the main component for network traffic measurement, network traffic control and simulation. Traffic classification technique is an essential tool for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) in different wireless networks in the complex applications such as local area networks, wireless local area networks, wireless personal area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks. Network traffic classification is also an essential component in the products for QoS control in different wireless network systems and applications. Classifying network traffic in a WLAN allows to see what kinds of traffic we have in each part of the network, organize the various kinds of network traffic in each path into different classes in each path, and generate network traffic matrix in order to Identify and organize network traffic which is an important key for improving the QoS feature. To achieve effective network traffic classification, Real-time Network Traffic Classification (RNTC) algorithm for WLANs based on Compressed Sensing (CS) is presented in this paper. The fundamental goal of this algorithm is to solve difficult wireless network management problems. The proposed architecture allows reducing False Detection Rate (FDR) to 25% and Packet Delay (PD) to 15 %. The proposed architecture is also increased 10 % accuracy of wireless transmission, which provides a good background for establishing high quality wireless local area networks.

  12. An analysis of network traffic classification for botnet detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2015-01-01

    of detecting botnet network traffic using three methods that target protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. We propose three traffic classification methods based on capable Random Forests classifier. The proposed methods...

  13. Traffic sharing algorithms for hybrid mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, S.; Murthy, K. M. S.; Hafez, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a hybrid (terrestrial + satellite) mobile personal communications networks environment, a large size satellite footprint (supercell) overlays on a large number of smaller size, contiguous terrestrial cells. We assume that the users have either a terrestrial only single mode terminal (SMT) or a terrestrial/satellite dual mode terminal (DMT) and the ratio of DMT to the total terminals is defined gamma. It is assumed that the call assignments to and handovers between terrestrial cells and satellite supercells take place in a dynamic fashion when necessary. The objectives of this paper are twofold, (1) to propose and define a class of traffic sharing algorithms to manage terrestrial and satellite network resources efficiently by handling call handovers dynamically, and (2) to analyze and evaluate the algorithms by maximizing the traffic load handling capability (defined in erl/cell) over a wide range of terminal ratios (gamma) given an acceptable range of blocking probabilities. Two of the algorithms (G & S) in the proposed class perform extremely well for a wide range of gamma.

  14. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  15. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  16. Research of convolutional neural networks for traffic sign recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stadalnikas, Kasparas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the convolutional neural networks application for traffic sign recognition is analyzed. Thesis describes the basic operations, techniques that are commonly used to apply in the image classification using convolutional neural networks. Also, this paper describes the data sets used for traffic sign recognition, their problems affecting the final training results. The paper reviews most popular existing technologies – frameworks for developing the solution for traffic sign recogni...

  17. Analysis and Classification of Traffic in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beng, Wang W

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis studied the traffic generated by wireless sensor networks by setting up two different commonly used network topologies, namely a direct connection to the base and a daisy...

  18. Efficient Algorithms for Network-Wide Road Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weg, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlling road traffic networks is a complex problem. One of the difficulties is the coordination of actuators, such as traffic lights, variables speed limits, ramp metering and route guidance, with the aim to improve the network performance over a near-future time horizon. This dissertation

  19. Calibration of CORSIM models under saturated traffic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study proposes a methodology to calibrate microscopic traffic flow simulation models. : The proposed methodology has the capability to calibrate simultaneously all the calibration : parameters as well as demand patterns for any network topology....

  20. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Shargabi

    Full Text Available Optical burst switching (OBS networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  1. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  2. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  3. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  4. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  5. Robust and Agile System against Fault and Anomaly Traffic in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of software defined networking (SDN is that it allows intelligent control and management of networking though programmability in real time. It enables efficient utilization of network resources through traffic engineering, and offers potential attack defense methods when abnormalities arise. However, previous studies have only identified individual solutions for respective problems, instead of finding a more global solution in real time that is capable of addressing multiple situations in network status. To cover diverse network conditions, this paper presents a comprehensive reactive system for simultaneously monitoring failures, anomalies, and attacks for high availability and reliability. We design three main modules in the SDN controller for a robust and agile defense (RAD system against network anomalies: a traffic analyzer, a traffic engineer, and a rule manager. RAD provides reactive flow rule generation to control traffic while detecting network failures, anomalies, high traffic volume (elephant flows, and attacks. The traffic analyzer identifies elephant flows, traffic anomalies, and attacks based on attack signatures and network monitoring. The traffic engineer module measures network utilization and delay in order to determine the best path for multi-dimensional routing and load balancing under any circumstances. Finally, the rule manager generates and installs a flow rule for the selected best path to control traffic. We implement the proposed RAD system based on Floodlight, an open source project for the SDN controller. We evaluate our system using simulation with and without the aforementioned RAD modules. Experimental results show that our approach is both practical and feasible, and can successfully augment an existing SDN controller in terms of agility, robustness, and efficiency, even in the face of link failures, attacks, and elephant flows.

  6. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation. The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  7. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  8. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance.

  9. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  10. Traffic Flow Condition Classification for Short Sections Using Single Microwave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiş Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily observed traffic flow can show different characteristics varying with the times of the day. They are caused by traffic incidents such as accidents, disabled cars, construction activities and other unusual events. Three different major traffic conditions can be occurred: "Flow," "Dense" and "Congested". Objective of this research is to identify the current traffic condition by examining the traffic measurement parameters. The earlier researches have dealt only with speed and volume by ignoring occupancy. In our study, the occupancy is another important parameter of classification. The previous works have used multiple sensors to classify traffic condition whereas our work uses only single microwave sensor. We have extended Multiple Linear Regression classification with our new approach of Estimating with Error Prediction. We present novel algorithms of Multiclassification with One-Against-All Method and Multiclassification with Binary Comparison for multiple SVM architecture. Finaly, a non-linear model of backpropagation neural network is introduced for classification. This combination has not been reported on previous studies. Training data are obtained from the Corsim based microscopic traffic simulator TSIS 5.1. All performances are compared using this data set. Our methods are currently installed and running at traffic management center of 2.Ring Road in Istanbul.

  11. Cooperative driving in mixed traffic networks - Optimizing for performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Broek, T.H.A. van den; Noort, M. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a cooperative adaptive cruise control application and its effects on the traffic system. In previous work this application has been tested on the road, and traffic simulation has been used to scale up the results of the field test to larger networks and more vehicles. The

  12. A hierarchical clustering scheme approach to assessment of IP-network traffic using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Takehisa; Masugi, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the assessment of IP-network traffic in terms of the time variation of self-similarity. To get a comprehensive view in analyzing the degree of long-range dependence (LRD) of IP-network traffic, we use a hierarchical clustering scheme, which provides a way to classify high-dimensional data with a tree-like structure. Also, in the LRD-based analysis, we employ detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is applicable to the analysis of long-range power-law correlations or LRD in non-stationary time-series signals. Based on sequential measurements of IP-network traffic at two locations, this paper derives corresponding values for the LRD-related parameter α that reflects the degree of LRD of measured data. In performing the hierarchical clustering scheme, we use three parameters: the α value, average throughput, and the proportion of network traffic that exceeds 80% of network bandwidth for each measured data set. We visually confirm that the traffic data can be classified in accordance with the network traffic properties, resulting in that the combined depiction of the LRD and other factors can give us an effective assessment of network conditions at different times.

  13. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  14. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Hong-hao; Meng Fan-bo; Zhao Si-wen; Zhao Si-hang; Lu Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distrib...

  15. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics...

  16. Using OpenSSH to secure mobile LAN network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Brian B.; Gopaul, Richard D.

    2002-08-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) Local Area Network (LAN) is a technique, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, which allows a LAN to be IP mobile when attaching to a foreign IP-based network and using this network as a means to retain connectivity to its home network. In this paper, we describe a technique that uses Open Secure Shell (OpenSSH) software to ensure secure, encrypted transmission of a mobile LAN's network traffic. Whenever a mobile LAN, implemented with Mobile IP LAN, moves to a foreign network, its gateway (router) obtains an IP address from the new network. IP tunnels, using IP encapsulation, are then established from the gateway through the foreign network to a home agent on its home network. These tunnels provide a virtual two-way connection to the home network for the mobile LAN as if the LAN were connected directly to its home network. Hence, when IP mobile, a mobile LAN's tunneled network traffic must traverse one or more foreign networks that may not be trusted. This traffic could be subject to eavesdropping, interception, modification, or redirection by malicious nodes in these foreign networks. To protect network traffic passing through the tunnels, OpenSSH is used as a means of encryption because it prevents surveillance, modification, and redirection of mobile LAN traffic passing across foreign networks. Since the software is found in the public domain, is available for most current operating systems, and is commonly used to provide secure network communications, OpenSSH is the software of choice.

  17. Traffic sign recognition with deep convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karamatić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The problem of detection and recognition of traffic signs is becoming an important problem when it comes to the development of self driving cars and advanced driver assistance systems. In this thesis we will develop a system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. For the problem of detection we will use aggregate channel features and for the problem of recognition we will use a deep convolutional neural network. We will describe how convolutional neural networks work, how they are co...

  18. Behavioral Profiling of Scada Network Traffic Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Acquisition ( SCADA ) System Overview SCADA systems control and monitor processes for water distribution, oil and natural gas pipelines , electrical...the desire for remote control and monitoring of industrial processes. The ability to identify SCADA devices on a mixed traffic network with zero...optimal attribute subset, while maintaining the desired TPR of .99 for SCADA network traffic. The attributes and ML algorithms chosen for

  19. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  20. The Effect of Queueing Strategy on Network Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min; Sun Deng-Feng; Tang Shao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the transportation system has been faced by increasing challenge in congestion and inefficiency, and research in traffic network has become a significant area of interest. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic-information-based (DIB) queueing strategy into network traffic model under the efficient routing strategy. DIB makes a packet with higher priority to be delivered if there are less packets travelling along its path from the current node to the destination. It is found that, compared with the traditional first-in-first-out (FIFO) queueing strategy, DIB can effectively balance the traffic load of the system via delaying packets to be delivered to congested nodes. Although the network capacity has no obvious changes, some other indexes which reflect transportation efficiency are efficiently improved in the congestion state. Besides, extensive simulation results and discussions are provided to explain the phenomena. The results may provide novel insights for research on traffic systems. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  1. Online Traffic Condition Evaluation Method for Connected Vehicles Based on Multisource Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of connected vehicle (CV and Vehicle to X (V2X communication, more traffic data is being collected from the road network. In order to predict future traffic condition from connected vehicles’ data in real-time, we present an online traffic condition evaluation model utilizing V2X communication. This model employs the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the multilevel fuzzy set theory to fuse multiple sources of information for prediction. First, the contemporary vehicle data from the On Board Diagnostic (OBD is fused with the static road data in the Road Side Unit (RSU. Then, the real-time traffic evaluation scores are calculated using the variable membership model. The real data collected by OBU in field test demonstrates the feasibility of the evaluation model. Compared with traditional evaluation systems, the proposed model can handle more types of data but demands less data transfer.

  2. Impacts of Snowy Weather Conditions on Expressway Traffic Flow Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowy weather will significantly degrade expressway operations, reduce service levels, and increase driving difficulty. Furthermore, the impact of snow varies in different types of roads, diverse cities, and snow densities due to different driving behavior. Traffic flow parameters are essential to decide what should be appropriate for weather-related traffic management and control strategies. This paper takes Beijing as a case study and analyzes traffic flow data collected by detectors in expressways. By comparing the performance of traffic flow under normal and snowy weather conditions, this paper quantitatively describes the impact of adverse weather on expressway volume and average speeds. Results indicate that average speeds on the Beijing expressway under heavy snow conditions decrease by 10–20 km/h when compared to those under normal weather conditions, the vehicle headway generally increases by 2–4 seconds, and the road capacity drops by about 33%. This paper also develops a specific expressway traffic parameter reduction model which proposes reduction coefficients of expressway volumes and speeds under various snow density conditions in Beijing. The conclusions paper provide effective foundational parameters for urban expressway controls and traffic management under snow conditions.

  3. A paradox for traffic dynamics in complex networks with ATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jianfeng; Gao Ziyou

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we study the statistical properties of traffic (e.g., vehicles) dynamics in complex networks, by introducing advanced transportation information systems (ATIS). The ATIS can provide the information of traffic flow pattern throughout the network and have an obvious effect on path routing strategy for such vehicles equipped with ATIS. The ATIS can be described by the understanding of link cost functions. Different indices such as efficiency and system total cost are discussed in depth. It is found that, for random networks (scale-free networks), the efficiency is effectively improved (decreased) if ATIS is properly equipped; however the system total cost is largely increased (decreased). It indicates that there exists a paradox between the efficiency and system total cost in complex networks. Furthermore, we report the simulation results by considering different kinds of link cost functions, and the paradox is recovered. Finally, we extend our traffic model, and also find the existence of the paradox

  4. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  5. Traffic engineering and regenerator placement in GMPLS networks with restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetginer, Emre; Karasan, Ezhan

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we study regenerator placement and traffic engineering of restorable paths in Generalized Multipro-tocol Label Switching (GMPLS) networks. Regenerators are necessary in optical networks due to transmission impairments. We study a network architecture where there are regenerators at selected nodes and we propose two heuristic algorithms for the regenerator placement problem. Performances of these algorithms in terms of required number of regenerators and computational complexity are evaluated. In this network architecture with sparse regeneration, offline computation of working and restoration paths is studied with bandwidth reservation and path rerouting as the restoration scheme. We study two approaches for selecting working and restoration paths from a set of candidate paths and formulate each method as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) prob-lem. Traffic uncertainty model is developed in order to compare these methods based on their robustness with respect to changing traffic patterns. Traffic engineering methods are compared based on number of additional demands due to traffic uncertainty that can be carried. Regenerator placement algorithms are also evaluated from a traffic engineering point of view.

  6. SNAPS : semantic network traffic analysis through projection and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Harrison, L.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Best, D.; Goodall, J.

    2015-01-01

    Most network traffic analysis applications are designed to discover malicious activity by only relying on high-level flow-based message properties. However, to detect security breaches that are specifically designed to target one network (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats), deep packet inspection

  7. Characterizing Traffic Conditions from the Perspective of Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichao Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conditions are usually characterized from the perspective of travel time or the average vehicle speed in the field of transportation, reflecting the congestion degree of a road network. This article provides a method from a new perspective to characterize traffic conditions; the perspective is based on the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. A novel measurement, the ratio of areas (RA in a rank-size plot, is included in the proposed method to capture the heterogeneity. The proposed method can be performed from the perspective of both spatial heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity, being able to characterize traffic conditions of not only a road network but also a single road. Compared with methods from the perspective of travel time, the proposed method can characterize traffic conditions at a higher frequency. Compared to methods from the perspective of the average vehicle speed, the proposed method takes account of the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated with real-life traffic data of Shenzhen (a coastal urban city in China, and the advantage of the proposed RA has been verified by comparisons to similar measurements such as the ht-index and the CRG index.

  8. A Wavelet Analysis-Based Dynamic Prediction Algorithm to Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Fan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network traffic is a significantly important parameter for network traffic engineering, while it holds highly dynamic nature in the network. Accordingly, it is difficult and impossible to directly predict traffic amount of end-to-end flows. This paper proposes a new prediction algorithm to network traffic using the wavelet analysis. Firstly, network traffic is converted into the time-frequency domain to capture time-frequency feature of network traffic. Secondly, in different frequency components, we model network traffic in the time-frequency domain. Finally, we build the prediction model about network traffic. At the same time, the corresponding prediction algorithm is presented to attain network traffic prediction. Simulation results indicates that our approach is promising.

  9. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  10. Traffic sign classification with dataset augmentation and convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Kurnianggoro, Laksono; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a method for traffic sign classification using a convolutional neural network (CNN). In this method, firstly we transfer a color image into grayscale, and then normalize it in the range (-1,1) as the preprocessing step. To increase robustness of classification model, we apply a dataset augmentation algorithm and create new images to train the model. To avoid overfitting, we utilize a dropout module before the last fully connection layer. To assess the performance of the proposed method, the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset is utilized. Experimental results show that the method is effective in classifying traffic signs.

  11. Delay Bound: Fractal Traffic Passes through Network Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented.

  12. Traffic Adaptive MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Masud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.

  13. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  14. Fragmented network subsystem with traffic filtering for microkernel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Urievna Budkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP stack in a microkernel operating system executed in a user space, which requires the development of a distributed network infrastructure within a single software environment. Its functions are the organization of interaction between the components of the stack with different processes, as well as the organization of filtering mechanisms and routing of internal network traffic. Use of architectural approaches applicable in monolithic-modular systems is impossible, because the network stack is not a shareable component of the system. As a consequence, the microkernel environment requires development of special network subsystem. In this work we provide overview of major conceptions of network architectures in microkernel environments. Also, we provide own architecture which supports filtering of internal network traffic. We evaluate the architecture by development of high-performance "key-value" store.

  15. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRAFFIC-AWARE FORWARDING STRATEGY IN NAMED DATA NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Bazmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Named Data Networking (NDN is a new Internet architecture which has been proposed to eliminate TCP/IP Internet architecture restrictions. This architecture is abstracting away the notion of host and working based on naming datagrams. However, one of the major challenges of NDN is supporting QoS-aware forwarding strategy so as to forward Interest packets intelligently over multiple paths based on the current network condition. In this paper, Neural Network (NN Based Traffic-aware Forwarding strategy (NNTF is introduced in order to determine an optimal path for Interest forwarding. NN is embedded in NDN routers to select next hop dynamically based on the path overload probability achieved from the NN. This solution is characterized by load balancing and QoS-awareness via monitoring the available path and forwarding data on the traffic-aware shortest path. The performance of NNTF is evaluated using ndnSIM which shows the efficiency of this scheme in terms of network QoS improvementof17.5% and 72% reduction in network delay and packet drop respectively.

  16. A cyberciege traffic analysis extension for teaching network security

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xuquan Stanley.; Chua, Kim Yong.

    2011-01-01

    CyberCIEGE is an interactive game simulating realistic scenarios that teaches the players Information Assurance (IA) concepts. The existing game scenarios only provide a high-level abstraction of the networked environment, e.g., nodes do not have Internet protocol (IP) addresses or belong to proper subnets, and there is no packet-level network simulation. This research explored endowing the game with network level traffic analysis, and implementing a game scenario to take advantage of this ne...

  17. Synchronization between Different Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Its Application in Bilayer Coupled Public Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic characteristics of urban public traffic network, this paper establishes the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network based on the space R modeling method. Then regarding these two networks as the subnetwork, the paper presents a new bilayer coupled public traffic network through the transfer relationship between subway and bus, and this model well reflects the connection between the passengers and bus operating vehicles. Based on the synchronization theory of coupling network with time-varying delay and taking “Lorenz system” as the network node, the paper studies the synchronization of bilayer coupled public traffic network. Finally, numerical results are given to show the impact of public traffic dispatching, delayed departure, the number of public bus stops between bus lines, and the number of transfer stations between two traffic modes on the bilayer coupled public traffic network balance through Matlab simulation.

  18. Phase dynamics of complex-valued neural networks and its application to traffic signal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ikuko; Iritani, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Kuroe, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    Complex-valued Hopfield networks which possess the energy function are analyzed. The dynamics of the network with certain forms of an activation function is de-composable into the dynamics of the amplitude and phase of each neuron. Then the phase dynamics is described as a coupled system of phase oscillators with a pair-wise sinusoidal interaction. Therefore its phase synchronization mechanism is useful for the area-wide offset control of the traffic signals. The computer simulations show the effectiveness under the various traffic conditions.

  19. Early Model of Traffic Sign Reminder Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rahmani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the traffic signs installed on the streets is one of the requirements of driving on the road. Laxity in driving may result in traffic accident. This paper describes a real-time reminder model, by utilizing a camera that can be installed in a car to capture image of traffic signs, and is processed and later to inform the driver. The extracting feature harnessing the morphological elements (strel is used in this paper. Artificial Neural Networks is used to train the system and to produce a final decision. The result shows that the accuracy in detecting and recognizing the ten types of traffic signs in real-time is 80%.

  20. Traffic Profiling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirykos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    .... Wireless sensor networks pose unique challenges and limitations to the traditional schemes, which are used in the other wireless networks for security protection, and are due mainly to the increased...

  1. A First Look into SCADA Network Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks are commonly deployed to aid the operation of critical infrastructures, such as water distribution facilities. These networks provide automated processes that ensure the correct functioning of these infrastructures, in a operation much

  2. Failure cascade in interdependent network with traffic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhao, Tingdi; Ma, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have been widely studied recent years, but most researches focus on the single, non-interacting networks. With the development of modern systems, many infrastructure networks are coupled together and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. For interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. This may happen recursively and lead to a failure cascade. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads. Overload and load redistribution may lead to more nodes’ failure. Considering the dependency between the interdependent networks and the traffic load, a small fraction of fault nodes may lead to complete fragmentation of a system. Based on the robust analysis of interdependent networks, we propose a costless defense strategy to suppress the failure cascade. Our findings highlight the need to consider the load and coupling preference when designing robust interdependent networks. And it is necessary to take actions in the early stage of the failure cascade to decrease the losses caused by the large-scale breakdown of infrastructure networks. (paper)

  3. Towards Mining Latent Client Identifiers from Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites extensively track users via identifiers that uniquely map to client machines or user accounts. Although such tracking has desirable properties like enabling personalization and website analytics, it also raises serious concerns about online user privacy, and can potentially enable illicit surveillance by adversaries who broadly monitor network traffic.

  4. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  5. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  6. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  7. Simulation of traffic capacity of inland waterway network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inland waterborne transportation is viewed as an economic, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to the congested road network. The traffic capacity are the critical indicator of the inland shipping performance. Actually, interacted under the complicated factors, it is challenging to

  8. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  9. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks....... Optical network reconfigurations are performed by GMPLS node controllers according to monitored traffic information. The investigated energy reduction strategies are simulated on two large scale transport networks (DT17 and COST37). The results show that the energy savings obtained by these strategies......-Europea n COST37 network, for both symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations significant savings are obtained . Mixed adaptation (jointly performing symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations) used together with optical grooming allows up to 4 4 % and 4 7 % power savings in DT17 and COST37 networks...

  10. Uncovering the footprints of malicious traffic in cellular data networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuramu, A; Zang, H; Chuah, CN

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we present a comprehensive characterization of malicious traffic generated by mobile devices using Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) records and security event logs from a large US based cellular provider network. Our analysis reveals that 0.17% of mobile devices in the cellular network are affected by security threats. This proportion, while small, is orders of magnitude higher than the last reported (in 2013) infection rate of ...

  11. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  12. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension.

