WorldWideScience

Sample records for network time protocol

  1. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  2. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  3. Time Error Analysis of SOE System Using Network Time Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Geun Ok; Park, Heui Youn

    2005-01-01

    To find the accuracy of time in the fully digitalized SOE (Sequence of Events) system, we used a formal specification of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 3, which is used to synchronize time keeping among a set of distributed computers. Through constructing a simple experimental environments and experimenting internet time synchronization, we analyzed the time errors of local clocks of SOE system synchronized with a time server via computer networks

  4. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol on earth and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2010-01-01

    Carefully coordinated, reliable, and accurate time synchronization is vital to a wide spectrum of fields-from air and ground traffic control, to buying and selling goods and services, to TV network programming. Ill-gotten time could even lead to the unimaginable and cause DNS caches to expire, leaving the entire Internet to implode on the root servers.Written by the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol on Earth and in Space, Second Edition addresses the technological infrastructure of time dissemination, distrib

  5. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  6. Kajian Literatur Sinkronisasi Waktu Dengan Network Time Protocol Untuk Pemantauan Aktivitas Jaringan Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budi Setiawan

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Network providers are providing services or networks that enable the implementation of electronic transactions. Each network operator is required to align the time in electronic transactions. The purpose is to provide time alignment of the time standard and provide a time frame for all forms of electronic transactions with the principles of accuracy and traceability. Indonesian Time Alignment System uses the principle of traceability and accuracy principles. The protocols used in the alignment of the time server in Indonesia-based Network Time Protocol. This study discusses the implementation of time synchronization with a network time protocol as a form of telecommunications network security monitoring. The method used in this study is a descriptive narrative on the implementation of time synchronization. Results of this study are input to the policy in the security of electronic transactions through time synchronization

  7. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  8. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  9. Implementasi Sinkronisasi Waktu dengan Network Time Protocol untuk Pemantauan Keamanan Aktivitas Jaringan Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budi Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Penyelenggara Jaringan adalah menyediakan dan atau memberikan pelayanan jaringan yang memungkinkan terselenggaranya transaksi elektronik. Setiap penyelenggara jaringan diwajibkan untuk menyelaraskan waktu dalam transaksi elektronik. Tujuan dilakukannya penyelarasan waktu adalah untuk menyediakan waktu yang standar dan menyediakan acuan waktu untuk segala bentuk transaksi elektronik dengan prinsip keakuratan dan ketertelusuran. Sistem Penyelarasan Waktu Indonesia menggunakan prinsip ketertelusuran dan prinsip keakuratan. Protokol yang digunakan dalam penyelarasan waktu server di Indonesia berbasis Network Time Protocol. Kajian ini membahas mengenai implementasi sinkronisasi waktu dengan network time protocol sebagai salah satu bentuk pemantauan keamanan jaringan telekomunikasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah naratif deskriptif mengenai implementasi sinkronisasi waktu.Hasil kajian ini adalah masukan untuk kebijakan dalam keamanan transaksi elektronik melalui sinkronisasi waktu.    Abstract Network providers are providing services or networks that enable the implementation of electronic transactions. Each network operator is required to align the time in electronic transactions. The purpose is to provide time alignment of the time standard and provide a time frame for all forms of electronic transactions with the principles of accuracy and traceability. Indonesian Time Alignment System uses the principle of traceability and accuracy principles. The protocols used in the alignment of the time server in Indonesia-based Network Time Protocol. This study discusses the implementation of time synchronization with a network time protocol as a form of telecommunications network security monitoring. The method used in this study is a descriptive narrative on the implementation of time synchronization. Results of this study are input to the policy in the security of electronic transactions through time

  10. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  11. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  12. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  13. An energy efficient and dynamic time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anran; Bai, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    Time synchronization is an important support technology of WSN(Wireless Sensor Network), and plays an irreplaceable role in the development of WSN. In view of the disadvantage of the traditional timing sync protocol for sensor networks (TPSN), we present a Physical Timing-sync Protocol (PTPSN) that aims at reducing the energy consumption of the synchronization process and realizes a dynamic Network. The algorithm broadcasts reference message to select some nodes in specific area. The receiver calculate offset of every selected node, and then calculate the average of offset to compensate for clock skew . At the same time ,we add time-filter process to ensure the security of the algorithm for time synchronization. The experiment results show that our algorithm is efficient in both saving energy consumption and dynamic network, and it can effectively resist attacks.

  14. Enhanced just-in-time plus protocol for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Gregório, José M. B.; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a new one-way resource reservation protocol for optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called Enhanced Just-in-Time Plus (E-JIT+). The protocol is described in detail, and its formal specification is presented, following an extended finite state machine approach. The performance evaluation of E-JIT+ is analyzed in comparison with other proposed OBS protocols (JIT+ and E-JIT) for the following network topologies: rings; degree-two, degree-three, and degree-four chordal rings; mesh-torus; NSFNET; ARPANET; FCCN-NET; and the European Optical Network. We evaluate and compare the performance of the different protocols in terms of burst loss probability, taking into account the most important OBS network parameters. It was shown that E-JIT+ performs better than available one-way resource reservation protocols for all the evaluated network topologies. Moreover, the scalability of E-JIT+ was observed, and when the network traffic increases, the burst loss probability also increases, leading to a worse network performance.

  15. A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamalla, Sandhya; Kancherla, Anitha Sheela

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to optimally manage the limited energy of nodes without degrading the routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient adaptive routing mechanism for WSNs, which saves energy of nodes by removing the much delayed packets without degrading the real-time performance of the used routing protocol. It uses the adaptive transmission power algorithm which is based on the attenuation of the wireless link to improve the energy efficiency. The proposed routing mechanism can be associated with any geographic routing protocol and its performance is evaluated by integrating with the well known two-hop based real-time routing protocol, PATH and the resulting protocol is energy-efficient adaptive routing protocol (EE-ARP). The EE-ARP performs well in terms of energy consumption, deadline miss ratio, packet drop and end-to-end delay.

  16. Distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems: A nonlinear fixed-time protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xi; He, Bing; Dong, Yunfeng

    2017-11-01

    The distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems is investigated in this paper. A novel nonlinear protocol is proposed to ensure that the tracking errors converge to zeros in a fixed-time. By comparison with previous synchronization methods, the present method considers more practical conditions and the synchronization time is not dependent of arbitrary initial conditions but can be offline pre-assign according to the task assignment. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the presented protocol have been illustrated by a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. ACCPndn : adaptive congestion control protocol in named data networking by learning capacities using optimized time-lagged feedforward neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising network architecture being considered as a possible replacement for the current IP-based Internet infrastructure. However, NDN is subject to congestion when the number of data packets that reach one or various routers in a certain period of time is so high than its queue gets overflowed. To address this problem many congestion control protocols have been proposed in the literature which, however, they are highly sensitive to their control parameters ...

  18. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  19. Low Latency MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Timing Offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Sik

    This paper proposes a low latency MAC protocol that can be used in sensor networks. To extend the lifetime of sensor nodes, the conventional solution is to synchronize active/sleep periods of all sensor nodes. However, due to these synchronized sensor nodes, packets in the intermediate nodes must wait until the next node wakes up before it can forward a packet. This induces a large delay in sensor nodes. To solve this latency problem, a clustered sensor network which uses two types of sensor nodes and layered architecture is considered. Clustered heads in each cluster are synchronized with different timing offsets to reduce the sleep delay. Using this concept, the latency problem can be solved and more efficient power usage can be obtained.

  20. An effective implementation scheme of just-in-time protocol for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiling; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui

    2005-02-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) has been emerging as a promising technology that can effectively support the next generation IP-oriented transportation networks. JIT signaling protocol for OBS is relatively simple and easy to be implemented by hardware. This paper presented an effective scheme to implement the JIT protocol, which not only can effectively implement reservation and release of optical channels based on JIT, but also can process the failure of channel reservation and release due to loss of burst control packets. The scheme includes: (1) a BHP (burst head packet) path table is designed and built at each OBS node. It is used to guarantee the corresponding burst control packet, i.e. BHP, BEP (burst end packet) and BEP_ACK (BEP acknowledgement), to be transmitted in the same path. (2) The timed retransmission of BEP and the reversed deletion of the item in BHP path tables triggered by the corresponding BEP_ACK are combined to solve the problems caused by the loss of the signaling messages in channel reservation and release process. (3) Burst head packets and BEP_ACK are transmitted using "best-effort" method. Related signaling messages and their formats for the proposed scheme are also given.

  1. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  2. Design of real-time voice over internet protocol system under bandwidth network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gong, Lina

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing bandwidth of the network and network convergence accelerating, VoIP means of communication across the network is becoming increasingly popular phenomenon. The real-time identification and analysis for VOIP flow over backbone network become the urgent needs and research hotspot of network operations management. Based on this, the paper proposes a VoIP business management system over backbone network. The system first filters VoIP data stream over backbone network and further resolves the call signaling information and media voice. The system can also be able to design appropriate rules to complete real-time reduction and presentation of specific categories of calls. Experimental results show that the system can parse and process real-time backbone of the VoIP call, and the results are presented accurately in the management interface, VoIP-based network traffic management and maintenance provide the necessary technical support.

  3. Near-optimality of special periodic protocols for fluid models of single server switched networks with switchover times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A. S.; Ishchenko, R.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a generic deterministic time-invariant fluid model of a single server switched network, which consists of finitely many infinite size buffers (queues) and receives constant rate inflows of jobs from the outside. Any flow undergoes a multi-phase service, entering a specific buffer after every phase, and ultimately leaves the network; the route of the flow over the buffers is pre-specified, and flows may merge inside the network. They share a common source of service, which can serve at most one buffer at a time and has to switch among buffers from time to time; any switch consumes a nonzero switchover period. With respect to the long-run maximal scaled wip (work in progress) performance metric, near-optimality of periodic scheduling and service protocols is established: the deepest optimum (that is over all feasible processes in the network, irrespective of the initial state) is furnished by such a protocol up to as small error as desired. Moreover, this can be achieved with a special periodic protocol introduced in the paper. It is also shown that the exhaustive policy is optimal for any buffer whose service at the maximal rate does not cause growth of the scaled wip.

  4. SPEED: A Stateless Protocol for Real-Time Communication in Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Tian; Stankovic, John A; Lu, Chenyang; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2003-01-01

    .... End-to-end soft real-time communication is achieved by maintaining a desired delivery speed across the sensor network through a novel combination of feedback control and non-deterministic geographic forwarding...

  5. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  6. A security analysis of version 2 of the Network Time Protocol (NTP): A report to the privacy and security research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matt

    1991-01-01

    The Network Time Protocol is being used throughout the Internet to provide an accurate time service. The security requirements are examined of such a service, version 2 of the NTP protocol is analyzed to determine how well it meets these requirements, and improvements are suggested where appropriate.

  7. Cross-layer protocol design for QoS optimization in real-time wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    The metrics of quality of service (QoS) for each sensor type in a wireless sensor network can be associated with metrics for multimedia that describe the quality of fused information, e.g., throughput, delay, jitter, packet error rate, information correlation, etc. These QoS metrics are typically set at the highest, or application, layer of the protocol stack to ensure that performance requirements for each type of sensor data are satisfied. Application-layer metrics, in turn, depend on the support of the lower protocol layers: session, transport, network, data link (MAC), and physical. The dependencies of the QoS metrics on the performance of the higher layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model of the WSN protocol, together with that of the lower three layers, are the basis for a comprehensive approach to QoS optimization for multiple sensor types in a general WSN model. The cross-layer design accounts for the distributed power consumption along energy-constrained routes and their constituent nodes. Following the author's previous work, the cross-layer interactions in the WSN protocol are represented by a set of concatenated protocol parameters and enabling resource levels. The "best" cross-layer designs to achieve optimal QoS are established by applying the general theory of martingale representations to the parameterized multivariate point processes (MVPPs) for discrete random events occurring in the WSN. Adaptive control of network behavior through the cross-layer design is realized through the parametric factorization of the stochastic conditional rates of the MVPPs. The cross-layer protocol parameters for optimal QoS are determined in terms of solutions to stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from models of transient flows for heterogeneous sensor data and aggregate information over a finite time horizon. Markov state processes, embedded within the complex combinatorial history of WSN events, are more computationally

  8. Investigating a reduced size real-time transport protocol for low-bandwidth networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kakande, JN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available in this work as RTP-Lite, requires investigation. A cyclical approach to compression of the RTP headers was used with different compression cycle patterns for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport. Measurements over...

  9. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  10. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  11. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  12. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  13. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  14. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  15. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  16. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    diverse local-area networks, this protocol offers both (1) a random- access mode needed for the early PFF deployment phase and (2) a time-bounded-services mode needed during PFF-maintenance operations. Switching between these two modes could be controlled by upper-layer entities using standard link-management mechanisms. Because the early deployment phase of a PFF mission can be expected to involve multihop relaying to achieve network connectivity (see figure), the proposed protocol includes the open shortest path first (OSPF) network protocol that is commonly used in the Internet. Each spacecraft in a PFF network would be in one of seven distinct states as the mission evolved from initial deployment, through coarse formation, and into precise formation. Reconfiguration of the formation to perform different scientific observations would also cause state changes among the network nodes. The application protocol provides for recognition and tracking of the seven states for each node and for protocol changes under specified conditions to adapt the network and satisfy communication requirements associated with the current PFF mission phase. Except during early deployment, when peer-to-peer random access discovery methods would be used, the application protocol provides for operation in a centralized manner.

  17. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  18. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  19. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  20. Witnet: A Decentralized Oracle Network Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    de Pedro, Adán Sánchez; Levi, Daniele; Cuende, Luis Iván

    2017-01-01

    Witnet is a decentralized oracle network (DON) that connects smart contracts to the outer world. Generally speaking, it allows any piece of software to retrieve the contents published at any web address at a certain point in time, with complete and verifiable proof of its integrity and without blindly trusting any third party. Witnet runs on a blockchain with a native protocol token (called Wit), which miners-called witnesses-earn by retrieving, attesting and delivering web contents for clien...

  1. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  2. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    .... Research results are presented on adaptive, energy-efficient, distributed protocols for mobile wireless networks that must operate effectively over unreliable communication links in highly dynamic...

  3. GSR-TDMA: A Geometric Spatial Reuse-Time Division Multiple Access MAC Protocol for Multihop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegligible propagation delay of acoustic signals causes spatiotemporal uncertainty that occasionally enables simultaneous, collision-free packet transmission among underwater nodes (UNs. These transmissions can be handled by efficiently managing the channel access of the UNs in the data-link layer. To this end, Geometric Spatial Reuse-TDMA (GSR-TDMA, a new TDMA-based MAC protocol, is designed for use in centralized, multihop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs, and in this case all UNs are periodically scheduled after determining a geometric map according to the information on their location. The scheduling strategy increases the number of UNs that send packets coincidentally via two subscheduling configurations (i.e., interhop and intrahop scheduling. Extensive simulations are used to investigate the reception success rate (RSR and the multihop delay (MHD of GSR-TDMA, and the results are compared to those of previous approaches, including C-MAC and HSR-TDMA. GSR-TDMA outperforms C-MAC; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 15% higher than that of C-MAC, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is 30% lower than that of C-MAC at the most. In addition, GSR-TDMA provides even better performance improvements over HSR-TDMA; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 50% higher than that of HSR-TDMA, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is an order of 102 lower than that of HSR-TDMA at the most.

  4. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash; Guibas, Leonidas; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  5. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  7. Pithy Review on Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks and Least Routing Time Opportunistic Technique in WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Arafath, Mohammed; Rahman Khan, Khaleel Ur; Sunitha, K. V. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays due to most of the telecommunication standard development organizations focusing on using device-to-device communication so that they can provide proximity-based services and add-on services on top of the available cellular infrastructure. An Oppnets and wireless sensor network play a prominent role here. Routing in these networks plays a significant role in fields such as traffic management, packet delivery etc. Routing is a prodigious research area with diverse unresolved issues. This paper firstly focuses on the importance of Opportunistic routing and its concept then focus is shifted to prime aspect i.e. on packet reception ratio which is one of the highest QoS Awareness parameters. This paper discusses the two important functions of routing in wireless sensor networks (WSN) namely route selection using least routing time algorithm (LRTA) and data forwarding using clustering technique. Finally, the simulation result reveals that LRTA performs relatively better than the existing system in terms of average packet reception ratio and connectivity.

  8. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  9. Performance Analysis of TDMA Protocol in a Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanod Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access protocol using queuing theory in a femtocell network. The fair use of wireless channel among the users of network is carried out using TDMA protocol. The arrival of data packets from M communicating nodes becomes multiple Poisson process. The time slots of TDMA protocol represent c servers to communicate data packets coming from communicating nodes to the input of FAP (Femtocell Access Point. The service time of each server (time slot is exponentially distributed. This complete communication scenario using TDMA protocol is modeled using M/M/c queue. The performance of the protocol is evaluated in terms of mean number in system, average system delay and utilization for varying traffic intensity

  10. Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, Muhammad Sajjadur; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP). We introduce a new concept called head-set, consists of one active cluster head and some other associate cluster heads within a cluster. The head-set members are responsible for control and management of the network. Results show that t...

  11. Dynamic Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Said , Adel; William Ibrahim , Ashraf; Soua , Ahmed; Afifi , Hossam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sensor networks suffer from limited capabilities such as bandwidth, low processing power, and memory size. There is therefore a need for protocols that deliver sensor data in an energy-efficient way to the sink. One of those techniques, it gathers sensors' data in a small size packet suitable for transmission. In this paper, we propose a new Effective Data Aggregation Protocol (DAP) to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which prolongs the...

  12. A Study on IP Network Recovery through Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet has taken major role in our communication infrastructure. Such that requirement of internet availability and reliability has increasing accordingly. The major network failure reasons are failure of node and failure of link among the nodes. This can reduce the performance of major applications in an IP networks. The network recovery should be fast enough so that service interruption of link or node failure. The new path taken by the diverted traffic can be computed either at the time of failures or before failures. These mechanisms are known as Reactive and Proactive protocols respectively. In this paper, we surveyed reactive and proactive protocols mechanisms for IP network recovery.

  13. Definition and specification of "CANlike" protocols in the context of wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Juanole , Guy; Mouney , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Rapport LAAS n° 15276; The implementation of distributed real-time applications on wireless networks constitutes today a new important challenge and, in this context, the MAC protocols, which implement the frame exchange scheduling, have an essential role. This paper is precisely concerned by the specification of such MAC protocols. We specify MAC protocols called CANlike protocols because they are inspired by the MAC protocol of the network CAN which is a wired network. The presentation made...

  14. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  15. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  16. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  17. Dynamic-Threshold-Limited Timed-Token (DTLTT) Protocol | Kalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improved version of the Static-Threshold-Limited On-Demand Guaranteed Service Timed-Token (STOGSTT) Media Access Control (MAC) protocol for channel capacity allocation to the asynchronous trac in Multiservice Local Area Network (MLANs) was developed and analyzed. TLODGSTT protocol uses static value of ...

  18. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  19. Protocol for multiple node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  20. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this

  1. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  2. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  3. Security Property Validation of the Sensor Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been designed to be deployed in an unsecured, public environment, secured communication is really vital for their wide-spread use. Among all of the communication protocols developed for WSN, the Security Protocols for Sensor Networks (SPINS is exceptional, as it has been designed with security as a goal. SPINS is composed of two building blocks: Secure Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP and the “micro” version of the Timed Efficient Streaming Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA, named μTESLA. From the inception of SPINS, a number of efforts have been made to validate its security properties. In this paper, we have validated the security properties of SNEP by using an automated security protocol validation tool, named AVISPA. Using the protocol specification language, HLPSL, we model two combined scenarios—node to node key agreement and counter exchange protocols—followed by data transmission. Next, we validate the security properties of these combined protocols, using different AVISPA back-ends. AVISPA reports the models we have developed free from attacks. However, by analyzing the key distribution sub-protocol, we find one threat of a potential DoS attack that we have demonstrated by modeling in AVISPA. Finally, we propose a modification, and AVISPA reports this modified version free from the potential DoS attack.

  4. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this report. A brief introduction to optical networks and WDM as well as a brief description of Flamingo are also included in this report.

  5. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kanakala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing protocol to further reduce the energy consumption. The proposed energy-efficient coding-aware cluster based routing protocol (ECCRP scheme applies network coding at cluster heads to reduce number of transmissions. We also modify the queue management procedure of COPE protocol to further improve coding opportunities. We also use an energy efficient scheme while selecting the cluster head. It helps to increase the life time of the network. We evaluate the performance of proposed energy efficient cluster based protocol using simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed ECCRP algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases life time of the network.

  6. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  7. Design Aspects of An Energy-Efficient, Lightweight Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the most relevant design aspects of the lightweight medium access control (LMAC) protocol [16] for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These aspects include selfconfiguring and localized operation of the protocol, time synchronization in multi-hop networks, network

  8. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  9. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  10. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-09-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  11. dynamic-threshold-limited timed-token (dtltt) protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Token (STOGSTT) Media Access Control (MAC) protocol for channel capacity allocation to the asynchronous traffic in ... Keywords: multi-access, multiservice, network, synchronous, asynchronous, traffic, timed-token. 1. Introduction .... Messages generated in the system at run time may be classified as ...

  12. Network protocol 'EPAP'; Network protokoru 'EPAP'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, T.; Fujita, F.; Iwamoto, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Toyo (Japan)

    2000-10-10

    The Ethernet, a standard of information networks, has begun to be applied to the control local area network (LAN). To apply the Ethernet to the field level, Fuji Electric has newly developed the communication protocol 'Ethernet precision access protocol (EPAP)' in which a command/response method is structured on the user datagram protocol (UDP) to realize real time and high reliability. Further, we have implemented the EPAP on the bus interface module of the open PIO. This paper outlines the EPAP and its implementation. (author)

  13. Network protocols. Special issue; Netwerkprotocollen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, G.A. [RTB Van Heugten, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, G.W.J. [GTI Building Automation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Smits, P. [Konnex Nederland, Valkenswaard (Netherlands); Hamers, E.P. [Van Dorp Installaties, Breda (Netherlands); Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Van Lingen, G.; Wijn, D.M. [Engineer Johnson Controls, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Deckere, W.J.M.A. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Driessen, B. [Saia Burgess, Gouda (Netherlands); Van Olst, K. [K en R Consultants, Deventer (Netherlands); Mosterman, F. [Wago Building Technology, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Staub, R. [BUS-House, Zuerich (Switzerland); Meiring, O.B.; Hut, W.H. [Sauter Building Control Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tukker, A. [Webeasy Products, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Bakker, L.G.; Soethout, L.L.; Elkhuizen, P.A. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Haeseler, U. [TAC GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kerdel, J.F. [Siemens Building Technologies, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Lugt, G.L.; Draijer, G.W.

