WorldWideScience

Sample records for network supporting roaming

  1. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  2. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakjun Lee

    Full Text Available With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  3. On the security of an anonymous roaming protocol in UMTS mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we first show that the privacy-preserving roaming protocol recently proposed for mobile networks cannot achieve the claimed security level. Then we suggest an improved protocol to remedy its security problems.

  4. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people’s lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al’s scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments. PMID:29505575

  5. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  6. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  7. Green collaboration in cognitive radio cellular networks with roaming and spectrum trading

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-08-30

    In this paper, we propose a new cognitive cellular network architecture based on the coexistence of primary and secondary networks, (PN) and (SN), respectively. The PN aims to minimize its energy consumption by switching off the maximum number of its BSs and offloading its users to the SN\\'s infrastructure to maintain its QoS. In return, the PN pays a roaming price and permits the SN to share or lease the spectrum at a certain price. We propose a low-complexity algorithm allowing the PN to minimize its energy consumption by selecting a suboptimal combination of active base stations. Our algorithm also optimizes the resource allocation of the SN to maximize its total sum-rate while respecting the minimal profit constraints for both networks. In the numerical results, we show that our proposed algorithm achieves close performances to the optimal exhaustive search algorithm. In addition, we investigate the impact of various system parameters in the collaboration decision.

  8. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a research project aiming at developing an architecture supporting local mobility within hospitals. The architecture is based on fieldwork and design workshops within a large Danish hospital and it has been implemented and evaluated after a pilot phase. Our...... fieldwork has emphasised the differences between remote mobility, where users travel over long distances, and local mobility, where users walk around within a fixed set of buildings and/or places. Based on our field studies and our design work, we conclude that local mobility puts up three requirements...... for computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  9. Designing of Roaming Protocol for Bluetooth Equipped Multi Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Hasbullah, Halabi B.

    Bluetooth is an established standard for low cost, low power, wireless personal area network. Currently, Bluetooth does not support any roaming protocol in which handoff occurs dynamically when a Bluetooth device is moving out of the piconet. If a device is losing its connection to the master device, no provision is made to transfer it to another master. Handoff is not possible in a piconet, as in order to stay within the network, a slave would have to keep the same master. So, by definition intra-handoff is not possible within a piconet. This research mainly focuses on Bluetooth technology and designing a roaming protocol for Bluetooth equipped multi agent systems. A mathematical model is derived for an agent. The idea behind the mathematical model is to know when to initiate the roaming process for an agent. A desired trajectory for the agent is calculated using its x and y coordinates system, and is simulated in SIMULINK. Various roaming techniques are also studied and discussed. The advantage of designing a roaming protocol is to ensure the Bluetooth enabled roaming devices can freely move inside the network coverage without losing its connection or break of service in case of changing the base stations.

  10. Green collaboration in cognitive radio cellular networks with roaming and spectrum trading

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cognitive cellular network architecture based on the coexistence of primary and secondary networks, (PN) and (SN), respectively. The PN aims to minimize its energy consumption by switching off the maximum number

  11. Workshop on Roaming and Cold Molecule Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    dynamics related to roaming. The speakers were all at the top of these fields and the graduate students and postdocs who attended were thus exposed...dynamics related to roaming. The speakers were all at the top of these fields and the graduate students and postdocs who attended were thus exposed to...mathematics, engineering or technology fields: Student Metrics This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this agreement in

  12. Online social support networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  13. Backend solutions for AA in the MUSE network supporting FMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerbos, A.N.R. van; Prins, M.; Melander, B.; Pimilla Larrucea, I.; Thakur, M.J.; Fredricx, F.