  13. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  14. Generic Traffic Descriptors in Managing Service Quality in BISDN/ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic models for multiservice broadband networks differsignificantly regarding simple analytic models applicable intelephone traffic and circuit-switch network. The paper presentsa clear analysis of standardised traffic descriptors andquality parameters of the main services in BISDNIATM. Trafficdescriptors have been associated with the basic values andconcepts developed within generic traffic theory. Part systematisationof traffic parameters has been performed as basis for formalisedgeneralised description of parameters and effectivequality management of A TM services.

  15. Use of a Phase Transition Concept for Traffic Flow Condition Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin Oleg N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the main models of traffic flow conditions, analyzes the condition estimation criteria, and provides the classification of models. The article provides the grounds for the use of the phase transition concept for traffic flow condition estimation. The models of the aggregate condition of free and congested traffic have been developed, the phase boundaries between free and congested traffic have been defined. Applicability conditions for the models of the aggregate condition of have been analyzed.

  16. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  17. Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Ko, King-Tim

    2011-01-01

    the nodes behave as independent nodes. For closed queueing networks with multiple servers in every node and multi-rate services we may apply multidimensional convolution algorithm to aggregate the nodes so that we end up with two nodes, the aggregated node and a single node, for which we can calculate......In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... of queueing networks in general, presumes that we have product form between the nodes. Otherwise, we have the state space explosion. Even so, the detailed state space of each node may become very large because there is no product form between chains inside a node. A prerequisite for product form...

  18. Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; King-Tim, Ko

    2011-01-01

    the nodes behave as independent nodes. For closed queueing networks with multiple servers in every node and multi-rate services we may apply multidimensional convolutions to aggregate the nodes so that we end up with two nodes, the aggregated node and a single node, for which we can calculate the detailed......In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... of queueing networks in general presumes that we have product form between the nodes. Other ways we have the state space explosion. Even so the detailed state space of each node may easily become very large because there is no product form between chains inside a node. A prerequisite for product form...

  19. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  20. Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina

    2002-01-01

    /s optical packet switched network exploiting the best of optics and electronics, is used as a thread throughout the thesis. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focussing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS-based network hierarchy. Subsequently, the traffic performance...... of the DAVID core optical packet router, which exploits wavelength conversion and fibre delay-line buffers for contention resolution, is analysed using a numerical model developed for that purpose. The robustness of the shared recirculating loop buffer with respect to´bursty traffic is demonstrated...... the injection of an additional clock signal into the IWC is presented. Results show very good transmission capabilities combined with a high-speed response. It is argued that signal regeneration is an inherent attribute of the IWC employed as a wavelength converter due to the sinusoidal transfer function...

  1. Fine-granularity inference and estimations to network traffic for SDN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Jiang

    Full Text Available An end-to-end network traffic matrix is significantly helpful for network management and for Software Defined Networks (SDN. However, the end-to-end network traffic matrix's inferences and estimations are a challenging problem. Moreover, attaining the traffic matrix in high-speed networks for SDN is a prohibitive challenge. This paper investigates how to estimate and recover the end-to-end network traffic matrix in fine time granularity from the sampled traffic traces, which is a hard inverse problem. Different from previous methods, the fractal interpolation is used to reconstruct the finer-granularity network traffic. Then, the cubic spline interpolation method is used to obtain the smooth reconstruction values. To attain an accurate the end-to-end network traffic in fine time granularity, we perform a weighted-geometric-average process for two interpolation results that are obtained. The simulation results show that our approaches are feasible and effective.

  2. Fine-granularity inference and estimations to network traffic for SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingde; Huo, Liuwei; Li, Ya

    2018-01-01

    An end-to-end network traffic matrix is significantly helpful for network management and for Software Defined Networks (SDN). However, the end-to-end network traffic matrix's inferences and estimations are a challenging problem. Moreover, attaining the traffic matrix in high-speed networks for SDN is a prohibitive challenge. This paper investigates how to estimate and recover the end-to-end network traffic matrix in fine time granularity from the sampled traffic traces, which is a hard inverse problem. Different from previous methods, the fractal interpolation is used to reconstruct the finer-granularity network traffic. Then, the cubic spline interpolation method is used to obtain the smooth reconstruction values. To attain an accurate the end-to-end network traffic in fine time granularity, we perform a weighted-geometric-average process for two interpolation results that are obtained. The simulation results show that our approaches are feasible and effective.

  3. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  4. The wireshark field guide analyzing and troubleshooting network traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Wireshark Field Guide provides hackers, pen testers, and network administrators with practical guidance on capturing and interactively browsing computer network traffic. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer, with a rich feature set that includes deep inspection of hundreds of protocols, live capture, offline analysis and many other features. The Wireshark Field Guide covers the installation, configuration and use of this powerful multi-platform tool. The book give readers the hands-on skills to be more productive with Wireshark as they drill

  5. Evaluation and Simulation of Common Video Conference Traffics in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad faghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffics are the basic traffics in data communication networks. Especially Video conferences are the most desirable traffics in huge networks(wired, wireless, …. Traffic modeling can help us to evaluate the real networks. So, in order to have good services in data communication networks which provide multimedia services, QoS will be very important .In this research we tried to have an exact traffic model design and simulation to overcome QoS challenges. Also, we predict bandwidth by Kalman filter in Ethernet networks.

  6. Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lárraga María Elena; Alvarez-Icaza Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model. (general)

  7. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  8. Performability indicators for the traffic analysis of wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Platis, Agapios

    2003-01-01

    In connecting computing networks, reliability term is strongly related to the availability of connections of Wide Area networks (WANs) or Local Area networks (LANs). In this paper we will examine the network connections activity of a Greek University in order to provide two sources of information: The Quantity of Information Not Delivered (QIND) and the Information Flow Interruption (IFI). These indicators will provide us with the inference of information from observable characteristics of data flow(s), even when the data is encrypted or otherwise not directly available (traffic), which is lost due to failures or upgrades inside this network. The reliability analysis is obtained by collecting the network failures data (duration and frequency) and traffic (total and average) for a specified period of 1 year. It is assumed that the numerical analysis is based on the fact that the lifetime follows and exponential distribution (here as we are working on discrete time the distribution must be the geometric distribution). Hence a Markov chain model seems suitable for modelling the functioning of this system. An algorithm concentrates the results in a transition probability matrix and calculates the reward functions for the QIND/IFI indicators with the use of the power method. Finally, the application part provides an example of how final results can be used to evaluate the observed network

  9. Traffic sign recognition based on deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi-hao; Deng, Ji-cai; Zhang, Da-wei; Du, Jing-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is an important component of automated driving systems. It is a rather challenging task to design a high-performance classifier for the TSR system. In this paper, we propose a new method for TSR system based on deep convolutional neural network. In order to enhance the expression of the network, a novel structure (dubbed block-layer below) which combines network-in-network and residual connection is designed. Our network has 10 layers with parameters (block-layer seen as a single layer): the first seven are alternate convolutional layers and block-layers, and the remaining three are fully-connected layers. We train our TSR network on the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset. To reduce overfitting, we perform data augmentation on the training images and employ a regularization method named "dropout". The activation function we employ in our network adopts scaled exponential linear units (SELUs), which can induce self-normalizing properties. To speed up the training, we use an efficient GPU to accelerate the convolutional operation. On the test dataset of GTSRB, we achieve the accuracy rate of 99.67%, exceeding the state-of-the-art results.

  10. Detecting Target Data in Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    perimeter around a network and create a single point of entry where security policies can be enforced and auditing can be performed [16]. Security...that we used in this thesis. 2.4.1 bulk_extractor Bulk_extractor is a forensic analysis tool designed for directly extracting artifacts of forensic ...educated guess whether or not the file is there. Shields et al. explains that they need other forensics tools to ensure that all forensic evidence is used

  11. Forecasting short-term data center network traffic load with convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordozgoiti, Bruno; Gómez-Canaval, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers is of central importance to content service providers as 90 percent of the network traffic is expected to go through them in the coming years. In this context we propose the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to forecast short-term changes in the amount of traffic crossing a data center network. This value is an indicator of virtual machine activity and can be utilized to shape the data center infrastructure accordingly. The behaviour of network traffic at the seconds scale is highly chaotic and therefore traditional time-series-analysis approaches such as ARIMA fail to obtain accurate forecasts. We show that our convolutional neural network approach can exploit the non-linear regularities of network traffic, providing significant improvements with respect to the mean absolute and standard deviation of the data, and outperforming ARIMA by an increasingly significant margin as the forecasting granularity is above the 16-second resolution. In order to increase the accuracy of the forecasting model, we exploit the architecture of the CNNs using multiresolution input distributed among separate channels of the first convolutional layer. We validate our approach with an extensive set of experiments using a data set collected at the core network of an Internet Service Provider over a period of 5 months, totalling 70 days of traffic at the one-second resolution. PMID:29408936

  12. Forecasting short-term data center network traffic load with convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Alberto; Ordozgoiti, Bruno; Gómez-Canaval, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers is of central importance to content service providers as 90 percent of the network traffic is expected to go through them in the coming years. In this context we propose the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to forecast short-term changes in the amount of traffic crossing a data center network. This value is an indicator of virtual machine activity and can be utilized to shape the data center infrastructure accordingly. The behaviour of network traffic at the seconds scale is highly chaotic and therefore traditional time-series-analysis approaches such as ARIMA fail to obtain accurate forecasts. We show that our convolutional neural network approach can exploit the non-linear regularities of network traffic, providing significant improvements with respect to the mean absolute and standard deviation of the data, and outperforming ARIMA by an increasingly significant margin as the forecasting granularity is above the 16-second resolution. In order to increase the accuracy of the forecasting model, we exploit the architecture of the CNNs using multiresolution input distributed among separate channels of the first convolutional layer. We validate our approach with an extensive set of experiments using a data set collected at the core network of an Internet Service Provider over a period of 5 months, totalling 70 days of traffic at the one-second resolution.

  13. Network Traffic Monitoring Using Poisson Dynamic Linear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    In this article, we discuss an approach for network forensics using a class of nonstationary Poisson processes with embedded dynamic linear models. As a modeling strategy, the Poisson DLM (PoDLM) provides a very flexible framework for specifying structured effects that may influence the evolution of the underlying Poisson rate parameter, including diurnal and weekly usage patterns. We develop a novel particle learning algorithm for online smoothing and prediction for the PoDLM, and demonstrate the suitability of the approach to real-time deployment settings via a new application to computer network traffic monitoring.

  14. Forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro applying artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Natsional'nyj Issledovatel'skij Yadernyj Univ. MIFI, Moscow; FKU Rostransmodernizatsiya, Moscow

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro have been developed using artificial neural networks. To this end, the factors primarily determining passenger traffic in the subway have been analyzed and selected [ru

  15. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  16. Traffic Steering Framework for Mobile-Assisted Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    With the expected growth of mobile data traffic it is essential to manage the network resources efficiently. In order to undertake this challenge, we propose a framework for network-centric, mobile-assisted resource management, which facilitates traffic offloading from mobile network to Wi-Fi...... to the network backbone. What is more, we give an overview of existing standardization activities on offloading the mobile traffic through Wi-Fi....

  17. Network Traffic Prediction Based on Deep Belief Network and Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing in Wireless Mesh Backbone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisen Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh network is prevalent for providing a decentralized access for users and other intelligent devices. Meanwhile, it can be employed as the infrastructure of the last few miles connectivity for various network applications, for example, Internet of Things (IoT and mobile networks. For a wireless mesh backbone network, it has obtained extensive attention because of its large capacity and low cost. Network traffic prediction is important for network planning and routing configurations that are implemented to improve the quality of service for users. This paper proposes a network traffic prediction method based on a deep learning architecture and the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method. The proposed method first adopts discrete wavelet transform to extract the low-pass component of network traffic that describes the long-range dependence of itself. Then, a prediction model is built by learning a deep architecture based on the deep belief network from the extracted low-pass component. Otherwise, for the remaining high-pass component that expresses the gusty and irregular fluctuations of network traffic, the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method is adopted to predict it. Based on the predictors of two components, we can obtain a predictor of network traffic. From the simulation, the proposed prediction method outperforms three existing methods.

  18. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  19. Traffic Route Guidance using Feedback of Predicted Travel Times : Improving Travel Times in the Berlin Traffic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Arvid; Zetterberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Traffic congestions constitute a problem in many large cities. Congestions can be handled by reducing the network demand, expanding the infrastructure, or by utilizing the road network more efficiently. This master thesis presents a methodology for route guidance, based on automatic feedback control from the current traffic situation. Through variable direction signs or individual in-car devices, all vehicles with a certain origin and destination (which are both normally intermediate) are gui...

  20. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hong-hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distributed normal process. Then the Bases theory is used to characterize the end-to-end network traffic. By calculating the parameters, the model is determined correctly. Simulation results show that our approach is feasible and effective.

  1. Noise-Assisted Concurrent Multipath Traffic Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account. PMID:24319375

  2. Methodology for neural networks prototyping. Application to traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belegan, I.C.

    1998-07-01

    The work described in this report was carried out in the context of the European project ASTORIA (Advanced Simulation Toolbox for Real-World Industrial Application in Passenger Management and Adaptive Control), and concerns the development of an advanced toolbox for complex transportation systems. Our work was focused on the methodology for prototyping a set of neural networks corresponding to specific strategies for traffic control and congestion management. The tool used for prototyping is SNNS (Stuggart Neural Network Simulator), developed at the University of Stuggart, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems, and the real data from the field were provided by ZELT. This report is structured into six parts. The introduction gives some insights about traffic control and its approaches. The second chapter discusses the various control strategies existing. The third chapter is an introduction to the field of neural networks. The data analysis and pre-processing is described in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, the methodology for prototyping the neural networks is presented. Finally, conclusions and further work are presented. (author) 14 refs.

  3. Deep Bidirectional and Unidirectional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Network-wide Traffic Speed Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhiyong; Ke, Ruimin; Wang, Yinhai

    2018-01-01

    Short-term traffic forecasting based on deep learning methods, especially long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks, has received much attention in recent years. However, the potential of deep learning methods in traffic forecasting has not yet fully been exploited in terms of the depth of the model architecture, the spatial scale of the prediction area, and the predictive power of spatial-temporal data. In this paper, a deep stacked bidirectional and unidirectional LSTM (SBU- LSTM) neura...

  4. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  5. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  6. Fiber fault location utilizing traffic signal in optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Zhang, Mingjiang; Chang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Lijuan; Hao, Yi

    2013-10-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with -8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols.

  7. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  8. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  9. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  10. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A; Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  11. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  12. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  13. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  14. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  15. Explaining regional disparities in traffic mortality by decomposing conditional probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gregory P; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L; Haskins, Amy E

    2011-04-01

    In the USA, the mortality rate from traffic injury is higher in rural and in southern regions, for reasons that are not well understood. For 1754 (56%) of the 3142 US counties, we obtained data allowing for separation of the deaths/population rate into deaths/injury, injuries/crash, crashes/exposure and exposure/population, with exposure measured as vehicle miles travelled. A 'decomposition method' proposed by Li and Baker was extended to study how the contributions of these components were affected by three measures of rural location, as well as southern location. The method of Li and Baker extended without difficulty to include non-binary effects and multiple exposures. Deaths/injury was by far the most important determinant in the county-to-county variation in deaths/population, and accounted for the greatest portion of the rural/urban disparity. After controlling for the rural effect, injuries/crash accounted for most of the southern/northern disparity. The increased mortality rate from traffic injury in rural areas can be attributed to the increased probability of death given that a person has been injured, possibly due to challenges faced by emergency medical response systems. In southern areas, there is an increased probability of injury given that a person has crashed, possibly due to differences in vehicle, road, or driving conditions.

  16. Mathematical programs with complementarity constraints in traffic and telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Daniel

    2008-06-13

    Given a suitably parametrized family of equilibrium models and a higher level criterion by which to measure an equilibrium state, mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) provide a framework for improving or optimizing the equilibrium state. An example is toll design in traffic networks, which attempts to reduce total travel time by choosing which arcs to toll and what toll levels to impose. Here, a Wardrop equilibrium describes the traffic response to each toll design. Communication networks also have a deep literature on equilibrium flows that suggest some MPECs. We focus on mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs), a subclass of MPECs for which the lower level equilibrium system can be formulated as a complementarity problem and therefore, importantly, as a nonlinear program (NLP). Although MPECs and MPCCs are typically non-convex, which is a consequence of the upper level objective clashing with the users' objectives in the lower level equilibrium program, the last decade of research has paved the way for finding local solutions of MPCCs via standard NLP techniques.

  17. Fermi-Dirac statistics and traffic in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2005-06-01

    We propose an idealized model for traffic in a network, in which many particles move randomly from node to node, following the network's links, and it is assumed that at most one particle can occupy any given node. This is intended to mimic the finite forwarding capacity of nodes in communication networks, thereby allowing the possibility of congestion and jamming phenomena. We show that the particles behave like free fermions, with appropriately defined energy-level structure and temperature. The statistical properties of this system are thus given by the corresponding Fermi-Dirac distribution. We use this to obtain analytical expressions for dynamical quantities of interest, such as the mean occupation of each node and the transport efficiency, for different network topologies and particle densities. We show that the subnetwork of free nodes always fragments into small isolated clusters for a sufficiently large number of particles, implying a communication breakdown at some density for all network topologies. These results are compared to direct simulations.

  18. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  19. Model for Detection and Classification of DDoS Traffic Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peraković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service traffic is of great importance for the availability protection of services and other information and communication resources. The research presented in this paper shows the application of artificial neural networks in the development of detection and classification model for three types of DDoS attacks and legitimate network traffic. Simulation results of developed model showed accuracy of 95.6% in classification of pre-defined classes of traffic.

  20. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  1. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2017-06-19

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  2. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  3. A wireless sensor network for urban traffic characterization and trend monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lozano, J J; Martín-Guzmán, Miguel; Martín-Ávila, Juan; García-Cerezo, A

    2015-10-15

    Sustainable mobility requires a better management of the available infrastructure resources. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to obtain accurate data about road usage, in particular in urban areas. Although a variety of sensor alternates for urban traffic exist, they usually require extensive investments in the form of construction works for installation, processing means, etc. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are an alternative to acquire urban traffic data, allowing for flexible, easy deployment. Together with the use of the appropriate sensors, like Bluetooth identification, and associate processing, WSN can provide the means to obtain in real time data like the origin-destination matrix, a key tool for trend monitoring which previously required weeks or months to be completed. This paper presents a system based on WSN designed to characterize urban traffic, particularly traffic trend monitoring through the calculation of the origin-destination matrix in real time by using Bluetooth identification. Additional sensors are also available integrated in different types of nodes. Experiments in real conditions have been performed, both for separate sensors (Bluetooth, ultrasound and laser), and for the whole system, showing the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Variable speed limit strategies analysis with mesoscopic traffic flow model based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Cao, Dan-Ni; Dang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Lin

    As a new cross-discipline, the complexity science has penetrated into every field of economy and society. With the arrival of big data, the research of the complexity science has reached its summit again. In recent years, it offers a new perspective for traffic control by using complex networks theory. The interaction course of various kinds of information in traffic system forms a huge complex system. A new mesoscopic traffic flow model is improved with variable speed limit (VSL), and the simulation process is designed, which is based on the complex networks theory combined with the proposed model. This paper studies effect of VSL on the dynamic traffic flow, and then analyzes the optimal control strategy of VSL in different network topologies. The conclusion of this research is meaningful to put forward some reasonable transportation plan and develop effective traffic management and control measures to help the department of traffic management.

  5. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.com [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-03-04

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  6. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  7. Nuclear traffic and peloton formation in fungal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Lewkiewicz, Stephanie; Dressaire, Emilie; Read, Nick

    2013-11-01

    Hyphae, the network of microfluidic pipes that make up a growing fungal cell, must balance their function as conduits for the transport of nuclei with other cellular functions including secretion and growth. Constant flow of nuclei may interfere with the protein traffic that enables other functions to be performed. Live-cell imaging reveals that nuclear flows are anti-congestive; that groups of nuclei flow faster than single nuclei, and that nuclei sweep through the colony in dense clumps. We call these clumps pelotons, after the term used to describe groups of cycle racers slip-streaming off each other. Because of the pelotons, individual hyphae transport nuclei only intermittently, producing long intervals in which hyphae can perform their other functions. Modeling reveals how pelotons are created by interactions between nuclei and the hyphal cytoskeleton, and reveal the control that the fungus enjoys over peloton assembly and timing.

  8. File Detection On Network Traffic Using Approximate Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Breitinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Internet technologies changed enormously and allow faster Internet connections, higher data rates and mobile usage. Hence, it is possible to send huge amounts of data / files easily which is often used by insiders or attackers to steal intellectual property. As a consequence, data leakage prevention systems (DLPS have been developed which analyze network traffic and alert in case of a data leak. Although the overall concepts of the detection techniques are known, the systems are mostly closed and commercial.Within this paper we present a new technique for network trac analysis based on approximate matching (a.k.a fuzzy hashing which is very common in digital forensics to correlate similar files. This paper demonstrates how to optimize and apply them on single network packets. Our contribution is a straightforward concept which does not need a comprehensive conguration: hash the file and store the digest in the database. Within our experiments we obtained false positive rates between 10-4 and 10-5 and an algorithm throughput of over 650 Mbit/s.

  9. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  10. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  11. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  12. A Wavelet Neural Network Optimal Control Model for Traffic-Flow Prediction in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Darong; Bai, Xing-Rong

    Based on wavelet transform and neural network theory, a traffic-flow prediction model, which was used in optimal control of Intelligent Traffic system, is constructed. First of all, we have extracted the scale coefficient and wavelet coefficient from the online measured raw data of traffic flow via wavelet transform; Secondly, an Artificial Neural Network model of Traffic-flow Prediction was constructed and trained using the coefficient sequences as inputs and raw data as outputs; Simultaneous, we have designed the running principium of the optimal control system of traffic-flow Forecasting model, the network topological structure and the data transmitted model; Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effectively and exactly. The theoretical results indicated that the wavelet neural network prediction model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.

  13. Traffic signal synchronization in the saturated high-density grid road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  14. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performanc...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  15. Network Traffic Forensics on Firefox Mobile OS: Facebook, Twitter and Telegram as Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Mohd Najwadi; Dehghantanha, Ali; Mahmod, Ramlan

    2017-01-01

    Development of mobile web-centric OS such as Firefox OS has created new challenges, and opportunities for digital investigators. Network traffic forensic plays an important role in cybercrime investigation to detect subject(s) and object(s) of the crime. In this chapter, we detect and analyze residual network traffic artefacts of Firefox OS in relation to two popular social networking applications (Facebook and Twitter) and one instant messaging application (Telegram). We utilized a Firefox O...