    2007-11-15

    In 20 articles attention is paid to several aspects of network protocols by means of which building automation systems can exchange data: building automation and management, history of technical installations management, the open communication standard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), the so-called ISO/IEC domotics and communication standard KNX or Konnex, the integration of electrotechnical and engineering installations by the LonWorks technology, other standard protocols as Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), an outline of TCP/IP, smart design of networks, automation and networks and building owners, the use of BACnet and Ethernet in a renovated office building, the use of an open management network in buildings, wireless open integrated systems, terminology in network communication, the use of BACnet in combination with KNX, the impact of BACnet on building automation, the role of the installation sector in the ICT-environment, knowledge of building automation and management, regulations with respect to building automation, and BACnet MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) [Dutch] In 20 artikelen wordt in dit themanummer aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. netwerkprotocollen waarmee verschillende automatiseringssystemen gegevens met elkaar uitwisselen: gebouwautomatisering en beheer, geschiedenis van technisch installatie beheer, de open communicatie standaard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), de zogenaamde ISO/IEC domotica en communicatie standaard KNX of Konnex, de integratie van electrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties met behulp van de LonWorks technologie, andere standaard protocollen zoals Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), uitleg over TCP/IP, slim ontwerpen van netwerken, gebouweigenaren over automatisering en netwerken, het gebruik van BACnet en Ethernet in een tot kantoorgebouw gerenoveerd monumentaal gebouw, het gebruik van een open management netwerk in gebouwen, draadloos met

  14. Network Coding Protocols for Data Gathering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) with various sparsity levels of the coded packets and different feedback mechanisms is analysed in the context of data gathering applications in multi-hop networks. The goal is to minimize the completion time, i.e., the total time required to collect all data ...

  15. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  17. Design and implementation of a telemedicine system using Bluetooth protocol and GSM/GPRS network, for real time remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Nielsen, Lars Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic wireless and Real-time Multi-purpose Health Care Telemedicine system applying Bluetooth protocol, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The paper explores the factors that should be considered when evaluating different technologies for application in telemedicine system. The design and implementation of an embedded wireless communication platform utilising Bluetooth protocol is described, and the implementation problems and limitations are investigated. The system is tested and its telecommunication general aspects are verified. The results showed that the system has (97.9 +/- 1.3)% Up-time, 2.5 x 10(-5) Bit Error Rate, 1% Dropped Call Rate, 97.4% Call Success Rate, 5 second transmission delay in average, (3.42 +/- 0.11) kbps throughput, and the system may have application in electrocardiography.

  18. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Chander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  19. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagyasi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  20. Compact wireless control network protocol with fast path switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network protocol stacks require the addition or adjustment of functions based on customer requirements. Sensor network protocols that require low delay and low packet error rate (PER, such as wireless control networks, often adopt time division multiple access (TDMA. However, it is difficult to add or adjust functions in protocol stacks that use TDMA methods. Therefore, to add or adjust functions easily, we propose NES-SOURCE, a compact wireless control network protocol with a fast path-switching function. NES-SOURCE is implemented using carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA rather than TDMA. Wireless control networks that use TDMA prevent communication failure by duplicating the communication path. If CSMA/CA networks use duplicate paths, collisions occur frequently, and communication will fail. NES-SOURCE switches paths quickly when communication fails, which reduces the effect of communication failures. Since NES-SOURCE is implemented using CSMA/CA rather than TDMA, the implementation scale is less than one-half that of existing network stacks. Furthermore, since NES-SOURCE’s code complexity is low, functions can be added or adjusted easily and quickly. Communication failures occur owing to changes in the communication environment and collisions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NES-SOURCE’s path-switching function reduces the amount of communication failures when the communication environment changes owing to human movement and others. Furthermore, we clarify the relationships among the probability of a changing communication environment, the collision occurrence rate, and the PER of NES-SOURCE.

  1. Design of an autonomous decentralized MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Dal Pont, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this document the design of a MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks is discussed. The autonomous decentralized TDMA based MAC protocol minimizes power consumtion by efficiency implementing unicast/omnicast, scheduled rendezvous times and wakeup calls. The MAC protocol is an ongoing research

  2. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  3. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  4. Fault discovery protocol for passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; Fonseca, Daniel; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    All existing flavors of passive optical networks (PONs) provide an attractive alternative to legacy copper-based access lines deployed between a central office (CO) of the service provider (SP) and a customer site. One of the most challenging tasks for PON network planners is the reduction of the overall cost of employing protection schemes for the optical fiber plant while maintaining a reasonable level of survivability and reducing the downtime, thus ensuring acceptable levels of quality of service (QoS) for end subscribers. The recently growing volume of Ethernet PONs deployment [Kramer, IEEE 802.3, CFI (2006)], connected with low-cost electronic and optical components used in the optical network unit (ONU) modules, results in the situation where remote detection of faulty/active subscriber modules becomes indispensable for proper operation of an EPON system. The problem of the remote detection of faulty ONUs in the system is addressed where the upstream channel is flooded with the cw transmission from one or more damaged ONUs and standard communication is severed, providing a solution that is applicable in any type of PON network, regardless of the operating protocol, physical structure, and data rate.

  5. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, James W; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S; Watkins, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%

  6. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks

  7. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks.

  8. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  9. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  10. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  12. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  13. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  14. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art Network coding based routing protocols exploit the link quality information to compute the transmission rate in the intermediate nodes. However, the link quality discovery protocols are usually inaccurate, and introduce overhead in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we presen...

  15. Cluster protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ovaliadis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work completed in developing protocols and models for terrestrial networks, these are rarely applicable for underwater sensor networks. Up to today major efforts have been made for designing efficient protocols while considering the underwater communication characteristics. An important issue on this research area is the construction of an efficient clustering algorithm. Clustering in the context of UWSN is important as it contributes a great deal towards the efficient use of energy resources. This paper reviews the most significant cluster based protocols proposed for UWSN. Major performance issues of these protocols with respect to the network conditions such as packet delivery ratio, average packet delay, node mobility effect and energy consumption are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each protocol are also pointed out.

  16. A Probabilistic Model of the LMAC Protocol for Concurrent Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Luz Judith R; Zeng, Kebin; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    We present a probabilistic model for the network setup phase of the Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for concurrent Wireless Sensor Networks. In the network setup phase, time slots are allocated to the individual sensors through resolution of successive collisions. The setup phase...

  17. New Communication Network Protocol for a Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Fujii, H.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.

    2006-02-01

    An event builder based on communication networks has been used in high-energy physics experiments, and various networks have been adopted, for example, IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and so on. In particular, Ethernet is widely used because its infrastructure is very cost effective. Many systems adopt standard protocols that are designed for a general network. However, in the case of an event builder, the communication pattern between stations is different from that in a general network. The unique communication pattern causes congestion, and thus makes it difficulty to quantitatively design the network. To solve this problem, we have developed a simple network protocol for a data acquisition (DAQ) system. The protocol is designed to keep the sequence of senders so that no congestion occurs. We implemented the protocol on a small hardware component [a field programmable gate array (FPGA)] and measured the performance, so that it will be ready for a generic DAQ system

  18. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  19. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  20. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain...... two Autonomous System disjoint paths and use them efficiently under failure conditions. Three main applications for the protocol extension are illustrated: reducing traffic loss on existing connections by xploiting pre-selected backup paths derived with our proposal, applying multi-domain restoration...... as survivability mechanism in case of single link failure, and employing proper failure notification mechanisms for routing of future connection requests under routing protocol re-convergence. Via simulations we illustrate the benefits of utilizing the proposed routing protocol extension for networks employing...

  1. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities i...

  2. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  3. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  4. User-friendly matching protocol for online social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a privacy-preserving matching protocol for OSN (online social network) users to find their potential friends. With the proposed protocol, a logged-in user can match her profile with that of an off-line stranger, while both profiles are maximally protected. Our solution

  5. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  6. Wireless Multi Hop Access Networks and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Plymoth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    As more and more applications and services in our society now depend on the Internet, it is important that dynamically deployed wireless multi hop networks are able to gain access to the Internet and other infrastructure networks and services. This thesis proposes and evaluates solutions for providing multi hop Internet Access. It investigates how ad hoc networks can be combined with wireless and mesh networks in order to create wireless multi hop access networks. When several access points t...

  7. Evaluation of svr: a wireless sensor network routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network. (author)

  8. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  9. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  10. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  11. Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gorine; M. Ramadan Elmezughi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issue...

  12. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an effcient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable effciency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model.

  13. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zareei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN. First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  14. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  15. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-04-12

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.

  16. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol\\'s perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain\\'s fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  17. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  18. Secure and Lightweight Cloud-Assisted Video Reporting Protocol over 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenyereye, Lewis; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2017-09-23

    In the vehicular networks, the real-time video reporting service is used to send the recorded videos in the vehicle to the cloud. However, when facilitating the real-time video reporting service in the vehicular networks, the usage of the fourth generation (4G) long term evolution (LTE) was proved to suffer from latency while the IEEE 802.11p standard does not offer sufficient scalability for a such congested environment. To overcome those drawbacks, the fifth-generation (5G)-enabled vehicular network is considered as a promising technology for empowering the real-time video reporting service. In this paper, we note that security and privacy related issues should also be carefully addressed to boost the early adoption of 5G-enabled vehicular networks. There exist a few research works for secure video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. However, their usage is limited because of public key certificates and expensive pairing operations. Thus, we propose a secure and lightweight protocol for cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. Compared to the conventional public key certificates, the proposed protocol achieves entities' authorization through anonymous credential. Also, by using lightweight security primitives instead of expensive bilinear pairing operations, the proposed protocol minimizes the computational overhead. From the evaluation results, we show that the proposed protocol takes the smaller computation and communication time for the cryptographic primitives than that of the well-known Eiza-Ni-Shi protocol.

  19. The Application of RPL Routing Protocol in Low Power Wireless Sensor and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer information technology, wireless sensor has been successfully changed the mode of human life, at the same time, as one of the technologies continues to improve the future life, how to better integration with the RPL routing protocols together become one of research focuses in the current climate. This paper start from the wireless sensor network, briefly discusses the concept, followed by systematic exposition of RPL routing protocol developed background, relevant standards, working principle, topology and related terms, and finally explore the RPL routing protocol in wireless sensor low power lossy network applications.

  20. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  1. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Results are reported for basic research in mobile wireless communication networks for tactical applications including investigations of new methods for error-control coding and decoding, modulation...

  2. An one-time-pad key communication protocol with entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We present an one-time-pad key communication protocol that allows secure direct communication with entanglement. Alice can send message to Bob in a deterministic manner by using local measurements and public communication. The theoretical efficiency of this protocol is double compared with BB84 protocol. We show this protocol is unconditional secure under arbitrary quantum attack. And we discuss that this protocol can be perfectly implemented with current technologies.

  3. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  4. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  5. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  6. From Networks to Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Shigehara, Takaomi

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose a framework to transform a complex network to a time series. The transformation from complex networks to time series is realized by the classical multidimensional scaling. Applying the transformation method to a model proposed by Watts and Strogatz [Nature (London) 393, 440 (1998)], we show that ring lattices are transformed to periodic time series, small-world networks to noisy periodic time series, and random networks to random time series. We also show that these relationships are analytically held by using the circulant-matrix theory and the perturbation theory of linear operators. The results are generalized to several high-dimensional lattices.

  7. Collaborative communication protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Nieberg, T.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this document, the design of communication within a wireless sensor network is discussed. The resource limitations of such a network, especially in terms of energy, require an integrated approach for all (traditional) layers of communication. We present such an integrated, collaborative approach

  8. A SURVEY on WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS, ROUTING METRICS and PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak DURUKAN ODABASI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Internet has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. It has a growing user community in many fields from banking transactions to online entertainment. It will be very efficient for users, as the next generation internet access becomes wireless like frequently used services such as cellular phones. But for providing this, a new network is needed to be designed or an existing network must be improved as well as making changes on infrastructure. At this point, mesh network infrastructure arises and offers more sophisticated internet access with less need. The most important advantage of mesh networks is the capability of working without infrastructure. Mesh networks are an additional access technology more than being a renewed one in the next generation wireless networks called 4G. In this study, wireless mesh networks and example applications are mentioned. Base architecture and design factors are emphasized, current routing protocols that are used on wireless mesh networks and routing metrics on which these protocols are based, are explained. Finally, the performance effects of these protocols and metrics on different network topologies are referred.

  9. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung; Kazandjieva, Maria A.; Jain, Mayank; Levis, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol's perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain's fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  10. A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks: Reducing Preamble Transmissions and Transceiver State Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient medium access protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Although the protocol uses TDMA to give nodes in the WSN the opportunity to communicate collision-free, the network is self-organizing in terms of time slot assignment and synchronization. The

  11. Efficient data communication protocols for wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeydan, Engin

    In this dissertation, efficient decentralized algorithms are investigated for cost minimization problems in wireless networks. For wireless sensor networks, we investigate both the reduction in the energy consumption and throughput maximization problems separately using multi-hop data aggregation for correlated data in wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithms exploit data redundancy using a game theoretic framework. For energy minimization, routes are chosen to minimize the total energy expended by the network using best response dynamics to local data. The cost function used in routing takes into account distance, interference and in-network data aggregation. The proposed energy-efficient correlation-aware routing algorithm significantly reduces the energy consumption in the network and converges in a finite number of steps iteratively. For throughput maximization, we consider both the interference distribution across the network and correlation between forwarded data when establishing routes. Nodes along each route are chosen to minimize the interference impact in their neighborhood and to maximize the in-network data aggregation. The resulting network topology maximizes the global network throughput and the algorithm is guaranteed to converge with a finite number of steps using best response dynamics. For multiple antenna wireless ad-hoc networks, we present distributed cooperative and regret-matching based learning schemes for joint transmit beanformer and power level selection problem for nodes operating in multi-user interference environment. Total network transmit power is minimized while ensuring a constant received signal-to-interference and noise ratio at each receiver. In cooperative and regret-matching based power minimization algorithms, transmit beanformers are selected from a predefined codebook to minimize the total power. By selecting transmit beamformers judiciously and performing power adaptation, the cooperative algorithm is shown to

  12. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  13. Secure Group Formation Protocol for a Medical Sensor Network Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    , and experience from user workshops and observations of clinicians at work on a hospital ward show that if the security mechanisms are not well designed, the technology is either rejected altogether, or they are circumvented leaving the system wide open to attacks. Our work targets the problem of designing......Designing security mechanisms such as privacy and access control for medical sensor networks is a challenging task; as such systems may be operated very frequently, at a quick pace, and at times in emergency situations. Understandably, clinicians hold extra unproductive tasks in low regard...... wireless sensors to be both secure and usable by exploring different solutions on a fully functional prototype platform. In this paper, we present an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based protocol, which offers fully secure sensor set-up in a few seconds on standard (Telos) hardware. We evaluate...

  14. Cross-Layer Protocol as a Better Option in Wireless Mesh Network with Respect to Layered-Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdulwahab Al-Ahdal; Dr. V. P. Pawar; G. N. Shinde

    2014-01-01

    The Optimal way to improve Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) performance is to use a better network protocol, but whether layered-protocol design or cross-layer design is a better option to optimize protocol performance in WMNs is still an on-going research topic. In this paper, we focus on cross-layer protocol as a better option with respect to layered-protocol. The layered protocol architecture (OSI) model divides networking tasks into layers and defines a pocket of services for each layer to b...

  15. Wireless Cognitive Networks Technologies and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Loscri , Valeria; Maskooki , Arash; Mitton , Nathalie; Vegni , Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio applied to Wireless Sensor Networks and Body Area Networks represent an intriguing and really recent paradigm, which represents an objective of study of several researchers. In order to make this technology effective, it is necessary to consider an analytical model of communication capacity, energy consumption and congestion, to effectively exploit the Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio in this type of systems. This ch...

  16. Implementation Of The Precision Agriculture Using LEACH Protocol Of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Htike Aung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network WSN is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor networkagricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture temperature and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and explains about routing protocols of wireless sensor network. In this paper agricultural parameter of temperature will monitor with the use of LEACH protocol.

  17. Securing statically-verified communications protocols against timing attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Hillston, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We present a federated analysis of communication protocols which considers both security properties and timing. These are not entirely independent observations of a protocol; by using timing observations of an executing protocol it is possible to deduce derived information about the nature...... of the communication even in the presence of unbreakable encryption. Our analysis is based on expressing the protocol as a process algebra model and deriving from this process models analysable by the Imperial PEPA Compiler and the LySatool....

  18. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  19. Efficient MAC Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network with Heterogeneous Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasre Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several Directional Medium Access Control (DMAC protocols have been designed for use with homogeneous networks, it can take a substantial amount of time to change sensor nodes that are equipped with an omnidirectional antenna for sensor nodes with a directional antenna. Thus, we require a novel MAC protocol for use with an intermediate wireless network that consists of heterogeneous sensor nodes equipped with either an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna. The MAC protocols that have been designed for use in homogeneous networks are not suitable for use in a hybrid network due to deaf, hidden, and exposed nodes. Therefore, we propose a MAC protocol that exploits the characteristics of a directional antenna and can also work efficiently with omnidirectional nodes in a hybrid network. In order to address the deaf, hidden, and exposed node problems, we define RTS/CTS for the neighbor (RTSN/CTSN and Neighbor Information (NIP packets. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated through a numerical analysis using a Markov model. In addition, the analytical results of the MAC protocol are verified through an OPNET simulation.

  20. A distributed Synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol for mobile Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanling; SUN Xianpu; LI Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new multiple access control protocol named distributed synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol.in which the hidden and exposed terminal problems are solved,and the quality of service(QoS)requirements for real-time traffic are guaranteed.The protocol is founded on time division multiplex address and a different type of traffic is assigned to difierent priority,according to which a node should compete for and reserve the free slots in a different method.Moreover,there is a reservation acknowledgement process before data transmit in each reserved slot,so that the intruded terminal problem is solved.The throughput and average packets drop probability of this protocol are analyzed and simulated in a fully connected network.the results of which indicate that this protocol is efficient enough to support the real-time traffic.and it is more suitable to MANETs.

  1. Emulation Platform for Cyber Analysis of Wireless Communication Network Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldridge, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Wireless networking and mobile communications is increasing around the world and in all sectors of our lives. With increasing use, the density and complexity of the systems increase with more base stations and advanced protocols to enable higher data throughputs. The security of data transported over wireless networks must also evolve with the advances in technologies enabling more capable wireless networks. However, means for analysis of the effectiveness of security approaches and implementations used on wireless networks are lacking. More specifically a capability to analyze the lower-layer protocols (i.e., Link and Physical layers) is a major challenge. An analysis approach that incorporates protocol implementations without the need for RF emissions is necessary. In this research paper several emulation tools and custom extensions that enable an analysis platform to perform cyber security analysis of lower layer wireless networks is presented. A use case of a published exploit in the 802.11 (i.e., WiFi) protocol family is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the described emulation platform.

  2. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  3. Frameless ALOHA Protocol for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Vukobratovic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel distributed random access scheme for wireless networks based on slotted ALOHA, motivated by the analogies between successive interference cancellation and iterative belief-propagation decoding on erasure channels. The proposed scheme assumes that each user independently accesse...

  4. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kanakala; Venugopal Reddy Ananthula; Prashanthi Vempaty

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing proto...

  5. Relaying Strategies and Protocols for Efficient Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-10-01

    Next generation wireless networks are expected to provide high data rate and satisfy the Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints of the users. A significant component of achieving these goals is to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks by either optimizing current architectures or exploring new technologies which achieve that. The latter includes revisiting technologies which were previously proposed, but due to a multitude of reasons were ignored at that time. One such technology is relaying which was initially proposed in the latter half of the 1960s and then was revived in the early 2000s. In this dissertation, we study relaying in conjunction with resource allocation to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks. In this regard, we differentiate between conventional relaying and relaying with buffers. Conventional relaying is traditional relaying where the relay forwards the signal it received immediately. On the other hand, in relaying with buffers or buffer-aided relaying as it is called, the relay can store received data in its buffer and forward it later on. This gives the benefit of taking advantage of good channel conditions as the relay can only transmit when the channel conditions are good. The dissertation starts with conventional relaying and considers the problem of minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining system QoS. After upper bounding the system performance, more practical algorithms which require reduced feedback overhead are explored. Buffer-aided relaying is then considered and the joint user-and-hop scheduler is introduced which exploits multi-user diversity (MUD) and 5 multi-hop diversity (MHD) gains together in dual-hop broadcast channels. Next joint user-and-hop scheduling is extended to the shared relay channel where two source-destination pairs share a single relay. The benefits of buffer-aided relaying in the bidirectional relay channel utilizing network coding are then explored. Finally, a new transmission protocol

  6. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, B.; Olson, K.; Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W.; Koskelo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet's flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems

  7. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  8. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Kwiat, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network. (paper)

  9. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  10. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  11. Protocol Interoperability Between DDN and ISO (Defense Data Network and International Organization for Standardization) Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    services and protocols above the transport layer are usually implemented as user- callable utilities on the host computers, it is desirable to offer them...Networks, Prentice-hall, New Jersey, 1987 [ BOND 87] Bond , John, "Parallel-Processing Concepts Finally Come together in Real Systems", Computer Design

  12. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  13. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equations (13a) and (13b) can be satisfied by choosing αk as .... (right) configurations of the two-soliton solution in the Manakov-type system on PSG. .... receivers of messages, the present phase change can be used as protocols of network.

  14. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent...

  15. Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their ...

  16. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  17. Leader Election Protocol for Energy Efficient Mobile Sensor Networks (EYES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we develop and analyze a wireless wave leader election protocol (WWLE) for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, with emphasis on the resulting energy consumption. Within the operating system of the EYES architecture we apply a power model to schedule tasks in order to minimize energy

  18. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware speci...

  19. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  20. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  1. Real-Time Communication in Wireless Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.

    This paper describes a medium access protocol for real-time communication in wireless networks. Medium access is controlled by a scheduler, which utilizes a pre-emptive earliest deadline first (PEDF) scheduling algorithm. The scheduler prevents collisions in the network, where normally only

  2. Protocol design and analysis for cooperative wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Wei; Jin, A-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the design and analysis of protocols for cooperative wireless networks, especially at the medium access control (MAC) layer and for crosslayer design between the MAC layer and the physical layer. It highlights two main points that are often neglected in other books: energy-efficiency and spatial random distribution of wireless devices. Effective methods in stochastic geometry for the design and analysis of wireless networks are also explored. After providing a comprehensive review of existing studies in the literature, the authors point out the challenges that are worth further investigation. Then, they introduce several novel solutions for cooperative wireless network protocols that reduce energy consumption and address spatial random distribution of wireless nodes. For each solution, the book offers a clear system model and problem formulation, details of the proposed cooperative schemes, comprehensive performance analysis, and extensive numerical and simulation results that validate th...

  3. Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Vehicular Self-organizing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Quanrun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Wanjin

    2018-03-01

    PGPSR (Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) is based on and extended the GPSR protocol to adapt to the high speed mobility of the vehicle auto organization network (VANET) and the changes in the network topology. GPSR is used in the VANET network environment, the network loss rate and throughput are not ideal, even cannot work. Aiming at the problems of the GPSR, the proposed PGPSR routing protocol, it redefines the hello and query packet structure, in the structure of the new node speed and direction information, which received the next update before you can take advantage of its speed and direction to predict the position of node and new network topology, select the right the next hop routing and path. Secondly, the update of the outdated node information of the neighbor’s table is deleted in time. The simulation experiment shows the performance of PGPSR is better than that of GPSR.