    2007-01-01

    The European MUSE project investigated fixed-mobile convergence from the perspective of an unbundled fixed network. A major part of the work consisted of finding solutions for the authentication and authorisation of users who roam from their home network to a visited network. This paper shows how AA

  14. A Novel WLAN Roaming Decision and Selection Scheme for Mobile Data Offloading

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam; Arifuzzaman, Mohammad; Sato, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    The existing IEEE and 3GPP standards have laid the foundation for integrating cellular and WiFi network to deliver a seamless experience for the end-users when roaming across multiple access networks. However, in recent studies, the issue of making roaming decision and intelligently selecting the most preferable Point of Service to optimize network resource and improve end user’s experience has not been considered properly. In this paper, we propose a novel cellular and WiFi roaming decision ...

  15. Cooperative and supportive neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Hari Rao, V.; Raja Sekhara Rao, P.

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the concepts of co-operation and support among neurons existing in a network which contribute to their collective capabilities and distributed operations. Activational dynamical properties of these networks are discussed

  16. Evaluation of QoS supported in Network Mobility NEMO environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, L F; Abdalla, A H; Habaebi, M H; Khalifa, O O; Hassan, W H

    2013-01-01

    Network mobility basic support (NEMO BS) protocol is an entire network, roaming as a unit which changes its point of attachment to the Internet and consequently its reachability in the network topology. NEMO BS doesn't provide QoS guarantees to its users same as traditional Internet IP and Mobile IPv6 as well. Typically, all the users will have same level of services without considering about their application requirements. This poses a problem to real-time applications that required QoS guarantees. To gain more effective control of the network, incorporated QoS is needed. Within QoS-enabled network the traffic flow can be distributed to various priorities. Also, the network bandwidth and resources can be allocated to different applications and users. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) working group has proposed several QoS solutions for static network such as IntServ, DiffServ and MPLS. These QoS solutions are designed in the context of a static environment (i.e. fixed hosts and networks). However, they are not fully adapted to mobile environments. They essentially demands to be extended and adjusted to meet up various challenges involved in mobile environments. With existing QoS mechanisms many proposals have been developed to provide QoS for individual mobile nodes (i.e. host mobility). In contrary, research based on the movement of the whole mobile network in IPv6 is still undertaking by the IETF working groups (i.e. network mobility). Few researches have been done in the area of providing QoS for roaming networks. Therefore, this paper aims to review and investigate (previous /and current) related works that have been developed to provide QoS in mobile network. Consequently, a new proposed scheme will be introduced to enhance QoS within NEMO environment, achieving by which seamless mobility to users of mobile network node (MNN)

  17. Supporting networks for realizing rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The chapter explores how DFID, the British bi-lateral aid donor, adopted an innovative rights' based approach that rested on supporting in existing networks in Peru. Focus is put on the history and challenges of DFID's engagement with three networks in particular: in the fields of health, local...

  18. A Privacy-Protecting Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services with Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyungho; Han, Dong-Guk; Won, Dongho

    In this work we propose a novel smart card based privacy-protecting authentication scheme for roaming services. Our proposal achieves so-called Class 2 privacy protection, i.e., no information identifying a roaming user and also linking the user's behaviors is not revealed in a visited network. It can be used to overcome the inherent structural flaws of smart card based anonymous authentication schemes issued recently. As shown in our analysis, our scheme is computationally efficient for a mobile user.

  19. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  20. International Roaming of Mobile Services: The Need for Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services.......This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services....

  1. A game theoretical approach for cooperative green mobile operators under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a green mobile operator collaborating with other traditional mobile operators. Its goal is to minimize its CO2 emissions, maximize its profit or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives by offloading its users to neighbor networks and exploiting renewable energies. On the other hand, traditional mobile operators aim to maximize their profits by attracting the maximum number of roamed users. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game and its equilibrium is derived. A green mobile operator level that determines how many users per each base station to offload to each neighbor network, and a non-green mobile operator level where operators focus on finding the optimal roaming price. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-cooperation case and that roaming decision depends essentially on the availability of renewable energy in base station sites. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. A Novel WLAN Roaming Decision and Selection Scheme for Mobile Data Offloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing IEEE and 3GPP standards have laid the foundation for integrating cellular and WiFi network to deliver a seamless experience for the end-users when roaming across multiple access networks. However, in recent studies, the issue of making roaming decision and intelligently selecting the most preferable Point of Service to optimize network resource and improve end user’s experience has not been considered properly. In this paper, we propose a novel cellular and WiFi roaming decision and AP selection scheme based on state of the art, 3GPP TS24.312 and IEEE 802.11u, k standards. Our proposed scheme assists the mobile nodes to decide the right timing to make roaming decision and select preferable point of service based on the operator’s policies and real-time network condition. We also introduce our simulation model of a heterogeneous network with cellular and WiFi interworking as well as 3GPP ANDSF, TS24.312. It is a complete end-to-end system model from application to physical layer with considering user’s mobility and realistic traffic model. The proposed scheme outperformed the conventional WiFi selection scheme in terms of dynamically steering mobile node’s data traffic from macrocell to available Access Points. The proposed scheme increased the utilization and balanced the traffic load of access points and improved user’s experienced throughput.