  16. Understanding structure of urban traffic network based on spatial-temporal correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong; Han, Shixiu; Dong, Honghui

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the structural characteristics of urban traffic network comprehensively can provide references for improving road utilization rate and alleviating traffic congestion. This paper focuses on the spatial-temporal correlations between different pairs of traffic series and proposes a complex network-based method of constructing the urban traffic network. In the network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding spatial-temporal correlation. Further, a modified PageRank algorithm, named the geographical weight-based PageRank algorithm (GWPA), is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of important segments in the road network. Finally, experiments are conducted by using three kinds of traffic series collected from the urban road network in Beijing. Experimental results show that the urban traffic networks constructed by three traffic variables all indicate both small-world and scale-free characteristics. Compared with the results of PageRank algorithm, GWPA is proved to be valid in evaluating the importance of segments and identifying the important segments with small degree.

  17. Learning Traffic as Images: A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Large-Scale Transportation Network Speed Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Dai, Zhuang; He, Zhengbing; Ma, Jihui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-04-10

    This paper proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based method that learns traffic as images and predicts large-scale, network-wide traffic speed with a high accuracy. Spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are converted to images describing the time and space relations of traffic flow via a two-dimensional time-space matrix. A CNN is applied to the image following two consecutive steps: abstract traffic feature extraction and network-wide traffic speed prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by taking two real-world transportation networks, the second ring road and north-east transportation network in Beijing, as examples, and comparing the method with four prevailing algorithms, namely, ordinary least squares, k-nearest neighbors, artificial neural network, and random forest, and three deep learning architectures, namely, stacked autoencoder, recurrent neural network, and long-short-term memory network. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms by an average accuracy improvement of 42.91% within an acceptable execution time. The CNN can train the model in a reasonable time and, thus, is suitable for large-scale transportation networks.

  18. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedic, Vladimir; Despotovic, Danijela; Cvetanovic, Slobodan; Despotovic, Milan; Babic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L eq . Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model

  19. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedic, Vladimir, E-mail: vnedic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Philology and Arts, University of Kragujevac, Jovana Cvijića bb, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Despotovic, Danijela, E-mail: ddespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Kragujevac, Djure Pucara Starog 3, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Cvetanovic, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.cvetanovic@eknfak.ni.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, Trg kralja Aleksandra Ujedinitelja, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Despotovic, Milan, E-mail: mdespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Babic, Sasa, E-mail: babicsf@yahoo.com [College of Applied Mechanical Engineering, Trstenik (Serbia)

    2014-11-15

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L{sub eq}. Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model.

  20. On the Use of Machine Learning for Identifying Botnet Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    contemporary approaches use machine learning techniques for identifying malicious traffic. This paper presents a survey of contemporary botnet detection methods that rely on machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic. The paper provides a comprehensive overview on the existing scientific work thus...... contributing to the better understanding of capabilities, limitations and opportunities of using machine learning for identifying botnet traffic. Furthermore, the paper outlines possibilities for the future development of machine learning-based botnet detection systems....

  1. Crash risk analysis during fog conditions using real-time traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2018-05-01

    This research investigates the changes of traffic characteristics and crash risks during fog conditions. Using real-time traffic flow and weather data at two regions in Florida, the traffic patterns at the fog duration were compared to the traffic patterns at the clear duration. It was found that the average 5-min speed and the average 5-min volume were prone to decreasing during fog. Based on previous studies, a "Crash Risk Increase Indicator (CRII)" was proposed to explore the differences of crash risk between fog and clear conditions. A binary logistic regression model was applied to link the increase of crash risks with traffic flow characteristics. The results suggested that the proposed indicator worked well in evaluating the increase of crash risk under fog condition. It was indicated that the crash risk was prone to increase at ramp vicinities in fog conditions. Also, the average 5-min volume during fog and the lane position are important factors for crash risk increase. The differences between the regions were also explored in this study. The results indicated that the locations with heavier traffic or locations at the lanes that were closest to the median in Region 2 were more likely to observe an increase in crash risks in fog conditions. It is expected that the proposed indicator can help identify the dangerous traffic status under fog conditions and then proper ITS technologies can be implemented to enhance traffic safety when the visibility declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  3. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  4. Ontology-Based Architecture for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using a Traffic Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susel Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems are a set of technological solutions used to improve the performance and safety of road transportation. A crucial element for the success of these systems is the exchange of information, not only between vehicles, but also among other components in the road infrastructure through different applications. One of the most important information sources in this kind of systems is sensors. Sensors can be within vehicles or as part of the infrastructure, such as bridges, roads or traffic signs. Sensors can provide information related to weather conditions and traffic situation, which is useful to improve the driving process. To facilitate the exchange of information between the different applications that use sensor data, a common framework of knowledge is needed to allow interoperability. In this paper an ontology-driven architecture to improve the driving environment through a traffic sensor network is proposed. The system performs different tasks automatically to increase driver safety and comfort using the information provided by the sensors.

  5. An optimal general type-2 fuzzy controller for Urban Traffic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...

  6. A method for classification of network traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    current network traffic. To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification, usage of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) was proposed. On the basis of statistical traffic information received from volunteers and C5.0 algorithm we constructed a boosted classifier, which was shown...... and classification, an algorithm for recognizing flow direction and the C5.0 itself. Classified applications include Skype, FTP, torrent, web browser traffic, web radio, interactive gaming and SSH. We performed subsequent tries using different sets of parameters and both training and classification options...

  7. Minimal-Intrusion Traffic Monitoring And Analysis In Mission-Critical Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domingo Ajenjo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A good knowledge of expected and actual traffic patterns is an essential tool for network planning, design and operation in deployed, mission-critical applications. This paper describes those needs, and explains the Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Platform (TMAP concept, as developed in support of NATO deployed military headquarters Communications and Information Systems. It shows how a TMAP was deployed to a real NATO exercise, to prove the concept and baseline the traffic needs per application, per user community and per time of day. Then, it analyses the obtained results and derives conclusions on how to integrate traffic monitoring and analysis platforms in future deployments.

  8. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  9. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  10. Entropy Based Analysis of DNS Query Traffic in the Campus Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arturo Ludeña Romaña

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out the entropy based study on the DNS query traffic from the campus network in a university through January 1st, 2006 to March 31st, 2007. The results are summarized, as follows: (1 The source IP addresses- and query keyword-based entropies change symmetrically in the DNS query traffic from the outside of the campus network when detecting the spam bot activity on the campus network. On the other hand (2, the source IP addresses- and query keywordbased entropies change similarly each other when detecting big DNS query traffic caused by prescanning or distributed denial of service (DDoS attack from the campus network. Therefore, we can detect the spam bot and/or DDoS attack bot by only watching DNS query access traffic.

  11. Distributed Traffic Control for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Travel Time in Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Current technology in traffic control is limited to a centralized approach that has not paid appropriate attention to efficiency of fuel consumption and is subject to the scale of transportation networks. This project proposes a transformative approa...

  12. On the Conditional Entropy of Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Justin P.; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Gündüz, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    The characterization of topological uncertainty in wireless networks using the formalism of graph entropy has received interest in the spatial networks community. In this paper, we develop lower bounds on the entropy of a wireless network by conditioning on potential network observables. Two appr...... a homogeneous binomial point process in this work) and the network topology....

  13. Developing a New HSR Switching Node (SwitchBox for Improving Traffic Performance in HSR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS. Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using redundancy protocols. Various redundancy protocols for Ethernet networks have been developed and standardized, such as rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP, media redundancy protocol (MRP, parallel redundancy protocol (PRP, high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR and others. RSTP and MRP have switchover delay drawbacks. PRP provides zero recovery time, but requires a duplicate network infrastructure. HSR operation is similar to PRP, but HSR uses a single network. However, the standard HSR protocol is mainly applied to ring-based topologies and generates excessively unnecessary redundant traffic in the network. In this paper, we develop a new switching node for the HSR protocol, called SwitchBox, which is used in HSR networks in order to support any network topology and significantly reduce redundant network traffic, including unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic, compared with standard HSR. By using the SwitchBox, HSR not only provides seamless communications with zero switchover time in case of failure, but it is also easily applied to any network topology and significantly reduces unnecessary redundant traffic in HSR networks.

  14. Energy Saving Scheme Based On Traffic Forwarding For Optical Fiber Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, G. Arturo Rodes; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks.......We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks....

  15. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  16. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. End-to-End Traffic Flow Modeling of the Integrated SCaN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Abraham, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we describe the analysis and simulation effort of the end-to-end traffic flow for the Integrated Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Network. Using the network traffic derived for the 30-day period of July 2018 from the Space Communications Mission Model (SCMM), we generate the wide-area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the Integrated SCaN Network. We also develop a new analytical scheme to model the traffic flow and buffering mechanism of a store-and-forward network. It is found that the WAN bandwidth of the Integrated SCaN Network is an important differentiator of different architecture options, as the recurring circuit costs of certain architecture options can be prohibitively high.

  18. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  19. An Architecture to Manage Incoming Traffic of Inter-Domain Routing Using OpenFlow Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber José Adriano Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP is the current state-of-the-art inter-domain routing between Autonomous Systems (ASes. Although BGP has different mechanisms to manage outbound traffic in an AS domain, it lacks an efficient tool for inbound traffic control from transit ASes such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs. For inter-domain routing, the BGP’s destination-based forwarding paradigm limits the granularity of distributing the network traffic among the multiple paths of the current Internet topology. Thus, this work offered a new architecture to manage incoming traffic in the inter-domain using OpenFlow networks. The architecture explored direct inter-domain communication to exchange control information and the functionalities of the OpenFlow protocol. Based on the achieved results of the size of exchanging messages, the proposed architecture is not only scalable, but also capable of performing load balancing for inbound traffic using different strategies.

  20. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  1. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of macroscopic traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  2. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  3. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  4. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Real time network traffic monitoring for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    A wireless local area network (WLAN) is an important type of wireless networks which connotes different wireless nodes in a local area network. WLANs suffer from important problems such as network load balancing, large amount of energy, and load of sampling. This paper presents a new networking traffic approach based on Compressed Sensing (CS) for improving the quality of WLANs. The proposed architecture allows reducing Data Delay Probability (DDP) to 15%, which is a good record for WLANs. The proposed architecture is increased Data Throughput (DT) to 22 % and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio to 17 %, which provide a good background for establishing high qualified local area networks. This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of WLAN's signals that are suitable for a variety of other wireless networking applications. At the transmitter side of each wireless node, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before analog to digital converter in order to generate the compressed version of the input signal. At the receiver side of wireless node, a reconstruction algorithm is applied in order to reconstruct the original signals from the compressed signals with high probability and enough accuracy. The proposed algorithm out-performs existing algorithms by achieving a good level of Quality of Service (QoS). This ability allows reducing 15 % of Bit Error Rate (BER) at each wireless node.

  6. Betweenness centrality and its applications from modeling traffic flows to network community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui

    As real-world complex networks are heterogeneous structures, not all their components such as nodes, edges and subgraphs carry the same role or importance in the functions performed by the networks: some elements are more critical than others. Understanding the roles of the components of a network is crucial for understanding the behavior of the network as a whole. One the most basic function of networks is transport; transport of vehicles/people, information, materials, forces, etc., and these quantities are transported along edges between source and destination nodes. For this reason, network path-based importance measures, also called centralities, play a crucial role in the understanding of the transport functions of the network and the network's structural and dynamical behavior in general. In this thesis we study the notion of betweenness centrality, which measures the fraction of lowest-cost (or shortest) paths running through a network component, in particular through a node or an edge. High betweenness centrality nodes/edges are those that will be frequently used by the entities transported through the network and thus they play a key role in the overall transport properties of the network. In the first part of the thesis we present a first-principles based method for traffic prediction using a cost-based generalization of the radiation model (emission/absorbtion model) for human mobility, coupled with a cost-minimizing algorithm for efficient distribution of the mobility fluxes through the network. Using US census and highway traffic data, we show that traffic can efficiently and accurately be computed from a range-limited, network betweenness type calculation. The model based on travel time costs captures the log-normal distribution of the traffic and attains a high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.75) when compared with real traffic. We then focus on studying the extent of changes in traffic flows in the wake of a localized damage or alteration to the

  7. Main concept of local area network protection on the basis of the SAAM 'TRAFFIC'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, P.M.; Kryukov, Yu.A.; Kuptsov, S.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Koren'kov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In our previous paper we developed a system for acquisition, analysis and management of the network traffic (SAAM 'Traffic') for a segment of the JINR local area computer network (JINR LAN). In our present work we consider well-known scenarios of attacks on local area networks and propose protection methods based on the SAAM 'Traffic'. Although the system for LAN protection is installed on a router computer, it is not analogous to the firewall scheme and, thus, it does not hinder the performance of distributed network applications. This provides a possibility to apply such an approach to GRID-technologies, where network protection on the firewall basis can not be basically used. (author)

  8. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research. PMID:26828489

  9. Low Cost Wireless Network Camera Sensors for Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Many freeways and arterials in major cities in Texas are presently equipped with video detection cameras to : collect data and help in traffic/incident management. In this study, carefully controlled experiments determined : the throughput and output...

  10. Traffic Command Gesture Recognition for Virtual Urban Scenes Based on a Spatiotemporal Convolution Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.

  11. Development of traffic light control algorithm in smart municipal network

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.

  12. Concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks: COCONETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kleessen

    Full Text Available The accumulation of high-throughput data from different experiments has facilitated the extraction of condition-specific networks over the same set of biological entities. Comparing and contrasting of such multiple biological networks is in the center of differential network biology, aiming at determining general and condition-specific responses captured in the network structure (i.e., included associations between the network components. We provide a novel way for comparison of multiple networks based on determining network clustering (i.e., partition into communities which is optimal across the set of networks with respect to a given cluster quality measure. To this end, we formulate the optimization-based problem of concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks, termed COCONETS, based on the modularity. The solution to this problem is a clustering which depends on all considered networks and pinpoints their preserved substructures. We present theoretical results for special classes of networks to demonstrate the implications of conditionality captured by the COCONETS formulation. As the problem can be shown to be intractable, we extend an existing efficient greedy heuristic and applied it to determine concurrent conditional clusters on coexpression networks extracted from publically available time-resolved transcriptomics data of Escherichia coli under five stresses as well as on metabolite correlation networks from metabolomics data set from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to eight environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the investigation of the differences between the clustering based on all networks with that obtained from a subset of networks can be used to quantify the specificity of biological responses. While a comparison of the Escherichia coli coexpression networks based on seminal properties does not pinpoint biologically relevant differences, the common network substructures extracted by COCONETS are supported by

  13. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues; Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque; Flávio Elias Gomes de Deus; Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Jr.; Gildásio Antônio de Oliveira Júnior; Luis Javier García Villalba; Tai-Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any laye...

  14. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  15. A Big Network Traffic Data Fusion Approach Based on Fisher and Deep Auto-Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the current network traffic data mostly is not labeled. Thereby, better learners will be built by using both labeled and unlabeled data, than using each one alone. In this paper, a novel network traffic data fusion approach based on Fisher and deep auto-encoder (DFA-F-DAE is proposed to reduce the data dimensions and the complexity of computation. The experimental results show that the DFA-F-DAE improves the generalization ability of the three classification algorithms (J48, back propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector machine (SVM by data dimensionality reduction. We found that the DFA-F-DAE remarkably improves the efficiency of big network traffic classification.

  16. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  17. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  18. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  19. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available at the Label Edge Router (LER) to buffer traffic in the electronic domain. Burst assembly and offset assignment schemes are implemented in a complementary manner to improve QoS of an OBS network. The authors show that OBS network performance is directly related...

  20. Research on the Application of Wireless Network in Collecting Road Traffic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hui-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of variability and dispersion in traffic information, to get the reliable real-time traffic information has been a bottleneck in the development of intelligent transportation systems. However, with the development of wireless network technology and mobile Internet, the mobile phones are rapidly developed and more popular, so it is possible to get road traffic information by locating the mobile phones in vehicles. The system structure for the road traffic information collection is designed based on wireless network and mobile phones in vehicles, and the vehicle recognition and its information computation methods are given and discussed. Also the simulation is done for vehicle recognition and computation based on fuzzy cluster analysis method and the results are obtained and analyzed.

  1. Resilience of traffic networks: From perturbation to recovery via a dynamic restricted equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogal, Maria; O'Connor, Alan; Caulfield, Brian; Martinez-Pastor, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    When a disruptive event takes place in a traffic network some important questions arise, such as how stressed the traffic network is, whether the system is able to respond to this stressful situation, or how long the system needs to recover a new equilibrium position after suffering this perturbation. Quantifying these aspects allows the comparison of different systems, to scale the degree of damage, to identify traffic network weaknesses, and to analyse the effect of user knowledge about the traffic network state. The indicator that accounts for performance and recovery pattern under disruptive events is known as resilience. This paper presents a methodology to assess the resilience of a traffic network when a given perturbation occurs, from the beginning of the perturbation to the total system recovery. To consider the dynamic nature of the problem, a new dynamic equilibrium-restricted assignment model is presented to simulate the network performance evolution, which takes into consideration important aspects, such as the cost increment due to the perturbation, the system impedance to alter its previous state and the user stress level. Finally, this methodology is used to evaluate the resilience indices of a real network. - Highlights: • Method to assess the resilience of a traffic network suffering progressive impacts. • It simulates the dynamic response during the perturbation and system recovery. • The resilience index is based on the travel costs and the stress level of users. • It considers the capacity of adaptation of the system to the new situations. • The model evaluates redundancy, adaptability, ability to recover, etc.

  2. Competition between Local Collisions and Collective Hydrodynamic Feedback Controls Traffic Flows in Microfluidic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloul, M.; Engl, W.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.; Ajdari, A.

    2009-05-01

    By studying the repartition of monodisperse droplets at a simple T junction, we show that the traffic of discrete fluid systems in microfluidic networks results from two competing mechanisms, whose significance is driven by confinement. Traffic is dominated by collisions occurring at the junction for small droplets and by collective hydrodynamic feedback for large ones. For each mechanism, we present simple models in terms of the pertinent dimensionless parameters of the problem.

  3. Traffic-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient Small Cell Networks-Energy, Delay and Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Nazrul Alam, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    The low power small cell network has emerged as a promising and feasible solution to address the massive wireless traffic resulting from the aggressive growth of wireless applications. It is also estimated that Internet of things (IoT) will consist of around 50 billion physical objects by 2020. As a result, besides capacity enhancement, other challenges, e.g., energy efficiency, dynamic addressing of UL/DL traffic asymmetry, low latency, multi-hop communications, reliability and coverage have...

  4. On the Conditional Entropy of Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Justin P.; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Gündüz, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    The characterization of topological uncertainty in wireless networks using the formalism of graph entropy has received interest in the spatial networks community. In this paper, we develop lower bounds on the entropy of a wireless network by conditioning on potential network observables. Two...... approaches are considered: 1) conditioning on subgraphs, and 2) conditioning on node positions. The first approach is shown to yield a relatively tight bound on the network entropy. The second yields a loose bound, in general, but it provides insight into the dependence between node positions (modelled using...

  5. Hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Dynamic Supply Chain Network Design under Traffic Congestion and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Jouzdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.

  6. Logistic centres in the Hungarian traffic network -A Current Smvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Schubert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available As Europe's economic integration proceeds, Hungary- situatedin the continent's geometric centre - is called upon to accommodatea huge volume of transit traffic. Congestion on thecountry's highways, already a serious problem, makes it desirableto shift transit freight traffic onto railways. For this purpose,and also to make transportation generally more efficient,the so-called logistic service centres are being established. Theseare expected to play a decisive role in the European freight trafficnetwork. An expeditious extension of their services is urgentlyneeded.

  7. Services and traffic policing mechanisms in B-ISDN networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nleya, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The paper looks at some of the services that will be offered by ATM in future and their general characteristics. The paper then reviews ATM technology and the various traffic and control functions. Finally the performance comparisons of both the static and dynamic rate Leaky Bucket schemes is presented. The conclusions are that the dynamic rate scheme can control several traffic parameters as compared to the static one, but the complexity in its realization might mean higher costs. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Development of a Software Based Firewall System for Computer Network Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhajamgbe OYAKHILOME

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The connection of an internal network to an external network such as Internet has made it vulnerable to attacks. One class of network attack is unauthorized penetration into network due to the openness of networks. It is possible for hackers to sum access to an internal network, this pose great danger to the network and network resources. Our objective and major concern of network design was to build a secured network, based on software firewall that ensured the integrity and confidentiality of information on the network. We studied several mechanisms to achieve this; one of such mechanism is the implementation of firewall system as a network defence. Our developed firewall has the ability to determine which network traffic should be allowed in or out of the network. Part of our studied work was also channelled towards a comprehensive study of hardware firewall security system with the aim of developing this software based firewall system. Our software firewall goes a long way in protecting an internal network from external unauthorized traffic penetration. We included an anti virus software which is lacking in most firewalls.

  9. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  11. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  12. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  13. RESEARCH OF ENGINEERING TRAFFIC IN COMPUTER UZ NETWORK USING MPLS TE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pakhomovа

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In railway transport of Ukraine one requires the use of computer networks of different technologies: Ethernet, Token Bus, Token Ring, FDDI and others. In combined computer networks on the railway transport it is necessary to use packet switching technology in multiprotocol networks MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching more effectively. They are based on the use of tags. Packet network must transmit different types of traffic with a given quality of service. The purpose of the research is development a methodology for determining the sequence of destination flows for the considered fragment of computer network of UZ. Methodology. When optimizing traffic management in MPLS networks has the important role of technology traffic engineering (Traffic Engineering, TE. The main mechanism of TE in MPLS is the use of unidirectional tunnels (MPLS TE tunnel to specify the path of the specified traffic. The mathematical model of the problem of traffic engineering in computer network of UZ technology MPLS TE was made. Computer UZ network is represented with the directed graph, their vertices are routers of computer network, and each arc simulates communication between nodes. As an optimization criterion serves the minimum value of the maximum utilization of the TE-tunnel. Findings. The six options destination flows were determined; rational sequence of flows was found, at which the maximum utilization of TE-tunnels considered a simplified fragment of a computer UZ network does not exceed 0.5. Originality. The method of solving the problem of traffic engineering in Multiprotocol network UZ technology MPLS TE was proposed; for different classes its own way is laid, depending on the bandwidth and channel loading. Practical value. Ability to determine the values of the maximum coefficient of use of TE-tunnels in computer UZ networks based on developed software model «TraffEng». The input parameters of the model: number of routers, channel capacity, the

  14. Communications network traffic data : technical and legal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Communications traffic data is a legal data concept that can be explained by the example of traditional, non-digital mail: For a letter to be sent by post it must be enclosed in an envelope. On the envelope the name of the addressee, his address and some information about the sender are noted.