  4. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  5. Network Layer Protocol Activation for Packet Data Access in UMTS WCDMA Laboratory Network

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkisto, Erkka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to set up the UMTS WCDMA network in the laboratory environment of Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences and to study the network layer protocol activation for packet data access. The development of 3G technology has been very rapid and it can be considered as one of the main technologies in telecommunication. Implementing the laboratory network in Metropolia enables teaching and researching of the modern network technology. Labora...

  6. A model-guided symbolic execution approach for network protocol implementations and vulnerability detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Formal techniques have been devoted to analyzing whether network protocol specifications violate security policies; however, these methods cannot detect vulnerabilities in the implementations of the network protocols themselves. Symbolic execution can be used to analyze the paths of the network protocol implementations, but for stateful network protocols, it is difficult to reach the deep states of the protocol. This paper proposes a novel model-guided approach to detect vulnerabilities in network protocol implementations. Our method first abstracts a finite state machine (FSM) model, then utilizes the model to guide the symbolic execution. This approach achieves high coverage of both the code and the protocol states. The proposed method is implemented and applied to test numerous real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is more effective than traditional fuzzing methods such as SPIKE at detecting vulnerabilities in the deep states of network protocol implementations.

  7. A model-guided symbolic execution approach for network protocol implementations and vulnerability detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Formal techniques have been devoted to analyzing whether network protocol specifications violate security policies; however, these methods cannot detect vulnerabilities in the implementations of the network protocols themselves. Symbolic execution can be used to analyze the paths of the network protocol implementations, but for stateful network protocols, it is difficult to reach the deep states of the protocol. This paper proposes a novel model-guided approach to detect vulnerabilities in network protocol implementations. Our method first abstracts a finite state machine (FSM model, then utilizes the model to guide the symbolic execution. This approach achieves high coverage of both the code and the protocol states. The proposed method is implemented and applied to test numerous real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is more effective than traditional fuzzing methods such as SPIKE at detecting vulnerabilities in the deep states of network protocol implementations.

  8. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  9. Space Link Extension Protocol Emulation for High-Throughput, High-Latency Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorowski, Nicole; Murawski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    New space missions require higher data rates and new protocols to meet these requirements. These high data rate space communication links push the limitations of not only the space communication links, but of the ground communication networks and protocols which forward user data to remote ground stations (GS) for transmission. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) standard protocol is one protocol that has been proposed for use by the NASA Space Network (SN) Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) program. New protocol implementations must be carefully tested to ensure that they provide the required functionality, especially because of the remote nature of spacecraft. The SLE protocol standard has been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's SCENIC Emulation Lab in order to observe its operation under realistic network delay conditions. More specifically, the delay between then NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) and spacecraft has been emulated. The round trip time (RTT) delay for the continental NISN network has been shown to be up to 120ms; as such the SLE protocol was tested with network delays ranging from 0ms to 200ms. Both a base network condition and an SLE connection were tested with these RTT delays, and the reaction of both network tests to the delay conditions were recorded. Throughput for both of these links was set at 1.2Gbps. The results will show that, in the presence of realistic network delay, the SLE link throughput is significantly reduced while the base network throughput however remained at the 1.2Gbps specification. The decrease in SLE throughput has been attributed to the implementation's use of blocking calls. The decrease in throughput is not acceptable for high data rate links, as the link requires constant data a flow in order for spacecraft and ground radios to stay synchronized, unless significant data is queued a the ground station. In cases where queuing the data is not an option

  10. Timing Analysis of Rate Constrained Traffic for the TTEthernet Communication Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul; Steiner, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Ethernet is a low-cost communication solution offering high transmission speeds. Although its applications extend beyond computer networking, Ethernet is not suitable for real-time and safety-critical systems. To alleviate this, several real-time Ethernet-based communication protocols have been...

  11. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  12. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  13. A proportional integral estimator-based clock synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlun; Fu, Minyue

    2017-11-01

    Clock synchronization is an issue of vital importance in applications of WSNs. This paper proposes a proportional integral estimator-based protocol (EBP) to achieve clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks. As each local clock skew gradually drifts, synchronization accuracy will decline over time. Compared with existing consensus-based approaches, the proposed synchronization protocol improves synchronization accuracy under time-varying clock skews. Moreover, by restricting synchronization error of clock skew into a relative small quantity, it could reduce periodic re-synchronization frequencies. At last, a pseudo-synchronous implementation for skew compensation is introduced as synchronous protocol is unrealistic in practice. Numerical simulations are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational Aspects of Sensor Network Protocols (Distributed Sensor Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Iyer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we model the sensor networks as an unsupervised learning and clustering process. We classify nodes according to its static distribution to form known class densities (CCPD. These densities are chosen from specific cross-layer features which maximizes lifetime of power-aware routing algorithms. To circumvent computational complexities of a power-ware communication STACK we introduce path-loss models at the nodes only for high density deployments. We study the cluster heads and formulate the data handling capacity for an expected deployment and use localized probability models to fuse the data with its side information before transmission. So each cluster head has a unique Pmax but not all cluster heads have the same measured value. In a lossless mode if there are no faults in the sensor network then we can show that the highest probability given by Pmax is ambiguous if its frequency is ≤ n/2 otherwise it can be determined by a local function. We further show that the event detection at the cluster heads can be modelled with a pattern 2m and m, the number of bits can be a correlated pattern of 2 bits and for a tight lower bound we use 3-bit Huffman codes which have entropy < 1. These local algorithms are further studied to optimize on power, fault detection and to maximize on the distributed routing algorithm used at the higher layers. From these bounds in large network, it is observed that the power dissipation is network size invariant. The performance of the routing algorithms solely based on success of finding healthy nodes in a large distribution. It is also observed that if the network size is kept constant and the density of the nodes is kept closer then the local pathloss model effects the performance of the routing algorithms. We also obtain the maximum intensity of transmitting nodes for a given category of routing algorithms for an outage constraint, i.e., the lifetime of sensor network.

  15. A tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology is an agile solution for spectrum congestion and spectrum access utilization problems that result from the legacy fixed spectrum management policies. CR technology can exploit unused licensed band to meet the increasing demand for radio frequency. The routing process faces many challenges in CR Network (CRN such as the absence of centralized infrastructure, the coordination between the routing module and spectrum management module, in addition to the frequent link failure due to the sudden appearance of PUs. In this paper we propose a Tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network (C-TRP that jointly utilizes the tree routing algorithm with a spectrum management module in routing decisions, and also we proposed a new metric used in taking the best route decisions. In addition, we enhance the traditional tree routing algorithm by using a neighbor table technique that speeds up the forwarding data packets. Moreover, we add a robust recovery module to C-TRP to resume the network in case of the link failure. The main motivation in the design of C-TRP is quick data transmission and maximization of date rates. The performance evaluation is carried out in NS2 simulator. The simulation results proved that C-TRP protocol achieves better performance in terms of average “PDR”, “end-to-end delay” and “routing overhead ratio “compared to “CTBR” and “STOD-RP” routing protocols.

  16. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  17. Time Synchronization and Distribution Mechanisms for Space Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses research on the problems of synchronizing and distributing time information between spacecraft based on the Network Time Protocol (NTP), where NTP is a standard time synchronization protocol widely used in the terrestrial network. The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol was designed and developed for synchronizing spacecraft that are in proximity where proximity is less than 100,000 km distant. A particular application is synchronization between a Mars orbiter and rover. Lunar scenarios as well as outer-planet deep space mother-ship-probe missions may also apply. Spacecraft with more accurate time information functions as a time-server, and the other spacecraft functions as a time-client. PITS can be easily integrated and adaptable to the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minor modifications. In particular, PITS can take advantage of the timestamping strategy that underlying link layer functionality provides for accurate time offset calculation. The PITS algorithm achieves time synchronization with eight consecutive space network time packet exchanges between two spacecraft. PITS can detect and avoid possible errors from receiving duplicate and out-of-order packets by comparing with the current state variables and timestamps. Further, PITS is able to detect error events and autonomously recover from unexpected events that can possibly occur during the time synchronization and distribution process. This capability achieves an additional level of protocol protection on top of CRC or Error Correction Codes. PITS is a lightweight and efficient protocol, eliminating the needs for explicit frame sequence number and long buffer storage. The PITS protocol is capable of providing time synchronization and distribution services for a more general domain where multiple entities need to achieve time synchronization using a single point-to-point link.

  18. Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Data delivery in Mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a very difficult task due to the fact the sporadic connections between mobile nodes. For this reason, we introduce the new modified routing protocol that enables the data delivery in the case that the connections are disconnected. A key aspect of the protocol is a process of finding connections between source and destination nodes that can provide low end-to-end delay and better delivery performance in a disconnected MANET. The protocol provides the concepts of opportunistic routing of the routing packets in disconnected MANETs. In this paper we present a modification of the DSR routing protocol and also some results of a simulation.

  19. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  20. Software Modules for the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Veregge, John R.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David

    2012-01-01

    The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) protocol provides time distribution and synchronization services for space systems. A software prototype implementation of the PITS algorithm has been developed that also provides the test harness to evaluate the key functionalities of PITS with simulated data source and sink. PITS integrates time synchronization functionality into the link layer of the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol. The software prototype implements the network packet format, data structures, and transmit- and receive-timestamp function for a time server and a client. The software also simulates the transmit and receive-time stamp exchanges via UDP (User Datagram Protocol) socket between a time server and a time client, and produces relative time offsets and delay estimates.

  1. Betweenness in time dependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayed, Ahmad; Higham, Desmond J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of betweenness has given rise to a very useful class of network centrality measures. Loosely, betweenness quantifies the level of importance of a node in terms of its propensity to act as an intermediary when messages are passed around the network. In this work we generalize a walk-based betweenness measure to the case of time-dependent networks, such as those arising in telecommunications and on-line social media. We also introduce a new kind of betweenness measure, temporal betweenness, which quantifies the importance of a time-point. We illustrate the effectiveness of these new measures on synthetic examples, and also give results on real data sets involving voice call, email and Twitter

  2. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  3. Protocol compliance and time management in blunt trauma resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjersberg, W R; Bergs, E A; Mushkudiani, N; Klimek, M; Schipper, I B

    2009-01-01

    To study advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol adherence prospectively in trauma resuscitation and to analyse time management of daily multidisciplinary trauma resuscitation at a level 1 trauma centre, for both moderately and severely injured patients. All victims of severe blunt trauma were consecutively included. Patients with a revised trauma score (RTS) of 12 were resuscitated by a "minor trauma" team and patients with an RTS of less than 12 were resuscitated by a "severe trauma" team. Digital video recordings were used to analyse protocol compliance and time management during initial assessment. From 1 May to 1 September 2003, 193 resuscitations were included. The "minor trauma" team assessed 119 patients, with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 7 (range 1-45). Overall protocol compliance was 42%, ranging from 0% for thoracic percussion to 93% for thoracic auscultation. The median resuscitation time was 45.9 minutes (range 39.7-55.9). The "severe team" assessed 74 patients, with a mean ISS of 22 (range 1-59). Overall protocol compliance was 53%, ranging from 4% for thoracic percussion to 95% for thoracic auscultation. Resuscitation took 34.8 minutes median (range 21.6-44.1). Results showed the current trauma resuscitation to be ATLS-like, with sometimes very low protocol compliance rates. Timing of secondary survey and radiology and thus time efficiency remains a challenge in all trauma patients. To assess the effect of trauma resuscitation protocols on outcome, protocol adherence needs to be improved.

  4. The Comparative Study Some of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols in The Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Ali Hussien

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN consists mostly of a large number of nodes in a large area where not all nodes are directly connected. The applications of comprise a wide variety of scenarios.The mobile nodes are free to move because this network has selfــstructured topology. Routing protocols are responsible for detecting and maintaining paths in the network, and it classified into reactive (OnـــDemand, proactive (Table driven, and hybrid. In this paper represents a performance study of some WSN routing protocols: the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV. The comparison made according to important metrics like packet delivery ratio (PDR, total packets dropped, Average end-to-end delay (Avg EED, and normalized routing load under the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP traffic connection and with varying number of nodes, pause time; and  varying speed. In this work used (NSــ2.35 that installed on (Ubuntu 14.04 operating system to implementing the scenario. Conclude that the DSR has better performance in TCP connection; while the DSDV has better performance in UDP protocol.

  5. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  6. Self-Adaptive Context Aware Routing Protocol for Unicast Communication in Delay and Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of research works in mobile network focus on the network overhead of the known path which exists between the sender and the receiver. However, the trend of the current practical application demands is becoming increasingly distributed and decentralized. The Delay and Tolerant Network (DTN just comes out of such background of the conflicts between them. The DTN could effectively eliminate the gap between the mobile network and the practical application demands. In this paper, a Self-Adaptive Context Aware Routing Protocol (SACARP for the unicast communication in delay and tolerant networks is presented. Meanwhile, according to the real-time context information of DTN, the Kalman filter theory is introduced to predict the information state of mobility for the optional message ferrying node, and then gives the optimal selection strategy of the message ferrying nodes. The simulation experiments have shown that, compared to the familiar single- copy and multi-copy protocols, the SACARP proposed in this paper has better transmission performance and stability, especially when the network is free, the protocol would keep a good performance with fewer connections and less buffer space.

  7. A Review on State of Art Variants of LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvaraj P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless communication lead to many improvements in application specific wireless sensor network (WSN deployment. Sensing different data from different environments is essential to monitor and control the situations. For instance, it is very important to sense the forest fire as early as possible to control the upshot. So efficient and timely gathering of the data from a network of small sensor nodes is necessary. In WSN, the small sized sensor nodes are working with very small batteries with limited energy. Since those are randomly deployed over a wide area, replacement of battery or recharging is not feasible. So, for getting prolonged life time of WSN, energy efficient operation is the key factor. Among many protocols proposed for enhancing the life time of WSN, the clustering based hierarchical protocols are popular and gaining the attention of researchers because of their high energy efficiency. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is energy efficient hierarchical, clustering based protocol. It is considered as the base of many hierarchical clustering protocols. In this paper, some of the recent tailored protocols proposed to strengthen LEACH are examined.

  8. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  9. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ilyas, Naveed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Alrajeh, Nabil; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Liaqat, Tayyaba; Khan, Majid Iqbal

    2015-11-17

    Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS) to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG) routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT) algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS) to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  10. White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on Long-Distance Fiber Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, E.F.; Dierikx, A.E.; Fordell, T.; Myyry, J.; Koponen, P.; Merimaa, M.; Pinkert, T.J.; Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Peek, H.Z.; Smets, R.

    2016-01-01

    The application of White Rabbit precision time protocol (WR-PTP) in long-distance optical fiber links has been investigated. WR-PTP is an implementation of PTP in synchronous Ethernet optical fiber networks, originally intended for synchronization of equipment within a range of 10 km. This paper

  11. Traffic Adaptive MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Masud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.

  12. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  13. Internet Group Management Protocol for IPTV Services in Passive Optical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjo; Park, Sungkwon

    We propose a new Internet group management protocol (IGMP) which can be used in passive optical network (PON) especially for IPTV services which dramatically reduces the channel change response time caused by traditional IGMP. In this paper, the newly proposed IGMP is introduced in detail and performance analysis is also included. Simulation results demonstrated the performance of the newly proposed IGMP, whereby, viewers can watch the shared IPTV channels without the channel change response time when channel request reaches a threshold.

  14. Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols for Replicated Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    assignment problem, the ac- tual identities of the allocated replicas must be known. When locking protocols are used, tasks may experience delays due to both...Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols for Replicated Resources ∗ Catherine E. Jarrett1, Kecheng Yang1, Ming Yang1, Pontus Ekberg2, and James H...replicas to execute. In prior work on replicated resources, k-exclusion locks have been used, but this restricts tasks to lock only one replica at a time. To

  15. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  16. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  17. Optimal and secure measurement protocols for quantum sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gross, Jonathan A.; Rolston, S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.

  18. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  19. A Secure Network Coding-based Data Gathering Model and Its Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide security for data gathering based on network coding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a secure network coding-based data gathering model is proposed, and a data-privacy preserving and pollution preventing (DPPaamp;PP protocol using network coding is designed. DPPaamp;PP makes use of a new proposed pollution symbol selection and pollution (PSSP scheme based on a new obfuscation idea to pollute existing symbols. Analyses of DPPaamp;PP show that it not only requires low overhead on computation and communication, but also provides high security on resisting brute-force attacks.

  20. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  1. Sink-to-Sink Coordination Framework Using RPL: Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer M. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RPL (Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks is recommended by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IPv6-based LLNs (Low Power and Lossy Networks. RPL uses a proactive routing approach and each node always maintains an active path to the sink node. Sink-to-sink coordination defines syntax and semantics for the exchange of any network defined parameters among sink nodes like network size, traffic load, mobility of a sink, and so forth. The coordination allows sink to learn about the network condition of neighboring sinks. As a result, sinks can make coordinated decision to increase/decrease their network size for optimizing over all network performance in terms of load sharing, increasing network lifetime, and lowering end-to-end latency of communication. Currently, RPL does not provide any coordination framework that can define message exchange between different sink nodes for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, a sink-to-sink coordination framework is proposed which utilizes the periodic route maintenance messages issued by RPL to exchange network status observed at a sink with its neighboring sinks. The proposed framework distributes network load among sink nodes for achieving higher throughputs and longer network’s life time.

  2. Enhancement of Adaptive Cluster Hierarchical Routing Protocol using Distance and Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.M.; Soliman, S.E.; Kelash, H.M.; Ayad, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The application of wireless networking is widely used in nuclear applications. This includes reactor control and fire dedication system. This paper is devoted to the application of this concept in the intrusion system of the Radioisotope Production Facility (RPF) of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This includes the tracking, monitoring and control components of this system. The design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research due to the extensive use of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world [1-2]. The original LEACH is named a communication protocol (clustering-based); the extended LEACH’s stochastic cluster head selection algorithm by a deterministic component. Depending on the network configuration an increase of network lifetime can be accomplished [3]. The proposed routing mechanisms after enhancement divide the nodes into clusters. A cluster head performs its task which is considerably more energy-intensive than the rest of the nodes inside sensor network. So, nodes rotate tasks at different rounds between a cluster head and other sensors throughout the lifetime of the network to balance the energy dissipation [4-5].The performance improvement when using routing protocol after enhancement of the algorithm which takes into consideration the distance and the remaining energy for choosing the cluster head by obtains from the advertise message. Network Simulator (Ns2 simulator) is used to prove that LEACH after enhancement performs better than the original LEACH protocol in terms of Average Energy, Network Life Time, Delay, Throughput and Overhead.

  3. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M. [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants.

  4. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants

  5. Resolving epidemic network failures through differentiated repair times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Manzano, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate epidemic failure spreading in large-scale transport networks under generalisedmulti-protocol label switching control plane. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network,they design several strategies for cost-effective network pe...... assigninglower repair times among the network nodes. They believe that the event-driven simulation model can be highly beneficialfor network providers, since it could be used during the network planning process for facilitating cost-effective networksurvivability design.......In this study, the authors investigate epidemic failure spreading in large-scale transport networks under generalisedmulti-protocol label switching control plane. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network,they design several strategies for cost-effective network...... performance improvement via differentiated repair times. First, theyidentify the most vulnerable and the most strategic nodes in the network. Then, via extensive event-driven simulations theyshow that strategic placement of resources for improved failure recovery has better performance than randomly...

  6. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  7. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  8. Secure Protocol and IP Core for Configuration of Networking Hardware IPs in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Urbina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the incorporation and constant evolution of communication networks in the electricity sector have given rise to the so-called Smart Grid, which is why it is necessary to have devices that are capable of managing new communication protocols, guaranteeing the strict requirements of processing required by the electricity sector. In this context, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs with network architectures are currently available to meet the communication, real-time processing and interoperability requirements of the Smart Grid. The new generation IEDs include an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, to support specialized networking switching architectures for the electric sector, as the IEEE 1588-aware High-availability Seamless Redundancy/Parallel Redundancy Protocol (HSR/PRP. Another advantage to using an FPGA is the ability to update or reconfigure the design to support new requirements that are being raised to the standards (IEC 61850. The update of the architecture implemented in the FPGA can be done remotely, but it is necessary to establish a cyber security mechanism since the communication link generates vulnerability in the case the attacker gains physical access to the network. The research presented in this paper proposes a secure protocol and Intellectual Property (IP core for configuring and monitoring the networking IPs implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The FPGA based implementation proposed overcomes this issue using a light Layer-2 protocol fully implemented on hardware and protected by strong cryptographic algorithms (AES-GCM, defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 standard. The proposed secure protocol and IP core are applicable in any field where remote configuration over Ethernet is required for IP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, the proposal is validated in communications hardware for Smart Grids.

  9. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  10. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  11. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  12. On the security of an anonymous roaming protocol in UMTS mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we first show that the privacy-preserving roaming protocol recently proposed for mobile networks cannot achieve the claimed security level. Then we suggest an improved protocol to remedy its security problems.

  13. An improved energy aware distributed unequal clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved version of the energy aware distributed unequal clustering protocol (EADUC is projected. The EADUC protocol is commonly used for solving energy hole problem in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In the EADUC, location of base station and residual energy are given importance as clustering parameters. Based on these parameters, different competition radii are assigned to nodes. Herein, a new approach has been proposed to improve the working of EADUC, by electing cluster heads considering number of nodes in the neighborhood in addition to the above two parameters. The inclusion of the neighborhood information for computation of the competition radii provides better balancing of energy in comparison with the existing approach. Furthermore, for the selection of next hop node, the relay metric is defined directly in terms of energy expense instead of only the distance information used in the EADUC and the data transmission phase has been extended in every round by performing the data collection number of times through use of major slots and mini-slots. The methodology used is of retaining the same clusters for a few rounds and is effective in reducing the clustering overhead. The performance of the proposed protocol has been evaluated under three different scenarios and compared with existing protocols through simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing protocols in terms of network lifetime in all the scenarios.

  14. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  15. On the network protocol performance evaluation for large scale communication system of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. S.; Lee, T. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, D. H.; Ku, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology has been dramatically advanced and it is now natural to apply digital network technology into nuclear plants. Communication architecture for nuclear plant defines the coordination of safety reactor control, balance of plant, subsystem utilities, and plant monitoring functions, and how they are connected and their user interface to guarantee plant performance and guarantee safety requirements. Therefore, to implement a digital network for control and monitoring systems of advanced nuclear plant needs systematic design and evaluation procedures because of responsive and hard real-time process characteristics of nuclear plant. In this paper, we evaluate several digital network protocols in terms of network delay, link failure effects to hard real-time requirements with full scale traffic

  16. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  17. Enhanced Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojiang Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development and extensive use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is urgent to enhance the security for WSNs, in which key management is an effective way to protect WSNs from various attacks. However, different types of messages exchanged in WSNs typically have different security requirements which cannot be satisfied by a single keying mechanism. In this study, a basic key management protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its antiattack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.

  18. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols,...