  3. Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and practices of ... Understanding the dynamics of free roaming dog populations is, thus, a step to ... and other related costs), public health impact and social value of the disease.

  4. Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness. A key component of these models is knowledge of dog roaming patterns to inform contact rates. However, a comprehensive understanding of how dogs utilise their environment and the heterogeneity of their movements to estimate contact rates is lacking. Using a novel simulation approach - and GPS data collected from 21 free-roaming domestic dogs in the NPA in 2014 and 2016 - we characterised the roaming patterns within this dog population. Multiple subsets from each individual dog's GPS dataset were selected representing different monitoring durations and a utilisation distribution (UD) and derived core (50%) and extended (95%) home ranges (HR) were estimated for each duration. Three roaming patterns were identified, based on changes in mean HR over increased monitoring durations, supported by assessment of maps of daily UDs of each dog. Stay-at-home dogs consolidated their HR around their owner's residence, resulting in a decrease in mean HR (both core and extended) as monitoring duration increased (median peak core and extended HR 0.336 and 3.696ha, respectively). Roamer dogs consolidated their core HR but their extended HR increased with longer monitoring durations, suggesting that their roaming patterns based on place of residence were more variable (median peak core and extended HR 0.391 and 6.049ha, respectively). Explorer dogs demonstrated large variability in their roaming patterns, with both core and

  5. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  6. Using Network Science to Support Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and societal impact. This chapter contributes to the use of network science in empirical studies of design organisations. It focuses on introducing a network-based perspective on the design process and in particular on making use of network science to support design research and practice. The main contribution...... of this chapter is an overview of the methodological challenges and core decision points when embarking on network-based design research, namely defining the overall research purpose and selecting network features. We furthermore highlight the potential for using archival data, the opportunities for navigating...

  7. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  8. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  9. Network Support for Group Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    telecommuting and ubiquitous computing [40], the advent of networked multimedia, and less expensive technology have shifted telecollaboration into...of Computer Engineering,Santa Cruz,CA,95064 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...participants A and B, the payoff structure for choosing two actions i and j is P = Aij + Bij . If P = 0, then the interaction is called a zero -sum game, and

  10. Building an Alumni Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Karli A.

    2008-01-01

    Alumni can be visible or invisible, engaged or disengaged. They can speak highly of their college experience--or not. Most colleges find that alumni, regardless of their opinions and experiences, represent a vast, often untapped body of potential support. With a little nurturing, administrators can use relationships with former students and…

  11. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona; Eyben, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...

  12. NESSIE: Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alan; Higham, Desmond J.

    We describe a new web-based facility that makes available some realistic examples of complex networks. NESSIE (Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation) currently contains 12 specific networks from a diverse range of application areas, with a Scottish emphasis. This collection of data sets is designed to be useful for researchers in network science who wish to evaluate new algorithms, concepts and models. The data sets are available to download in two formats (MATLAB's .mat format and .txt files readable by packages such as Pajek), and some basic MATLAB tools for computing summary statistics are also provided.