  15. Integrated Control of Mixed Traffic Networks using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but

  16. Trunk Reservation in Multi-service Networks with BPP Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop approximate models for trunk reservation in multi-service systems with BPP (Binomial-Poisson-Pascal) multi-rate traffic streams. The approximation is a generalization of previous work by Tran-Gia & Hubner who assumed Poisson arrival processes. It is based on a generalized...

  17. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  18. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  19. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  20. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Manley

    Full Text Available The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain.

  1. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-14

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  2. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  3. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  4. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  5. Neural network to diagnose lining condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemelyanov, V. A.; Yemelyanova, N. Y.; Nedelkin, A. A.; Zarudnaya, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents data on the problem of diagnosing the lining condition at the iron and steel works. The authors describe the neural network structure and software that are designed and developed to determine the lining burnout zones. The simulation results of the proposed neural networks are presented. The authors note the low learning and classification errors of the proposed neural networks. To realize the proposed neural network, the specialized software has been developed.

  6. A Fair Contention Access Scheme for Low-Priority Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Henna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless body area networks (WBANs have attracted significant consideration in ubiquitous healthcare. A number of medium access control (MAC protocols, primarily derived from the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4, have been proposed in literature. These MAC protocols aim to provide quality of service (QoS by prioritizing different traffic types in WBANs. A contention access period (CAPwith high contention in priority-based MAC protocols can result in higher number of collisions and retransmissions. During CAP, traffic classes with higher priority are dominant over low-priority traffic; this has led to starvation of low-priority traffic, thus adversely affecting WBAN throughput, delay, and energy consumption. Hence, this paper proposes a traffic-adaptive priority-based superframe structure that is able to reduce contention in the CAP period, and provides a fair chance for low-priority traffic. Simulation results in ns-3 demonstrate that the proposed MAC protocol, called traffic- adaptive priority-based MAC (TAP-MAC, achieves low energy consumption, high throughput, and low latency compared to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and the most recent priority-based MAC protocol, called priority-based MAC protocol (PA-MAC.

  7. Modelling Altitude Information in Two-Dimensional Traffic Networks for Electric Mobility Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation data is important for electric vehicle simulation. However, traffic simulators are often two-dimensional and do not offer the capability of modelling urban networks taking elevation into account. Specifically, SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility, a popular microscopic traffic simulator, relies on networks previously modelled with elevation data as to provide this information during simulations. This work tackles the problem of adding elevation data to urban network models - particularly for the case of the Porto urban network, in Portugal. With this goal in mind, a comparison between different altitude information retrieval approaches is made and a simple tool to annotate network models with altitude data is proposed. The work starts by describing the methodological approach followed during research and development, then describing and analysing its main findings. This description includes an in-depth explanation of the proposed tool. Lastly, this work reviews some related work to the subject.

  8. Changing Conditions for Networked Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    in describing the novel pedagogical potentials of these new technologies and practices (e.g. in debates around virtual learning environments versus personal learning environment). Likewise, I shall briefly discuss the notions of ‘digital natives’ or ‘the net generation’ from a critical perspective...... of social technologies. I argue that we are seeing the emergence of new architectures and scales of participation, collaboration and networking e.g. through interesting formations of learning networks at different levels of scale, for different purposes and often bridging boundaries such as formal...

  9. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  10. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  11. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  12. Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue

    2016-01-01

    There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.

  13. Effects of packet retransmission with finite packet lifetime on traffic capacity in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    Existing routing strategies such as the global dynamic routing [X. Ling, M. B. Hu, R. Jiang and Q. S. Wu, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016113 (2010)] can achieve very high traffic capacity at the cost of extremely long packet traveling delay. In many real complex networks, especially for real-time applications such as the instant communication software, extremely long packet traveling time is unacceptable. In this work, we propose to assign a finite Time-to-Live (TTL) parameter for each packet. To guarantee every packet to arrive at its destination within its TTL, we assume that a packet is retransmitted by its source once its TTL expires. We employ source routing mechanisms in the traffic model to avoid the routing-flaps induced by the global dynamic routing. We compose extensive simulations to verify our proposed mechanisms. With small TTL, the effects of packet retransmission on network traffic capacity are obvious, and the phase transition from flow free state to congested state occurs. For the purpose of reducing the computation frequency of the routing table, we employ a computing cycle Tc within which the routing table is recomputed once. The simulation results show that the traffic capacity decreases with increasing Tc. Our work provides a good insight into the understanding of effects of packet retransmission with finite packet lifetime on traffic capacity in scale-free networks.

  14. Best response game of traffic on road network of non-signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Jia, Ning; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Liying

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the traffic flow in a grid road network with non-signalized intersections. The nature of the drivers in the network is simulated such that they play an iterative snowdrift game with other drivers. A cellular automata model is applied to study the characteristics of the traffic flow and the evolution of the behaviour of the drivers during the game. The drivers use best-response as their strategy to update rules. Three major findings are revealed. First, the cooperation rate in simulation experiences staircase-shaped drop as cost to benefit ratio r increases, and cooperation rate can be derived analytically as a function of cost to benefit ratio r. Second, we find that higher cooperation rate corresponds to higher average speed, lower density and higher flow. This reveals that defectors deteriorate the efficiency of traffic on non-signalized intersections. Third, the system experiences more randomness when the density is low because the drivers will not have much opportunity to update strategy when the density is low. These findings help to show how the strategy of drivers in a traffic network evolves and how their interactions influence the overall performance of the traffic system.

  15. Global forward-predicting dynamic routing for traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei-Hao; Zhou Bin; Liu En-Xiao; Lu Wei-Dang; Zhou Ting

    2015-01-01

    Many real communication networks, such as oceanic monitoring network and land environment observation network, can be described as space stereo multi-layer structure, and the traffic in these networks is concurrent. Understanding how traffic dynamics depend on these real communication networks and finding an effective routing strategy that can fit the circumstance of traffic concurrency and enhance the network performance are necessary. In this light, we propose a traffic model for space stereo multi-layer complex network and introduce two kinds of global forward-predicting dynamic routing strategies, global forward-predicting hybrid minimum queue (HMQ) routing strategy and global forward-predicting hybrid minimum degree and queue (HMDQ) routing strategy, for traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free networks. By applying forward-predicting strategy, the proposed routing strategies achieve better performances in traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free networks. Compared with the efficient routing strategy and global dynamic routing strategy, HMDQ and HMQ routing strategies can optimize the traffic distribution, alleviate the number of congested packets effectively and reach much higher network capacity. (paper)

  16. Estimation and Control of Networked Distributed Parameter Systems: Application to Traffic Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.

  17. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  18. Capacity planning of link restorable optical networks under dynamic change of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2005-11-01

    Future backbone networks shall require full-survivability and support dynamic changes of traffic demands. The Generalized Survivable Networks (GSN) was proposed to meet these challenges. GSN is fully-survivable under dynamic traffic demand changes, so it offers a practical and guaranteed characterization framework for ASTN / ASON survivable network planning and bandwidth-on-demand resource allocation 4. The basic idea of GSN is to incorporate the non-blocking network concept into the survivable network models. In GSN, each network node must specify its I/O capacity bound which is taken as constraints for any allowable traffic demand matrix. In this paper, we consider the following generic GSN network design problem: Given the I/O bounds of each network node, find a routing scheme (and the corresponding rerouting scheme under failure) and the link capacity assignment (both working and spare) which minimize the cost, such that any traffic matrix consistent with the given I/O bounds can be feasibly routed and it is single-fault tolerant under the link restoration scheme. We first show how the initial, infeasible formal mixed integer programming formulation can be transformed into a more feasible problem using the duality transformation of the linear program. Then we show how the problem can be simplified using the Lagrangian Relaxation approach. Previous work has outlined a two-phase approach for solving this problem where the first phase optimizes the working capacity assignment and the second phase optimizes the spare capacity assignment. In this paper, we present a jointly optimized framework for dimensioning the survivable optical network with the GSN model. Experiment results show that the jointly optimized GSN can bring about on average of 3.8% cost savings when compared with the separate, two-phase approach. Finally, we perform a cost comparison and show that GSN can be deployed with a reasonable cost.

  19. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone....... With the humongous popularity of Internet the overall traffic on Internet has the same story. Focusing on transmission of IP traffic in an optical network with signals remaining in their optical nature generated at particular wavelength, proposed is the switching of optically generated IP packets through optical...... cross connects based on translation of wavelength when an IP packet is crossing the optical cross connect. Adding the concepts of layer 3 routing protocols along with the wavelength translation scheme, will help in spanning the overall optical network for a larger area....

  20. A Feature Selection Method for Large-Scale Network Traffic Classification Based on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, with the rapid increasing of data scales in network traffic classifications, how to select traffic features efficiently is becoming a big challenge. Although a number of traditional feature selection methods using the Hadoop-MapReduce framework have been proposed, the execution time was still unsatisfactory with numeral iterative computations during the processing. To address this issue, an efficient feature selection method for network traffic based on a new parallel computing framework called Spark is proposed in this paper. In our approach, the complete feature set is firstly preprocessed based on Fisher score, and a sequential forward search strategy is employed for subsets. The optimal feature subset is then selected using the continuous iterations of the Spark computing framework. The implementation demonstrates that, on the precondition of keeping the classification accuracy, our method reduces the time cost of modeling and classification, and improves the execution efficiency of feature selection significantly.

  1. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Network for Road Traffic Monitoring and Vehicle Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljevic Vladan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of transportation of people and goods is playing a vital role in economic growth. A key component for enabling effective planning of transportation networks is the deployment and operation of autonomous monitoring and traffic analysis tools. For that reason, such systems have been developed to register and classify road traffic usage. In this paper, we propose a novel system for road traffic monitoring and classification based on highly energy efficient wireless magnetic sensor networks. We develop novel algorithms for vehicle speed and length estimation and vehicle classification that use multiple magnetic sensors. We also demonstrate that, using such a low-cost system with simplified installation and maintenance compared to current solutions, it is possible to achieve highly accurate estimation and a high rate of positive vehicle classification.

  2. Software defined multi-OLT passive optical network for flexible traffic allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of 4G mobile network and vehicular network services mobile terminal users have increasing demand on data sharing among different radio remote units (RRUs) and roadside units (RSUs). Meanwhile, commercial video-streaming, video/voice conference applications delivered through peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are still keep on stimulating the sharp increment of bandwidth demand in both business and residential subscribers. However, a significant issue is that, although wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology have been proposed to fulfil the ever-increasing bandwidth demand in access network, the bandwidth of optical fiber is not unlimited due to the restriction of optical component properties and modulation/demodulation technology, and blindly increase the wavelength cannot meet the cost-sensitive characteristic of the access network. In this paper, we propose a software defined multi-OLT PON architecture to support efficient scheduling of access network traffic. By introducing software defined networking technology and wavelength selective switch into TWDM PON system in central office, multiple OLTs can be considered as a bandwidth resource pool and support flexible traffic allocation for optical network units (ONUs). Moreover, under the configuration of the control plane, ONUs have the capability of changing affiliation between different OLTs under different traffic situations, thus the inter-OLT traffic can be localized and the data exchange pressure of the core network can be released. Considering this architecture is designed to be maximum following the TWDM PON specification, the existing optical distribution network (ODN) investment can be saved and conventional EPON/GPON equipment can be compatible with the proposed architecture. What's more, based on this architecture, we propose a dynamic wavelength scheduling algorithm, which can be deployed as an application on control plane

  3. Multi Service Proxy: Mobile Web Traffic Entitlement Point in 4G Core Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Uhlir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Core part of state-of-the-art mobile networks is composed of several standard elements like GGSN (Gateway General Packet Radio Service Support Node, SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node, F5 or MSP (Multi Service Proxy. Each node handles network traffic from a slightly different perspective, and with various goals. In this article we will focus only on the MSP, its key features and especially on related security issues. MSP handles all HTTP traffic in the mobile network and therefore it is a suitable point for the implementation of different optimization functions, e.g. to reduce the volume of data generated by YouTube or similar HTTP-based service. This article will introduce basic features and functions of MSP as well as ways of remote access and security mechanisms of this key element in state-of-the-art mobile networks.

  4. Improved routing strategies for data traffic in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Peng, Gang; Wong, Wing-Ming; Yeung, Kai-Hau

    2008-01-01

    We study the information packet routing process in scale-free networks by mimicking Internet traffic delivery. We incorporate both the global shortest paths information and local degree information of the network in the dynamic process, via two tunable parameters, α and β, to guide the packet routing. We measure the performance of the routing method by both the average transit times of packets and the critical packet generation rate (above which packet aggregation occurs in the network). We found that the routing strategies which integrate ingredients of both global and local topological information of the underlying networks perform much better than the traditional shortest path routing protocol taking into account the global topological information only. Moreover, by doing comparative studies with some related works, we found that the performance of our proposed method shows universal efficiency characteristic against the amount of traffic

  5. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  6. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  7. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  8. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  9. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  10. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  11. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

  12. Dynamic Flow Migration for Delay Constrained Traffic in Software-Defined Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Andre; Gross, James; Danielis, Peter; Dán, György

    2017-01-01

    Various industrial control applications have stringent end-to-end latency requirements in the order of a few milliseconds. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a promising solution in order to meet these stringent requirements under varying traffic patterns, as it enables the flexible management of

  13. Downlink Performance of a Multi-Carrier MIMO System in a Bursty Traffic Cellular Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the downlink performance of a rank adaptive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system in a busty traffic cellular network. A LTE-Advanced system with multiple component carriers was selected as a study case. To highlight the advantage of using MIMO techniques, we used ...

  14. Energy-minimized design in all-optical networks using unicast/multicast traffic grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Amaya, Ferney O.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2013-09-01

    The increased bandwidth required by applications, tends to raise the amount of optical equipment, for this reason, it is essential to maintain a balance between the wavelength allocation, available capacity and number of optical devices to achieve the lowest power consumption. You could say that we propose a model that minimizes energy consumption, using unicast / multicast traffic grooming in optical networks.

  15. Network traffic intelligence using a low interaction honeypot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamugudza, Tendai; Rajasekar, Venkatesh; Sen, Prasad; Nirmala, M.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.

    2017-11-01

    Advancements in networking technology have seen more and more devices becoming connected day by day. This has given organizations capacity to extend their networks beyond their boundaries to remote offices and remote employees. However as the network grows security becomes a major challenge since the attack surface also increases. There is need to guard the network against different types of attacks like intrusion and malware through using different tools at different networking levels. This paper describes how network intelligence can be acquired through implementing a low-interaction honeypot which detects and track network intrusion. Honeypot allows an organization to interact and gather information about an attack earlier before it compromises the network. This process is important because it allows the organization to learn about future attacks of the same nature and allows them to develop counter measures. The paper further shows how honeypot-honey net based model for interruption detection system (IDS) can be used to get the best valuable information about the attacker and prevent unexpected harm to the network.

  16. Automatic Railway Traffic Object Detection System Using Feature Fusion Refine Neural Network under Shunting Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many accidents happen under shunting mode when the speed of a train is below 45 km/h. In this mode, train attendants observe the railway condition ahead using the traditional manual method and tell the observation results to the driver in order to avoid danger. To address this problem, an automatic object detection system based on convolutional neural network (CNN is proposed to detect objects ahead in shunting mode, which is called Feature Fusion Refine neural network (FR-Net. It consists of three connected modules, i.e., the depthwise-pointwise convolution, the coarse detection module, and the object detection module. Depth-wise-pointwise convolutions are used to improve the detection in real time. The coarse detection module coarsely refine the locations and sizes of prior anchors to provide better initialization for the subsequent module and also reduces search space for the classification, whereas the object detection module aims to regress accurate object locations and predict the class labels for the prior anchors. The experimental results on the railway traffic dataset show that FR-Net achieves 0.8953 mAP with 72.3 FPS performance on a machine with a GeForce GTX1080Ti with the input size of 320 × 320 pixels. The results imply that FR-Net takes a good tradeoff both on effectiveness and real time performance. The proposed method can meet the needs of practical application in shunting mode.

  17. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can

  18. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  19. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  20. Link State Relationships Under Incident Conditions: Using a CTM-Based Linear Programming Dynamic Traffic Assignment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Urban transportation networks, consisting of numerous links and nodes, experience traffic incidents such as accidents and road maintenance work. A typical consequence of incidents is congestion which results in long queues and causes high travel time...

  1. Link state relationships under incident conditions : using a CTM-based linear programming dynamic traffic assignment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Urban transportation networks, consisting of numerous links and nodes, experience traffic incidents such as accidents and road : maintenance work. A typical consequence of incidents is congestion which results in long queues and causes high travel ti...

  2. An efficient strategy for enhancing traffic capacity by removing links in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Chow, Tommy W S

    2010-01-01

    An efficient link-removal strategy, called the variance-of-neighbor-degree-reduction (VNDR) strategy, for enhancing the traffic capacity of scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. The VNDR strategy, which considers the important role of hub nodes, balances the amounts of packets routed from each node to the node's neighbors. Compared against the outcomes of strategies that remove links among hub nodes, our results show that the traffic capacity can be greatly enhanced, especially under the shortest path routing strategy. It is also found that the average transport time is effectively reduced by using the VNDR strategy only under the shortest path routing strategy

  3. Characterization of Background Traffic in Hybrid Network Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwens, Ben; Scheers, Bart; Van de Capelle, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    .... Two approaches are common: discrete event simulation and fluid approximation. A discrete event simulation generates a huge amount of events for a full-blown battlefield communication network resulting in a very long runtime...

  4. HOW TRAVEL DEMAND AFFECTS DETECTION OF NON-RECURRENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London’s urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  5. Traffic routing for multicomputer networks with virtual cut-through capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlur, Dilip D.; Shin, Kang G.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of selecting routes for interprocess communication in a network with virtual cut-through capability, while balancing the network load and minimizing the number of times that a message gets buffered. An approach is proposed that formulates the route selection problem as a minimization problem with a link cost function that depends upon the traffic through the link. The form of this cost function is derived using the probability of establishing a virtual cut-through route. The route selection problem is shown to be NP-hard, and an algorithm is developed to incrementally reduce the cost by rerouting the traffic. The performance of this algorithm is exemplified by two network topologies: the hypercube and the C-wrapped hexagonal mesh.

  6. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Traffic Network Equilibrium Assignment Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2018-04-01

    Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes. At last, we demonstrate that the Physarum solver converges to the user-optimized (Wardrop) equilibrium by dynamically updating the costs of links in the network. In addition, convergence of the developed algorithm is proved. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with several other algorithms, including the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, conjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, biconjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, and gradient projection algorithm.

  7. Dynamic segment shared protection for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Luhua; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the protection approach for dynamic multicast traffic under shared risk link group (SRLG) constraints in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing optical networks. We present a shared protection algorithm called dynamic segment shared protection for multicast traffic (DSSPM), which can dynamically adjust the link cost according to the current network state and can establish a primary light-tree as well as corresponding SRLG-disjoint backup segments for a dependable multicast connection. A backup segment can efficiently share the wavelength capacity of its working tree and the common resources of other backup segments based on SRLG-disjoint constraints. The simulation results show that DSSPM not only can protect the multicast sessions against a single-SRLG breakdown, but can make better use of the wavelength resources and also lower the network blocking probability.

  8. Anticipation of Traffic Demands to Guarantee QoS in IP/Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic in the Internet backbone is expected to grow above a few Tbit/s in 2020. To cope with this, operators are moving to IP/optical network architectures, where IP is the convergence layer for all services. On the other hand, the quality of service (QoS requirements of future applications encompasses the individualization of services and the assurance of stricter quality parameters such as latency, jitter or capacity. In other words, future optical networks will not only transport more IP data, but they will also have to offer differentiated QoS requirements to services. Finally, some emerging applications, e.g., grid computing, need greater flexibility in the usage of network resources, which involves establishing and releasing connections as if they were virtualized resources controlled by other elements or layers. In this context, traffic-driven lightpath provisioning and service-plane approaches arise as very interesting candidate solutions to solve the main challenges described above. This work reviews the concepts of service-oriented and self-managed networks and relates them to propose an integrated approach to assure QoS by offering flow-aware networking in the sense that traffic demands will be anticipated in a suitable way, lightpaths will be established taking into account QoS information (i.e., impairments and complex services will be decomposed into optical connections so that the above techniques can be employed to assure QoS for any service.

  9. Estimation of Conditional Quantile using Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of estimating conditional quantiles using neural networks is investigated here. A basic structure is developed using the methodology of kernel estimation, and a theory guaranteeing con-sistency on a mild set of assumptions is provided. The constructed structure constitutes a basis...... for the design of a variety of different neural networks, some of which are considered in detail. The task of estimating conditional quantiles is related to Bayes point estimation whereby a broad range of applications within engineering, economics and management can be suggested. Numerical results illustrating...... the capabilities of the elaborated neural network are also given....

  10. Large scale network management. Condition indicators for network stations, high voltage power conductions and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Rolfseng, Lars; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-02-01

    In the Strategic Institute Programme (SIP) 'Electricity Business enters e-business (eBee)' SINTEF Energy research has developed competency that can help the energy business employ ICT systems and computer technology in an improved way. Large scale network management is now a reality, and it is characterized by large entities with increasing demands on efficiency and quality. These are goals that can only be reached by using ICT systems and computer technology in a more clever way than what is the case today. At the same time it is important that knowledge held by experienced co-workers is consulted when formal rules for evaluations and decisions in ICT systems are developed. In this project an analytical concept for evaluation of networks based information in different ICT systems has been developed. The method estimating the indicators to describe different conditions in a network is general, and indicators can be made to fit different levels of decision and network levels, for example network station, transformer circuit, distribution network and regional network. Moreover, the indicators can contain information about technical aspects, economy and HSE. An indicator consists of an indicator name, an indicator value, and an indicator colour based on a traffic-light analogy to indicate a condition or a quality for the indicator. Values on one or more indicators give an impression of important conditions in the network, and make up the basis for knowing where more detailed evaluations have to be conducted before a final decision on for example maintenance or renewal is made. A prototype has been developed for testing the new method. The prototype has been developed in Excel, and especially designed for analysing transformer circuits in a distribution network. However, the method is a general one, and well suited for implementation in a commercial computer system (ml)

  11. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  12. Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Spatio-Temporal Traffic: Delay Analysis and Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Quek, Tony Q. S.; Ge, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of new types of services has led to various traffic and diverse delay requirements in fifth generation (5G) wireless networks. Meeting diverse delay requirements is one of the most critical goals for the design of 5G wireless networks. Though the delay of point-to-point communications has been well investigated, the delay of multi-point to multi-point communications has not been thoroughly studied since it is a complicated function of all links in the network. In this work, we propo...