  19. Evaluating Protocol Lifecycle Time Intervals in HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Jeffrey T.; Dixon, Dennis; Varghese, Suresh; Cope, Marie T.; Marci, Joe; Kagan, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying efficacious interventions for the prevention and treatment of human diseases depends on the efficient development and implementation of controlled clinical trials. Essential to reducing the time and burden of completing the clinical trial lifecycle is determining which aspects take the longest, delay other stages, and may lead to better resource utilization without diminishing scientific quality, safety, or the protection of human subjects. Purpose In this study we modeled time-to-event data to explore relationships between clinical trial protocol development and implementation times, as well as identify potential correlates of prolonged development and implementation. Methods We obtained time interval and participant accrual data from 111 interventional clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2011 by NIH’s HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks. We determined the time (in days) required to complete defined phases of clinical trial protocol development and implementation. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to assess the rates at which protocols reached specified terminal events, stratified by study purpose (therapeutic, prevention) and phase group (pilot/phase I, phase II, and phase III/ IV). We also examined several potential correlates to prolonged development and implementation intervals. Results Even though phase grouping did not determine development or implementation times of either therapeutic or prevention studies, overall we observed wide variation in protocol development times. Moreover, we detected a trend toward phase III/IV therapeutic protocols exhibiting longer developmental (median 2 ½ years) and implementation times (>3years). We also found that protocols exceeding the median number of days for completing the development interval had significantly longer implementation. Limitations The use of a relatively small set of protocols may have limited our ability to detect differences across phase groupings. Some timing effects

  20. Real-Time Network Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riolo, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... According to our Phase I research, it is possible to collect data on the network and morph it into queuing models to produce information about the network and physical layers of nodes on a network...

  1. TMAC: Timestamp-Ordered MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2011-05-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged to meet a need for a self-organized and self-configured multi-hop wireless network infrastructure. Low cost infrastructure and ease of deployment have made WMNs an attractive technology for last mile access. However, 802.11 based WMNs are subject to serious fairness issues. With backlogged TCP traffic, nodes which are two or more hops away from the gateway are subject to starvation, while the one-hop away node saturates the channel with its own local traffic. We study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in WMNs to aid us in understanding and overcoming the unfairness problem. We propose a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically derive the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs via a manipulative per-node scheduling mechanism which takes advantage of the age of each packet as a priority metric. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of TMAC. Our results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining above 90% of maximum link capacity in parking lot and large grid topologies. Our work illuminates the factors affecting TCP fairness in WMNs. Our theoretical and empirical findings can be used in future research to develop more fairness-aware protocols for WMNs.

  2. An improved network layer protocol based on mobile IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mobile [Pv6 proposed by the IETF aims at providing mobility support on the next generation Internet. First, the authors described the basic principle of mobile lPv6 in brief and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of it, presented a new idea of allocating a specific address space for mobile node ( MN ) and developed a new extension header and two ICMP message types for mobile IPv6. Lastly the authors proposed an optimization strategy, for mobile IPv6 based on these extensions of protocol, which has the following advantages:1 ) It is more convenient to manage the MNs because MN can be judged from its IP address; 2) When the correspondent node (CN) is not actively communicating with a MN, the MN and its home agent (HA) need not send Binding Update to tire CN, and the CN need not send Binding Request to the MN. Only when the CN really wants to send a packet to the MN, will the CN voluntarily send a MN Discover Request message to acquire the MN's care-of address. In this way, the transmission of Binding Update and Binding Request is greatly reduced, consequently the network overhead is also decreased; 3) While sending packets, the CN simply uses a MN Home Address Extension Header without using IPinlP encapsulation and routing header, which can reduce the redundant information in the packet and the message delay; 4) All the packets sent by the CN can be directly routed to the MN and the triangle routing can be completely avoided. By using these protocol extensions, the overhead of the network is greatly reduced and the network quality of services (QoS) is improved.

  3. A Game Theory Based Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the presence of congestion increases the ratio of packet loss and energy consumption and reduces the network throughput. Particularly, this situation will be more complex in Internet of Things (IoT environment, which is composed of thousands of heterogeneous nodes. RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol in low power and lossy networks standardized by IETF. However, the RPL can induce problems under network congestion, such as frequently parent changing and throughput degradation. In this paper, we address the congestion problem between parent nodes and child nodes in RPL-enabled networks, which typically consist of low power and resource constraint devices. To mitigate the effect of network congestion, we design a parent-change procedure by game theory strategy, by which the child nodes can change next hop neighbors toward the sink. Comparing to the ContikiRPL implementation, the simulation results show that our protocol can achieve more than two times improvement in throughput and reduce packet loss rate with less increasing of average hop count.

  4. Performance evaluation of spatial vector routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Jokhio, I.

    2012-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSN s because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR. (author)

  5. Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSNs because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR.

  6. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  7. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  8. Cross-Layer Active Predictive Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Wu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node‟s neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  9. Cross-layer active predictive congestion control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Renjian; Wu, Yinfeng

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC) for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node's neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  10. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Ma, Maode

    2014-01-01

    Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock. PMID:25120163

  11. BTP: a Block Transfer Protocol for Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks that are energy-constrained must transmit and receive data as efficiently as possible.  If the transmission is delay tolerant, transferring blocks of accumulated data can be more efficient than transferring each sensed measurement as soon as it is available.  This paper...... proposes a Block Transfer Protocol (BTP) designed for efficient and reliable transmission in wireless sensor networks.  BTP reduces the time it takes to reliably transfer a block of packets compared to conventional link layer protocols, by piggybacking in data packets information about the transfer......, minimizing the number of acknowledgements needed for reliable transmission, and reducing the need for timeouts, which can substantially slow down communication when transmission is unreliable.  In addition, BTP improves reliability by handling false positive acknowledgements and by letting the receivers...

  12. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock.

  13. Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: comparison and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Murukesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consists of nodes with limited resources. Hence, it is important to design protocols or algorithms which increases energy efficiency in order to improve the network lifetime. In this paper, techniques used in the network layer (routing of the internet protocol stack to achieve energy efficiency are reviewed. Usually, the routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: (1 Network Structure, (2 Communication Model, (3 Topology Based, and (4 Reliable Routing. In this work, only network structure based routing protocols are reviewed due to the page constraint. Besides, this type of protocols are much popular among the researchers since they are fairly simple to implement and produce good results as presented in this paper. Also, the pros and cons of each protocols are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with possible further research directions.

  14. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  15. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  16. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  17. An energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management for delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  18. Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks. Miloud Ait ... But, it is threatened by weak ... Wireless networks (IEEE standard 802.11 1996, Gast 2005) have allowed computer systems to exchange data without cable.

  19. IoT real time data acquisition using MQTT protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmoko, R. A.; Riantini, R.; Hasin, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides ease to monitor and to gain sensor data through the Internet [1]. The need of high quality data is increasing to the extent that data monitoring and acquisition system in real time is required, such as smart city or telediagnostic in medical areas [2]. Therefore, an appropriate communication protocol is required to resolve these problems. Lately, researchers have developed a lot of communication protocols for IoT, of which each has advantages and disadvantages. This study proposes the utilization of MQTT as a communication protocol, which is one of data communication protocols for IoT. This study used temperature and humidity sensors because the physical parameters are often needed as parameters of environment condition [3]. Data acquisition was done in real-time and stored in MySQL database. This study is also completed by interface web-based and mobile for online monitoring. This result of this study is the enhancement of data quality and reliability using MQTT protocol.

  20. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke; Corbett, Joan; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-08-08

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and 'social network' and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use.Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social

  1. Asynchronous transfer mode and Local Area Network emulation standards, protocols, and security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwin, John P.

    1999-01-01

    A complex networking technology called Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and a networking protocol called Local Area Network Emulation (LANE) are being integrated into many naval networks without any security-driven naval configuration guidelines. No single publication is available that describes security issues of data delivery and signaling relating to the transition of Ethernet to LANE and ATM. The thesis' focus is to provide: (1) an overview and security analysis of standardized protocols ...

  2. Adaptive MAC-layer protocol for multiservice digital access via tree and branch communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Kotikalapudi; Li, Chia-Chang; Magill, Peter; Whitaker, Norman A.; Dail, James E.; Dajer, Miguel A.; Siller, Curtis A.

    1995-11-01

    Described here is an adaptive MAC-layer protocol that supports multiservice (STM and ATM) applications in the context of subscriber access to tree and branch (e.g., fiber-coaxial cable) networks. The protocol adapts to changing demands for a mix of circuit and cell mode applications, and efficiently allocates upstream and downstream bandwidth to a variety of bursty and isochronous traffic sources. In the case of a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network the protocol resides in customer premises equipment and a common head-end controller. A medium-access control (MAC) processor provides for dividing the time domain for a given digital bitstream into successive frames, each with multiple STM and ATM time slots. Within the STM region of a frame, variable length time slots are allocated to calls (e.g., telephony, video telephony) requiring different amounts of bandwidth. A contention access signaling channel is also provided in this region for call control and set-up requests. Within the ATM region fixed-length time slots accommodate one individual ATM cell. These ATM time slots may be reserved for a user for the duration of a call or burst of successive ATM cells, or shared via a contention process. At least one contention time slot is available for signaling messages related to ATM call control and set-up requests. Further, the fixed-length ATM time slots may be reserved by a user for the duration of a call, or shared through a contention process. This paper describes the MAC-layer protocol, its relation to circuit- and ATM- amenable applications, and its performance with respect to signaling throughput and latency, and bandwidth efficiency for several service scenarios.

  3. Time concurrency/phase-time synchronization in digital communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Masami; Imaoka, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Digital communications networks have the intrinsic capability of time synchronization which makes it possible for networks to supply time signals to some applications and services. A practical estimation method for the time concurrency on terrestrial networks is presented. By using this method, time concurrency capability of the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) digital communications network is estimated to be better than 300 ns rms at an advanced level, and 20 ns rms at final level.

  4. Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol to Enhance Performance of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network: EECPEP-HWSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh V. Purkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN fulfills the requirements of researchers in the design of real life application to resolve the issues of unattended problem. But, the main constraint faced by researchers is the energy source available with sensor nodes. To prolong the life of sensor nodes and thus HWSN, it is necessary to design energy efficient operational schemes. One of the most suitable approaches to enhance energy efficiency is the clustering scheme, which enhances the performance parameters of WSN. A novel solution proposed in this article is to design an energy efficient clustering protocol for HWSN, to enhance performance parameters by EECPEP-HWSN. The proposed protocol is designed with three level nodes namely normal, advanced, and super, respectively. In the clustering process, for selection of cluster head we consider different parameters available with sensor nodes at run time that is, initial energy, hop count, and residual energy. This protocol enhances the energy efficiency of HWSN and hence improves energy remaining in the network, stability, lifetime, and hence throughput. It has been found that the proposed protocol outperforms than existing well-known LEACH, DEEC, and SEP with about 188, 150, and 141 percent respectively.

  5. Protocol compliance and time management in blunt trauma resuscitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, W.R.; Bergs, E.A.; Mushkudiani, N.; Klimek, M.; Schipper, I.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol adherence prospectively in trauma resuscitation and to analyse time management of daily multidisciplinary trauma resuscitation at a level 1 trauma centre, for both moderately and severely injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All

  6. A Survey of Routing Issues and Associated Protocols in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks are a newly emerging wireless technology in which small size sensors with limited energy and limited memory and bandwidth are deployed in deep sea water and various monitoring operations like tactical surveillance, environmental monitoring, and data collection are performed through these tiny sensors. Underwater wireless sensor networks are used for the exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, flood or disaster prevention, tactical surveillance systems, and unmanned underwater vehicles. Sensor nodes consist of a small memory, a central processing unit, and an antenna. Underwater networks are much different from terrestrial sensor networks as radio waves cannot be used in underwater wireless sensor networks. Acoustic channels are used for communication in deep sea water. Acoustic signals have many limitations, such as limited bandwidth, higher end-to-end delay, network path loss, higher propagation delay, and dynamic topology. Usually, these limitations result in higher energy consumption with a smaller number of packets delivered. The main aim nowadays is to operate sensor nodes having a smaller battery for a longer time in the network. This survey has discussed the state-of-the-art localization based and localization-free routing protocols. Routing associated issues in the area of underwater wireless sensor networks have also been discussed.

  7. Investigating And Evaluating Of Network Failures And Performance Over Distributed WAN In Application Protocol Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Okoh Kofi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Experiment was done to find out network failures and application performance relationship over distributed Wide Area Net WAN. In order to access related application over the cloud there must be an internet connectivity which will help the respective workstations to access the remote server for applications being deployed over the network. Bandwidth improvement helps in reducing utilization over the network and it also helps in improving Application Efficiency of these Applications in terms of Response Time. Routers were configured under Enhance Interior Gateway Routing Protocol EIGRP to reduce utilization and to ensure load sharing over the network. Three scenarios were modeled and their performance efficiency was evaluated. A modeled computer Network with and without a fail Router under different scenarios and such Network was simulated with emphasis on the Application Performance. The Experiment was done for fifty workstations under three scenarios and these three scenarios were accessed and evaluated on experimental basis using Riverbed modeler to show the Effect of Application Network performance. The performance results show that increasing the bandwidth reduces utilization and also with the failure of one communication bandwidth users can still access Network Application with a minimal cost.

  8. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  9. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  10. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  11. Implementation of a network level protocol on a GIXINET type local network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeuillet, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    The installation of a communication system for transferring results from several experiment laboratories to a computing center is described. The objectives of a useful bit rate of 24 kbs, low connection cost and simple infrastructure, extension of the network to 4 buildings situated within a radius of 300m, and connection in the most standardized fashion possible are attained by using the GIXINET local network and adopting the X25 packet protocol. Bit rates of 17.2 kbs for standard 128 octet packets, and 44 kbs for nonstandard packets (776 octets in this case) [fr

  12. Adaptive enhancement of learning protocol in hippocampal cultured networks grown on multielectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimashkin, Alexey; Gladkov, Arseniy; Mukhina, Irina; Kazantsev, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Learning in neuronal networks can be investigated using dissociated cultures on multielectrode arrays supplied with appropriate closed-loop stimulation. It was shown in previous studies that weakly respondent neurons on the electrodes can be trained to increase their evoked spiking rate within a predefined time window after the stimulus. Such neurons can be associated with weak synaptic connections in nearby culture network. The stimulation leads to the increase in the connectivity and in the response. However, it was not possible to perform the learning protocol for the neurons on electrodes with relatively strong synaptic inputs and responding at higher rates. We proposed an adaptive closed-loop stimulation protocol capable to achieve learning even for the highly respondent electrodes. It means that the culture network can reorganize appropriately its synaptic connectivity to generate a desired response. We introduced an adaptive reinforcement condition accounting for the response variability in control stimulation. It significantly enhanced the learning protocol to a large number of responding electrodes independently on its base response level. We also found that learning effect preserved after 4–6 h after training. PMID:23745105

  13. Communicating systems with UML 2 modeling and analysis of network protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera, David Garduno

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a practical approach to modeling and analyzing communication protocols using UML 2. Network protocols are always presented with a point of view focusing on partial mechanisms and starting models. This book aims at giving the basis needed for anybody to model and validate their own protocols. It follows a practical approach and gives many examples for the description and analysis of well known basic network mechanisms for protocols.The book firstly shows how to describe and validate the main protocol issues (such as synchronization problems, client-server interactions, layer

  14. Selection application for platforms and security protocols suitable for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S; Newe, T; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    There is a great number of platforms and security protocols which can be used for wireless sensor networks (WSN). All these platforms and protocols have different properties with certain advantages and disadvantages. For a good choice of platform and an associated protocol, these advantages and disadvantages should be compared and the best for the appropriate WSN chosen. To select a Security protocol and a wireless platform suitable for a specific application a software tool will be developed. That tool will enable wireless network deployment engineers to easily select a suitable wireless platform for their application based on their network needs and application security requirements.

  15. Persistent RCSMA: A MAC Protocol for a Distributed Cooperative ARQ Scheme in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso-Zárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent relay carrier sensing multiple access (PRCSMA protocol is presented in this paper as a novel medium access control (MAC protocol that allows for the execution of a distributed cooperative automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The underlying idea of the PRCSMA protocol is to modify the basic rules of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to execute a distributed cooperative ARQ scheme in wireless networks in order to enhance their performance and to extend coverage. A closed formulation of the distributed cooperative ARQ average packet transmission delay in a saturated network is derived in the paper. The analytical equations are then used to evaluate the performance of the protocol under different network configurations. Both the accuracy of the analysis and the performance evaluation of the protocol are supported and validated through computer simulations.

  16. Improvement of Network Efficiency on the Grounds of Change Communication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vychodil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with both theoretical and practical application of Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol instead of different solution described detailed in the article. It uses periodically HTTP method POST to gain information about a state, which a client stands in. During this process a new connection is created and closed, what enormously makes network traffic mote intensive. Instead of this we used XMPP, this technology eliminates disadvantages of synchronous HTTP connection by its adapting for real time connection. It uses stable connection, what does not need to create it any time any information needs to be sent. It decreased amount of transported data through a network and a time, in which is a client informed about an event due to a fact, that the new solution works in real time.

  17. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  18. Application of Game Theory Approaches in Routing Protocols for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Mohammad M.; Aliahmadipour, Laya

    2011-09-01

    An important and essential issue for wireless networks is routing protocol design that is a major technical challenge due to the function of the network. Game theory is a powerful mathematical tool that analyzes the strategic interactions among multiple decision makers and the results of researches show that applied game theory in routing protocol lead to improvement the network performance through reduce overhead and motivates selfish nodes to collaborate in the network. This paper presents a review and comparison for typical representatives of routing protocols designed that applied game theory approaches for various wireless networks such as ad hoc networks, mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks that all of them lead to improve the network performance.

  19. Achieving sink node anonymity in tactical wireless sensor networks using a reactive routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    node anonymity, base station anonymity, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation ... Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without...within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation

  20. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  1. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Pal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.

  2. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  3. Blocking Optimality in Distributed Real-Time Locking Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Bernhard Brandenburg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower and upper bounds on the maximum priority inversion blocking (pi-blocking that is generally unavoidable in distributed multiprocessor real-time locking protocols (where resources may be accessed only from specific synchronization processors are established. Prior work on suspension-based shared-memory multiprocessor locking protocols (which require resources to be accessible from all processors has established asymptotically tight bounds of Ω(m and Ω(n maximum pi-blocking under suspension-oblivious and suspension-aware analysis, respectively, where m denotes the total number of processors and n denotes the number of tasks. In this paper, it is shown that, in the case of distributed semaphore protocols, there exist two different task allocation scenarios that give rise to distinct lower bounds. In the case of co-hosted task allocation, where application tasks may also be assigned to synchronization processors (i.e., processors hosting critical sections, Ω(Φ · n maximum pi-blocking is unavoidable for some tasks under any locking protocol under both suspension-aware and suspension-oblivious schedulability analysis, where Φ denotes the ratio of the maximum response time to the shortest period. In contrast, in the case of disjoint task allocation (i.e., if application tasks may not be assigned to synchronization processors, only Ω(m and Ω(n maximum pi-blocking is fundamentally unavoidable under suspension-oblivious and suspension-aware analysis, respectively, as in the shared-memory case. These bounds are shown to be asymptotically tight with the construction of two new distributed real-time locking protocols that ensure O(m and O(n maximum pi-blocking under suspension-oblivious and suspension-aware analysis, respectively.

  4. Analysis of the End-by-Hop Protocol for Secure Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    In order to save bandwidth and thus battery power, sensor network measurements are sometimes aggregated en-route while being reported back to the querying server. Authentication of the measurements then becomes a challenge if message integrity is important for the application. At ESAS 2007, the End......-by-Hop protocol for securing in-network aggregation for sensor nodes was presented. The solution was claimed to be secure and efficient and to provide the possibility of trading off bandwidth against computation time on the server. In this paper, we disprove these claims. We describe several attacks against...... the proposed solution and point out shortcomings in the original complexity analysis. In particular, we show that the proposed solution is inferior to a naive solution without in-network aggregation both in security and in efficiency....

  5. Formal description of the jumpstart just-in-time signaling protocol using EFSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, A. H.; Baldine, Ilia; Cassada, Mark; Rouskas, George N.; Perros, Harry G.; Stevenson, Daniel S.

    2002-07-01

    We present a formal protocol description for a Just-In-Time (JIT) signaling scheme running over a core dWDM network which utilizes Optical Burst Switches (OBS). We apply an eight-tuple extended finite state machine (EFSM) model to formally specify the protocol. Using the EFSM model, we define the communication between a source client node and a destination client node through an ingress and one or multiple intermediate switches. We worked on single burst connections that means setting up the connection just before sending a single burst and then closing the connection as soon as the burst is sent. The communication between the EFSMs is handled through message transfer between protocol entities.

  6. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  7. Duality between Time Series and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanharo, Andriana S. L. O.; Sirer, M. Irmak; Malmgren, R. Dean; Ramos, Fernando M.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes.

    2011-01-01

    Studying the interaction between a system's components and the temporal evolution of the system are two common ways to uncover and characterize its internal workings. Recently, several maps from a time series to a network have been proposed with the intent of using network metrics to characterize time series. Although these maps demonstrate that different time series result in networks with distinct topological properties, it remains unclear how these topological properties relate to the original time series. Here, we propose a map from a time series to a network with an approximate inverse operation, making it possible to use network statistics to characterize time series and time series statistics to characterize networks. As a proof of concept, we generate an ensemble of time series ranging from periodic to random and confirm that application of the proposed map retains much of the information encoded in the original time series (or networks) after application of the map (or its inverse). Our results suggest that network analysis can be used to distinguish different dynamic regimes in time series and, perhaps more importantly, time series analysis can provide a powerful set of tools that augment the traditional network analysis toolkit to quantify networks in new and useful ways. PMID:21858093

  8. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  9. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  10. Real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks case study for the pharmaceutical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Schapranow, Matthieu-P

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the design of real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks based on in-memory technology, presents authentication protocols for devices with low computational resources and outlines steps for implementing history-based access control.

  11. DESIGN OF CAUCUS MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (C-MAC PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS IN SMART GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEETU SHARMA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Caucus-based medium access control protocol (C-MAC is proposed to reduce the end to end delay and battery consumption of the sensor nodes deployed in the monitoring of various smart grid regions, such as substation, pole and wires, perimeter security, real time and non-real-time monitoring using wireless sensor networks. The objective is to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce the end to end delay by mitigating the energy-hole problem and by eliminating bottlenecks significantly by using caucus based efficient synchronization techniques in multi-hop square grid topology of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The protocol self-reliantly and adaptively schedules node’s wake-up times, decreases idle listening and collisions, increases network throughput, and extends network lifetime. It induces a low duty cycle for adjusting wake-up times of sensor nodes. The appropriate selection of active and sleep time slots and next hop relay nodes are proposed to minimize the data transmission latency and to reduce battery consumption to increase the network lifetime. The uniform and synchronized transmission of the data packets is of prime importance to improve the network performance. Simulation results justify that the proposed C-MAC protocol increases the network lifetime, successful data transmission ratio along-with the reduction in end to end delay. The objective of this paper is to envisage benefits and utilization of C-MAC protocol for WSNs deployed in smart grids and to draw the attention of researchers in this area.

  12. CBHRP: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, M. G.; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, M. Sajjadur; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis, a head-set member receives data from the neighbor nodes and transmits the aggregated results to the distance base station. This protocol ...