  13. Changing Network Support for Drinking: Network Support Project 2-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    The Network Support Project was designed to determine whether a treatment could lead patients to change their social network from one that supports drinking to one that supports sobriety. This study reports 2-year posttreatment outcomes. Alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 210) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions:…

  14. Handoff Between a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN and a Wide Area Network (UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez–García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available With the appearance of wireless data networks with variable coverage, band width and handoff strategies, in addition to the growing need of mobile nodes to freely roam among these networks, the support of an interoperable handoff strategy for hybrid wireless data networks is a requirement that needs to be addressed. The current trend in wireless data networks is to offer multimedia access to mobile users by employing the wireless local area network (WLAN standard IEEE802.11 while the user is located indoors; on the other hand, 3rd generation wireless networks (WAN are being deployed to provide coverage while the user is located outdoors. As a result, the mobile node will require a handoff mechanism to allow the user to roam between WLAN and WAN environments; up to this date several strategies have been proposed (Sattari et al., 2004 and HyoJin, 2007 in the literature, however, none of these have been standardized to date. To support this interoperability, the mobile node must be equipped with configurable wireless inetrfaces to support the handoff between the WLAN and the WAN networks. In this work a new algorithm is proposed to allow a mobile node to roam between a wireless local area network (IEEE802.11 and a WAN base station (UMTS, while employing IP mobility support. The algorithm is implemented in simulation, using the Network Simulator 2.

  15. Construct Validation of Wenger's Support Network Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agnes; Stephens, Christine; Allen, Joanne; Alpass, Fiona

    2016-10-07

    The study aimed to validate Wenger's empirically derived support network typology of responses to the Practitioner Assessment of Network Type (PANT) in an older New Zealander population. The configuration of network types was tested across ethnic groups and in the total sample. Data (N = 872, Mage = 67 years, SDage = 1.56 years) from the 2006 wave of the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement study were analyzed using latent profile analysis. In addition, demographic differences among the emerging profiles were tested. Competing models were evaluated based on a range of fit criteria, which supported a five-profile solution. The "locally integrated," "community-focused," "local self-contained," "private-restricted," and "friend- and family-dependent" network types were identified as latent profiles underlying the data. There were no differences between Māori and non-Māori in final profile configurations. However, Māori were more likely to report integrated network types. Findings confirm the validity of Wenger's network types. However, the level to which participants endorse accessibility of family, frequency of interactions, and community engagement can be influenced by sample and contextual characteristics. Future research using the PANT items should empirically verify and derive the social support network types, rather than use a predefined scoring system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  17. Developing networks to support science teachers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    In educational research literature constructing networks among practitioners has been suggested as a strategy to support teachers’ professional development (Huberman, 1995; Jackson & Temperley, 2007; Van Driel, Beijaard, & Verloop, 2001). The purpose of this paper is to report on a study about how...... networks provide opportunities for teachers from different schools to collaborate on improving the quality of their own science teaching practices. These networks exist at the meso-level of the educational system between the micro-realities of teachers’ individual practice and the macro-level, where...... to develop collaborative activities in primary science teacher communities in schools to improve individual teachers practice and in networks between teachers from different schools in each municipality. Each network was organized and moderated by a municipal science coordinator....

  18. Crime and punishment in a roaming cleanerfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Suzanne C; Côté, Isabelle M

    2010-12-07

    Cheating is common in cooperative interactions, but its occurrence can be controlled by various means ranging from rewarding cooperators to active punishment of cheaters. Punishment occurs in the mutualism involving the cleanerfish Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients. When L. dimidiatus cheats, by taking scales and mucus rather than ectoparasites, wronged clients either chase or withhold further visits to the dishonest cleaner, which leads to more cooperative future interactions. Punishment of cheating L. dimidiatus may be effective largely because these cleaners are strictly site-attached, increasing the potential for repeated interactions between individual cleaners and clients. Here, we contrast the patterns of cheating and punishment in L. dimidiatus with its close relative, the less site-attached Labroides bicolor. Overall, L. bicolor had larger home ranges, cheated more often and, contrary to our prediction, were punished by cheated clients as frequently as, and not less often than, L. dimidiatus. However, adult L. bicolor, which had the largest home ranges, did not cheat more than younger conspecifics, suggesting that roaming, and hence the frequency of repeated interactions, has little influence on cheating and retaliation in cleaner-client relationships. We suggest that roaming cleaners offer the only option available to many site-attached reef fish seeking a cleaning service. This asymmetry in scope for partner choice encourages dishonesty by the partner with more options (i.e. L. bicolor), but to be cleaned by a cleaner that sometimes cheats may be a better option than not to be cleaned at all.