  13. Optimal Traffic Allocation for Multi-Stream Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2015-01-01

    nature of radio access networks are considered as important factors for performance improvement by multi-stream aggregation. Therefore, in our model, the networks are represented by different queueing systems in order to indicate networks with opposite quality of service provisioning, capacity and delay...... variations. Furthermore, services with different traffic characteristics in terms of quality of service requirements are considered. The simulation results show the advantages of our scheme with respect to efficient increase in data rate and delay performance compared to traditional schemes....

  14. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...

  15. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  16. Best Practices Handbook: Traffic Engineering in Range Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cisco ) .................................................................................................. 4-7 4.4.2 Vendor 2 (Brocade...by Cisco Systems for collecting OAM information. NetFlow functions similarly to sFlow, using packet sampling technology embedded in switches and...transport and entry to the network core. In the merchant market this function is typically designated by the following products:  Aggregation Switch

  17. Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection in Time-Varying Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    PLs can be generated using tad and (7). Otherwise, the network is periodic according to feature a, and a family of candidate PLs can be generated...using tad , t a p, and (8). In addition, in case that some prior knowledge of td and tp is available, the family of candidate PLs can include the PLs

  18. Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection in Time Varying Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    PLs can be generated using tad and (7). Otherwise, the network is periodic according to feature a, and a family of candidate PLs can be generated...using tad , t a p, and (8). In addition, in case that some prior knowledge of td and tp is available, the family of candidate PLs can include the PLs

  19. A latency analysis for M2M and OG-like traffic patterns in different HSPA core network configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Popović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis intended to reveal possible impacts of core network features on latency for modelled M2M and Online Gaming traffic. Simulations were performed in a live 3G/HSPA network. Test traffic simulating multiplayer real-time games and M2M applications was generated on 10 mobile phones in parallel, sending data to a remote server. APNs with different combinations of hardware and features (proxy server, different GGSNs and firewalls, usage of Service Awareness feature were chosen. The traffic was recorded on the Gn interface in the mobile core. The goal of experiments was to evaluate any eventually significant variation of average recorded RTTs in the core part of mobile network that would clearly indicate either the impact of used APN on delay for a specific traffic pattern, or selectivity of the APN towards different traffic patterns.

  20. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  1. Adaptive traffic signal control with actor-critic methods in a real-world traffic network with different traffic disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a

  2. Contribution to the Management of Traffic in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission control methods (AC in IMS networks (IP multimedia subsystem as one of the elements that help ensure QoS (Quality of service. In the paper we are trying to choose the best AC method for selected IMS network to allow access to the greatest number of users. Of the large number of methods that were tested and considered good we chose two. The paper compares diffusion method and one of the measurement based method, specifically „Simple Sum“. Both methods estimate effective bandwidth to allow access for the greatest number of users/devices and allow them access to prepaid services or multimedia content.

  3. Traffic Dimensioning and Performance Modeling of 4G LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in mobile techniques have always been evolutionary, and the deployment of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks will be the same. It will be another transition from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) over a period of several years, as is the case still with the transition from Second Generation (2G) to 3G. As a result,…

  4. Integration of a network aware traffic generation device into a computer network emulation platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, open source network emulation tools can provide network researchers with significant benefits regarding network behaviour and performance. The evaluation of these networks can benefit greatly from the integration of realistic, network...

  5. Comparison between genetic algorithm and self organizing map to detect botnet network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhara Prabhakar, Shinde; Parganiha, Pratishtha; Madhu Viswanatham, V.; Nirmala, M.

    2017-11-01

    In Cyber Security world the botnet attacks are increasing. To detect botnet is a challenging task. Botnet is a group of computers connected in a coordinated fashion to do malicious activities. Many techniques have been developed and used to detect and prevent botnet traffic and the attacks. In this paper, a comparative study is done on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) to detect the botnet network traffic. Both are soft computing techniques and used in this paper as data analytics system. GA is based on natural evolution process and SOM is an Artificial Neural Network type, uses unsupervised learning techniques. SOM uses neurons and classifies the data according to the neurons. Sample of KDD99 dataset is used as input to GA and SOM.

  6. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  7. Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to the root of an incident or under- stand what goes on in a network may mean looking at data from weeks, months, or even years ago, as has been the...KB 1.01% 69.42 TB 694.20 TB 6,941.99 TB SuSE 6.3 .pcap 51,706 KB 1.01% 104.03 TB 1,040.27 TB 10,402.68 TB HP-UX nettl .trc0 53,391 KB 1.04% 451.13

  8. Property relationships of the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ta; Zou, Sheng-Rong; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    We studied both empirically and analytically the correlation between the degrees or the clustering coefficients, respectively, of the networks in the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow layers in three Chinese transportation systems. The systems are bus transportation systems in Beijing and Hangzhou, and the railway system in the mainland. It is found that the correlation between the degrees obey a linear function; while the correlation between the clustering coefficients obey a power law. A possible dynamic explanation on the rules is presented.

  9. Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    administrative privileges . Under the current design Android development requirement, an Android Graphical User Interface (GUI) application cannot directly...build an Android application to monitor network traffic using open source packet capture (pcap) libraries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ELIDe, Android , pcap 16...Building Application with Native Codes 5 8.1 Calling Native Codes Using JNI 5 8.2 Calling Native Codes from an Android Application 8 9. Retrieve Live

  10. Testing Application (End-to-End Performance of Networks With EFT Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lipovac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how end-to-end application peiformance(of Electronic Financial Transaction traffic, in particulardepends on the actual protocol stacks, operating systemsand network transmission rates. With this respect, the respectivesimulation tests of peiformance of TCP and UDP protocolsrunning on various operating systems, ranging from Windows,Sun Solmis, to Linux have been implemented, and thedifferences in peiformance addressed focusing on throughputand response time.

  11. Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM, the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  12. SmartCop: Enabling Smart Traffic Violations Ticketing in Vehicular Named Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various applications for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have been proposed and smart traffic violation ticketing is one of them. On the other hand, the new Information-Centric Networking (ICN architectures have emerged and been investigated into VANETs, such as Vehicular Named Data Networking (VNDN. However, the existing applications in VANETs are not suitable for VNDN paradigm due to the dependency on a “named content” instead of a current “host-centric” approach. Thus, we need to design the emerging and new architectures for VNDN applications. In this paper, we propose a smart traffic violation ticketing (TVT system for VNDN, named as SmartCop, that enables a cop vehicle (CV to issue tickets for traffic violation(s to the offender(s autonomously, once they are in the transmission range of that CV. The ticket issuing delay, messaging cost, and percentage of violations detected for varying number of vehicles, violators, CVs, and vehicles speeds are estimated through simulations. In addition, we provide a road map of future research directions for enabling safe driving experience in future cars aided with VNDN technology.

  13. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  14. Green provisioning of the traffic partition grooming in robust, reconfigurable and heterogeneous optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weigang; Yu, Yao; Song, Qingyang; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, various high-speed network architectures have been widespread deployed. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has gained favor as a terabit solution. The optical circuit switching has also been provided for "sub-rate" aggregation. Such that, the granular types of demands tend to be diverse and must be evaluated. However, current dedicated optical networks do not offer sufficient flexibility to satisfy the requirements of demands with such wide range of granularities. The traffic grooming becomes a power-efficient one only when it does not utilize the aggregation of Coarse-Granularity (CG) demands. The waveband switching merely provides port-cost-effective connections for CG demands regardless of fine-granularity ones. Consequently, in this paper, we devise a heterogeneous grooming method called traffic partition grooming. It combines the power efficiency advantage of the traffic grooming under fine-granularity environment and the port savings advantage of the waveband switching under coarse-granularity environment to provide green provisioning. In addition, the optical virtual topology self-reconfigures along with various optimization objectives variation and has the robustness to determine the pre-unknown information. This paper is also the first work on investigating the issue of Robust, Reconfigurable and Heterogeneous Optical Networking (R2HON). The effective green provisioning and OPEX savings of our R2HON have been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  15. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  16. A QoS Framework with Traffic Request in Wireless Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Huang, Hejiao

    In this paper, we consider major issues in ensuring greater Quality-of-Service (QoS) in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs), specifically with regard to reliability and delay. To this end, we use traffic request to record QoS requirements of data flows. In order to achieve required QoS for all data flows efficiently and with high portability, we develop Network State Update Algorithm. All assumptions, definitions, and algorithms are made exclusively with WMNs in mind, guaranteeing the portability of our framework to various environments in WMNs. The simulation results in proof that our framework is correct.

  17. Flows in networks under fuzzy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhenyuk, Alexander Vitalievich; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Rozenberg, Igor Naymovich

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction to fuzzy methods for solving flow tasks in both transportation and networks. It analyzes the problems of minimum cost and maximum flow finding with fuzzy nonzero lower flow bounds, and describes solutions to minimum cost flow finding in a network with fuzzy arc capacities and transmission costs. After a concise introduction to flow theory and tasks, the book analyzes two important problems. The first is related to determining the maximum volume for cargo transportation in the presence of uncertain network parameters, such as environmental changes, measurement errors and repair work on the roads. These parameters are represented here as fuzzy triangular, trapezoidal numbers and intervals. The second problem concerns static and dynamic flow finding in networks under fuzzy conditions, and an effective method that takes into account the network’s transit parameters is presented here. All in all, the book provides readers with a practical reference guide to state-of-...

  18. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  19. Optimized Virtual Machine Placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing in Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization has been an efficient method to fully utilize computing resources such as servers. The way of placing virtual machines (VMs among a large pool of servers greatly affects the performance of data center networks (DCNs. As network resources have become a main bottleneck of the performance of DCNs, we concentrate on VM placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing to evenly utilize the links in DCNs. In this paper, we first proposed a Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (VMPPTB and then proved it to be NP-hard and designed a Longest Processing Time Based Placement algorithm (LPTBP algorithm to solve it. To take advantage of the communication locality, we proposed Locality-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (LVMPPTB, which is a multiobjective optimization problem of simultaneously minimizing the maximum number of VM partitions of requests and minimizing the maximum bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of Top of Rack (ToR switches. We also proved it to be NP-hard and designed a heuristic algorithm (Least-Load First Based Placement algorithm, LLBP algorithm to solve it. Through extensive simulations, the proposed heuristic algorithm is proven to significantly balance the bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of ToR switches, while keeping the number of VM partitions of each request small enough.

  20. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  1. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  2. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  3. A Practical Method for Multilevel Classification and Accounting of Traffic in Computer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    Learning Algorithms (MLAs) require good quality training data, which are difficult to obtain. MLAs usually cannot properly deal with other types of traffic, than they are trained to work with -- such traffic is identified as the most probable class, instead of being left unclassified. Another drawback...... Learning Algorithm. Finally, content and service provider levels are identified based on IP addresses. The training data for the statistical classifier and the mappings between the different types of content and the IP addresses are created based on the data collected by Volunteer-Based System, while...... the service provider (as Facebook, YouTube, or Google). Furthermore, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), which seems to be the most accurate technique, in addition to the extensive needs for resources, often cannot be used by ISPs in their networks due to privacy or legal reasons. Techniques based on Machine...

  4. DECISION WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODELS ON A TRAFFIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gonçalves Dutra da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aims to demonstrate the use of a mechanism to be applied in the development of the discrete-event simulation models that perform decision operations through the implementation of an artificial neural network. Actions that involve complex operations performed by a human agent in a process, for example, are often modeled in simplified form with the usual mechanisms of simulation software. Therefore, it was chosen a traffic system controlled by a traffic officer with a flow of vehicles and pedestrians to demonstrate the proposed solution. From a module built in simulation software itself, it was possible to connect the algorithm for intelligent decision to the simulation model. The results showed that the model elaborated responded as expected when it was submitted to actions, which required different decisions to maintain the operation of the system with changes in the flow of people and vehicles.

  5. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ah Networks With High-Throughput Bidirectional Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šljivo, Amina; Kerkhove, Dwight; Tian, Le; Famaey, Jeroen; Munteanu, Adrian; Moerman, Ingrid; Hoebeke, Jeroen; De Poorter, Eli

    2018-01-23

    So far, existing sub-GHz wireless communication technologies focused on low-bandwidth, long-range communication with large numbers of constrained devices. Although these characteristics are fine for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, more demanding application requirements could not be met and legacy Internet technologies such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) could not be used. This has changed with the advent of the new IEEE 802.11ah Wi-Fi standard, which is much more suitable for reliable bidirectional communication and high-throughput applications over a wide area (up to 1 km). The standard offers great possibilities for network performance optimization through a number of physical- and link-layer configurable features. However, given that the optimal configuration parameters depend on traffic patterns, the standard does not dictate how to determine them. Such a large number of configuration options can lead to sub-optimal or even incorrect configurations. Therefore, we investigated how two key mechanisms, Restricted Access Window (RAW) grouping and Traffic Indication Map (TIM) segmentation, influence scalability, throughput, latency and energy efficiency in the presence of bidirectional TCP/IP traffic. We considered both high-throughput video streaming traffic and large-scale reliable sensing traffic and investigated TCP behavior in both scenarios when the link layer introduces long delays. This article presents the relations between attainable throughput per station and attainable number of stations, as well as the influence of RAW, TIM and TCP parameters on both. We found that up to 20 continuously streaming IP-cameras can be reliably connected via IEEE 802.11ah with a maximum average data rate of 160 kbps, whereas 10 IP-cameras can achieve average data rates of up to 255 kbps over 200 m. Up to 6960 stations transmitting every 60 s can be connected over 1 km with no lost packets. The presented results enable the fine tuning

  6. Network conditioning under conflicting goals: Accident causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouse, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Networks based on the Barto-Sutton architecture (BSA) of neural-like elements have an information-processing structure that is analogous to the cognitive structure of a human. Given a set of explicitly stated rules of conduct, such networks develop a set of skills that is capable of satisfying the rules. In this sense, the network acts as a translator of rules into skill-based behavior. The BSA acquires its skills through casual, correlation-based scheduling. Stated briefly, it first constructs an internal representation, or model, of the rules of conduct, and then uses the model to correct deficiencies in its skill. It learns in a manner that closely resembles classical conditioning, shifting the onset of signals associated with unconditioned stimuli forward in time to coincide with the onset of conditioning stimuli. The low-level positive reinforcement the network receives from enhancing its operational efficiency is immediate and direct. In the absence of countervailing influences, this continuous pressure is sufficient to discount the recollection of past failures and leads to accidents with a predictable regularity

  7. Comparing detection and disclosure of traffic incidents in social networks: an intelligent approach based on Twitter vs. Waze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Vallejos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks have become  in a  communication  medium widely  used to disseminate any type  of  information. In  particular,  the  shared  information  in  social  networks  usually  includes  a  considerable number of traffic incidents reports of specific cities. In light of this, specialized social networks have emerged for detecting and disseminating traffic incidents, differentiating from generic social networks in which a wide variety of  topics  are  communicated.  In this  context,  Twitter  is  a  case  in  point  of  a  generic  social  network  in  which  its users often share information about traffic incidents, while Waze is a social network specialized in traffic. In this paper we present a comparative study between Waze and an intelligent approach that detects traffic incidents by analyzing publications shared in Twitter. The comparative study was carried out considering Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos  Aires  (CABA,  Argentina,  as  the  region  of  interest.  The results of this work suggest that both social networks should be considered as complementary sources of information. This conclusion is based on the fact that the proportion of mutual detections, i.e. traffic incidents detected by both approaches, was considerably low since it did not exceed 6% of the cases. Moreover, the results do not show that any of the approaches tend to anticipate in time to the other one in the detection of traffic incidents.

  8. Saliency detection by conditional generative adversarial network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoxu; Yu, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Detecting salient objects in images has been a fundamental problem in computer vision. In recent years, deep learning has shown its impressive performance in dealing with many kinds of vision tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method to detect salient objects by using Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). This type of network not only learns the mapping from RGB images to salient regions, but also learns a loss function for training the mapping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Conditional GAN has been used in salient object detection. We evaluate our saliency detection method on 2 large publicly available datasets with pixel accurate annotations. The experimental results have shown the significant and consistent improvements over the state-of-the-art method on a challenging dataset, and the testing speed is much faster.

  9. The performance evaluation of a new neural network based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Liu, Dequan

    1991-01-01

    A neural-network-based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network is described. The scheme consists of two levels of management. The front end of the scheme is a derivation of Kohonen's self-organization model to configure maps for the satellite communication network dynamically. The model consists of three stages. The first stage is the pattern recognition task, in which an exemplar map that best meets the current network requirements is selected. The second stage is the analysis of the discrepancy between the chosen exemplar map and the state of the network, and the adaptive modification of the chosen exemplar map to conform closely to the network requirement (input data pattern) by means of Kohonen's self-organization. On the basis of certain performance criteria, whether a new map is generated to replace the original chosen map is decided in the third stage. A state-dependent routing algorithm, which arranges the incoming call to some proper path, is used to make the network more efficient and to lower the call block rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheme, which combines self-organization and the state-dependent routing mechanism, provides better performance in terms of call block rate than schemes that only have either the self-organization mechanism or the routing mechanism.

  10. A Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Frederico; Storgaard, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) development, a predominant part of the design time is the simulation time. Performance evaluation and design space exploration of such systems in bit- and cycle-true fashion is becoming prohibitive. We propose a traffic generation (TG) model that provides a fast...

  11. Complex Security System for Premises Under Conditions of Large Volume of Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsystems of the design of a complex security system for premises under conditions of large volume of passenger traffic are considered. These subsystems provide video- and thermal imaging control, radio wave tomography, and gas analysis. Simultaneous application of all examined variants will essentially increase the probability of timely prevention of dangerous situations with the probability of false alarm as low as possible. It is important that finally, this will provide protection of population and will facilitate the work of intelligence services.

  12. Effective distance adaptation traffic dispatching in software defined IP over optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hongfa; Lin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The rapid growth of IP traffic has contributed to the wide deployment of optical devices (ROADM/OXC, etc.). Meanwhile, with the emergence and application of high-performance network services such as ultra-high video transmission, people are increasingly becoming more and more particular about the quality of service (QoS) of network. However, the pass-band shape of WSSs which is utilized in the ROADM/OXC is not ideal, causing narrowing of spectrum. Spectral narrowing can lead to signal impairment. Therefore, guard-bands need to be inserted between adjacent paths. In order to minimize the bandwidth waste due to guard bands, we propose an effective distance-adaptation traffic dispatching algorithm in IP over optical network based on SDON architecture. We use virtualization technology to set up virtual resources direct links by extracting part of the resources on paths which meet certain specific constraints. We also assign different bandwidth to each IP request based on path length. There is no need for guard-bands between the adjacent paths on the virtual link, which can effectively reduce the number of guard-bands and save the spectrum.

  13. 77 FR 3544 - Meeting and Webinar on the Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Intelligent Network Flow Optimization Operational Concepts; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and... Demand Management (ADTM) and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) operational concepts. The ADTM... infrastructure. The vision for ATDM research is to allow transportation agencies to increase traffic flow...

  14. Combination Adaptive Traffic Algorithm and Coordinated Sleeping in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN uses a battery as its primary power source, so that WSN will be limited to battery power for long operations. The WSN should be able to save the energy consumption in order to operate in a long time.WSN has the potential to be the future of wireless communications solutions. WSN are small but has a variety of functions that can help human life. WSN has the wide variety of sensors and can communicate quickly making it easier for people to obtain information accurately and quickly. In this study, we combine adaptive traffic algorithms and coordinated sleeping as power‐efficient WSN solution. We compared the performance of our proposed ideas combination adaptive traffic and coordinated sleeping algorithm with non‐adaptive scheme. From the simulation results, our proposed idea has good‐quality data transmission and more efficient in energy consumption, but it has higher delay than that of non‐adaptive scheme. Keywords:WSN,adaptive traffic,coordinated sleeping,beacon order,superframe order.

  15. Adaptive EWMA Method Based on Abnormal Network Traffic for LDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-rate denial of service (LDoS attacks reduce network services capabilities by periodically sending high intensity pulse data flows. For their concealed performance, it is more difficult for traditional DoS detection methods to detect LDoS attacks; at the same time the accuracy of the current detection methods for LDoS attacks is relatively low. As the fact that LDoS attacks led to abnormal distribution of the ACK traffic, LDoS attacks can be detected by analyzing the distribution characteristics of ACK traffic. Then traditional EWMA algorithm which can smooth the accidental error while being the same as the exceptional mutation may cause some misjudgment; therefore a new LDoS detection method based on adaptive EWMA (AEWMA algorithm is proposed. The AEWMA algorithm which uses an adaptive weighting function instead of the constant weighting of EWMA algorithm can smooth the accidental error and retain the exceptional mutation. So AEWMA method is more beneficial than EWMA method for analyzing and measuring the abnormal distribution of ACK traffic. The NS2 simulations show that AEWMA method can detect LDoS attacks effectively and has a low false negative rate and a false positive rate. Based on DARPA99 datasets, experiment results show that AEWMA method is more efficient than EWMA method.

  16. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of a FPGA-Based Feature Detection and Networking System for Real-time Traffic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jieshi; Schafer, Benjamin Carrion; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of real-time traffic monitoring nowadays, software-based image processing can hardly meet the real-time data processing requirement due to the serial data processing nature. In this paper, the implementation of a hardware-based feature detection and networking system prototype for real-time traffic monitoring as well as data transmission is presented. The hardware architecture of the proposed system is mainly composed of three parts: data collection, feature detection,...

  18. Visualizing Network Traffic to Understand the Performance of Massively Parallel Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Landge, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of massively parallel applications is often heavily impacted by the cost of communication among compute nodes. However, determining how to best use the network is a formidable task, made challenging by the ever increasing size and complexity of modern supercomputers. This paper applies visualization techniques to aid parallel application developers in understanding the network activity by enabling a detailed exploration of the flow of packets through the hardware interconnect. In order to visualize this large and complex data, we employ two linked views of the hardware network. The first is a 2D view, that represents the network structure as one of several simplified planar projections. This view is designed to allow a user to easily identify trends and patterns in the network traffic. The second is a 3D view that augments the 2D view by preserving the physical network topology and providing a context that is familiar to the application developers. Using the massively parallel multi-physics code pF3D as a case study, we demonstrate that our tool provides valuable insight that we use to explain and optimize pF3D-s performance on an IBM Blue Gene/P system. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  19. Conditional efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Peng; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-01-01

    We propose a conditional quantum key distribution scheme with three nonorthogonal states. Combined with the idea presented by Lo et al. (H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print arXiv: quant-ph/0011056), the efficiency of this scheme is increased to tend to 100%. Also, such a refined data analysis guarantees the security of our scheme against the most general eavesdropping strategy. Then, based on the scheme, we present a quantum cryptography network with the addition of a device called ''space optical switch.'' Moreover, we give out a realization of a quantum random number generator. Thus, a feasible experimental scheme of this efficient quantum cryptography network is completely given

  20. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  1. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any layer of the TCP/IP networking model, Deep Packet Inspection is an effective way to reveal suspicious content in the headers or the payloads in any packet processing layer, excepting of course situations where the payload is encrypted. Although being efficient, this technique still faces big challenges. The contributions of this paper rely on the association of Deep Packet Inspection with forensics analysis to evaluate different attacks towards a Honeynet operating in a network laboratory at the University of Brasilia. In this perspective, this work could identify and map the content and behavior of attacks such as the Mirai botnet and brute-force attacks targeting various different network services. Obtained results demonstrate the behavior of automated attacks (such as worms and bots and non-automated attacks (brute-force conducted with different tools. The data collected and analyzed is then used to generate statistics of used usernames and passwords, IP and services distribution, among other elements. This paper also discusses the importance of network forensics and Chain of Custody procedures to conduct investigations and shows the effectiveness of the mentioned techniques in evaluating different attacks in networks.