  13. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  14. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  15. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  16. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  17. Low Duty-Cycling MAC Protocol for Low Data-Rate Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are severely energy constrained, and how to improve the energy efficiency so as to prolong the network lifetime as long as possible is one of the most important goals of WBAN research. Low data-rate WBANs are promising to cut down the energy consumption and extend the network lifetime. Considering the characteristics and demands of low data-rate WBANs, a low duty-cycling medium access control (MAC protocol is specially designed for this kind of WBAN in this paper. Longer superframes are exploited to cut down the energy consumed on the transmissions and receptions of redundant beacon frames. Insertion time slots are embedded into the inactive part of a superframe to deliver the frames and satisfy the quality of service (QoS requirements. The number of the data subsections in an insertion time slot can be adaptively adjusted so as to accommodate low data-rate WBANs with different traffic. Simulation results show that the proposed MAC protocol performs well under the condition of low data-rate monitoring traffic.

  18. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  19. A new energy-efficient MAC protocol with noise-based transmitted-reference modulation for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert; Meijerink, Arjan; Ye, D.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines to a large extent the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy

  20. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-05-19

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  1. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  2. Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alencar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing.

  3. A Selective-Awakening MAC Protocol for Energy-Efficient Data Forwarding in Linear Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclia Villordo-Jimenez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Selective-Awakening MAC (SA-MAC protocol which is a synchronized duty-cycled protocol with pipelined scheduling for Linear Sensor Networks (LSNs. In the proposed protocol, nodes selectively awake depending on node density and traffic load conditions and on the state of the buffers of the receiving nodes. In order to characterize the performance of the proposed protocol, we present a Discrete-Time Markov Chain-based analysis that is validated through extensive discrete-event simulations. Our results show that SA-MAC significantly outperforms previous proposals in terms of energy consumption, throughput, and packet loss probability. This is particularly true under high node density and high traffic load conditions, which are expected to be common scenarios in the context of IoT applications. We also present an analysis by grade (i.e., the number of hops to the sink, which is located at one end of the LSN that reveals that LSNs exhibit heterogeneous performance depending on the nodes’ grade. Such results can be used as a design guideline for future LSN implementations.

  4. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  5. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  6. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  7. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  8. RENEW: a real-time and effective network emulator of windows for IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Li, Yu; Cen, Dan

    2007-09-01

    Although IPv4 is still working, IPv6 is considered as the backbone and characteristic of the NGI. With the development of Internet, new protocols and network equipments are required to develop. It is necessary to test the new protocols and network equipments extensively before deployment. This paper proposes the design and implementation of RENEW, a useable and accurate network emulator which supports both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. Besides, it also works on Windows platform. In our IPv6 testbed, we use RENEW to emulate various network characteristics and conditions including bandwidth, delay packet loss and jitter. Compared with the expected values, results are acceptable. Through implementation and experimentation study, we have shown that RENEW does provide the real-time control and change on the parameters of IPv6 network conditions effectively and expediently on Windows. It also gives enough accuracy and more satisfactory convenience to the development and test work for the new protocols.

  9. Scheduled MAC in Beacon Overlay Networks for Underwater Localization and Time-Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a MAC protocol designed for underwater localization and time-synchronisation. The MAC protocol assumes a network of static reference nodes and allows blind nodes to be localized by listening-only to the beacon messages. Such a system is known to be very scalable. We show

  10. Renormalization group theory for percolation in time-varying networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschau, Jens; Zimmerling, Marco; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2018-05-22

    Motivated by multi-hop communication in unreliable wireless networks, we present a percolation theory for time-varying networks. We develop a renormalization group theory for a prototypical network on a regular grid, where individual links switch stochastically between active and inactive states. The question whether a given source node can communicate with a destination node along paths of active links is equivalent to a percolation problem. Our theory maps the temporal existence of multi-hop paths on an effective two-state Markov process. We show analytically how this Markov process converges towards a memoryless Bernoulli process as the hop distance between source and destination node increases. Our work extends classical percolation theory to the dynamic case and elucidates temporal correlations of message losses. Quantification of temporal correlations has implications for the design of wireless communication and control protocols, e.g. in cyber-physical systems such as self-organized swarms of drones or smart traffic networks.

  11. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  12. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  13. Network structure and travel time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  14. Delay-tolerant mobile network protocol for rice field monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Alexandre; Andres, Frédéric; Cardoso, Jarbas Lopes; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Barbin, Silvio E.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of rice fields can improve productivity by helping farmers throughout the rice cultivation cycle, on various issues: when to harvest, when to treat the crops against disease, when to increase the water level, how to share observations and decisions made in a collaborative way, etc. In this paper, we propose an architecture to monitor a rice field by a wireless sensor network. Our architecture is based on static sensor nodes forming a disconnected network, and mobile nodes communicating with the sensor nodes in a delay-tolerant manner. The data collected by the static sensor nodes are transmitted to mobile nodes, which in turn transmit them to a gateway, connected to a database, for further analysis. We focus on the related architecture, as well as on the energy-efficient protocols intended to perform the data collection.

  15. The Control Packet Collision Avoidance Algorithm for the Underwater Multichannel MAC Protocols via Time-Frequency Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing high-speed and reliable underwater acoustic networks among multiunmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs is basic to realize cooperative and intelligent control among different UUVs. Nevertheless, different from terrestrial network, the propagation speed of the underwater acoustic network is 1500 m/s, which makes the design of the underwater acoustic network MAC protocols a big challenge. In accordance with multichannel MAC protocols, data packets and control packets are transferred through different channels, which lowers the adverse effect of acoustic network and gradually becomes the popular issues of underwater acoustic networks MAC protocol research. In this paper, we proposed a control packet collision avoidance algorithm utilizing time-frequency masking to deal with the control packets collision in the control channel. This algorithm is based on the scarcity of the noncoherent underwater acoustic communication signals, which regards collision avoiding as separation of the mixtures of communication signals from different nodes. We first measure the W-Disjoint Orthogonality of the MFSK signals and the simulation result demonstrates that there exists time-frequency mask which can separate the source signals from the mixture of the communication signals. Then we present a pairwise hydrophones separation system based on deep networks and the location information of the nodes. Consequently, the time-frequency mask can be estimated.

  16. Photovoltaic: time for network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2012 the purchase tariff of photovoltaic power in Germany has been below the price of electricity for households which means that network parity has been reached. New economical schemes combining self-consumption and direct access to the power grid are now possible. (A.C.)

  17. Differential phase-time shifting protocol for QKD (DPTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols.......We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols....

  18. Researches on the Security of Cluster-based Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the in-depth application of sensor networks, the security issues have gradually become the bottleneck of wireless sensor applications. To provide a solution for security scheme is a common concern not only of researchers but also of providers, integrators and users of wireless sensor networks. Based on this demand, this paper focuses on the research of strengthening the security of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Based on the systematic analysis of the clustering protocol and its security enhancement scheme, the paper introduces the broadcast authentication scheme, and proposes an SA-LEACH network security enhancement protocol. The performance analysis and simulation experiments prove that the protocol consumes less energy with the same security requirements, and when the base station is comparatively far from the network deployment area, it is more advantageous in terms of energy consumption and t more suitable for wireless sensor networks.

  19. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  20. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum secure communication network protocol with entangled photons for mobile communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a communication protocol called controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication for mobile networks was proposed by Chou et al (2014 Mobile Netw. Appl. 19 121). We study the security of the proposed communication protocol and find that it is not secure. The controller, Telecom Company, may eavesdrop secret messages from mobile devices without being detected. Finally, we give a possible improvement of the communication protocol. (paper)

  1. Throughput and Fairness of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J; Wang, Yu

    2004-01-01

    .... In Section 1, The authors present an analytical modeling to derive the saturation throughput of these sender-initiated collision avoidance protocols in multi-hop ad hoc networks with nodes randomly...

  2. A Performance Study of LEACH and Direct Diffusion Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakher, S.; Sharshar, K.; Moawad, M.I.; Shokair, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of a large number of sensor nodes with limited computation communication, and battery facilities. One of the common applications of this network is environment monitoring through sensing motion, measuring temperature, humidity and radiation. One of the basic activities in WSN is data gathering which represents a great challenge. Many routing protocols are proposed for that network to collect and aggregate the data. The most popular ones are hierarchy and data centric routing protocols. The main goal of this study is to identify the most preferable routing protocol, to be used in each mobility model. This paper studies the performance of LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) from hierarchy routing protocol and direct diffusion from data centric routing protocol which is not clarified until now. Moreover, a comparison between LEACH and direct diffusion protocol using NS2 simulator will be made, and an analysis of these protocols will be conducted. The comparison includes packet delivery ratio, throughput, average energy ratio, average delay, network lifetime, and routing overhead. The performance is evaluated by varying the number of sensor nodes under three mobility models Reference Point Group Mobility Model (RPGM), Manhattan and random waypoint mobility model. Simulation results show that LEACH routing protocol has a good performance in RPGM and Manhattan than random waypoint mobility model. Direct diffusion has a good performance in random waypoint mobility model than in RPGM and Manhattan mobility model

  3. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Cluster-Based Service Discovery Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—This paper evaluates the performance in terms of resource consumption of a service discovery protocol proposed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The protocol is based on a clustering structure, which facilitates the construction of a distributed directory. Nodes with higher

  5. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  6. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  7. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  8. Consensus problem in directed networks of multi-agents via nonlinear protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiwei; Chen Tianping; Lu Wenlian

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the consensus problem via distributed nonlinear protocols for directed networks is investigated. Its dynamical behaviors are described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Based on graph theory, matrix theory and the Lyapunov direct method, some sufficient conditions of nonlinear protocols guaranteeing asymptotical or exponential consensus are presented and rigorously proved. The main contribution of this work is that for nonlinearly coupled networks, we generalize the results for undirected networks to directed networks. Consensus under pinning control technique is also developed here. Simulations are also given to show the validity of the theories.

  9. Host based internet protocol (IP) packet analysis to enhance network security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Ahmad, S.Z.; Yasin, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data communication in a computer network environment is facing serious security threats from numerous sources such as viruses, worms, Zombies etc. These threats can be broadly characterized as internal or external security threats. Internal threats are mainly attributed to sneaker-nets, utility modems and unauthorized users, which can be minimized by skillful network administration, password management and optimum usage policy definition. The external threats need more serious attention as these attacks are mostly coming from public networks such as Internet. Frequency and complexity of such attacks is much higher as compared to internal attacks. This paper presents a host based network layer screening of external and internal IP packets for logging, analyzing and real-time detection of possible IP spoofing and Denial of Service attacks. This work can also be used in tuning security rules definition for gateway firewalls. Software has been developed which intercepts IP traffic and analyses it with respect to integrity and origin of I P packet. The received IP packets are parsed and analyzed for possible signs of intrusion. The results show that by watching and categorizing composition of various transport protocol such as TCP, UDP, ICMP and others along with verifying the origin of received IP packet can help in devising real-time firewall rule and blocking possible external attack. This is highly desirable for fighting against zero day attacks and can result in a better Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) to increase the survivability of computer network. Used in a right context, packet screening and filtering can be a useful tool for provision of reliable and stable network services. (author)

  10. A feedback-retransmission based asynchronous frequency hopping MAC protocol for military aeronautical ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui TANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attacking time-sensitive targets has rigid demands for the timeliness and reliability of information transmission, while typical Media Access Control (MAC designed for this application works well only in very light-load scenarios; as a consequence, the performances of system throughput and channel utilization are degraded. For this problem, a feedback-retransmission based asynchronous FRequency hopping Media Access (FRMA control protocol is proposed. Burst communication, asynchronous Frequency Hopping (FH, channel coding, and feedback retransmission are utilized in FRMA. With the mechanism of asynchronous FH, immediate packet transmission and multi-packet reception can be realized, and thus the timeliness is improved. Furthermore, reliability can be achieved via channel coding and feedback retransmission. With theories of queuing theory, Markov model, packets collision model, and discrete Laplace transformation, the formulas of packet success probability, system throughput, average packet end-to-end delay, and delay distribution are obtained. The approximation accuracy of theoretical derivation is verified by experimental results. Within a light-load network, the proposed FRMA has the ability of millisecond delay and 99% reliability as well as outperforms the non-feedback-retransmission based asynchronous frequency hopping media access control protocol. Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Aeronautical communications, Frequency hopping, Media Access Control (MAC, Time-sensitive

  11. Network architectures and protocols for the integration of ACTS and ISDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, D. M.; Lowry, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A close integration of satellite networks and the integrated services digital network (ISDN) is essential for satellite networks to carry ISDN traffic effectively. This also shows how a given (pre-ISDN) satellite network architecture can be enhanced to handle ISDN signaling and provide ISDN services. It also describes the functional architecture and high-level protocols that could be implemented in the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) low burst rate communications system to provide ISDN services.

  12. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    aerial vehicle VANET vehicular ad hoc network VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VRR Virtual Ring Routing xiii EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA...ad hoc networks in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), and flying ad hoc net- works (FANETs). Much of the research...metric, such as capacity, congestion , power, or combinations thereof. Caro refers to two different types of ants, FANTs and BANTs which are analogous to

  13. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  14. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  15. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  16. An energy-efficient data gathering protocol in large wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Zhang, Ruihua; Tao, Shizhong

    2006-11-01

    Wireless sensor network consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power transceiver can be an effective tool for gathering data in a variety of environment. The collected data must be transmitted to the base station for further processing. Since a network consists of sensors with limited battery energy, the method for data gathering and routing must be energy efficient in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this paper, we presented an energy-efficient data gathering protocol in wireless sensor network. The new protocol used data fusion technology clusters nodes into groups and builds a chain among the cluster heads according to a hybrid of the residual energy and distance to the base station. Results in stochastic geometry are used to derive the optimum parameter of our algorithm that minimizes the total energy spent in the network. Simulation results show performance superiority of the new protocol.

  17. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-04-09

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  18. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil Mammu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs. One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs and a cluster head (CH. The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED.

  19. Neural Network Models for Time Series Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Hill; Marcus O'Connor; William Remus

    1996-01-01

    Neural networks have been advocated as an alternative to traditional statistical forecasting methods. In the present experiment, time series forecasts produced by neural networks are compared with forecasts from six statistical time series methods generated in a major forecasting competition (Makridakis et al. [Makridakis, S., A. Anderson, R. Carbone, R. Fildes, M. Hibon, R. Lewandowski, J. Newton, E. Parzen, R. Winkler. 1982. The accuracy of extrapolation (time series) methods: Results of a ...

  20. IPV6 Mobile Network Protocol Weaknesses and a Cryptosystem Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    This paper reviews some of the improvements associated with the new Internet protocol version 6, an emphasis on its security-related functionality particularly in its authentication and concludes with a hybrid cryptosystem for its authentication issue. Since new generation of Internet protocol is on its way to solve the growth of IP address depletion. It is in a process that may take several years to complete. Thus, as a step to effective solution and efficient implementation this review has been made.

  1. Highly reliable computer network for real time system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.A.; Omar, A.A.; Ayad, N.M.A.; Madkour, M.A.I.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Many of computer networks have been studied different trends regarding the network architecture and the various protocols that govern data transfers and guarantee a reliable communication among all a hierarchical network structure has been proposed to provide a simple and inexpensive way for the realization of a reliable real-time computer network. In such architecture all computers in the same level are connected to a common serial channel through intelligent nodes that collectively control data transfers over the serial channel. This level of computer network can be considered as a local area computer network (LACN) that can be used in nuclear power plant control system since it has geographically dispersed subsystems. network expansion would be straight the common channel for each added computer (HOST). All the nodes are designed around a microprocessor chip to provide the required intelligence. The node can be divided into two sections namely a common section that interfaces with serial data channel and a private section to interface with the host computer. This part would naturally tend to have some variations in the hardware details to match the requirements of individual host computers. fig 7

  2. SDL-Based Protocol Validation for the Integrated Safety Communication Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-hun; Kim, Dong-hoon; Lee, Dong-young; Park, Sung-woo

    2006-01-01

    The communication protocol in nuclear power plants needs to be validated systematically to avoid the critical situation that may be caused by its own faults. We establish the methodology to validate the protocol designed for the Integrated Safety Communication Networks (ISCN) of Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS). The ISCN protocol is specified using the formal description technique called the SDL. The validation of ISCN protocol is done via the Simulator and Validator, both of which are main functions provided by the SDL

  3. IMHRP: Improved Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Ruan, Danwei; Hong, Yadong; Zhao, Ziming; Zheng, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a self-organizing system formed by a large number of low-cost sensor nodes through wireless communication. Sensor nodes collect environmental information and transmit it to the base station (BS). Sensor nodes usually have very limited battery energy. The batteries cannot be charged or replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to design an energy efficient routing protocol to maximize the network lifetime. This paper presents an improved multi-hop routing protocol (IMHRP) for homogeneous networks. In the IMHRP protocol, based on the distances to the BS, the CH nodes are divided into internal CH nodes and external CH nodes. The set-up phase of the protocol is based on the LEACH protocol and the minimum distance between CH nodes are limited to a special constant distance, so a more uniform distribution of CH nodes is achieved. In the steady-state phase, the routes of different CH nodes are created on the basis of the distances between the CH nodes. The energy efficiency of communication can be maximized. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can more effectively reduce the energy consumption of each round and prolong the network lifetime compared with LEACH protocol and MHT protocol.

  4. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  5. A hybrid MAC protocol design for energy-efficient very-high-throughput millimeter wave, wireless sensor communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei; Estevez, Claudio; Chowdhury, Arshad; Jia, Zhensheng; Wang, Jianxin; Yu, Jianguo; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for very-high-throughput millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless sensor communication networks (VHT-MSCNs) based on hybrid multiple access techniques of frequency division multiplexing access (FDMA) and time division multiplexing access (TDMA). An energy-efficient Superframe for wireless sensor communication network employing directional mm-wave wireless access technologies is proposed for systems that require very high throughput, such as high definition video signals, for sensing, processing, transmitting, and actuating functions. Energy consumption modeling for each network element and comparisons among various multi-access technologies in term of power and MAC layer operations are investigated for evaluating the energy-efficient improvement of proposed MAC protocol.

  6. Asymmetric Propagation Delay-Aware TDMA MAC Protocol for Mobile Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The propagation delay in mobile underwater acoustic sensor network (MUASN is asymmetric because of its low sound propagation speed, and this asymmetry grows with the increase in packet travel time, which damages the collision avoidance mechanism of the spatial reuse medium access control (MAC protocols for MUASN. We propose an asymmetric propagation delay-aware time division multiple access (APD-TDMA for a MUASN in which periodic data packet transmission is required for a sink node (SN. Collisions at the SN are avoided by deferring data packet transmission after reception of a beacon packet from the SN, and data packets are arrived at the SN in a packet-train manner. The time-offset, which is the time for a node to wait before the transmission of a data packet after reception of a beacon packet, is determined by estimating the propagation delay over two consecutive cycles such that the idle interval at the SN is minimized, and this time-offset is announced by the beacon packet. Simulation results demonstrate that the APD-TDMA improves the channel access delay and the channel utilization by approximately 20% and 30%, respectively, compared with those of the block time bounded TDMA under the given network conditions.

  7. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  8. Passive Optical Networks for the Distribution of Timed Signals in Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Papakonstantinou, I; Papadopoulos,S; Troska, J; Vasey, F; Baron, S; Santos, L; Silva, S; Stejskal, P; Sigaud, C; Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Darwazeh, I

    2009-01-01

    A passive optical network for timing distribution applications based on FPGAs has been successfully demonstrated. Deterministic latency was achieved in the critical downstream direction where triggers are distributed while a burst mode receiver was successfully implemented in the upstream direction. Finally, a simple and efficient protocol was introduced for the communication between the OLT and the ONUs in the network that maximizes bandwidth utilization.

  9. Effective Data Acquisition Protocol for Multi-Hop Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Khedr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is important to reduce energy dissipation and prolong network lifetime. Clustering of nodes is one of the most effective approaches for conserving energy in WSNs. Cluster formation protocols generally consider the heterogeneity of sensor nodes in terms of energy difference of nodes but ignore the different transmission ranges of them. In this paper, we propose an effective data acquisition clustered protocol using compressive sensing (EDACP-CS for heterogeneous WSNs that aims to conserve the energy of sensor nodes in the presence of energy and transmission range heterogeneity. In EDACP-CS, cluster heads are selected based on the distance from the base station and sensor residual energy. Simulation results show that our protocol offers a much better performance than the existing protocols in terms of energy consumption, stability, network lifetime, and throughput.

  10. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  11. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  12. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  13. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  14. Model-based prototyping of an interoperability protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, L.M.; Westergaard, M.; Norgaard, P.C.; Romijn, J.; Smith, G.; Pol, van de J.

    2005-01-01

    We present an industrial project conducted at Ericsson Danmark A/S, Telebit where formal methods in the form of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the specification of an interoperability protocol for routing packets between fixed core networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. The

  15. Implantable Body Sensor Network MAC Protocols Using Wake-up Radio – Evaluation in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Applications of implantable sensor networks in the health-care industry have increased tremendously over the last decade. There are different types of medium access control (MAC) protocols that are designed for implantable body sensor networks, using different physical layer technologies such as

  16. Performance of Implementation IBR-DTN and Batman-Adv Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Yuliandoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks is a network which has high mobility and flexibility network. In Wireless mesh networks nodes are free to move and able to automatically build a network connection with other nodes. High mobility, heterogeneous condition and intermittent network connectivity cause data packets drop during wireless communication and it becomes a problem in the wireless mesh networks. This condition can happen because wireless mesh networks use connectionless networking type such as IP protocol which it is not tolerant to delay. To solve this condition it is needed a technology to keep data packets when the network is disconnect. Delay tolerant technology is a technology that provides store and forward mechanism and it can prevent packet data dropping during communication. In our research, we proposed a test bed wireless mesh networks implementation by using proactive routing protocol and combining with delay tolerant technology. We used Batman-adv routing protocol and IBR-DTN on our research. We measured some particular performance aspect of networking such as packet loss, delay, and throughput of the network. We identified that delay tolerant could keep packet data from dropping better than current wireless mesh networks in the intermittent network condition. We also proved that IBR-DTN and Batman-adv could run together on the wireless mesh networks. In The experiment throughput test result of IBR-DTN was higher than Current TCP on the LoS (Line of Side and on environment with obstacle. Keywords: Delay Tolerant, IBR-DTN, Wireless Mesh, Batman-adv, Performance

  17. Energy Efficiency in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs): Protocol Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    a suitable wakeup time scheduler at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). A generic EPON system is considered, which is composed of an OLT and several ONUs that are EMM enabled. An energy consumption optimization problem aimed at saving energy is proposed and two heuristic sleep mode scheduling policies......As concerns about energy consumption grow, the power consumption of the EPON becomes a matter of increasing importance. In respect of energy efficiency, the current standard has no management protocols aiming to reduce power consumption in EPONs. In this paper, we propose an Energy Management...... and guaranteeing the network performance at the same time. Simulation results show that an EMM-based EPON with well designed scheduling disciplines is essential to achieving significant energy saving while meeting the delay constraint....