  19. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  20. Eduroam: Secure WiFi roaming for education and research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miteff, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author introduces the Eduroam initiative, and explains how it combines existing wireless security technologies in a novel way, to enable secure global roaming for end users at university campuses and research institutions....

  1. Operations Plan for Support Network Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report describes the operational processes and strategies that are building a support network for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program. The NSTI program currently is under development as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Grant No. DE FG52-07NA28084. Although the NSTI program offers a wide array of in-house business services, there are a certain number of services that will be provided by entities outside of Arrowhead Center. This report identifies the steps needed to develop an appropriate support network. The Arrowhead Center is working with external service providers and key stakeholders to establish feasible referral and implementation mechanics offering NSTI program participants the most comprehensive incubation services possible.

  2. Flexible brain network reconfiguration supporting inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T

    2015-08-11

    The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties.

  3. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  4. Formaldehyde roaming dynamics: Comparison of quasi-classical trajectory calculations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul L; Wang, Xiaohong; Ghosh, Aryya; Bowman, Joel M; Quinn, Mitchell S; Kable, Scott H

    2017-07-07

    The photodissociation dynamics of roaming in formaldehyde are studied by comparing quasi-classical trajectory calculations performed on a new potential energy surface (PES) to new and detailed experimental results detailing the CO + H 2 product state distributions and their correlations. The new PES proves to be a significant improvement over the past one, now more than a decade old. The new experiments probe both the CO and H 2 products of the formaldehyde dissociation. The experimental and trajectory data offer unprecedented detail about the correlations between internal states of the CO and H 2 dissociation products as well as information on how these distributions are different for the roaming and transition-state pathways. The data investigated include, for dissociation on the formaldehyde 2 1 4 3 band, (a) the speed distributions for individual vibrational/rotational states of the CO products, providing information about the correlated internal energy distributions of the H 2 product, and (b) the rotational and vibrational distributions for the CO and H 2 products as well as the contributions to each from both the transition state and roaming channels. The agreement between the trajectory and experimental data is quite satisfactory, although minor differences are noted. The general agreement provides support for future use of the experimental techniques and the new PES in understanding the dynamics of photodissociative processes.

  5. Seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of the requirements, challenges, design issues and major techniques for seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks. It summarizes and provides detailed insights into the latest research on handoff management, mobility management, fast authentication and security management to support seamless and secure roaming for mobile clients. The reader will also learn about the challenges in developing relevant technologies and providing ubiquitous Internet access over heterogeneous wireless networks. The authors have extensive experience in im

  6. Firms' innovation benefiting from networking and institutional support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    2016-01-01

    Firms' networking for innovation is embedded in institutions of society, where national policies are increasingly designed to provide institutional support for firms' networking and thereby benefit innovation. But, globally, what are the quantitative and qualitative effects of institutional support...... for networking and, in turn, for innovation? 68 countries with 18,880 firms were surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, enabling generalization to the firms in the countries around the world. Two-level modeling shows that firms' networking benefits both process and product innovation. Institutional...... support does not significantly affect quantity of networking, but greatly enhances quality of networking in the sense that support for networking in a country enhances the benefits of networking for both process and product innovation. Contrasting low and high support for networking leads to estimating...