  2. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  3. Analysis of Roadway Traffic Accidents Based on Rough Sets and Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper integrates Rough Sets (RS and Bayesian Networks (BN for roadway traffic accident analysis. RS reduction of attributes is first employed to generate the key set of attributes affecting accident outcomes, which are then fed into a BN structure as nodes for BN construction and accident outcome classification. Such RS-based BN framework combines the advantages of RS in knowledge reduction capability and BN in describing interrelationships among different attributes. The framework is demonstrated using the 100-car naturalistic driving data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute to predict accident type. Comparative evaluation with the baseline BNs shows the RS-based BNs generally have a higher prediction accuracy and lower network complexity while with comparable prediction coverage and receiver operating characteristic curve area, proving that the proposed RS-based BN overall outperforms the BNs with/without traditional feature selection approaches. The proposed RS-based BN indicates the most significant attributes that affect accident types include pre-crash manoeuvre, driver’s attention from forward roadway to centre mirror, number of secondary tasks undertaken, traffic density, and relation to junction, most of which feature pre-crash driver states and driver behaviours that have not been extensively researched in literature, and could give further insight into the nature of traffic accidents.

  4. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  5. Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Hadoop-based Large-scale Network Traffic Analysis Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As Hadoop has gained popularity in big data era, it is widely used in various fields. The self-design and self-developed large-scale network traffic analysis cluster works well based on Hadoop, with off-line applications running on it to analyze the massive network traffic data. On purpose of scientifically and reasonably evaluating the performance of analysis cluster, we propose a performance evaluation system. Firstly, we set the execution times of three benchmark applications as the benchmark of the performance, and pick 40 metrics of customized statistical resource data. Then we identify the relationship between the resource data and the execution times by a statistic modeling analysis approach, which is composed of principal component analysis and multiple linear regression. After training models by historical data, we can predict the execution times by current resource data. Finally, we evaluate the performance of analysis cluster by the validated predicting of execution times. Experimental results show that the predicted execution times by trained models are within acceptable error range, and the evaluation results of performance are accurate and reliable.

  7. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  8. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs. However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN controller’s direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20–40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  9. Deep neural network for traffic sign recognition systems: An analysis of spatial transformers and stochastic optimisation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-García, Álvaro; Álvarez-García, Juan A; Soria-Morillo, Luis M

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a Deep Learning approach for traffic sign recognition systems. Several classification experiments are conducted over publicly available traffic sign datasets from Germany and Belgium using a Deep Neural Network which comprises Convolutional layers and Spatial Transformer Networks. Such trials are built to measure the impact of diverse factors with the end goal of designing a Convolutional Neural Network that can improve the state-of-the-art of traffic sign classification task. First, different adaptive and non-adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimisation algorithms such as SGD, SGD-Nesterov, RMSprop and Adam are evaluated. Subsequently, multiple combinations of Spatial Transformer Networks placed at distinct positions within the main neural network are analysed. The recognition rate of the proposed Convolutional Neural Network reports an accuracy of 99.71% in the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, outperforming previous state-of-the-art methods and also being more efficient in terms of memory requirements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  11. Influence of traffic conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were quantified in sieved street dusts from eight sampling sites with different traffic conditions in Beijing. The parent diagnostic ratio test and multi-regression analysis were used to identify the different PAH pollution sources. Results showed that more than 93% of the cumulative 16 priority pollutant PAHs (Sigma 16EPA-PAH) load was present in street dust with a diameter less than 300 microm across all the sampling sites. The concentration of Sigma 4-6 ring PAHs was 93 to 284% higher than that of Sigma 2-3 ring PAHs for most of the sites except the cycle lane site, indicating the dominance of pyrogenic inputs in street dusts at these sites. Cooking oil is an important PAH source in street dusts for all the sampling sites. Tire debris and vehicle emissions were also identified as significant contributors to the PAH loading in the heavy traffic zone, vehicle parking areas, the frequent brake usage zone, and the construction area.

  12. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  13. Traveller Information System for Heterogeneous Traffic Condition: A Case Study in Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyakumar, M.; Anil, R.; Sreeja, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10-11% every year, resulting severe congestion especially in urban areas. Because of the limitation of spaces it is not always possible to construct new roads. Road users rely on travel time information for journey planning and route choice decisions, while road system managers are increasingly viewing travel time as an important network performance indicator. More recently Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) are being developed to provide real-time information to roadway users. For ATIS various methodologies have been developed for dynamic travel time prediction. For this work the Kalman Filter Algorithm was selected for dynamic travel time prediction of different modes. The travel time data collected using handheld GPS device were used for prediction. Congestion Index were calculated and Range of CI values were determined according to the percentage speed drop. After prediction using Kalman Filter, the predicted values along with the GPS data was integrated to GIS and using Network Analysis of ArcGIS the offline route navigation guide was prepared. Using this database a program for route navigation based on travel time was developed. This system will help the travelers with pre-trip information.

  14. Features of formation of car-traffic in a regional transportation system in conditions the multi-agents organization of a railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Leonidovich Kazakov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of structural reform of Russian railways, a host of agents that provide customers with loading resources, especially wagons for transport by railway. These processes reduce in efficiency of the car fleet, increasing transportation costs, shortage of cars for many customers, an increase of empty runs and, as a result, a depletion of a number of sections of the network carrying capacity at a reduced total volume of rail traffic. The article describes the reasons for this situation due to the mismatch occurred heterogeneity of rolling stock to existing planning conditions and tariffs. It is also shown that the inefficiency of decentralized car fleet contributes to the predominance of tree-type network, and the importance of this factor in the new environment has increased substantially. To ensure the efficient operation of rail transport as a systemic industry, providing mass-haul transport, it is proposed for integration into a regional logistics. Freight terminals regional logistics transportation and distribution system (RLTRS is appropriate to create on the basis of major freight railway stations. Thus, the adaptation of planning car traffic volume and train formation to modern standards, the establishment of tariff incentives and long-term changes in network configuration are considered as a prerequisite for the transformation of local transport and technological systems on the network of Russian railways into the integrated transport and logistics systems.

  15. Energy-Saving Mechanism in WDM/TDM-PON Based on Upstream Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Garfias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should also consider energy minimization strategies. To sustain the increased bandwidth demand of emerging applications in the access section of the network, it is expected that next generation optical access networks will adopt the wavelength division/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM technique to increase PONs capacity. Compared with traditional PONs, the architecture of a WDM/TDM-PON requires more transceivers/receivers, hence they are expected to consume more energy. In this paper, we focus on the energy minimization in WDM/TDM-PONs and we propose an energy-efficient Dynamic Bandwidth and Wavelength Allocation mechanism whose objective is to turn off, whenever possible, the unnecessary upstream traffic receivers at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT. We evaluate our mechanism in different scenarios and show that the proper use of upstream channels leads to relevant energy savings. Our proposed energy-saving mechanism is able to save energy at the OLT while maintaining the introduced penalties in terms of packet delay and cycle time within an acceptable range. We might highlight the benefits of our proposal as a mechanism that maximizes the channel utilization. Detailed implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented, and simulation results are reported to quantify energy savings and effects on network performance on different network scenarios.

  16. Analysis Of Traffic Conditions Based On The Percentage Of Drivers Using The Instructions Displayed On VMS Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.

  17. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  18. Using stationary image based data collection method for evaluation of traffic sign condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transportation asset management helps monitor the transportation systems and optimize the construction, operation, and maintenance of assets. Many state Department of Transportations (DOTs have already established asset management systems for high cost and low quantity assets, e.g., bridge and tunnel assets. However, due to the sheer number of traffic signs deployed by DOTs, statewide sign inventory and condition information are not well developed. Currently, using handheld devices is the most selected method by agencies to measure signs. To address safety challenge and high cost of data collection, an innovative stationary image based method has recently been proposed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of such image based method over using handheld devices in terms of the accuracy, possibility and consistency of data, speed, safety, maintenance, and cost. At its completion, this study provides suggestions to tackle the issues associated with image based method.

  19. Accurate Traffic Flow Prediction in Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks in an Intelligent Transport System Using a Supervised Non-Parametric Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El-Sayed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous vehicular networks (HETVNETs evolve from vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, which allow vehicles to always be connected so as to obtain safety services within intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. The services and data provided by HETVNETs should be neither interrupted nor delayed. Therefore, Quality of Service (QoS improvement of HETVNETs is one of the topics attracting the attention of researchers and the manufacturing community. Several methodologies and frameworks have been devised by researchers to address QoS-prediction service issues. In this paper, to improve QoS, we evaluate various traffic characteristics of HETVNETs and propose a new supervised learning model to capture knowledge on all possible traffic patterns. This model is a refinement of support vector machine (SVM kernels with a radial basis function (RBF. The proposed model produces better results than SVMs, and outperforms other prediction methods used in a traffic context, as it has lower computational complexity and higher prediction accuracy.

  20. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  1. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  2. On-Chip SDM Switching for Unicast, Multicast and Traffic Grooming in Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of a novel photonic integrated circuit that facilitates multicast and grooming in an optical data center architecture. The circuit allows for on-chip spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing as well as fiber core switching. Using this device, we experimentally verify...... that multicast and/or grooming can be successfully performed along the full range of output ports, for different group size and different power ratio. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate SDM transmission and 5 Tbit/s switching using the on-chip fiber switch with integrated fan-in/fan-out devices and achieve...... errorfree performance (BER≤10-9) for a network scenario including simultaneous unicast/multicast switching and traffic grooming....

  3. Epidemic metapopulation model with traffic routing in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Shengyong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a model incorporating both the traffic routing dynamics and the virus prevalence dynamics. In this model, each packet may be isolated from the network on its transporting path, which means that the packet cannot be successfully delivered to its destination. In contrast, a successful transport means that a packet can be delivered from source to destination without being isolated. The effects of model parameters on the delivery success rate and the delivery failure rate are intensively studied and analyzed. Several routing strategies are performed for our model. Results show that the shortest path routing strategy is the most effective for enhancing the delivery success rate, especially when each packet is only allowed to be delivered to the neighbor with the lowest degree along the shortest path. We also find that, by minimizing the sum of the nodes' degree along the transporting path, we can also obtain a satisfactory delivery success rate

  4. Traffic-Adaptive Proactive Sp ectrum Handoff Strategy for Graded Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Tiecheng; WU Ming; BAO Xu; GUO Jie; HU Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet diff erent delay require-ments of various communication services in Cognitive ra-dio (CR) networks, Secondary users (SUs) are divided into two classes according to the priority of accessing to spec-trum in this paper. Based on the proactive spectrum hand-off scheme, the Preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing is used to characterize multiple spectrum hand-off s under two diff erent spectrum handoff strategies. The traffic-adaptive spectrum handoff strategy is proposed for graded SUs so as to minimize the average cumulative hand-off delay. Simulation results not only verify that our theo-retical analysis is valid, but also show that the strategy we proposed can reduce the average cumulative handoff delay evidently. The eff ect of service rate on the proposed spec-trum switching point and the admissible access region are provided.

  5. On the Impact of Zero-padding in Network Coding Efficiency with Internet Traffic and Video Traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) theoretical results typically assume that packets have equal sizes while in reality, data traffic presents a random packet size distribution. Conventional wisdom considers zero-padding of original packets as a viable alternative, but its effect can reduce the e...

  6. A cost-effective traffic data collection system based on the iDEN mobile telecommunication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes a cost-effective data collection system for Caltrans 170 traffic signal : controller. The data collection system is based on TCP/IP communication over existing : low-cost mobile communication networks and Motorola iDEN1 mobile...

  7. A Spike Neural Controller for Traffic Load Parameter with Priority-Based Rate in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Adnan Shiltagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC. The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2 in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit, core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.

  8. Virtual network topology reconfiguration based on big data analytics for traffic prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Alcaide, Fernando; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Big data analytics is applied for IP traffic prediction. When the virtual topology needs to be reconfigured, predicted and current traffic matrices are used to find the optimal topology. Exhaustive simulation results reveal large benefits. Peer Reviewed

  9. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Problem: : Most Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications require distributed : acquisition of various traffic metrics such as traffic speed, volume, and density. : The existing measurement technologies, such as inductive loops, infrared, ...

  10. Effects of autonomy, traffic conditions and driver personality traits on attitudes and trust towards in-vehicle agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.; Evers, V.; Kemper, N.; Wielinga, B.; Li, Y.; Pasi, G.; Zhang, C.; Cercone, N.; Cao, L.

    2008-01-01

    In-vehicle agents can potentially avert dangerous driving situations by adapting to the driver, context and traffic conditions. However, perceptions of system autonomy, the way agents offer assistance, driving contexts and users’ personality traits can all affect acceptance and trust. This paper

  11. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  12. Variations in Driver Behavior: An Analysis of Car-Following Behavior Heterogeneity as a Function of Road Type and Traffic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Microsimulation modeling is a tool used by practitioners and researchers to predict and evaluate the flow of traffic on real transportation networks. These models are used in practice to inform decisions and thus must reflect a high level of accuracy...

  13. Timing analysis of rate-constrained traffic in TTEthernet using network calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Luxi; Pop, Paul; Li, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    calculus (NC) to determine the worst-case end-to-end delays of RC traffic in TTEthernet. The main contribution of this paper is capturing the effects of all the integration policies on the latency bounds of RC traffic using NC, and the consideration of relative frame offsets of TT traffic to reduce...

  14. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable.

  15. Building GSM network in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, M.; Voznak, M.; Fajkus, M.; Partila, P.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is focused on the building ad-hoc GSM network based on open source software and low-cost hardware. The created Base Transmission Station can be deployed and put into operation in a few minutes in a required area to ensure private communication between connected GSM mobile terminals. The convergence between BTS station and the other networks is possible through IP network. The paper tries to define connection parameters to provide sufficient quality of voice service between the GSM network and IP Multimedia Subsystem. The paper brings practical results of voice call quality measurement between users inside BTS station mobile network and users inside IP Multimedia Subsystem network. The calls are simulated by low-cost embedded solution for speech quality measurement in GSM network. This tool is under development of our laboratory and allows automatic speech quality measurement of any GSM or UMTS mobile network. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method is used to get final comparable results. The communication between BTS station and connected networks has to be secured against the interception from the third party. The influence of the securing method for quality of service is presented in detail. Paper, apart from the quality of service measurement section, describes technical requirements for successful interconnection between BTS and IMS networks. The authentication, authorization and accounting methods in roaming between BTS and IMS system are presented too.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.

  17. STUDY ON SUPPORTING FOR DRAWING UP THE BCP FOR URBAN EXPRESSWAY NETWORK USING BY TRAFFIC SIMULATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Masashi; Shiraki, Wataru; Inomo, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Keiichi

    The urban expressway network is an important infrastructure to execute a disaster restoration. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up the BCP (Business Continuity Plan) to enable securing of road user's safety and restoration of facilities, etc. It is important that each urban expressway manager execute decision and improvement of effective BCP countermeasures when disaster occurs by assuming various disaster situations. Then, in this study, we develop the traffic simulation system that can reproduce various disaster situations and traffic actions, and examine some methods supporting for drawing up the BCP for an urban expressway network. For disaster outside assumption such as tsunami generated by a huge earthquake, we examine some approaches securing safety of users and cars on the Hanshin Expressway Network as well as on general roads. And, we aim to propose a tsunami countermeasure not considered in the current urban expressway BCP.

  18. Joint Content Placement and Traffic Management for Cloud Mobile Video Distribution over Software-Defined Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghuan Zhang; Xiaofeng Jiang; Hongsheng Xi

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the rapid growth of mobile video,video providers have leveraged cloud technologies to deploy their mobile video service system for more cost-effective and scalable performance.The emergence of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution to manage the underlying network.In this paper,we introduce an SDN-enabled cloud mobile video distribution architecture and propose a joint video placement,request dispatching and traffic management mechanism to improve user experience and reduce the system operational cost.We use a utility function to capture the two aspects of user experience:the level of satisfaction and average latency,and formulate the joint optimization problem as a mixed integer programming problem.We develop an optimal algorithm based on dual decomposition and prove its optimality.We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of our algorithm and the results show that our strategy can effectively cut down the total cost and guarantee user experience.

  19. An auxiliary graph based dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks with multi-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Tian, Rui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    A proper traffic grooming strategy in dynamic optical networks can improve the utilization of bandwidth resources. An auxiliary graph (AG) is designed to solve the traffic grooming problem under a dynamic traffic scenario in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks (SDM-EON) with multi-core fibers. Five traffic grooming policies achieved by adjusting the edge weights of an AG are proposed and evaluated through simulation: maximal electrical grooming (MEG), maximal optical grooming (MOG), maximal SDM grooming (MSG), minimize virtual hops (MVH), and minimize physical hops (MPH). Numeric results show that each traffic grooming policy has its own features. Among different traffic grooming policies, an MPH policy can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking ratio, MEG can save the most transponders, and MSG can obtain the fewest cores for each request.

  20. Clustering-based classification of road traffic accidents using hierarchical clustering and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamneh, Madhar; Taamneh, Salah; Alkheder, Sharaf

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in predicting the severity of road traffic crashes. All available information about previously occurred accidents is typically used for building a single prediction model (i.e., classifier). Too little attention has been paid to the differences between these accidents, leading, in most cases, to build less accurate predictors. Hierarchical clustering is a well-known clustering method that seeks to group data by creating a hierarchy of clusters. Using hierarchical clustering and ANNs, a clustering-based classification approach for predicting the injury severity of road traffic accidents was proposed. About 6000 road accidents occurred over a six-year period from 2008 to 2013 in Abu Dhabi were used throughout this study. In order to reduce the amount of variation in data, hierarchical clustering was applied on the data set to organize it into six different forms, each with different number of clusters (i.e., clusters from 1 to 6). Two ANN models were subsequently built for each cluster of accidents in each generated form. The first model was built and validated using all accidents (training set), whereas only 66% of the accidents were used to build the second model, and the remaining 34% were used to test it (percentage split). Finally, the weighted average accuracy was computed for each type of models in each from of data. The results show that when testing the models using the training set, clustering prior to classification achieves (11%-16%) more accuracy than without using clustering, while the percentage split achieves (2%-5%) more accuracy. The results also suggest that partitioning the accidents into six clusters achieves the best accuracy if both types of models are taken into account.

  1. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  2. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions.

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  4. Estimating Conditional Distributions by Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Neural Networks for estimating conditionaldistributions and their associated quantiles are investigated in this paper. A basic network structure is developed on the basis of kernel estimation theory, and consistency property is considered from a mild set of assumptions. A number of applications...

  5. MPE inference in conditional linear gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmerón, Antonio; Rumí, Rafael; Langseth, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Given evidence on a set of variables in a Bayesian network, the most probable explanation (MPE) is the problem of finding a configuration of the remaining variables with maximum posterior probability. This problem has previously been addressed for discrete Bayesian networks and can be solved using...

  6. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  7. Using Generalized Entropies and OC-SVM with Mahalanobis Kernel for Detection and Classification of Anomalies in Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayro Santiago-Paz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Network anomaly detection and classification is an important open issue in network security. Several approaches and systems based on different mathematical tools have been studied and developed, among them, the Anomaly-Network Intrusion Detection System (A-NIDS, which monitors network traffic and compares it against an established baseline of a “normal” traffic profile. Then, it is necessary to characterize the “normal” Internet traffic. This paper presents an approach for anomaly detection and classification based on Shannon, Rényi and Tsallis entropies of selected features, and the construction of regions from entropy data employing the Mahalanobis distance (MD, and One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM with different kernels (Radial Basis Function (RBF and Mahalanobis Kernel (MK for “normal” and abnormal traffic. Regular and non-regular regions built from “normal” traffic profiles allow anomaly detection, while the classification is performed under the assumption that regions corresponding to the attack classes have been previously characterized. Although this approach allows the use of as many features as required, only four well-known significant features were selected in our case. In order to evaluate our approach, two different data sets were used: one set of real traffic obtained from an Academic Local Area Network (LAN, and the other a subset of the 1998 MIT-DARPA set. For these data sets, a True positive rate up to 99.35%, a True negative rate up to 99.83% and a False negative rate at about 0.16% were yielded. Experimental results show that certain q-values of the generalized entropies and the use of OC-SVM with RBF kernel improve the detection rate in the detection stage, while the novel inclusion of MK kernel in OC-SVM and k-temporal nearest neighbors improve accuracy in classification. In addition, the results show that using the Box-Cox transformation, the Mahalanobis distance yielded high detection rates with

  8. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  9. POLLING AND DUAL-LEVEL TRAFFIC ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED DOS DETECTION IN IEEE 802.21 NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygil Alex Vadakkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 standard was developed for communication of devices in a heterogeneous environment which included greater support for handoffs. This paper focuses on the denial of service (DoS vulnerabilities faced by such Media Independent Handover (MIH networks & various effective countermeasures that can be deployed to prevent their impact on such heterogeneous networks. The use of polling mechanism coupled with real time as well as offline traffic analysis can keep a good number of attacks at bay. The use of offline traffic analysis is to use the model and compare it with a lighter model and see if any of the excluded features in the lighter model have had suspicious variations which could be a varied form of DoS attack or an attack that is completely new. The countermeasures that have been developed also allows for the increase in efficiency of data transfer as well as higher rates of success in handoffs.

  10. Enhancing traffic performance in hierarchical DHT system by exploiting network proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haifeng; Wu, Wei; Pei, Canhao; Zhang, Chengfeng

    2009-08-01

    Nowadays P2P systems have become increasingly popular for object distribution and file sharing, and the majority of Internet traffic is generated by P2P file sharing applications. However, those applications usually ignored the underlying proximity of physical nodes and regionalization of file accessing. As a result, they generate a large amount of unnecessary interdomain transit traffic and increase response latency. In this paper, we proposed a new traffic control approach to enhance p2p traffic locality and reduce the cross-group transfer. Using analysis, we show that the method substantially improves node transfer efficiency and significantly reduces file access latency compared with native P2P applications.