  18. Quorum system and random based asynchronous rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Romaszko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks, RAC2E-gQS, which utilizes (1 the asynchronous and randomness properties of the RAC2E protocol, and (2 channel mapping protocol, based on a grid Quorum System (gQS, and taking into account channel heterogeneity and asymmetric channel views. We show that the combination of the RAC2E protocol with the grid-quorum based channel mapping can yield a powerful RAC2E-gQS rendezvous protocol for asynchronous operation in a distributed environment assuring a rapid rendezvous between the cognitive radio nodes having available both symmetric and asymmetric channel views. We also propose an enhancement of the protocol, which uses a torus QS for a slot allocation, dealing with the worst case scenario, a large number of channels with opposite ranking lists.

  19. A Secure Key Establishment Protocol for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    ZigBee is a wireless sensor network standard that defines network and application layers on top of IEEE 802.15.4’s physical and medium access control layers. In the latest version of ZigBee, enhancements are prescribed for the security sublayer but we show in this paper that problems persist....... In particular we show that the End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol is flawed and we propose a secure protocol instead. We do so by using formal verification techniques based on static program analysis and process algebras. We present a way of using formal methods in wireless network security......, and propose a secure key establishment protocol for ZigBee networks....

  20. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  1. A survey on bio inspired meta heuristic based clustering protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Nandakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that utilizing a mobile sink to harvest and carry data from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can improve network operational efficiency as well as maintain uniform energy consumption by the sensor nodes in the network. Due to Sink mobility, the path between two sensor nodes continuously changes and this has a profound effect on the operational longevity of the network and a need arises for a protocol which utilizes minimal resources in maintaining routes between the mobile sink and the sensor nodes. Swarm Intelligence based techniques inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, termites and honey bees can be artificially simulated and utilized to solve real wireless network problems. The author presents a brief survey on various bio inspired swarm intelligence based protocols used in routing data in wireless sensor networks while outlining their general principle and operation.

  2. Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocols, Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive systems, which are described as networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments, are considered to have the potential to change our daily lives by creating smart surroundings and by their ubiquity, just as the Internet. In the last decade, “Wireless Sensor Networks��? have appeared as one of the real-world examples of pervasive systems by combining automated sensing, embedded computing and wireless networking into tiny embedded devices. A wireless sensor network typ...

  3. ING: INDOOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR GREEN HOME NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouthar Sethom; Nozha Al- Ibrahimi; Guy Pujolle

    2011-01-01

    Because of all the innovations in computer communications and digital consumer device technologies,people have had great interest in researching home networking systems. The home is evolving rapidlyinto a smart Mesh networked environment.Moreover, the energy consumption of wireless devices and networks gradually increases to represent asignificant portion of the operational cost, naturally also causing increased equivalent carbonemissions to the environment. Therefore, reducing the energy con...

  4. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Subhajit Pal; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Tai-hoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and comp...

  5. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  6. A General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liefeng; Tian, Kaiyun

    2014-04-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a system composed of a large number of low-cost micro-sensors. This network is used to collect and send various kinds of messages to a base station (BS). WSN consists of low-cost nodes with limited battery power, and the battery replacement is not easy for WSN with thousands of physically embedded nodes, which means energy efficient routing protocol should be employed to offer a long-life work time. To achieve the aim, we need not only to minimize total energy consumption but also to balance WSN load. Researchers have proposed many protocols such as LEACH, HEED, PEGASIS, TBC and PEDAP. In this paper, we propose a General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance routing protocol (GSTEB) which builds a routing tree using a process where, for each round, BS assigns a root node and broadcasts this selection to all sensor nodes. Subsequently, each node selects its parent by considering only itself and its neighbors' information, thus making GSTEB a dynamic protocol. Simulation results show that GSTEB has a better performance than other protocols in balancing energy consumption, thus prolonging the lifetime of WSN.

  7. An authenticated encrypted routing protocol against attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Suma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations[10]. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication[11]. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied[1]. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.

  8. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-01-01

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  9. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-12-20

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  10. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  11. Energy- Efficient Routing Protocols For Wireless Sensor Network A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kaur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been plenty of interest in building and deploying sensor networks. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

  12. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  13. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  14. LHCb: Time structure analysis of the LHCb Online network

    CERN Multimedia

    Antichi, G; Campora Perez, D H; Liu, G; Neufeld, N; Giordano, S; Owezarski, P; Moore, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb Online Network is a real time high performance network, in which 350 data sources send data over a Gigabit Ethernet LAN to more than 1500 receiving nodes. The aggregated throughput of the application, called Event Building, is more than 60 GB/s. The protocol employed by LHCb makes the sending nodes transmit simultaneously portions of events to one receiving node at a time, which is selected using a credit-token scheme. The resulting traffic is very bursty and sensitive to irregularities in the temporal distribution of packet-bursts to the same destination or region of the network. In order to study the relevant properties of such a dataflow, a non-disruptive monitoring setup based on a networking capable FPGA (NetFPGA) has been deployed. The NetFPGA allows order of hundred nano-second precise time-stamping of packets. We study in detail the timing structure of the Event Building communication, and we identify potential effects of micro-bursts like buffer packet drops or jitter.

  15. Time series analysis of temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Sandipan; Ganguly, Niloy; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    A common but an important feature of all real-world networks is that they are temporal in nature, i.e., the network structure changes over time. Due to this dynamic nature, it becomes difficult to propose suitable growth models that can explain the various important characteristic properties of these networks. In fact, in many application oriented studies only knowing these properties is sufficient. For instance, if one wishes to launch a targeted attack on a network, this can be done even without the knowledge of the full network structure; rather an estimate of some of the properties is sufficient enough to launch the attack. We, in this paper show that even if the network structure at a future time point is not available one can still manage to estimate its properties. We propose a novel method to map a temporal network to a set of time series instances, analyze them and using a standard forecast model of time series, try to predict the properties of a temporal network at a later time instance. To our aim, we consider eight properties such as number of active nodes, average degree, clustering coefficient etc. and apply our prediction framework on them. We mainly focus on the temporal network of human face-to-face contacts and observe that it represents a stochastic process with memory that can be modeled as Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-Average (ARIMA). We use cross validation techniques to find the percentage accuracy of our predictions. An important observation is that the frequency domain properties of the time series obtained from spectrogram analysis could be used to refine the prediction framework by identifying beforehand the cases where the error in prediction is likely to be high. This leads to an improvement of 7.96% (for error level ≤20%) in prediction accuracy on an average across all datasets. As an application we show how such prediction scheme can be used to launch targeted attacks on temporal networks. Contribution to the Topical Issue

  16. Multimedia over cognitive radio networks algorithms, protocols, and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceAbout the EditorsContributorsNetwork Architecture to Support Multimedia over CRNA Management Architecture for Multimedia Communication in Cognitive Radio NetworksAlexandru O. Popescu, Yong Yao, Markus Fiedler , and Adrian P. PopescuPaving a Wider Way for Multimedia over Cognitive Radios: An Overview of Wideband Spectrum Sensing AlgorithmsBashar I. Ahmad, Hongjian Sun, Cong Ling, and Arumugam NallanathanBargaining-Based Spectrum Sharing for Broadband Multimedia Services in Cognitive Radio NetworkYang Yan, Xiang Chen, Xiaofeng Zhong, Ming Zhao, and Jing WangPhysical Layer Mobility Challen

  17. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  18. GeoVanet: A Routing Protocol for Query Processing in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Delot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, cars can exchange information by using short-range wireless communications. Along with the opportunities offered by vehicular networks, a number of challenges also arise. In particular, most works so far have focused on a push model, where potentially useful data are pushed towards vehicles. The use of pull models, that would allow users to send queries to a set of cars in order to find the desired information, has not been studied in depth. The main challenge for pull models is the difficulty to route the different results towards the query originator in a highly dynamic network where the nodes move very quickly. To solve this issue, we propose GeoVanet, an anonymous and non-intrusive geographic routing protocol which ensures that the sender of a query can get a consistent answer. Our goal is to ensure that the user will be able to retrieve the query results within a bounded time. To prove the effectiveness of GeoVanet, an extensive experimental evaluation has been performed, that proves the interest of the proposal for both rural and urban areas. It shows that up to 80% of the available query results are delivered to the user.

  19. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological–temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network

  20. Altruistic Backoff: Collision Avoidance for Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Orfanidis, Charalampos; Dragoni, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    In receiver-initiated medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks, communication is initiated by the receiver node which transmits beacons indicating its availability to receive data. In the case of multiple senders having traffic for a given receiver, such beacons form...... points where collisions are likely to happen. In this paper, we present altruistic backoff (AB), a novel collision avoidance mechanism that aims to avoid collisions before the transmission of a beacon. As a result of an early backoff, senders spend less time in idle listening waiting for a beacon, thus...... saving significant amounts of energy. We present an implementation of AB for Texas Instruments' eZ430-rf2500 sensor nodes and we evaluate its performance with simulations and experiments....

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng Kiat Amos, Teo

    2005-01-01

    ... and have topologies engineered. As such, recent research into wireless sensor networks has attracted great interest due to its diversity of applications, ranging in areas such as home, health, environmental and military applications...

  2. Local networks and the Internet from protocols to interconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Toutain, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This title covers the most commonly used elements of Internet and Intranet technology and their development. It details the latest developments in research and covers new themes such as IP6, MPLS, and IS-IS routing, as well as explaining the function of standardization committees such as IETF, IEEE, and UIT. The book is illustrated with numerous examples and applications which will help the reader to place protocols in their proper context.

  3. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  4. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  5. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  6. A Review of Various Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anupma Sangwan; Deepti Sindhu; Kulbir Singh

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound, vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN [1] is composed of a large number of low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) and one or several base stations (BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limit...

  7. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Using Dynamic Queue Management for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugui Qu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  8. Compromises Between Quality of Service Metrics and Energy Consumption of Hierarchical and Flat Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensors Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbari BEN YAGOUTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is wireless network composed of spatially distributed and tiny autonomous nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Among the concerns of these networks is prolonging the lifetime by saving nodes energy. There are several protocols specially designed for WSNs based on energy conservation. However, many WSNs applications require QoS (Quality of Service criteria, such as latency, reliability and throughput. In this paper, we will compare three routing protocols for wireless sensors network LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, AODV (Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector and LABILE (Link Quality-Based Lexical Routing using Castalia simulator in terms of energy consumption, throughput, reliability and latency time of packets received by sink under different conditions to determinate the best configurations that offers the most suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics for each routing protocols. The results show that, the best configurations that offer the suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics is a large number of deployed nodes with low packet rate for LEACH (300 nodes and 1 packet/s, a medium number of deployed nodes with low packet rate For AODV (100 nodes and 1 packet/s and a very low nodes density with low packet rate for LABILE (50 nodes and 1 packet/s.

  9. Proficient Node Scheduling Protocol for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saravanakumar; N. Mohankumar; J. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Recent communications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have much new energy-efficient protocols specifically designed, where energy awareness is an essential consideration. In WSNs, large numbers of tiny sensor nodes are used as an effective way of data gathering in various environments. Since the sensor nodes operate on battery of limited power, it is a great challenging aim to design an energy-efficient routing protocol, which can minimize the delay while offering high-energy efficiency a...

  10. An efficient multi-carrier position-based packet forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to variation in node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated against existing beaconless position-based protocols analytically and as well by means of simulations. The proposed protocol is demonstrated in this paper to be more efficient. In particular, it is shown that for the same amount of energy the proposed protocol transports one bit from source to destination much quicker. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

  12. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. Our protocol uses the age of packet as a priority metric for packet scheduling. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of our proposed MAC protocol. We conclude that we can achieve fairness with only little impact on network capacity.

  13. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  14. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 2: Protocol specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (2 of 4) contains the specification, structured flow charts, and code listing for the protocol. The purpose of an autonomous power system on a spacecraft is to relieve humans from having to continuously monitor and control the generation, storage, and distribution of power in the craft. This implies that algorithms will have been developed to monitor and control the power system. The power system will contain computers on which the algorithms run. There should be one control computer system that makes the high level decisions and sends commands to and receive data from the other distributed computers. This will require a communications network and an efficient protocol by which the computers will communicate. One of the major requirements on the protocol is that it be real time because of the need to control the power elements.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  16. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET to the OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET are very important areas of the research. In this article, the performance analysis of the enhanced dynamic source routing protocol (OPP_DSR is introduced. This modification enables the routing process in the case when there are no connections to other mobile nodes. It also will enable the routing mechanisms when the routes, selected by routing mechanisms, are disconnected for some time. Disconnection can be for a short time and standard routing protocol DSR cannot reflect on this situation.The main idea is based on opportunistic forwarding where the nodes not only forward data but it's stored in the cache during long time. The network parameters throughput, routing load and are analysed.

  17. Network structure of multivariate time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Lucas; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-10-21

    Our understanding of a variety of phenomena in physics, biology and economics crucially depends on the analysis of multivariate time series. While a wide range tools and techniques for time series analysis already exist, the increasing availability of massive data structures calls for new approaches for multidimensional signal processing. We present here a non-parametric method to analyse multivariate time series, based on the mapping of a multidimensional time series into a multilayer network, which allows to extract information on a high dimensional dynamical system through the analysis of the structure of the associated multiplex network. The method is simple to implement, general, scalable, does not require ad hoc phase space partitioning, and is thus suitable for the analysis of large, heterogeneous and non-stationary time series. We show that simple structural descriptors of the associated multiplex networks allow to extract and quantify nontrivial properties of coupled chaotic maps, including the transition between different dynamical phases and the onset of various types of synchronization. As a concrete example we then study financial time series, showing that a multiplex network analysis can efficiently discriminate crises from periods of financial stability, where standard methods based on time-series symbolization often fail.

  18. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described

  19. Potential of Wake-Up Radio-Based MAC Protocols for Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN—A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Raja Karuppiah Ramachandran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of nano-technology, medical sensors and devices are becoming highly miniaturized. Consequently, the number of sensors and medical devices being implanted to accurately monitor and diagnose a disease is increasing. By measuring the symptoms and controlling a medical device as close as possible to the source, these implantable devices are able to save lives. A wireless link between medical sensors and implantable medical devices is essential in the case of closed-loop medical devices, in which symptoms of the diseases are monitored by sensors that are not placed in close proximity of the therapeutic device. Medium Access Control (MAC is crucial to make it possible for several medical devices to communicate using a shared wireless medium in such a way that minimum delay, maximum throughput, and increased network life-time are guaranteed. To guarantee this Quality of Service (QoS, the MAC protocols control the main sources of limited resource wastage, namely the idle-listening, packet collisions, over-hearing, and packet loss. Traditional MAC protocols designed for body sensor networks are not directly applicable to Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN because of the dynamic nature of the radio channel within the human body and the strict QoS requirements of IBSN applications. Although numerous MAC protocols are available in the literature, the majority of them are designed for Body Sensor Network (BSN and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. To the best of our knowledge, there is so far no research paper that explores the impact of these MAC protocols specifically for IBSN. MAC protocols designed for implantable devices are still in their infancy and one of their most challenging objectives is to be ultra-low-power. One of the technological solutions to achieve this objective so is to integrate the concept of Wake-up radio (WuR into the MAC design. In this survey, we present a taxonomy of MAC protocols based on their use of Wu

  20. Hybrid discrete-time neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Ibarz, Borja

    2010-11-13

    Hybrid dynamical systems combine evolution equations with state transitions. When the evolution equations are discrete-time (also called map-based), the result is a hybrid discrete-time system. A class of biological neural network models that has recently received some attention falls within this category: map-based neuron models connected by means of fast threshold modulation (FTM). FTM is a connection scheme that aims to mimic the switching dynamics of a neuron subject to synaptic inputs. The dynamic equations of the neuron adopt different forms according to the state (either firing or not firing) and type (excitatory or inhibitory) of their presynaptic neighbours. Therefore, the mathematical model of one such network is a combination of discrete-time evolution equations with transitions between states, constituting a hybrid discrete-time (map-based) neural network. In this paper, we review previous work within the context of these models, exemplifying useful techniques to analyse them. Typical map-based neuron models are low-dimensional and amenable to phase-plane analysis. In bursting models, fast-slow decomposition can be used to reduce dimensionality further, so that the dynamics of a pair of connected neurons can be easily understood. We also discuss a model that includes electrical synapses in addition to chemical synapses with FTM. Furthermore, we describe how master stability functions can predict the stability of synchronized states in these networks. The main results are extended to larger map-based neural networks.

  1. Criteria for Evaluating Alternative Network and Link Layer Protocols for the NASA Constellation Program Communication Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenek, Daniel; Soloff, Jason; Lieb, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Selecting a communications and network architecture for future manned space flight requires an evaluation of the varying goals and objectives of the program, development of communications and network architecture evaluation criteria, and assessment of critical architecture trades. This paper uses Cx Program proposed exploration activities as a guideline; lunar sortie, outpost, Mars, and flexible path options are described. A set of proposed communications network architecture criteria are proposed and described. They include: interoperability, security, reliability, and ease of automating topology changes. Finally a key set of architecture options are traded including (1) multiplexing data at a common network layer vs. at the data link layer, (2) implementing multiple network layers vs. a single network layer, and (3) the use of a particular network layer protocol, primarily IPv6 vs. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). In summary, the protocol options are evaluated against the proposed exploration activities and their relative performance with respect to the criteria are assessed. An architectural approach which includes (a) the capability of multiplexing at both the network layer and the data link layer and (b) a single network layer for operations at each program phase, as these solutions are best suited to respond to the widest array of program needs and meet each of the evaluation criteria.

  2. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  3. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense No. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rodrigo.castro@ciemat.es; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense No. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  4. Latency-Optimized and Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: A Cross-Layer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xiuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the energy constraint for fixed sensor nodes and the unacceptable long propagation delay, especially for latency sensitive applications of underwater acoustic sensor networks, we propose a MAC protocol that is latency-optimized and energy-efficient scheme and combines the physical layer and the MAC layer to shorten transmission delay. On physical layer, we apply convolution coding and interleaver for transmitted information. Moreover, dynamic code rate is exploited at the receiver side to accelerate data reception rate. On MAC layer, unfixed frame length scheme is applied to reduce transmission delay, and to ensure the data successful transmission rate at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a network topology: an underwater acoustic sensor network with mobile agent. Through fully utilizing the supper capabilities on computation and mobility of autonomous underwater vehicles, the energy consumption for fixed sensor nodes can be extremely reduced, so that the lifetime of networks is extended.

  5. Multiple access protocol for supporting multimedia services in wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    The furture broadband wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks must provide seamless extension of multimedia services from the wireline ATM networks. This requires an effecient wireless access protocol to fulfill varying Quality-og-Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications....... In this paper, we propose a multiple access protocol using centralized and distributed channel access control techniques to provide QoS guarantees for multimedia services by taking advantage of the characteristics of different kinds of ATM traffics. Multimedia traffic, including constant bit rate (CBR...

  6. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok; Kahng, Hyunkook

    2012-01-01

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  7. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  8. Improvement over the OLSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Eliminating the Unnecessary Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Behzad; Reza Fotohi; Shahram Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are type of wireless networks in which any kind of infrastructure is not used, i.e. there are no infrastructures such as routers or switches or anything else on the network that can be used to support the network structure and the nodes has mobility. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better quality of the package delivery rate and the throughput, that is in need of powerful routing protocol standards, which can guarantee delivering of the packages to destination...

  9. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state protocols for fully connected qubit networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiautdinov, Andrei; Coffey, Mark W.; Deiotte, Ron

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger tripartite protocol [A. Galiautdinov and J. M. Martinis, Phys. Rev. A 78, 010305(R) (2008)] to fully connected networks of weakly coupled qubits interacting by way of anisotropic Heisenberg exchange g(XX+YY)+g-tildeZZ. Our model differs from the more familiar Ising-Heisenberg chain in that here every qubit interacts with every other qubit in the circuit. The assumption of identical couplings on all qubit pairs allows an elegant proof of the protocol for arbitrary N. In order to further make contact with experiment, we study fidelity degradation due to coupling imperfections by numerically simulating the N=3 and 4 cases. Our simulations indicate that the best fidelity at unequal couplings is achieved when (a) the system is initially prepared in the uniform superposition state (similarly to how it is done in the ideal case) and (b) the entangling time and the final rotations on each of the qubits are appropriately adjusted.

  10. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available operate independently and yet in cohesion, constituting a network through a way of self-organization. MIS’s are characterized by their low transmit power, small-size and inexpensiveness. However, energy management remains a major topic in most research..., Rosenberg, C., ”Homogeneous vs heterogeneous clustered sensor networks: a comparative study,” IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp.3646-3651 Jun. 2004 [4] A. Bari, R. Chaturvedi, A. aekel, S. Bandyopadhyay, “Energy Aware Distributed...

  11. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  12. Timed-Arc Petri Nets vs. Networks of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    We establish mutual translations between the classes of 1-safe timed-arc Petri nets (and its extension with testing arcs) and networks of timed automata (and its subclass where every clock used in the guard has to be reset). The presented translations are very tight (up to isomorphism of labelled...... transition systems with time). This provides a convenient characterization from the theoretical point of view but is not always satisfactory from the practical point of view because of the possible non-polynomial blow up in the size (in the direction from automata to nets). Hence we relax the isomorphism...... requirement and provide efficient (polynomial time) reductions between networks of timed automata and 1-safe timed-arc Petri nets preserving the answer to the reachability question. This makes our techniques suitable for automatic translation into a format required by tools like UPPAAL and KRONOS. A direct...

  13. Network Coded Cooperative Communication in a Real-Time Wireless Hospital Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Balaji Ganesh, A; Sivabalan, Somu

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a network coded cooperative communication (NC-CC) enabled wireless hospital sensor network architecture for monitoring health as well as postural activities of a patient. A wearable device, referred as a smartband is interfaced with pulse rate, body temperature sensors and an accelerometer along with wireless protocol services, such as Bluetooth and Radio-Frequency transceiver and Wi-Fi. The energy efficiency of wearable device is improved by embedding a linear acceleration based transmission duty cycling algorithm (NC-DRDC). The real-time demonstration is carried-out in a hospital environment to evaluate the performance characteristics, such as power spectral density, energy consumption, signal to noise ratio, packet delivery ratio and transmission offset. The resource sharing and energy efficiency features of network coding technique are improved by proposing an algorithm referred as network coding based dynamic retransmit/rebroadcast decision control (LA-TDC). From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed LA-TDC algorithm reduces network traffic and end-to-end delay by an average of 27.8% and 21.6%, respectively than traditional network coded wireless transmission. The wireless architecture is deployed in a hospital environment and results are then successfully validated.

  14. AIRNET: A real-time comunications network for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alfred C.; Cain, Brendan G.; Colvin, M. Alexander; Simoncic, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A real-time local area network was developed for use on aircraft and space vehicles. It uses token ring technology to provide high throughput, low latency, and high reliability. The system was implemented on PCs and PC/ATs operating on PCbus, and on Intel 8086/186/286/386s operating on Multibus. A standard IEEE 802.2 logical link control interface was provided to (optional) upper layer software; this permits the controls designer to utilize standard communications protocols (e.g., ISO, TCP/IP) if time permits, or to utilize a very fast link level protocol directly if speed is critical. Both unacknowledged datagram and reliable virtual circuit services are supported. A station operating an 8 MHz Intel 286 as a host can generate a sustained load of 1.8 megabits per second per station, and a 100-byte message can be delivered from the transmitter's user memory to the receiver's user memory, including all operating system and network overhead, in under 4 milliseconds.