  7. Enhanced Seamless Handover Algorithm for WiMAX and LTE Roaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINDIA, M. N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the ever evolving mobile communication technology, achieving a high quality seamless mobility access across mobile networks is the present challenge to research and development engineers. Existing algorithms are used to make handover while a mobile station is roaming between cells. Such algorithms have some handover instability due to method of making handover decision. This paper proposes an enhanced handover algorithm that substantially reduces the handover redundancy in vertical and horizontal handovers. Also, it enables users to select the most appropriate target network technology based on their preferences even in the worst case where the mobile station roams between cell boundaries, and has high ability to have efficient performance in the critical area full of interferences. The proposed algorithm uses additional quality of service criteria, such as cost, delay, available bandwidth and network condition with two handover thresholds to achieve a better seamless handover process. After developing and testing this algorithm, the simulation results show a major reduction in the redundant handover, so high accuracy of horizontal and vertical handovers obtained. Moreover, the signal strength is kept at a level higher than the threshold during the whole simulation period, while maintaining low delay and connection cost compared to other two algorithms in both scenarios.

  8. Regulation of international roaming data services within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Europe has been the first region to intervene on the market for international roaming services. The first regulation was introduced in 2007 and has since then been revised several times. The latest revision took place in the summer 2012. This paper discusses the new legislation in view of recent...... market developments from a technological, economic and a regulatory perspective. The paper concludes that roaming charges have been reduced substantially since the introduction of prices caps, but still the charges are far above a level, which can be justified by the production costs. A number...... of alternatives to tradition roaming have been developed, but so far their impact on competition have been limited, and it will take some years before the present regulation can be lifted....

  9. Management of Information Supporting Collaborative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Dynamic creation of opportunity-based goal-oriented Collaborative Networks (CNs), among organizations or individuals, requires the availability of a variety of up-to-date information. In order to effectively address the complexity, dynamism, and scalability of actors, domains, and operations in opportunity-based CNs, pre-establishment of properly administrated strategic CNs is required. Namely, to effectively support creation/operation of opportunity-based VOs (Virtual Organizations) operating in certain domain, the pre-establishment of a VBE (Virtual organizations Breeding Environment) for that domain plays a crucial role and increases their chances of success. Administration of strategic CN environments however is challenging and requires an advanced set of inter-related functionalities, developed on top of strong management of their information. With the emphasis on information management aspects, a number of generic challenges for the CNs and especially for the administration of VBEs are introduced in the paper.

  10. 36 CFR 261.23 - Wild free-roaming horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild free-roaming horses and... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.23 Wild free-roaming horses and burros. The following are prohibited: (a) Removing or attempting to remove a wild free-roaming horse or burro from the National Forest...

  11. 76 FR 26199 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... to ensure that smaller, rural and mid-tier carriers invest now in LTE, they need to know that they will have access to LTE roaming once they have upgraded. 8. The availability of roaming arrangements... data roaming rule, providers will have the ability to negotiate commercially reasonable measures to...

  12. Tourists' Perceptions of the Free-Roaming Dog Population in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Magnus; Hill, Kate E; Farnworth, Mark J; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bridges, Janis; Acke, Els

    2014-09-29

    A study was undertaken to establish how visiting tourists to Samoa perceived free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) and their management, additionally some factors that influence their perceptions were assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 281 tourists across Samoa over 5 weeks. Free-roaming dogs were seen by 98.2% (n = 269/274) of respondents, with 64.9% (n = 137/211) reporting that their presence had a negative effect on overall holiday experience. Respondents staying in the Apia (capital city) area were more likely to consider dogs a problem (p < 0.0001), and there was a significant association between whether the respondent owned a dog and if they thought dogs were a nuisance in Samoa (p < 0.003). Forty-four percent (20/89) of non-dog owners agreed that dogs were a nuisance compared to 22% (80/182) of dog owners. The majority felt that dogs required better control and management in Samoa (81%, n = 222) and that there were too many "stray" dogs (67.9%, n = 188). More respondents were negatively affected by the dogs' presence (64.9%, 137/211), and felt that the dogs made their holiday worse, than respondents that felt the dogs' presence improved their holiday experience (35.1%, 74/211). Most respondents stated that the dogs had a low impact (one to three; 68%, 187/275) on their stay in Samoa, whilst 24% (65/275) and 8% (23/275) stated they had a medium or high impact, respectively, on their stay. Respondents showed strong support for humane population management. Free-roaming dogs present a complex problem for Samoa and for its tourism industry in particular. The findings of this study further support the need for more discussion and action about the provision of veterinary services and population management for dogs in Samoa. It also provides information complementing an earlier study of the attitudes of local Samoans.