  11. Models for discrete-time self-similar vector processes with application to network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungsin; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Narasimha, Rajesh

    2003-07-01

    The paper defines self-similarity for vector processes by employing the discrete-time continuous-dilation operation which has successfully been used previously by the authors to define 1-D discrete-time stochastic self-similar processes. To define self-similarity of vector processes, it is required to consider the cross-correlation functions between different 1-D processes as well as the autocorrelation function of each constituent 1-D process in it. System models to synthesize self-similar vector processes are constructed based on the definition. With these systems, it is possible to generate self-similar vector processes from white noise inputs. An important aspect of the proposed models is that they can be used to synthesize various types of self-similar vector processes by choosing proper parameters. Additionally, the paper presents evidence of vector self-similarity in two-channel wireless LAN data and applies the aforementioned systems to simulate the corresponding network traffic traces.

  12. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic’s importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends. PMID:26720074

  13. Evaluating the Influence of Road Lighting on Traffic Safety at Accesses Using An Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueru; Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Sun, Cuicui

    2018-05-18

    This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The results show that the impact of road lighting on road safety at accesses is significant. In addition, road lighting has greater influence when vehicle speeds are higher or the number of lanes is larger. A threshold illuminance was also found in this paper, and the results show that the safety level at accesses will become stable when reaching this value. The improvement of illuminance can decrease the speed variation among vehicles and improve the safety level. In addition, high-grade roads need better illuminance at accesses. A threshold value can also be obtained based on related variables and used to develop scientific guidelines for traffic management organizations.

  14. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Kämpf

    Full Text Available Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  15. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  16. A Visual Analytics Approach for Extracting Spatio-Temporal Urban Mobility Information from Mobile Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual analytics approach for deriving spatio-temporal patterns of collective human mobility from a vast mobile network traffic data set. More than 88 million movements between pairs of radio cells—so-called handovers—served as a proxy for more than two months of mobility within four urban test areas in Northern Italy. In contrast to previous work, our approach relies entirely on visualization and mapping techniques, implemented in several software applications. We purposefully avoid statistical or probabilistic modeling and, nonetheless, reveal characteristic and exceptional mobility patterns. The results show, for example, surprising similarities and symmetries amongst the total mobility and people flows between the test areas. Moreover, the exceptional patterns detected can be associated to real-world events such as soccer matches. We conclude that the visual analytics approach presented can shed new light on large-scale collective urban mobility behavior and thus helps to better understand the “pulse” of dynamic urban systems.

  17. Speech-Driven Facial Reenactment Using Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jalalifar, Seyed Ali; Hasani, Hosein; Aghajan, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel approach to generating photo-realistic images of a face with accurate lip sync, given an audio input. By using a recurrent neural network, we achieved mouth landmarks based on audio features. We exploited the power of conditional generative adversarial networks to produce highly-realistic face conditioned on a set of landmarks. These two networks together are capable of producing a sequence of natural faces in sync with an input audio track.

  18. Efficient disk-to-disk copy through long-distance high-speed networks with background traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanida, Naoki; Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We propose 'ICDC - InterContinental Disk Copy', a data sharing facility between distant places. ICDC aims to transfer huge amount of data files easily on Long Fat-pipe Networks with some background traffic. ICDC consists of commodity PCs and Solid State Drives and we apply Inter Packet Gap tuning technique to it. Using 'ICDC-1 Gbps model', we transferred data between Tokyo and Cadarache via New York. We attained about 860 Mbps, i.e., 86% usage of the network bottleneck bandwidth.

  19. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  20. Research on Congestion Pricing in Multimode Traffic considering Delay and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongna Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of urbanization and automation has resulted in serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution problems in many Chinese cities recently. As a traffic demand management strategy, congestion pricing is acknowledged to be effective in alleviating the traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of traffic system. This paper proposes an urban traffic congestion pricing model based on the consideration of transportation network efficiency and environment effects. First, the congestion pricing problem under multimode (i.e., car mode and bus mode urban traffic network condition is investigated. Second, a traffic congestion pricing model based on bilevel programming is formulated for a dual-mode urban transportation network, in which the delay and emission of vehicles are considered. Third, an improved mathematical algorithm combining successive average method with the genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming problem. Finally, a numerical experiment based on a hypothetical network is performed to validate the proposed congestion pricing model and algorithm.

  1. Practical Aspects Regarding Conditions of Closing Traffic and Setting Traffic Restrictions for Both the Execution of Works in Public Roads Area and/or the Protection of Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vasile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions and authorities involved in organizing, structuring and signaling traffic are represented, on one hand, by the Romanian Police through its structures of traffic police as the main body with responsibilities in the field and, on the other, by the administrators of public roads depending on material and territorial competence.

  2. Data mining tools for the support of traffic signal timing plan development in arterial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) include large numbers of traffic sensors that collect enormous quantities of data. The data provided by ITS is necessary for advanced forms of control; however, basic forms of control, primarily time-of-day (T...

  3. Traffic safety program for school children through safe action and safe condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono, Mahmudah, Amirotul Musthofiah Hidayah; Santoso, Anjar Budi

    2017-06-01

    The facts indicate that the rights of pedestrians is on the wane. Many motorists are unwilling to provide a space for pedestrians, even when they want to cross the road at zebra-cross facility. The data of traffic accident in Surakarta City showed that 7.0% of accident victims in 2014 to 2015 were children aged 5-15 or the group of school-aged children. In general, the location of schools is on the edge of the road where a lot of vehicles run at high speed. Hence, it is very dangerous for the school children to cross the road. Pertaining to this issue, the Department of Transportation implements a program named School Safety Zone (ZoSS). ZoSS is a time-dependent speed control zone consisting of road markings, traffic signs, optional traffic signals, and rumble strips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ZoSS based on the perception of the users, including the students, teachers, parents, and community. This study was conducted through a series of activities including the distribution of questionnaire to obtain the road users' perceptions. The results showed that most of the respondents understood the meaning, aim, and benefit of ZoSS. However, it also found that traffic sign and method of cross the road (Four-T) was not recognized appropriately by the respondents. ZoSS program was generally ineffective since the pedestrians felt unsafe to cross the road due to the high-speed vehicles.

  4. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  5. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    OpenAIRE

    Meerkerk, Ingmar; Edelenbos, Jurian

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and organizational literature on facilitative and servant leadership, we examine two potential conditions: a facilitative project management style and executive support. We conducted survey research among p...

  6. Bi-Criteria System Optimum Traffic Assignment in Networks With Continuous Value of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For an elastic demand transportation network with continuously distributed value of time, the system disutility can be measured either in time units or in cost units. The user equilibrium model and the system optimization model are each formulated in two different criteria. The conditions required for making the system optimum link flow pattern equivalent to the user equilibrium link flow pattern are derived. Furthermore, a bi-objective model has been developed which minimizes simultaneously the system travel time and the system travel cost. The existence of a pricing scheme with anonymous link tolls which can decentralize a Pareto system optimum into the user equilibrium has been investigated.

  7. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  8. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  9. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  10. Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-17

    We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  11. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monowar, Muhammad; Hassan, Mohammad; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS de...

  12. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  13. Energy savings in dynamic and resilient optical networks based on traffic-aware strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    andconnections. Results show that symbol-rateadaptation provides high savings for unprotected scenarios (37% energy savings w.r.t. unprotected Baseline), while for theprotected scenarios better results are obtained for modulationformat adaptation which includes sleep-mode (57.1% energysavings w.r.t. protected...... Baseline). Moreover, compared to theBaseline scenarios the Mixed adaptation, combining bothsymbol-rate and modulation format, is the most power-efficientstrategy providing 39% energy savings for unprotected scenarioand 70% energy savings for dedicated protection scenario.......An analysis of the energy savingsis presentedwhen taking into account a complete traffic model for a one-yeartime period. Daily and weekly traffic fluctuations as well asyearly traffic growth are considered whenanalyzing the powerconsumption.Low power mode in optoelectronic devices (sleep...

  14. IMT-2000 Satellite Standards with Applications to Mobile Air Traffic Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) standard and more specifically the Satellite component of it, is investigated as a potential alternative for communications to aircraft mobile users en-route and in terminal area. Its application to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs is considered. A summary of the specifications of IMT-2000 satellite standards are outlined. It is shown via a system research analysis that it is possible to support most air traffic communication needs via an IMT-2000 infrastructure. This technology can compliment existing, or future digital aeronautical communications technologies such as VDL2, VDL3, Mode S, and UAT.

  15. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  16. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  17. TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL OF BICYCLING TRAFFIC CONDITION IN THE CENTRE OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current methods to determine the slope and proposes the method to model the topography of the road network using computer modeling of geographic information systems. The results obtained allow classifying the road network of Kharkоv according to the on the difficulty level for cycling.

  18. Conditions for Productive Learning in Network Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponti, M.; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lindström, B.

    2004-01-01

    are designed without a deep understanding of the pedagogical, communicative and collaborative conditions embedded in networked learning. Despite the existence of good theoretical views pointing to a social understanding of learning, rather than a traditional individualistic and information processing approach......The Kaleidoscope1 Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments is developing and elaborating conceptual understandings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) emphasizing the use of cross-cultural comparative......: Pedagogical design and the dialectics of the digital artefacts, the concept of collaboration, ethics/trust, identity and the role of scaffolding of networked learning environments.   The JEIRP is motivated by the fact that many networked learning environments in various European educational settings...

  19. Model based monitoring of urban traffic noise : A wireless sensor network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of the acoustic environment due to traffic in urban areas is very important and can be obtained by long term model based monitoring within large areas. As a result one has a good basis for assessing the effect of mitigating measures and for communication and policy making. A

  20. Volunteer-Based System for classification of traffic in computer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs and obta...

  1. Mobile Phone Data from GSM Networks for Traffic Parameter and Urban Spatial Pattern Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, J.G.M.; Borzacchiello, M.T.; Nijkamp, P.; Scholten, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of wireless location technology and mobile phone data appears to offer a broad range of new opportunities for sophisticated applications in traffic management and monitoring, particularly in the field of incident management. Indeed, due to the high market penetration of mobile phones, it

  2. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreac, Dan, E-mail: Dan.Goreac@u-pem.fr; Kobylanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Magdalena.Kobylanski@u-pem.fr; Martinez, Miguel, E-mail: Miguel.Martinez@u-pem.fr [Université Paris-Est, LAMA (UMR 8050), UPEMLV, UPEC, CNRS (France)

    2016-10-15

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  3. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goreac, Dan; Kobylanski, Magdalena; Martinez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  4. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  5. Effect of changing driving conditions on driver behavior towards design of a safe and efficient traffic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This simulation-based study explores the effects of different work zone configurations, varying distances : between traffic signs, traffic density and individual differences on drivers behavior. Conventional Lane : Merge (CLM) and Joint Lane Merge...

  6. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  7. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  8. Determination system for solar cell layout in traffic light network using dominating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Yulia Retnani, Windi; Fambudi, Brelyanes Z.; Slamin

    2018-04-01

    Graph Theory is one of the fields in Mathematics that solves discrete problems. In daily life, the applications of Graph Theory are used to solve various problems. One of the topics in the Graph Theory that is used to solve the problem is the dominating set. The concept of dominating set is used, for example, to locate some objects systematically. In this study, the dominating set are used to determine the dominating points for solar panels, where the vertex represents the traffic light point and the edge represents the connection between the points of the traffic light. To search the dominating points for solar panels using the greedy algorithm. This algorithm is used to determine the location of solar panel. This research produced applications that can determine the location of solar panels with optimal results, that is, the minimum dominating points.

  9. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  10. Large graph visualization of millions of connections in the CERN control system network traffic: analysis and design of routing and firewall rules with a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CERN Technical Network (TN) TN was intended to be a network for accelerator and infrastructure operations. However, today, more than 60 million IP packets are routed every hour between the General Purpose Network (GPN) and the TN, involving more than 6000 different hosts. In order to improve the security of the accelerator control system, it is fundamental to understand the network traffic between the two networks and to define new appropriate routing and firewall rules without impacting operations. The complexity and huge size of the infrastructure and the number of protocols and services involved, have discouraged for years any attempt to understand and control the network traffic between the GPN and the TN. In this paper, we show a new way to solve the problem graphically. Combining the network traffic analysis with the use of large graph visualization algorithms we produced usable 2D large color topology maps of the network identifying the inter-relations of the control system machines and s...

  11. Planning the electron traffic in semiconductor networks: A mesoscopic analog of the Braess paradox encountered in road networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huant, S.; Liu, P.; Sellier, H.; Baltazar, S.; Hackens, B.; Martins, F.; Bayot, V.; Wallart, X.; Desplanque, L.; Pala, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    By combining quantum simulations of electron transport and scanning-gate microscopy, we have shown that the current transmitted through a semiconductor two-path rectangular network in the ballistic and coherent regimes of transport can be paradoxically degraded by adding a third path to the network. This is analogous to the Braess paradox occurring in classical networks. Simulations reported here enlighten the role played by congestion in the network

  12. Measurement of traffic network vulnerability for Mississippi coastal region : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Natural disasters such as a hurricane can cause great damages to the transportation networks and significantly affect the evacuation trip operations. An accurate understanding and measurement of the network vulnerability can enhance the evacuees p...

  13. Implementation of Controlled Traffic in the Canadian Prairies: Soil and Plant Dynamics under Simulated and Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Achieving resiliency in agroecosystems may be accomplished through the incorporation of contemporary management systems and the diversification of crop rotations with pulse crops, such as controlled traffic farming (CTF) and faba beans (Vicia faba L.). As these practices become more common in the Canadian Prairies, it is imperative to have a well-rounded understanding of how faba beans interact with the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in conditions found in contemporary management systems. Simulated field conditions emulated soil compaction found in both the trafficked and un-trafficked areas of a CTF system, in which the presence of high water availability was shown to offset the negative results of large applications of compactive effort. Furthermore, low water availability exacerbated differences in plant responses between compaction treatments. The simulated treatment of 1.2 gcm-3 coupled with high water content yielded the most optimal results for most measured parameters, with a contrasting detrimental treatment of 1.4 gcm-3 at low water availability. The simulated field conditions were further bridged through an analysis of two commercial sites in Alberta, Canada that compared both trafficked and un-trafficked soil properties. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. The measured soil physical and hydraulic properties of bulk density, macroporosity, S-Index, PAWC and Km were shown to be heavily influenced by the CTF traffic regime, while soil nutrient properties of AN, pH, STN SOC were determined to be dependent on both management and landscape features.

  14. Modelling CO concentrations under free-flowing and congested traffic conditions in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B; Budd, U; Misstear, B [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity Coll. Dublin (Ireland); Ceburnis, D; Jennings, S G [Dept. of Experimental Physics, National Univ. of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    The assessment and management of air quality is required under the EU Air Quality Framework Directive and its Daughter Directives (CEC, 1996, 1999, 2000) which specify the limits for certain pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO). Air quality modelling is used to predict the future impact of road improvements, often as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment. The U.S. National Commission on Air Quality found in 1981 that such models may typically overpredict or underpredict actual concentrations by a factor of two. Even twenty years later the U.K. Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions (UK DETR, 2001) concurred that ''If the prediction of an annual mean concentration lies within {+-}50% of the measurement, a user would not consider that the model has behaved badly.'' The Daughter Directive (CEC, 2000) concerned with CO allows 50% uncertainty in modelling of the eight-hour average concentration. An assessment of CALINE4 was performed for two contrasting sites: a free-flowing motorway and a periodically-congested roundabout. Air quality was continuously monitored over a one-year period at both sites. The data collected was compared with model predictions based on local and regional meteorological data, site geometry and traffic volumes. The modelled and monitored results were compared through both graphical and statistical analysis (Broderick B.M. et al., 2003). (orig.)

  15. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  16. Multirate IP traffic transmission in flexible access networks based on optical FFH-CDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new IP transmission architecture over optical fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (OFFH-CDMA) network capable of supporting multirate transmissions for applications in flexible optical access networks. The proposed network architecture is independent...

  17. Classical Conditioning with Pulsed Integrated Neural Networks: Circuits and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate on-chip learning for pulsed, integrated neural networks. We discuss the implementational problems the technology imposes on learning systems and we find that abiologically inspired approach using simple circuit structures is most likely to bring success. We develop a ...... chip to solve simple classical conditioning tasks, thus verifying the design methodologies put forward in the paper....

  18. Personnel shift assignment: Existence conditions and network models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jeroen P.; van den Berg, J.P.; Panton, David M.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel scheduling problem is known to be a five-stage process in which the final stage involves the assignment of shifts to the days worked in the schedule. This paper discusses the existence conditions for both continuous and forward rotating shift assignments and heuristic network

  19. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  20. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  1. Empirical Bayes conditional independence graphs for regulatory network recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Rami; Madduri, Abishek S.; Wang, Guoqing; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of special difficulty for these methods. Methods: We present a new algorithm, Empirical Light Mutual Min (ELMM), for large network reconstruction that has properties well suited for recovery of graphs with high-degree nodes. ELMM reconstructs the undirected graph of a regulatory network using empirical Bayes conditional independence testing with a heuristic relaxation of independence constraints in dense areas of the graph. This relaxation allows only one gene of a pair with a putative relation to be aware of the network connection, an approach that is aimed at easing multiple testing problems associated with recovering densely connected structures. Results: Using in silico data, we show that ELMM has better performance than commonly used network inference algorithms including GeneNet, ARACNE, FOCI, GENIE3 and GLASSO. We also apply ELMM to reconstruct a network among 5492 genes expressed in human lung airway epithelium of healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assayed using microarrays. The analysis identifies dense sub-networks that are consistent with known regulatory relationships in the lung airway and also suggests novel hub regulatory relationships among a number of genes that play roles in oxidative stress and secretion. Availability and implementation: Software for running ELMM is made available at http://mezeylab.cb.bscb.cornell.edu/Software.aspx. Contact: ramimahdi@yahoo.com or jgm45@cornell.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22685074

  2. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Sensor Location, Flow Observability, Estimation, and Prediction Problems in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.

  3. A CyberCIEGE Traffic Analysis Extension for Teaching Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Information Technology LAN Local Area Network MAADNET Military Academy Attack/Defense Network MAC Media Access Control MMORPG Massively...ready to launch its latest massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG ) “SyberSIEGE”! The product is currently in the final stages of

  4. Visualizing Network Traffic to Understand the Performance of Massively Parallel Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Landge, A. G.; Levine, J. A.; Bhatele, A.; Isaacs, K. E.; Gamblin, T.; Schulz, M.; Langer, S. H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, V.

    2012-01-01

    to visualize this large and complex data, we employ two linked views of the hardware network. The first is a 2D view, that represents the network structure as one of several simplified planar projections. This view is designed to allow a user to easily identify

  5. Role of Distance-Based Routing in Traffic Dynamics on Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2013-06-01

    Despite of intensive investigations on transportation dynamics taking place on complex networks with fixed structures, a deep understanding of networks consisting of mobile nodes is challenging yet, especially the lacking of insight into the effects of routing strategies on transmission efficiency. We introduce a distance-based routing strategy for networks of mobile agents toward enhancing the network throughput and the transmission efficiency. We study the transportation capacity and delivering time of data packets associated with mobility and communication ability. Interestingly, we find that the transportation capacity is optimized at moderate moving speed, which is quite different from random routing strategy. In addition, both continuous and discontinuous transitions from free flow to congestions are observed. Degree distributions are explored in order to explain the enhancement of network throughput and other observations. Our work is valuable toward understanding complex transportation dynamics and designing effective routing protocols.

  6. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Cost-effective TCM-based WDM-PON for highly asymmetric traffic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danbi; Kwon, Won-Bae; Chae, Chang-Joon; Park, Chang-Soo

    2015-11-16

    A time compression multiplexing (TCM)-based wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed, and its feasibility is experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, the RSOA pre-amplifies a 10 Gb/s downstream signal and modulates the RSOA output, wavelength-locked to the downstream signal, with a 1.25 Gb/s upstream signal simultaneously. The sensitivity of the downstream signal is improved by about 3 dB through the RSOA. The downstream and upstream signals have power penalties of about 0.1 dB and 1.1 dB, respectively, at bit error rates (BERs) of 10(-9) after 20 km transmission.

  8. Mobility and cloud: operating in intermittent, austere network conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Toon Joo; Ling, Yu Xian Eldine

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cloud computing is emerging as the mainstream platform for a range of on-demand applications, services, and infrastructure. Before the benefits of cloud computing are realized, several technology challenges must be addressed. Operating in intermittent and austere network conditions is one of such challenges, which navy ships face when communicating with land-based cloud computing environments. Given limited bandwidth and intermittent c...

  9. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  10. Deep recurrent conditional random field network for protein secondary prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Alexander Rosenberg; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has become the state-of-the-art method for predicting protein secondary structure from only its amino acid residues and sequence profile. Building upon these results, we propose to combine a bi-directional recurrent neural network (biRNN) with a conditional random field (CRF), which...... of the labels for all time-steps. We condition the CRF on the output of biRNN, which learns a distributed representation based on the entire sequence. The biRNN-CRF is therefore close to ideally suited for the secondary structure task because a high degree of cross-talk between neighboring elements can...

  11. Homologous Basal Ganglia Network Models in Physiological and Parkinsonian Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of basal ganglia has been refined in recent years with discoveries of subpopulations within a nucleus and previously unknown projections. One such discovery is the presence of subpopulations of arkypallidal and prototypical neurons in external globus pallidus, which was previously considered to be a primarily homogeneous nucleus. Developing a computational model of these multiple interconnected nuclei is challenging, because the strengths of the connections are largely unknown. We therefore use a genetic algorithm to search for the unknown connectivity parameters in a firing rate model. We apply a binary cost function derived from empirical firing rate and phase relationship data for the physiological and Parkinsonian conditions. Our approach generates ensembles of over 1,000 configurations, or homologies, for each condition, with broad distributions for many of the parameter values and overlap between the two conditions. However, the resulting effective weights of connections from or to prototypical and arkypallidal neurons are consistent with the experimental data. We investigate the significance of the weight variability by manipulating the parameters individually and cumulatively, and conclude that the correlation observed between the parameters is necessary for generating the dynamics of the two conditions. We then investigate the response of the networks to a transient cortical stimulus, and demonstrate that networks classified as physiological effectively suppress activity in the internal globus pallidus, and are not susceptible to oscillations, whereas parkinsonian networks show the opposite tendency. Thus, we conclude that the rates and phase relationships observed in the globus pallidus are predictive of experimentally observed higher level dynamical features of the physiological and parkinsonian basal ganglia, and that the multiplicity of solutions generated by our method may well be indicative of a natural

  12. Pavement type and wear condition classification from tire cavity acoustic measurements with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Johannes; Foitzik, Michael-Jan; Frey, Michael; Gauterin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation. The classifier, an artificial neural network, correctly predicts three pavement types, whereas there are few bidirectional mis-classifications for two pavements, which have similar physical characteristics. The performance measures of the classifier to predict a new or worn out condition are over 94.6%. One could create a digital map with the output of the presented method. On the basis of these digital maps, road segments with a strong impact on tire road noise could be automatically identified. Furthermore, the method can estimate the road macro-texture, which has an impact on the tire road friction especially on wet conditions. Overall, this digital map would have a great benefit for civil engineering departments, road infrastructure operators, and for advanced driver assistance systems.