  15. Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocols, Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive systems, which are described as networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments, are considered to have the potential to change our daily lives by creating smart surroundings and by their ubiquity, just as the Internet. In the last decade, “Wireless Sensor Networks��? have

  16. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks : Protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  17. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: study protocol MyMovez project - Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Smit, Crystal R; van Woudenberg, Thabo J; Buijs, Laura; Burk, William J; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-04-16

    Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campaigns. The MyMovez research project aims to fill this gap by developing a method for effective social network campaign implementation. This protocol paper describes the design and methods of Phase I of the MyMovez project, aiming to unravel youth's social network structures in combination with individual, psychosocial, and environmental factors related to energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the Wearable Lab is developed to enable an attractive and state-of-the-art way of collecting data and online campaign implementation via social networks. Phase I of the MyMovez project consists of a large-scale cross-sequential cohort study (N = 953; 8-12 and 12-15 y/o). In five waves during a 3-year period (2016-2018), data are collected about youth's social network exposure, media consumption, socialization experiences, psychological determinants of behavior, physical environment, dietary intake (snacking and drinking behavior) and physical activity using the Wearable Lab. The Wearable Lab exists of a smartphone-based research application (app) connected to an activity tracking bracelet, that is developed throughout the duration of the project. It generates peer- and self-reported (e.g., sociometric data and surveys) and experience sampling data, social network beacon data, real-time physical activity data (i.e., steps and cycling), location information, photos and chat conversation data from the app's social media platform Social Buzz. The MyMovez project - Phase I is an innovative cross

  18. DOW-PR DOlphin and Whale Pods Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zahid; Ullah, Khadem; Hussain, Sajjad; Yang, Xiaodong; Qazi, Abdul Baseer

    2018-05-12

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have intrinsic challenges that include long propagation delays, high mobility of sensor nodes due to water currents, Doppler spread, delay variance, multipath, attenuation and geometric spreading. The existing Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol considers the weighting depth of the two hops in order to select the next Potential Forwarding Node (PFN). To improve the performance of WDFAD-DBR, we propose DOlphin and Whale Pod Routing protocol (DOW-PR). In this scheme, we divide the transmission range into a number of transmission power levels and at the same time select the next PFNs from forwarding and suppressed zones. In contrast to WDFAD-DBR, our scheme not only considers the packet upward advancement, but also takes into account the number of suppressed nodes and number of PFNs at the first and second hops. Consequently, reasonable energy reduction is observed while receiving and transmitting packets. Moreover, our scheme also considers the hops count of the PFNs from the sink. In the absence of PFNs, the proposed scheme will select the node from the suppressed region for broadcasting and thus ensures minimum loss of data. Besides this, we also propose another routing scheme (whale pod) in which multiple sinks are placed at water surface, but one sink is embedded inside the water and is physically connected with the surface sink through high bandwidth connection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), low energy tax, reduced Accumulated Propagation Distance (APD) and increased the network lifetime.

  19. Probabilistic Location-based Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Intermittent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho KUMAGAI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a sensor network, sensor data messages reach the nearest stationary sink node connected to the Internet by wireless multihop transmissions. Recently, various mobile sensors are available due to advances of robotics technologies and communication technologies. A location based message-by-message routing protocol, such as Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR is suitable for such mobile wireless networks; however, it is required for each mobile wireless sensor node to know the current locations of all its neighbor nodes. On the other hand, various intermittent communication methods for a low power consumption requirement have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. Intermittent Receiver-driven Data Transmission (IRDT is one of the most efficient methods; however, it is difficult to combine the location based routing and the intermittent communication. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR with the help of one of the solutions of the secretaries problem. Here, each time a neighbor sensor node wakes up from its sleep mode, an intermediate sensor node determines whether it forwards its buffered sensor data messages to it or not based on an estimation of achieved pseudo speed of the messages. Simulation experiments show that IRDT-GEDIR achieves higher pseudo speed of sensor data message transmissions and shorter transmission delay than achieves shorter transmission delay than the two naive combinations of IRDT and GEDIR in sensor networks with mobile sensor nodes and a stationary sink node. In addition, the guideline of the estimated numbers of the neighbor nodes of each intermediate sensor node is provided based on the results of the simulation experiments to apply the probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR.

  20. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Mugia Rahayu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  1. An Energy-efficient Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Roxana; Labit, Yann; Thierry, Gayraud; Pascal, Berthou

    2010-01-01

    5p.; International audience; The behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is nowadays widely analyzed. One of the most important issues is related to their energy consumption, as this has a major impact on the network lifetime. Another important application requirement is to ensure data sensing synchronization, which leads to additional energy consumption as a high number of messages is sent and received at each node. Our proposal consists in implementing a combined synchronization protocol...

  2. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro; Temple, Dan; Mathiasen, Carsten; Pedersen, Lars A.; Klaps, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate ...

  3. Perfect quantum multiple-unicast network coding protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize long-distance and large-scale quantum communication, it is natural to utilize quantum repeater. For a general quantum multiple-unicast network, it is still puzzling how to complete communication tasks perfectly with less resources such as registers. In this paper, we solve this problem. By applying quantum repeaters to multiple-unicast communication problem, we give encoding-decoding schemes for source nodes, internal ones and target ones, respectively. Source-target nodes share EPR pairs by using our encoding-decoding schemes over quantum multiple-unicast network. Furthermore, quantum communication can be accomplished perfectly via teleportation. Compared with existed schemes, our schemes can reduce resource consumption and realize long-distance transmission of quantum information.

  4. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the result of efforts to identify and solve the problems that arise when a control system is to be designed for various industrial case studies of the Plug and Play Process Control (P3C) project that require autonomous addition/removal of sensors, actuators and subsystems...... in only one of the P3C case studies where all of the nodes of the wireless networked control system are placed underground and should be able to transmit data among themselves. It is not a trivial problem because the well known radio frequency electromagnetic waves face serious difficulties penetrating...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  5. A Hybrid Energy Efficient Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an energy conservation technique called Location Based Topology Control with Sleep Scheduling for ad hoc networks. It uses the feature of both topology control approach and power management approach. Like the topology control approach, it attempts to reduce the transmission power of a node, which is determined from its neighborhood location information. A node goes to sleep state based on the traffic condition as that of power management approach. In the proposed scheme, a node goes to sleep state only when its absence does not create local partition in its neighborhood. We preformed extensive simulation to compare the proposed scheme with existing ones. Simulation results show that the energy consumption is lower with increase in the network lifetime and higher throughput in the proposed scheme.

  6. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis via Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volná, Eva; Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav; Kotyrba, Martin

    This article deals with a time series analysis based on neural networks in order to make an effective forex market [Moore and Roche, J. Int. Econ. 58, 387-411 (2002)] pattern recognition. Our goal is to find and recognize important patterns which repeatedly appear in the market history to adapt our trading system behaviour based on them.

  7. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Das Ayan Kumar; Chaki Rituparna; Dey Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to s...

  8. DDN (Defence Data Network) Protocol Implementations and Vendors Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Room NE43-723 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 (617) 253-8843 S John Wroclawski, (JTW@AI.AJ.MIT.EDU...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Room NE43-743 545 Technology Square 0 Cambridge, MA 02139 (617) 253-7885 ORDERING...TCP/IP Network Software for PC-DOS Systems CPU: IBM-PC/XT/AT/compatible in conjunction with EXOS 205 Inteligent Ethernet Controller for PCbus 0/s

  9. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  10. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  11. A distance-aware replica adaptive data gathering protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node's limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes.

  12. Complex network approach to fractional time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshour, Pouya [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to extract correlation information inherited in stochastic time series, the visibility graph algorithm has been recently proposed, by which a time series can be mapped onto a complex network. We demonstrate that the visibility algorithm is not an appropriate one to study the correlation aspects of a time series. We then employ the horizontal visibility algorithm, as a much simpler one, to map fractional processes onto complex networks. The degree distributions are shown to have parabolic exponential forms with Hurst dependent fitting parameter. Further, we take into account other topological properties such as maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix and the degree assortativity, and show that such topological quantities can also be used to predict the Hurst exponent, with an exception for anti-persistent fractional Gaussian noises. To solve this problem, we take into account the Spearman correlation coefficient between nodes' degrees and their corresponding data values in the original time series.

  13. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  14. Real-time services in IP network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, Antonella

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide internet system seems to be the success key for the provision of real time multimedia services to both residential and business users and someone says that in such a way broadband networks will have a reason to exist. This new class of applications that use multiple media (voice, video and data) impose constraints to the global network nowadays consisting of subnets with various data links. The attention will be focused on the interconnection of IP non ATM and ATM networks. IETF and ATM forum are currently involved in the developing specifications suited to adapt the connectionless IP protocol to the connection oriented ATM protocol. First of all the link between the ATM and the IP service model has to be set in order to match the QoS and traffic requirements defined in the relative environment. A further significant topic is represented by the mapping of IP resource reservation model onto the ATM signalling and in the end it is necessary to define how the routing works when there are QoS parameters associated. This paper, considering only unicast applications, will examine the above issues taking as a starting point the situation where an host launches as call set up request with the relevant QoS and traffic descriptor and at some point a router at the edge of the ATM network has to decide how forwarding and request in order to establish an end to end link with the right capabilities. The aim is to compare the proposals emerging from different standard bodies to point out convergency or incompatibility.

  15. EpSoc: Social-Based Epidemic-Based Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikul Lenando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks, the nature of intermittent and disruptive connections degrades the efficiency of routing. Epidemic routing protocol is used as a benchmark for most of routing protocols in opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs due to its high message delivery and latency. However, Epidemic incurs high cost in terms of overhead and hop count. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol called EpSoc which utilizes the Epidemic routing forwarding strategy and exploits an important social feature, that is, degree centrality. Two techniques are used in EpSoc. Messages’ TTL is adjusted based on the degree centrality of nodes, and the message blocking mechanism is used to control replication. Simulation results show that EpSoc increases the delivery ratio and decreases the overhead ratio, the average latency, and the hop counts as compared to Epidemic and Bubble Rap.

  16. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  17. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  18. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED MACRO AND MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOLS FOR WIDE AREA WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Gunasundari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of next generation wireless networks will rely much on advanced mechanisms for seamless mobility support among emerging heterogeneous technologies. Currently, Mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of Mobile IP which supports quality of service, minimum packet loss, limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of Mobile IP and Micro mobility protocols where Mobile IP handles macro mobility and micro mobility protocols handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2.

  19. Delay-Tolerant, Low-Power Protocols for Large Security-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. Malavenda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the analysis, implementation, and experimental testing of a delay-tolerant and energy-aware protocol for a wireless sensor node, oriented to security applications. The solution proposed takes advantages from different domains considering as a guideline the low power consumption and facing the problems of seamless and lossy connectivity offered by the wireless medium along with very limited resources offered by a wireless network node. The paper is organized as follows: first we give an overview on delay-tolerant wireless sensor networking (DTN; then we perform a simulation-based comparative analysis of state-of-the-art DTN approaches and illustrate the improvement offered by the proposed protocol; finally we present experimental data gathered from the implementation of the proposed protocol on a proprietary hardware node.

  20. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-04-20

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  1. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, G.P.; Langendoen, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation ofMAC protocols forWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality inmany ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover,

  3. Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks. Miloud Ait Hemad, My ... Furthermore, the wireless data channel is low data rate. These restrictions have an ..... Research in Security and Privacy. Wu T. Y. and Tsen Y. M., ...

  4. A Novel Nonlinear Multitarget k-Degree Coverage Preservation Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the existence of a large number of redundant data in the process of covering multiple targets, the effective coverage of monitored region decreases, causing the network to consume more energy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a multitarget k-degree coverage preservation protocol. Firstly, the affiliation between the sensor nodes and target nodes is established in the network model; meanwhile the method used to calculate the coverage expectation value of the monitored region is put forward; secondly, in the aspect of the network energy conversion, use scheduling mechanisms on the sensor nodes to balance the network energy and achieve different network coverage quality with energy conversion between different nodes. Finally, simulation results show that NMCP can improve the network lifetime by effectively reducing the number of active nodes to meet certain coverage requirements.

  5. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The secure and robust functioning of a network relies on the defect-free implementation of network applications. As network protocols have become increasingly complex, however, hand-writing network message processing code has become increasingly error-prone. In this paper, we present a domain...

  6. The Study of MSADQ/CDMA Protocol in Voice/Data Integration Packet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new packet medium access protocol, namely, minislot signalingaccess based on distributed queues(MSADQ/CDMA), is proposed in voice and data intergration CDMA networks. The MSADQ protocol is based on distributed queues and collision resolution algorithm. Through proper management of the PN codes, the number of random competition collision reduces greatly, the multiple access interference (MAI) decreases. It has several special access signaling channels to carry the voice and data access request. Each slot is devided into several control minislots (CMSs), in which the Data Terminals (DT) or Voice Terminals (VT) transmit their request. According to the voice and data traffic character, the signaling access structure is proposed. The code assign rules and queue managing rules are also proposed to ensure the QoS requirement of each traffic. Comparisions with other three protocol are developed by simulation, which shows that MSADQ/CDMA protocol occupies less PN codes, but still has very good performance.

  7. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  8. ARQ Protocols in Cognitive Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks: Opportunities Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two novel automatic-repeat-request (ARQ based protocols were proposed, which exploit coop- eration opportunity inherent in secondary retransmission to create access opportunities. If the signal was not decoded correctly in destination, another user can be acted as a relay to reduce retransmission rounds by relaying the signal. For comparison, we also propose a Direct ARQ Protocol. Specif- ically, we derive the exact closed-form outage probability of three protocols, which provides an effective means to evalu- ate the effects of several parameters. Moreover, we propose a new metric to evaluate the performance improvement for cognitive networks. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations were presented to validate the theory analysis, and a comparison is made among the three protocols.

  9. Extinction times of epidemic outbreaks in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    In the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model of disease spreading, the time to extinction of the epidemics happens at an intermediate value of the per-contact transmission probability. Too contagious infections burn out fast in the population. Infections that are not contagious enough die out before they spread to a large fraction of people. We characterize how the maximal extinction time in SIR simulations on networks depend on the network structure. For example we find that the average distances in isolated components, weighted by the component size, is a good predictor of the maximal time to extinction. Furthermore, the transmission probability giving the longest outbreaks is larger than, but otherwise seemingly independent of, the epidemic threshold.

  10. Extinction times of epidemic outbreaks in networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Holme

    Full Text Available In the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR model of disease spreading, the time to extinction of the epidemics happens at an intermediate value of the per-contact transmission probability. Too contagious infections burn out fast in the population. Infections that are not contagious enough die out before they spread to a large fraction of people. We characterize how the maximal extinction time in SIR simulations on networks depend on the network structure. For example we find that the average distances in isolated components, weighted by the component size, is a good predictor of the maximal time to extinction. Furthermore, the transmission probability giving the longest outbreaks is larger than, but otherwise seemingly independent of, the epidemic threshold.

  11. Multimodal Network Equilibrium with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private car, unlike public traffic modes (e.g., subway, trolley running along dedicated track-ways, is invariably subject to various uncertainties resulting in travel time variation. A multimodal network equilibrium model is formulated that explicitly considers stochastic link capacity variability in the road network. The travel time of combined-mode trips is accumulated based on the concept of the mean excess travel time (METT which is a summation of estimated buffer time and tardy time. The problem is characterized by an equivalent VI (variational inequality formulation where the mode choice is expressed in a hierarchical logit structure. Specifically, the supernetwork theory and expansion technique are used herein to represent the multimodal transportation network, which completely represents the combined-mode trips as constituting multiple modes within a trip. The method of successive weighted average is adopted for problem solutions. The model and solution method are further applied to study the trip distribution and METT variations caused by the different levels of the road conditions. Results of numerical examples show that travelers prefer to choose the combined travel mode as road capacity decreases. Travelers with different attitudes towards risk are shown to exhibit significant differences when making travel choice decisions.

  12. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  13. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. PMID:28531159

  14. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  15. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  16. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  17. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  18. Two-Layer Hierarchy Optimization Model for Communication Protocol in Railway Wireless Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless monitoring system is always destroyed by the insufficient energy of the sensors in railway. Hence, how to optimize the communication protocol and extend the system lifetime is crucial to ensure the stability of system. However, the existing studies focused primarily on cluster-based or multihop protocols individually, which are ineffective in coping with the complex communication scenarios in the railway wireless monitoring system (RWMS. This study proposes a hybrid protocol which combines the cluster-based and multihop protocols (CMCP to minimize and balance the energy consumption in different sections of the RWMS. In the first hierarchy, the total energy consumption is minimized by optimizing the cluster quantities in the cluster-based protocol and the number of hops and the corresponding hop distances in the multihop protocol. In the second hierarchy, the energy consumption is balanced through rotating the cluster head (CH in the subnetworks and further optimizing the hops and the corresponding hop distances in the backbone network. On this basis, the system lifetime is maximized with the minimum and balance energy consumption among the sensors. Furthermore, the hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (PSO-GA are adopted to optimize the energy consumption from the two-layer hierarchy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed CMCP is verified in the simulation. The performances of the proposed CMCP in system lifetime, residual energy, and the corresponding variance are all superior to the LEACH protocol widely applied in the previous research. The effective protocol proposed in this study can facilitate the application of the wireless monitoring network in the railway system and enhance safety operation of the railway.

  19. White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on Long-Distance Fiber Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierikx, Erik F; Wallin, Anders E; Fordell, Thomas; Myyry, Jani; Koponen, Petri; Merimaa, Mikko; Pinkert, Tjeerd J; Koelemeij, Jeroen C J; Peek, Henk Z; Smets, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The application of White Rabbit precision time protocol (WR-PTP) in long-distance optical fiber links has been investigated. WR-PTP is an implementation of PTP in synchronous Ethernet optical fiber networks, originally intended for synchronization of equipment within a range of 10 km. This paper discusses the results and limitations of two implementations of WR-PTP in the existing communication fiber networks. A 950-km WR-PTP link was realized using unidirectional paths in a fiber pair between Espoo and Kajaani, Finland. The time transfer on this link was compared (after initial calibration) against a clock comparison by GPS precise point positioning (PPP). The agreement between the two methods remained within [Formula: see text] over three months of measurements. Another WR-PTP implementation was realized between Delft and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, by cascading two links of 137 km each. In this case, the WR links were realized as bidirectional paths in single fibers. The measured time offset between the starting and end points of the link was within 5 ns with an uncertainty of 8 ns, mainly due to the estimated delay asymmetry caused by chromatic dispersion.

  20. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  1. Alcohol handrubbing and chlorhexidine handwashing protocols for routine hospital practice: A randomized clinical trial of protocol efficacy and time effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Angela; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Chan, Siew-Pang; Poh, Bee-Fong; Krishnan, Prabha; Ng, Woei-Kian; Choudhury, Saugata; Chan, Joey; Ang, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend the use of alcohol handrubs to prevent health care-associated infections. However, the efficacy and time effectiveness of different alcohol handrubbing protocols have yet to be

  2. Timing subsystem development: Network synchronization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a program in which several experimental timing subsystem prototypes were designed, fabricated, and field tested using a small network of troposcatter and microwave digital communication links. This equipment was responsible for modem/radio interfacing, time interval measurement, clock adjustment and distribution, synchronization technique, and node to node information exchange. Presented are discussions of the design approach, measurement plan, and performance assessment methods. Recommendations are made based on the findings of the test program and an evaluation of the design of both the hardware and software elements of the timing subsystem prototypes.

  3. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: What the literature says?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs plays a significant role in the field of environment-oriented monitoring, traffic monitoring, etc. Here, wide contributions that are made toward routing in WSN are explored. The paper mainly aims to categorize the routing problems and examines the routing-related optimization problems. For achieving the motive, 50 papers from the standard journals are collected and primarily reviewed in a chronological way. Later, various features that are related to energy, security, speed and reliability problems of routing are discussed. Subsequently, the literature is analyzed based on the simulation environment and experimental setup, awareness over the Quality of Service (QoS and the deployment against various applications. In addition, the optimization of the routing algorithms and the meta-heuristic study of routing optimization are explored. Routing is a vast area with numerous unsolved issues and hence, various research gaps along with future directions are also presented.

  4. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  5. An Environment-Friendly Multipath Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN is a promising technique by facilitating a wide range of aquatic applications. However, routing scheme in UASN is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the nodes mobility, interruption of link, and interference caused by other underwater acoustic systems such as marine mammals. In order to achieve reliable data delivery in UASN, in this work, we present a disjoint multipath disruption-tolerant routing protocol for UASN (ENMR, which incorporates the Hue, Saturation, and Value color space (HSV model to establish routing paths to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. ENMR applies the mechanism to maintain the network topology. Simulation results show that, compared with the classic underwater routing protocols named PVBF, ENMR can improve packet delivery ratio and reduce network latency while avoiding introducing additional energy consumption.

  6. Coordination Protocols for a Reliable Sensor, Actuator, and Device Network (SADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Ozaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor, actuator, and device network (SADN is composed of three types of nodes, which are sensor, actuator, and actuation device nodes. Sensor nodes and actuator nodes are interconnected in wireless networks as discussed in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs. Actuator nodes and device nodes are interconnected in types of networks, i.e. wireless and wired network. Sensor nodes sense an physical event and send sensed values of the event to actuator nodes. An actuator node makes a decision on proper actions on receipt of sensed values and then issue the action requests to the device nodes. A device node really acts to the physical world. For example, moves a robot arms by performing the action on receipt of the action request. Messages may be lost and nodes may be faulty. Especially, messages are lost due to noise and collision in a wireless network. We propose a fully redundant model for an SADN where each of sensor, actuator, and device functions is replicated in multiple nodes and each of sensor-actuator and actuator-device communication is realized in many-to-many type of communication protocols. Even if some number of nodes are faulty, the other nodes can perform requested tasks. Here, each sensor node sends sensed values to multiple actuator nodes and each actuator node receives sensed values from multiple sensor nodes. While multiple actuator nodes communicate with multiple replica nodes of a device. Even if messages are lost and some number of nodes are faulty, device nodes can surely receive action requests required for sensed values and the actions are performed. In this paper, we discuss a type of semi-passive coordination (SPC protocol of multiple actuator nodes for multiple sensor nodes. We discuss a type of active coordination protocol for multiple actuator nodes and multiple actuation device nodes. We evaluate the SPC protocol for the sensor-actuator coordination in terms of the number of messages exchanged among

  7. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  8. Analytical approach to cross-layer protocol optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocol layers. Quality of service (QoS) requirements of multimedia service classes must be satisfied by the cross-layer protocol, along with minimization of the distributed power consumption at nodes and along routes to battery-limited energy constraints. In previous work by the author, cross-layer interactions in the MANET protocol are modeled in terms of a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by multivariate point processes (MVPPs). Determination of the "best" cross-layer design is carried out using the optimal control of martingale representations of the MVPPs. In contrast to the competitive interaction among nodes in a MANET for multimedia services using limited resources, the interaction among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is distributed and collaborative, based on the processing of data from a variety of sensors at nodes to satisfy common mission objectives. Sensor data originates at the nodes at the periphery of the WSN, is successively transported to other nodes for aggregation based on information-theoretic measures of correlation and ultimately sent as information to one or more destination (decision) nodes. The "multimedia services" in the MANET model are replaced by multiple types of sensors, e.g., audio, seismic, imaging, thermal, etc., at the nodes; the QoS metrics associated with MANETs become those associated with the quality of fused information flow, i.e., throughput, delay, packet error rate, data correlation, etc. Significantly, the essential analytical approach to MANET cross-layer optimization, now based on the MVPPs for discrete random events occurring in the WSN, can be applied to develop the stochastic characteristics and optimality conditions for cross-layer designs of sensor network protocols. Functional dependencies of WSN performance metrics are described in

  9. A Priority-aware Frequency Domain Polling MAC Protocol for OFDMA-based Networks in Cyber-physical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zheng; Junru Lin; Wei Liang; Haibin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless networking in cyber-physical systems(CPSs) is characteristically different from traditional wireless systems due to the harsh radio frequency environment and applications that impose high real-time and reliability constraints.One of the fundamental considerations for enabling CPS networks is the medium access control protocol. To this end, this paper proposes a novel priority-aware frequency domain polling medium access control(MAC) protocol, which takes advantage of an orthogonal frequency-division multiple access(OFDMA)physical layer to achieve instantaneous priority-aware polling.Based on the polling result, the proposed work then optimizes the resource allocation of the OFDMA network to further improve the data reliability. Due to the non-polynomial-complete nature of the OFDMA resource allocation, we propose two heuristic rules,based on which an efficient solution algorithm to the OFDMA resource allocation problem is designed. Simulation results show that the reliability performance of CPS networks is significantly improved because of this work.