  13. Report: Improvements Needed in EPA’s Network Traffic Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0159, March 14, 2011. OEI does not have consistent, repeatable intrusion detection system monitoring practices in place, which inhibits EPA’s ability to monitor unusual network activity and thus protect Agency systems and associated data.

  14. Real-time Railway Traffic Management : Dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  15. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  16. IPTV traffic management using topology-based hierarchical scheduling in Carrier Ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    Carrier Ethernet is becoming a favorable access technology for Next Generation Network (NGN). The features of cost-efficiency, operation flexibility and high bandwidth have a great attraction to service providers. However, to achieve these characteristics, Carrier Ethernet needs to have Quality o....... This work has been carried out as a part of the research project HIPT (High quality IP network for IPTV and VoIP) founded by Danish Advanced Technology Foundation....

  17. Gain control network conditions in early sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Serrano

    Full Text Available Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models.

  18. Design and Analysis of QoS Routing Framework integrated with OLSR protocol for Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks is the self organizing wireless structure of mobile hosts. Wireless media is used for communication in MANETs. Considering the developing requirements for multimedia and real-time traffic applications in real world, QoS (Quality-of-Service support is essential in MANETs. But most of the characteristics of MANETs make QoS support a difficult problem. It is challenging to support QoS routing in MANET due to dynamic behavior and mobility of the hosts. The OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol can be efficiently used in MANETs to provide QoS routing because of its dynamic MPR (Multi Point Relay selection criteria and proactive nature. In this paper, a design of QoS routing framework integrated with OLSR protocol is proposed and also analyzed using network simulator. Proposed QoS framework combines a bandwidth estimation algorithm with explicit resource reservation, QoS routing and connection admission control (CAC. OLSR protocol is extended for QoS framework to solve performance issues related to node mobility using cross layer approach. Results after simulation conclude about efficiency of the proposed QoS routing framework.

  19. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  20. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  1. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coveney PeterV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  2. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements

  3. Analysis of Traffic Engineering capabilities for SDN-based Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years more and more existing services have moved from local execution environments into the cloud. In addition, new cloud-based services are emerging, which are characterized by very stringent delay requirements. This trend puts a stress in the existing monolithic architecture of Data...... techniques focusing on their limitations. Then, it highlights the benefits of incorporating the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to address these limitations. Furthermore, it illustrates two methodologies and addresses the scalability aspect of DCN-oriented TE, network and service testing...

  4. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  7. Defending and attacking a network of two arcs subject to traffic congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, Vicki M.; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of intentional attacks on transportation systems, we consider drivers who choose the more time-efficient of two arcs (possibly of different lengths). Both arcs are subjected to traffic congestion, and also to interdiction or blockage (e.g., by a terrorist attack). The model has three types of strategic actors: the government; the terrorist; and potential drivers. The government protects travel, while the terrorist interdicts travel, along the two arcs. Drivers choose the arc that gives the shortest travel time, and cannot choose an interdicted arc. The drivers have reservation travel times, such that if the actual travel time will exceed an individual driver's reservation travel time, that driver would prefer not to travel; the reservation travel times are allowed to vary among drivers. The objective function of the master problem, which the government minimizes and the terrorist maximizes, is the sum of the total travel time plus the reservation travel times of the non-travelers. Each potential driver decides endogenously whether to travel, according to whether the actual travel time is greater or lesser than that driver's reservation travel time

  8. CoreFlow: Enriching Bro security events using network traffic monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.; Buraglio, N.; de Laat, C.; Grosso, P.

    Attacks against network infrastructures can be detected by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Still reaction to these events are often limited by the lack of larger contextual information in which they occurred. In this paper we present CoreFlow, a framework for the correlation and enrichment of IDS

  9. OPSquare : assessment of a novel flat optical data center network architecture under realistic data center traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, W.; Yan, F.; Raz, O.; Calabretta, N.

    2016-01-01

    The performances of OPSquare flat data-center network based on flow-controlled optical switches are investigated. Results show <1E-6 packet loss and <2µs end-to-end latency for 0.3 load when scaling to 40960 servers with 32×32 optical switches.

  10. Power Efficient Service Differentiation Based on Traffic-Aware Survivable Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes of Se...... while for the proposed approach the difference in power consumption is almost negligible.Moreover, incase of the proposed approach,silver serviceclass can benefit for superior quality of service compared to the gold service class, due to the grooming mechanism.......This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes...... the sleep-mode capability of the opto-electronic devices as well as the elastic data-rateadaptation based on symbol-rate and modulation-format re-configurations. The results show that in the baseline approach the power consumption is strongly dependent on the ratio between the different service classes...

  11. Using the Weighted Rich-Club Coefficient to Explore Traffic Organization in Mobility Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasco, José J.; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro

    The aim of a transportation system is to enable the movement of goods or persons between any two locations with the highest possible efficiency. This simple principle inspires highly complex structures in a number of real-world mobility networks of different kind that often exhibit a hierarchical organization. In this paper, we rely on a framework that has been recently introduced for the study of the management and distribution of resources in different real-world systems. This framework offers a new method for exploring the tendency of the top elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the system’s resources. Such tendency is known as the weighted rich-club effect. We apply the method to three cases of mobility networks at different scales of resolution: the US air transportation network, the US counties daily commuting, and the Italian municipalities commuting datasets. In all cases, a strong weighted rich-club effect is found. We also show that a very simple model can account for part of the intrinsic features of mobility networks, while deviations found between the theoretical predictions and the empirical observations point to the presence of higher levels of organization.

  12. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  13. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  14. Traffic Load on Interconnection Lines of Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    Generalized Double Ring (N2R) network structures possess a number of good properties, but being not planar they are hard to physically embed in communication networks. However, if some of the lines, the interconnection lines, are implemented by wireless technologies, the remaining structure...... consists of two planar rings, which are easily embedded by fiber or other wired solutions. It is shown that for large N2R structures, the interconnection lines carry notably lower loads than the other lines if shortest-path routing is used, and the effects of two other routing schemes are explored, leading...... to lower load on interconnection lines at the price of larger efficient average distance and diameter....

  15. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a entrance ramp control (ERC strategies; (b mainline control strategies; (c alternate routes choice; (d information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED, were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world.

  16. Does Bidirectional Traffic Do More Harm Than Good in LoRaWAN Based LPWA Networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Alexandru-Ioan; Raza, Usman; Kulkarni, Parag; Sooriyabandara, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    The need for low power, long range and low cost connectivity to meet the requirements of IoT applications has led to the emergence of Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networking technologies. The promise of these technologies to wirelessly connect massive numbers of geographically dispersed devices at a low cost continues to attract a great deal of attention in the academic and commercial communities. Several rollouts are already underway even though the performance of these technologies is yet to ...

  17. Detection of Traffic Initiated by Mobile Malware Targeting Android Devices in 3GPP Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnel, Marián

    2017-01-01

    Android devices have become the most popular of mobile devices; omnipresent in both business and private use. They are virtually always on and offer functionalities exceeding those of desktop computers. These properties, as well as sensitive information stored on Android devices, render them an attractive target for mobile malware authors. As the volume of mobile malware increases, analysis is becoming challenging and, sometimes, infeasible. Additionally, current network-based intrusion detec...

  18. Performance Testing of GPU-Based Approximate Matching Algorithm on Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    downloaded classified files from military networks and leaked them to the anti-secrecy website WikiLeaks [7]. Despite the staggering number of data breach incidents...Insider Threat, 2nd ed. Westford, MA: Pearson Education, 2014, preface xx. [3] An executive’s guide to 2013 data breach trends. (2015, Jan. 9). Open...threats-after-wikileaks-fiasco/65843 [8] L. Park. (2014, Dec. 18). Data breach trends. [Online]. Available: http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/ data

  19. Modeling real time CBTC operation in mixed traffic networks: A simulation-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Martinis, Valerio; Toletti, Ambra; Weidmann, Ulrich; Nash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle automation and continuous connection with communication networks are the key innovations currently redefining transport systems. Just as autonomous cars are rapidly changing road transport, increasing railway automation will help to maximize the use of infrastructure, increase schedule reliability, improve safety, and increase energy efficiency. However, railway operations are fundamentally different from road-based transport systems and automation must be specifically tailored to rai...

  20. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas D. Hewer; Maziar Nekovee; Peter V. Coveney

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence...

  1. Rehabilitation of a secondary network of forest traffic infrastructure (skid roads - skid trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest transport infrastructure is the key segment of rational forest resource management. One of its constituent and inseparable segments are skid roads and skid trails whose network density significantly exceeds the primary network, i.e. truck roads. Skid road -skid trail network density in high economic forests of FB&H is most often between 40 and 100 m/ha. Simplified way of construction, non-existence of road construction, objects for surface water drainage as well as significant longitudinal inclination (up to 50% in which they are constructed, makes them subject to erosion processes. The lack of rehabilitation measures on skid roads - skid trails causes significant damages in post-exploitation period, and very often to the extent that the ones in the following exploitation round are unusable for skidding. Utilization of skid roads - skid trails damaged by erosion processes for forest operations often represents a significant expense. This paper considers rehabilitation measures efficient from the point of remedying erosion processes, and at the same time, acceptable from the point of financial expenditure for forest operations.

  2. A reliability-based approach of fastest routes planning in dynamic traffic network under emergency management situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an available emergency management system, it is important to conduct effective evacuation with reliable and real time optimal route plans. This paper aims at creating a route finding strategy by considering the time dependent factors as well as uncertainties that may be encountered during the emergency management system. To combine dynamic features with the level of reliability in the process of fastest route planning, the speed distribution of typical intercity roads is studied in depth, and the strategy of modifying real time speed to a more reliable value based on speed distribution is proposed. Two algorithms of route planning have been developed to find three optimal routes with the shortest travel time and the reliability of 0.9. In order to validate the new strategy, experimental implementation of the route planning method is conducted based on road speed information acquired by field study. The results show that the proposed strategy might provide more reliable routes in dynamic traffic networks by conservatively treating roads with large speed discretion or with relative extreme real speed value.

  3. Monofractal Characteristics of Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yue Zhai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have extensive applications in the smart grid in recently years. The time series in WSNs in smart grid should be discussed by analysis method which is non-linear. The method of monofractal is used here. Self-similar Hurst parameter calculated by the algorithm of Rescaled Range Analysis (R/S and fractal dimension are obtained, which confirm that the time sequences in WSNs for smart grid belong to the fractal sets and have the characteristic of self- similarity.

  4. Traffic grooming in WDM optical network with grooming resources at Max Connectivity nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Partha; Rawat, Balbeer Singh; Ghorai, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose Max Connectivity grooming in WDM mesh networks under static lightpath connection requests. The grooming and wavelength conversion resources are placed at the nodes having maximum connections. We propose a heuristic genetic algorithm (GA) model to solve grooming, routing and wavelength assignment. The GA algorithm has been used to optimize the cost of grooming and wavelength conversion resources. The blocking probability has been investigated under different lightpath connections. The performance of Max Connectivity grooming has been compared with other grooming policies. Our results indicate the improvement of resource utilization with minimum blocking probability.

  5. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  6. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  7. A FSA Model for Performance Evaluation over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Low Traffic Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng LUO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET, which is composed of nodes that are able to move arbitrarily, differs from a direct connection network in the way that it is multi-hopping and self- organizing and thus able to operate without the help of prefixed infrastructures. However, problems such as unfavorable wireless links and dynamic topology are challenging, resulting in the proposal of a collection of routing protocols for MANETs. Nevertheless the performance of protocols may deteriorate dramatically as deployment scenario changes due to the application dependent philosophy behind algorithms. In this paper, the performance evaluation problem for MANETs and is explored and a novel performance ranking model, termed FSA, is proposed. For simplicity but without loss of generality, the performance of two routing protocols DSDV and DSR are studies. The FSA is able to rank the performance of DSDV and DSR depending on the average value and standard deviation results. Extensive simulations show that an overall 20.74 %, at most, gain may be achieved based on the FSA model.

  8. Online social network use by health care providers in a high traffic patient care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Erik; Light, Jennifer; Paradise Black, Nicole; Thompson, Lindsay

    2013-05-17

    The majority of workers, regardless of age or occupational status, report engaging in personal Internet use in the workplace. There is little understanding of the impact that personal Internet use may have on patient care in acute clinical settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the volume of one form of personal Internet use-online social networking (Facebook)-generated by workstations in the emergency department (ED) in contrast to measures of clinical volume and severity. The research team analyzed anonymous network utilization records for 68 workstations located in the emergency medicine department within one academic medical center for 15 consecutive days (12/29/2009 to 1/12/2010). This data was compared to ED work index (EDWIN) data derived by the hospital information systems. Health care workers spent an accumulated 4349 minutes (72.5 hours) browsing Facebook, staff cumulatively visited Facebook 9369 times and spent, on average, 12.0 minutes per hour browsing Facebook. There was a statistically significant difference in the time spent on Facebook according to time of day (19.8 minutes per hour versus 4.3 minutes per hour, P<.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between EDWIN scores and time spent on Facebook (r=.266, P<.001). Facebook use constituted a substantive percentage of staff time during the 15-day observation period. Facebook use increased with increased patient volume and severity within the ED.

  9. Traffic and trend analysis of local- and wide-area networks for a distributed PACS implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Harding, Douglas, Jr.; Weiser, John C.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin; Romlein, John R.

    2000-05-01

    Inductive Modeling Techniques (IMT) in a stand alone, distributed Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) or telemedicine environment can be utilized to monitor SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled devices such as network switches, servers or workstations. A comprehensive approach using IMT is presented across the stages of the PACS lifecycle: Pre-PACS, Implementation, and Clinical Use. At each stage of the cycle, the results of IMT can be utilized to assist in assessing and forecasting future system loading. This loading represents a clinical trend analysis equating to the clinical workflow and delivery of services. Specific attention is directed to an understanding and thorough depiction of IMT methodology, focusing on the use of SNMP, the Management Information Base (MIB), and the data stream output that is mapped and placed in an object-oriented database and made available for web-based, real time, in-depth viewing and/or analysis. A thorough description of these outputs is presented, spotlighting potential report applications such as system failures; existing system, CPU, workstation, server and LAN/WAN link utilization; packet rates; application isolation; notification of system alarms; fault isolation; high/low bandwidth users; and data transfer rates. These types of data are increasingly required for programming LAN/WAN upgrades as digital imaging and PACS are implemented.

  10. Function and activity classification in network traffic data: existing methods, their weaknesses, and a path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy

    2016-05-01

    The cyber spaces are increasingly becoming the battlefields between friendly and adversary forces, with normal users caught in the middle. Accordingly, planners of enterprise defensive policies and offensive cyber missions alike have an essential goal to minimize the impact of their own actions and adversaries' attacks on normal operations of the commercial and government networks. To do this, the cyber analysis need accurate "cyber battle maps", where the functions, roles, and activities of individual and groups of devices and users are accurately identified. Most of the research in cyber exploitation has focused on the identification of attacks, attackers, and their devices. Many tools exist for device profiling, malware identification, user attribution, and attack analysis. However, most of the tools are intrusive, sensitive to data obfuscation, or provide anomaly flagging and not able to correctly classify the semantics and causes of network activities. In this paper, we review existing solutions that can identify functional and social roles of entities in cyberspace, discuss their weaknesses, and propose an approach for developing functional and social layers of cyber battle maps.

  11. Experimental FSO network availability estimation using interactive fog condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turán, Ján.; Ovseník, Łuboš

    2016-12-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) is a license free Line of Sight (LOS) telecommunication technology which offers full duplex connectivity. FSO uses infrared beams of light to provide optical broadband connection and it can be installed literally in a few hours. Data rates go through from several hundreds of Mb/s to several Gb/s and range is from several 100 m up to several km. FSO link advantages: Easy connection establishment, License free communication, No excavation are needed, Highly secure and safe, Allows through window connectivity and single customer service and Compliments fiber by accelerating the first and last mile. FSO link disadvantages: Transmission media is air, Weather and climate dependence, Attenuation due to rain, snow and fog, Scattering of laser beam, Absorption of laser beam, Building motion and Air pollution. In this paper FSO availability evaluation is based on long term measured data from Fog sensor developed and installed at TUKE experimental FSO network in TUKE campus, Košice, Slovakia. Our FSO experimental network has three links with different physical distances between each FSO heads. Weather conditions have a tremendous impact on FSO operation in terms of FSO availability. FSO link availability is the percentage of time over a year that the FSO link will be operational. It is necessary to evaluate the climate and weather at the actual geographical location where FSO link is going to be mounted. It is important to determine the impact of a light scattering, absorption, turbulence and receiving optical power at the particular FSO link. Visibility has one of the most critical influences on the quality of an FSO optical transmission channel. FSO link availability is usually estimated using visibility information collected from nearby airport weather stations. Raw data from fog sensor (Fog Density, Relative Humidity, Temperature measured at each ms) are collected and processed by FSO Simulator software package developed at our Department. Based

  12. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics from the Abilene network on a weekly basis. At that time, the network connected 230 research institutes with a 10Gb/s link. Although these reports were limited to the behavior of the Albeline's users,...

  13. From Goods to Traffic:First Steps Toward an Auction-based Traffic Signal Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Jeffery; Maskell, Simon; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a major issue that plagues many urban road networks large and small. Traffic engineers are now leaning towards Intelligent Traffic Systems as many physical changes to road networks are costly or infeasible. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become a popular paradigm for intelligent solutions to traffic management problems. There are many MAS approaches to traffic management that utilise market mechanisms. In market-based approaches, drivers “pay” to use the roadways. Howeve...

  14. Adaptive neural network motion control for aircraft under uncertainty conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Tiaglik, M. S.; Tiumentsev, Yu V.

    2018-02-01

    We need to provide motion control of modern and advanced aircraft under diverse uncertainty conditions. This problem can be solved by using adaptive control laws. We carry out an analysis of the capabilities of these laws for such adaptive systems as MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) and MPC (Model Predictive Control). In the case of a nonlinear control object, the most efficient solution to the adaptive control problem is the use of neural network technologies. These technologies are suitable for the development of both a control object model and a control law for the object. The approximate nature of the ANN model was taken into account by introducing additional compensating feedback into the control system. The capabilities of adaptive control laws under uncertainty in the source data are considered. We also conduct simulations to assess the contribution of adaptivity to the behavior of the system.

  15. Application of machine learning methods for traffic signs recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, D. V.; Ignatev, K. V.; Deviatkin, A. V.; Serykh, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on solving a relevant and pressing safety issue on intercity roads. Two approaches were considered for solving the problem of traffic signs recognition; the approaches involved neural networks to analyze images obtained from a camera in the real-time mode. The first approach is based on a sequential image processing. At the initial stage, with the help of color filters and morphological operations (dilatation and erosion), the area containing the traffic sign is located on the image, then the selected and scaled fragment of the image is analyzed using a feedforward neural network to determine the meaning of the found traffic sign. Learning of the neural network in this approach is carried out using a backpropagation method. The second approach involves convolution neural networks at both stages, i.e. when searching and selecting the area of the image containing the traffic sign, and when determining its meaning. Learning of the neural network in the second approach is carried out using the intersection over union function and a loss function. For neural networks to learn and the proposed algorithms to be tested, a series of videos from a dash cam were used that were shot under various weather and illumination conditions. As a result, the proposed approaches for traffic signs recognition were analyzed and compared by key indicators such as recognition rate percentage and the complexity of neural networks’ learning process.

  16. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS with multi-constraints (delay and reliability whilepreserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes inWBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respectiveQoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMACis also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliabilityguarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energyefficiency.

  17. McMAC: towards a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-11-12

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

  18. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  19. Network Traffic Analysis With Query Driven VisualizationSC 2005HPC Analytics Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Campbell, Scott; Lau, Stephen; Fisk, Mike; Gavrilov, Eugene; Kent, Alex; Davis, Christopher E.; Olinger,Rick; Young, Rob; Prewett, Jim; Weber, Paul; Caudell, Thomas P.; Bethel,E. Wes; Smith, Steve

    2005-09-01

    Our analytics challenge is to identify, characterize, and visualize anomalous subsets of large collections of network connection data. We use a combination of HPC resources, advanced algorithms, and visualization techniques. To effectively and efficiently identify the salient portions of the data, we rely on a multi-stage workflow that includes data acquisition, summarization (feature extraction), novelty detection, and classification. Once these subsets of interest have been identified and automatically characterized, we use a state-of-the-art-high-dimensional query system to extract data subsets for interactive visualization. Our approach is equally useful for other large-data analysis problems where it is more practical to identify interesting subsets of the data for visualization than to render all data elements. By reducing the size of the rendering workload, we enable highly interactive and useful visualizations. As a result of this work we were able to analyze six months worth of data interactively with response times two orders of magnitude shorter than with conventional methods.

  20. QoS frameworks for Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MANETs (Mobile Adhoc Networks has gained an increased interest by the research community. Regular intelligent exchanges of multimedia will be typical in MANET, though the extended motivation on QoS (Quality of Service. However, various properties of the discussed QoS framework are provisioned for QoS as a challenging concern. Providing QoS provisioning is, to a great degree, challenging in MANETs in view of bouncing correspondences, center point movability and nonattendance of central coordination. Thus, most of the research has focused on giving QoS guarantees in MANETs coordinating traditions. Though huge numbers of QoS coordinating procedures have been proposed in composing, focusing on different QoS estimations yet none of the prescribed or discussed frameworks achieves a universal course of action. There exist several genuine necessary research areas of focus such as QoS metric assurance and cost limit layout, source level scheduling framework and QoS coordinating. In this paper, working and connecting of various QoS frameworks for MANETs is investigated throughout several veritable focus areas of research. After a comparative review, it is concluded that there is still a good scope of research for proposing a QoS framework for MANETs which could have cross-layer advantages, resource reservation, connection admission control, multi-constrained QoS parameters, hard QoS assurance, proactive routing advantages etc.