  10. A Protocol Layer Trust-Based Intrusion Detection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. Unlike existing work, the trust value of a sensor node is evaluated according to the deviations of key parameters at each protocol layer considering the attacks initiated at different protocol layers will inevitably have impacts on the parameters of the corresponding protocol layers. For simplicity, the paper mainly considers three aspects of trustworthiness, namely physical layer trust, media access control layer trust and network layer trust. The per-layer trust metrics are then combined to determine the overall trust metric of a sensor node. The performance of the proposed intrusion detection mechanism is then analyzed using the t-distribution to derive analytical results of false positive and false negative probabilities. Numerical analytical results, validated by simulation results, are presented in different attack scenarios. It is shown that the proposed protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme outperforms a state-of-the-art scheme in terms of detection probability and false probability, demonstrating its usefulness for detecting cross-layer attacks.

  11. A review on transport layer protocol performance for delivering video on an adhoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Suwendri; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    The transport layer protocol is responsible for the end to end data transmission. Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides a reliable connection and user datagram protocol (UDP) offers fast but unguaranteed data transfer. Meanwhile, the 802.11 (wireless fidelity/WiFi) networks have been widely used as internet hotspots. This paper evaluates TCP, TCP variants and UDP performances for video transmission on an adhoc network. The transport protocol - medium access cross-layer is proposed by prioritizing TCP acknowledgement to reduce delay. The NS-2 evaluations show that the average delays increase linearly for all the evaluated protocols and the average packet losses grow logarithmically. UDP produces the lowest transmission delay; 5.4% and 5.8% lower than TCP and TCP variant, but experiences the highest packet loss. Both TCP and TCP Vegas maintain packet loss as low as possible. The proposed cross-layer successfully decreases TCP and TCP Vegas delay about 0.12 % and 0.15%, although losses remain similar.

  12. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  13. An Energy Balanced and Lifetime Extended Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Lu, Luxi

    2018-05-17

    Energy limitation is an adverse problem in designing routing protocols for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). To prolong the network lifetime with limited battery power, an energy balanced and efficient routing protocol, called energy balanced and lifetime extended routing protocol (EBLE), is proposed in this paper. The proposed EBLE not only balances traffic loads according to the residual energy, but also optimizes data transmissions by selecting low-cost paths. Two phases are operated in the EBLE data transmission process: (1) candidate forwarding set selection phase and (2) data transmission phase. In candidate forwarding set selection phase, nodes update candidate forwarding nodes by broadcasting the position and residual energy level information. The cost value of available nodes is calculated and stored in each sensor node. Then in data transmission phase, high residual energy and relatively low-cost paths are selected based on the cost function and residual energy level information. We also introduce detailed analysis of optimal energy consumption in UWSNs. Numerical simulation results on a variety of node distributions and data load distributions prove that EBLE outperforms other routing protocols (BTM, BEAR and direct transmission) in terms of network lifetime and energy efficiency.

  14. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  15. Study protocol: The Intensive Care Outcome Network ('ICON' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Vicki S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866

  16. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pérez-Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  17. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Solano, Juan J; Claver, Jose M; Ezpeleta, Santiago

    2017-07-06

    Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  18. Privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Bista

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many wireless sensor network (WSN applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  20. Energy Threshold-based Cluster Head Rotation for Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Raheem Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a fundamental issue in WSNs, since the network lifetime period entirely depends on the energy of sensor nodes, which are usually battery-operated. In this article, an unequal clustering-based routing protocol has been suggested, where parameters of energy, distance, and density are involved in the cluster head election. Besides, the sizes of clusters are unequal according to distance, energy, and density. Furthermore, the cluster heads are not changed every round unless the residual energy reaches a specific threshold of energy. The outcomes of the conducted simulation confirmed that the performance of the suggested protocol achieves improvement in energy efficiency.

  1. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  2. Speeding Up Network Simulations Using Discrete Time

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Aaron; Armbruster, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    We develop a way of simulating disease spread in networks faster at the cost of some accuracy. Instead of a discrete event simulation (DES) we use a discrete time simulation. This aggregates events into time periods. We prove a bound on the accuracy attained. We also discuss the choice of step size and do an analytical comparison of the computational costs. Our error bound concept comes from the theory of numerical methods for SDEs and the basic proof structure comes from the theory of numeri...

  3. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  4. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-06-14

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  5. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-01-01

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network. PMID:27314351

  6. An Improved PRoPHET Routing Protocol in Delay Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Deok Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In delay tolerant network (DTN, an end-to-end path is not guaranteed and packets are delivered from a source node to a destination node via store-carry-forward based routing. In DTN, a source node or an intermediate node stores packets in buffer and carries them while it moves around. These packets are forwarded to other nodes based on predefined criteria and finally are delivered to a destination node via multiple hops. In this paper, we improve the dissemination speed of PRoPHET (probability routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity protocol by employing epidemic protocol for disseminating message m, if forwarding counter and hop counter values are smaller than or equal to the threshold values. The performance of the proposed protocol was analyzed from the aspect of delivery probability, average delay, and overhead ratio. Numerical results show that the proposed protocol can improve the delivery probability, average delay, and overhead ratio of PRoPHET protocol by appropriately selecting the threshold forwarding counter and threshold hop counter values.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  8. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  9. Implementation of CAVENET and Its Usage for Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR and DYMO Protocols in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evjola Spaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET is a kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET that establishes wireless connection between cars. In VANETs and MANETs, the topology of the network changes very often, therefore implementation of efficient routing protocols is very important problem. In MANETs, the Random Waypoint (RW model is used as a simulation model for generating node mobility pattern. On the other hand, in VANETs, the mobility patterns of nodes is restricted along the roads, and is affected by the movement of neighbour nodes. In this paper, we present a simulation system for VANET called CAVENET (Cellular Automaton based VEhicular NETwork. In CAVENET, the mobility patterns of nodes are generated by an 1-dimensional cellular automata. We improved CAVENET and implemented some routing protocols. We investigated the performance of the implemented routing protocols by CAVENET. The simulation results have shown that DYMO protocol has better performance than AODV and OLSR protocols.

  10. Analysis of the LTE Access Reservation Protocol for Real-Time Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based...... of the two-phase LTE reservation protocol and asses its performance, when assumptions (1) and (2) do not hold....

  11. Design and Analysis of QoS Routing Framework integrated with OLSR protocol for Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks is the self organizing wireless structure of mobile hosts. Wireless media is used for communication in MANETs. Considering the developing requirements for multimedia and real-time traffic applications in real world, QoS (Quality-of-Service support is essential in MANETs. But most of the characteristics of MANETs make QoS support a difficult problem. It is challenging to support QoS routing in MANET due to dynamic behavior and mobility of the hosts. The OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol can be efficiently used in MANETs to provide QoS routing because of its dynamic MPR (Multi Point Relay selection criteria and proactive nature. In this paper, a design of QoS routing framework integrated with OLSR protocol is proposed and also analyzed using network simulator. Proposed QoS framework combines a bandwidth estimation algorithm with explicit resource reservation, QoS routing and connection admission control (CAC. OLSR protocol is extended for QoS framework to solve performance issues related to node mobility using cross layer approach. Results after simulation conclude about efficiency of the proposed QoS routing framework.

  12. Q-Learning and p-persistent CSMA based rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio networks operating with shared spectrum activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clifton L.; Biswas, Subir

    2014-06-01

    With an increasing demand for spectrum, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as viable means for providing the flexibility and greater access to spectrum necessary to meet this demand. Within the DSA concept, unlicensed secondary users temporarily "borrow" or access licensed spectrum, while respecting the licensed primary user's rights to that spectrum. As key enablers for DSA, cognitive radios (CRs) are based on software-defined radios which allow them to sense, learn, and adapt to the spectrum environment. These radios can operate independently and rapidly switch channels. Thus, the initial setup and maintenance of cognitive radio networks are dependent upon the ability of CR nodes to find each other, in a process known as rendezvous, and create a link on a common channel for the exchange of data and control information. In this paper, we propose a novel rendezvous protocol, known as QLP, which is based on Q-learning and the p-persistent CSMA protocol. With the QLP protocol, CR nodes learn which channels are best for rendezvous and thus adapt their behavior to visit those channels more frequently. We demonstrate through simulation that the QLP protocol provides a rendevous capability for DSA environments with different dynamics of PU activity, while attempting to achieve the following performance goals: (1) minimize the average time-to-rendezvous, (2) maximize system throughput, (3) minimize primary user interference, and (4) minimize collisions among CR nodes.

  13. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Multichannel MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia

    2017-12-12

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.

  14. Bio-Inspired Energy-Aware Protocol Design for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, Gian Paolo; Anggraeni, Puri Novelti; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bio-inspired cooperation rules are applied to wireless communication networks. The main goal is to derive cooperative behaviour rules to improve the energy consumption of each mobile device. A medium access control (MAC) protocol particularly designed for peer-to-peer communication...... be achieved by this architecture using game theoretic approaches. As an extension, this work explores the impact of the MAC protocol on the power saving capabilities. This result shows that standard MAC mechanisms are not optimised for the considered cooperative setup. A new MAC protocol is proposed...... among cooperative wireless mobile devices is described. The work is based on a novel communication architecture, where a group of mobile devices are connected both to a cellular base station and among them using short-range communication links. A prior work has investigated the energy saving that can...

  15. A Multiple-Reception Access Protocol with Interruptions with Mixed Priorities in CDMA Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaowen; Zhu Jinkang

    2003-01-01

    A novel access protocol called Multiple-Reception Access Protocol (MRAP) and its modification MRAP/WI are proposed. In this protocol, all colliding users with a common code can be identified by the base station due to the offset of arrival time Thus they can retransmit access requests under the base station's control. Furthermore new arrivals with higher priority level can interrupt the lower retransmission in order to reduce its access delay although it increases the lower priority's delay. Simulation results of MRAP and MRAP/WI are given in order to highlight the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  16. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  17. Design and Research of a New secure Authentication Protocol in GSM networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ai-qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense in the security application system, Authentication is an important security service. Its typical scheme is challenge/response mechanism and this scheme which is simple-structured and easy to realize has been used worldwide. But these protocols have many following problems In the GSM networks such as the leakage of user indentity privacy, no security protection between home registers and foreign registers and the vicious intruders’ information stealing and so on. This paper presents an authentication protocol in GSM networks based on maths operation and modular square root technique . The analysis of the security and performance has also been done. The results show that it is more robust and secure compared to the previous agreements.

  18. A Fresh Look at Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Department of Defense (DoD) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Internet Protocol, Computer Networking, Network Security, Computer Security, Technology Deployment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Systems FCS Future Combat System IETF Internet Engineering Task Force ISAT Information Science and Technology BAST Board on Army Science and...Science and Technology committee and the Internet Architecture Board. Dr. Sincoskie was Executive Director of the Computer Networking Research

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL UNDER ENERGY BASED SELFISH ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.P.Sundararajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the cooperation of all participating nodes to provide the fundamental operations such as routing and data forwarding. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist.[1]. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. This paper pointed out Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN where these selfish nodes tend to use the network but do not cooperate, saving battery life for their own communications [2],[3]. We present a simulation study of the effects of Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN on DSR routing protocol and its impact over network performance in terms of throughput and delay of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes were misbehaving.

  20. A Proof-checked Verification of a Real-Time Communication Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, I.

    We present an analysis of a protocol developed by Philips to connect several components of an audio-system. The verification of the protocol is carried out using the timed I/O-automata model of Lynch and Vaandrager. The verification has been partially proof-checked with the interactive proof

  1. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  2. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  3. Fault-tolerant capacity-1 protocol for very fast local networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosiewicz, Wlodek; Gburzynski, Pawel

    1991-08-01

    A substantial amount of attention has been paid recently to DQDB--a proposed bus architecture and MAC-level protocol for fast local and metropolitan area networks. The main advantage of this solution over previous concepts is in the fact that the performance of DQDB does not degrade with the increasing value of a--the ratio of the packet length to the propagation length of the bus expressed in bits. The big value of a characterizes networks that are either long geographically or very fast, or both. Thus, at the threshold of the forthcoming era of very high transmission rates and increasing demands for wide-area networks with the functionality of LANs, DQDB has been enthusiastically received by the networking community. DQDB's disadvantages can be stresses in the following two points: (1) The flexibility of the network is limited: each station must know the relative location on the bus of every other station. (2) The network is susceptible for faults: the failure of one of the extreme stations or disconnection of one bus segment makes it totally inoperable. In this paper, a capacity-1 network inspired by the DQDB concept which attempts to eliminate the above disadvantages of original DQDB is proposed. The solution is based on the UU-BUS topology, i.e., a network consisting of two separate, folded, unidirectional busses.

  4. Optimizing the ASC WAN: evaluating network performance tools for comparing transport protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydick, Christopher L.

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Simulation & Computing Wide Area Network (ASC WAN), which is a high delay-bandwidth network connection between US Department of Energy National Laboratories, is constantly being examined and evaluated for efficiency. One of the current transport-layer protocols which is used, TCP, was developed for traffic demands which are different from that on the ASC WAN. The Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), on the other hand, has shown characteristics which make it more appealing to networks such as these. Most important, before considering a replacement for TCP on any network, a testing tool that performs well against certain criteria needs to be found. In order to try to find such a tool, two popular networking tools (Netperf v.2.4.3 & v.2.4.6 (OpenSS7 STREAMS), and Iperf v.2.0.6) were tested. These tools implement both TCP and SCTP and were evaluated using four metrics: (1) How effectively can the tool reach a throughput near the bandwidth? (2) How much of the CPU does the tool utilize during operation? (3) Is the tool freely and widely available? And, (4) Is the tool actively developed? Following the analysis of those tools, this paper goes further into explaining some recommendations and ideas for future work.

  5. Multihopping Multilevel Clustering Heterogeneity-Sensitive Optimized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of energy resources in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs has become challenging under uncertain distributed cluster-formation and single-hop intercluster communication capabilities. So, sensor nodes are forced to operate at expensive full rate transmission power level continuously during whole network operation. These challenging network environments experience unwanted phenomena of drastic energy consumption and packet drop. In this paper, we propose an adaptive immune Multihopping Multilevel Clustering (MHMLC protocol that executes a Hybrid Clustering Algorithm (HCA to perform optimal centralized selection of Cluster-Heads (CHs within radius of centrally located Base Station (BS and distributed CHs selection in the rest of network area. HCA of MHMLC also produces optimal intermediate CHs for intercluster multihop communications that develop heterogeneity-aware economical links. This hybrid cluster-formation facilitates the sensors to function at short range transmission power level that enhances link quality and avoids packet drop. The simulation environments produce fair comparison among proposed MHMLC and existing state-of-the-art routing protocols. Experimental results give significant evidence of better performance of the proposed model in terms of network lifetime, stability period, and data delivery ratio.

  6. Performance Analysis of Modified Accelerative Preallocation MAC Protocol for Passive Star-Coupled WDMA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2006-04-01

    For the passive star-coupled wavelength-division multiple-access (WDMA) network, a modified accelerative preallocation WDMA (MAP-WDMA) media access control (MAC) protocol is proposed, which is based on AP-WDMA. To show the advantages of MAP-WDMA as an adequate MAC protocol for the network over AP-WDMA, the channel utilization, the channel-access delay, and the latency of MAP-WDMA are investigated and compared with those of AP-WDMA under various data traffic patterns, including uniform, quasi-uniform type, disconnected type, mesh type, and ring type data traffics, as well as the assumption that a given number of network stations is equal to that of channels, in other words, without channel sharing. As a result, the channel utilization of MAP-WDMA can be competitive with respect to that of AP-WDMA at the expense of insignificantly higher latency. Namely, if the number of network stations is small, MAP-WDMA provides better channel utilization for uniform, quasi-uniform-type, and disconnected-type data traffics at all data traffic loads, as well as for mesh and ring-type data traffics at low data traffic loads. Otherwise, MAP-WDMA only outperforms AP-WDMA for the first three data traffics at higher data traffic loads. In the aspect of channel-access delay, MAP-WDMA gives better performance than AP-WDMA, regardless of data traffic patterns and the number of network stations.

  7. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Peng, Daiyuan; Peng, Tu; Liang, Hongbin; Liu, Zhicai

    2017-11-21

    Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation-the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  8. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation—the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Distributed Mobility Management Protocols: Limitations and Solutions for Future Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carmona-Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Internet data traffic has experienced an exponential growth over the last few years due to the rise of demanding multimedia content and the increasing number of mobile devices. Seamless mobility support at the IP level is envisioned as a key architectural requirement in order to deal with the ever-increasing demand for data and to efficiently utilize a plethora of different wireless access networks. Current efforts from both industry and academia aim to evolve the mobility management protocols towards a more distributed operation to tackle shortcomings of fully centralized approaches. However, distributed solutions face several challenges that can result in lower performance which might affect real-time and multimedia applications. In this paper, we conduct an analytical and simulated evaluation of the main centralized and proposed Distributed Mobility Management (DMM solutions. Our results show that, in some scenarios, when users move at high speed and/or when the mobile node is running long-lasting applications, the DMM approaches incur high signaling cost and long handover latency.

  10. DRUG: An Energy-Efficient Data-Centric Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, B. P. S.; Puthal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    In general, sensor nodes are deployed in left unattended area. In such situation feeding energy to the batteries or replacing the batteries is difficult or even sometimes impossible too. Therefore, prolonging the network lifetime is an important optimization goal in this aspect. In this paper, we propose a new Energy-efficient Datacentric RoUtinG protocol called DRUG. In this paper, we propose an adaptive Data centric approach to find an optimal routing path from source to sink when the senso...

  11. A lightweight and secure two factor anonymous authentication protocol for Global Mobility Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Global Mobility Networks(GLOMONETs) in wireless communication permits the global roaming services that enable a user to leverage the mobile services in any foreign country. Technological growth in wireless communication is also accompanied by new security threats and challenges. A threat-proof authentication protocol in wireless communication may overcome the security flaws by allowing only legitimate users to access a particular service. Recently, Lee et al. found Mun et al. scheme vulnerable to different attacks and proposed an advanced secure scheme to overcome the security flaws. However, this article points out that Lee et al. scheme lacks user anonymity, inefficient user authentication, vulnerable to replay and DoS attacks and Lack of local password verification. Furthermore, this article presents a more robust anonymous authentication scheme to handle the threats and challenges found in Lee et al.’s protocol. The proposed protocol is formally verified with an automated tool(ProVerif). The proposed protocol has superior efficiency in comparison to the existing protocols. PMID:29702675

  12. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-06-22

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery.

  13. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  14. Quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xu Chun-Xiang; Zhang Shi-Bin; Yan Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    A quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad based on the Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger state is proposed. A binary string is used to express the identity of the receiver, which is encoded as a single sequence of photons. The encoded photon sequence acts as a detection sequence and implements authentication. An XOR operation serves as a one-time pad and is used to ensure the security of the protocol. The binary string is reused even in a noisy channel and proves to be unconditionally secure. In contrast with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. 16 1868 (2007)] and Yang et al. [Chin. Phys. B 19 070304 (2010)], the protocol in this study implements the identity authentication with a reusable binary string; no hash function or local unitary operation is used. The protocol in this study is also easier to implement and highly efficient without losing security. (general)

  15. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  16. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  17. On the impact of network dynamics on a discovery protocol for ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Heijenk, Geert

    A very promising approach to discovering services and context information in ad-hoc networks is based on the use of Attenuated Bloom filters. In this paper we analyze the impact of changes in the connectivity of an ad-hoc network on this approach. We evaluate the performance of the discovery

  18. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) heterogeneous networking infrastructure for energy efficient building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Leila; Chauvenet, Cedric; Tourancheau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing developments of home, building and city automation, Power Line Communication (PLC) networking is called for unprecedented usage, especially for energy efficiency improvement. Our view of the future building networking infrastructure places PLC as the central point. We point that while Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is necessary in the sensor and actuator networking infrastructure, PLC is mandatory for the smart-grid metering and command infrastructure. PLC will also serve the sensor/actuator infrastructure when the energy requirement of the probing system itself cannot be fulfilled by autonomous battery and harvesting based nodes. PLC may also provide the numerous bridges necessary to sustain a long lifetime (years) with the battery based WSN part of the infrastructure. This new role of PLC networking will be possible only if the interoperability between all media and technology is made possible. Thanks to the converging design of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networking layers, we show that such a full inter-interoperability is already possible even in very tiny constrained networking devices. Moreover, the low power PLC technology used in our experiments will be able to provide this smart grid monitoring without impacting noticeably the overall energy balance of the monitored system.

  19. DE-Sync: A Doppler-Enhanced Time Synchronization for Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Qi; Nie, DongHu; Qiao, Gang

    2018-05-25

    Time synchronization is the foundation of cooperative work among nodes of underwater sensor networks; it takes a critical role in the research and application of underwater sensor networks. Although numerous time synchronization protocols have been proposed for terrestrial wireless sensor networks, they cannot be directly applied to underwater sensor networks. This is because most of them typically assume that the propagation delay among sensor nodes is negligible, which is not the case in underwater sensor networks. Time synchronization is mainly affected by a long propagation delay among sensor nodes due to the low propagation speed of acoustic signals. Furthermore, sensor nodes in underwater tend to experience some degree of mobility due to wind or ocean current, or some other nodes are on self-propelled vehicles, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, we propose a Doppler-enhanced time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks, called DE-Sync. Our new scheme considers the effect of the clock skew during the process of estimating the Doppler scale factor and directly substitutes the Doppler scale factor into linear regression to achieve the estimation of the clock skew and offset. Simulation results show that DE-Sync outperforms existing time synchronization protocols in both accuracy and energy efficiency.

  20. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008