  13. Licensing Support Network: An Electronic Discovery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A. V.; Jensen, D.; McKinnon, B.

    2002-01-01

    The necessary authorization for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to submit a License Application (LA) is contingent upon the policy process defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended (NWPA), with some steps yet to occur. In spite of this uncertainty, the DOE must take prudent and appropriate action now, and over the next several years, to prepare for submittal of an application and to facilitate the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review of this application, if the Yucca Mountain site is recommended and approved for repository development. One of these steps the DOE has taken involves working with the NRC's Advisory Review Panel to develop Licensing Support Network (LSN) requirements and guidelines. The NRC has made a prototype of the LSN web page available at www.LSNNET.gov. The OCRWM part of the LSN currently has an indefinite life cycle and may need to remain in existence until the repository is closed, which could be as long as 325 years

  14. Yucca Mountain licensing support network archive assistant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Bauer, Travis L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2008-03-01

    This report describes the Licensing Support Network (LSN) Assistant--a set of tools for categorizing e-mail messages and documents, and investigating and correcting existing archives of categorized e-mail messages and documents. The two main tools in the LSN Assistant are the LSN Archive Assistant (LSNAA) tool for recategorizing manually labeled e-mail messages and documents and the LSN Realtime Assistant (LSNRA) tool for categorizing new e-mail messages and documents. This report focuses on the LSNAA tool. There are two main components of the LSNAA tool. The first is the Sandia Categorization Framework, which is responsible for providing categorizations for documents in an archive and storing them in an appropriate Categorization Database. The second is the actual user interface, which primarily interacts with the Categorization Database, providing a way for finding and correcting categorizations errors in the database. A procedure for applying the LSNAA tool and an example use case of the LSNAA tool applied to a set of e-mail messages are provided. Performance results of the categorization model designed for this example use case are presented.

  15. Technical Support DLA Apparel Research Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guthrie, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Defense Logistics Agency's Research and Development Enterprise Division established a network of universities, equipment suppliers, apparel manufacturers, industry consultants and software developers...

  16. Group Coordination Support in Networked Multimedia Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dommel, Hans-Peter

    1999-01-01

    .... In this dissertation, we address network control and coordination functions to orchestrate synchronous multimedia groupwork, establishing a sharing discipline on multimedia resources and guaranteeing...

  17. Achieving population-level immunity to rabies in free-roaming dogs in Africa and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Morters

    Full Text Available Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least

  18. Specification and Support of Adaptable Networked Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)

    1993-01-01

    htmlabstractAccessing multimedia information in a networked environment introduces problems that don't exist when the same information is accessed locally. These problems include: competing for network resources within and across applications, synchronizing data arrivals from various sources within

  19. New networking solutions support GEANT2

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Researchers across the globe are benefiting from new advanced networking solutions, deployed as part of the GEANT2. For the first time, scientists collaborating on the world's largest particle physics experiment, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now have access to point-to-point network connections between distributed research centres." (1 page)

  20. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  1. Future networks and technologies supporting innovative communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    -communications (WISDOM) that combines the aspects of personal- and cognitive radio- networks to let seamlessly bridge the virtual and physical worlds offering a constant level of all-senses, context-based, rich communication experience over fixed and wireless networks for the end users while realizing a new generation......Within a fully interconnected world, the distinct relationship between end users, consumers and providers rapidly changes towards a scenario of collaboration and competition of multiple parties within one system. ‘Convergence’, ‘ubiquitous’ and ‘smart’ are key words describing future networks...

  2. Social networks as ICT collaborative and supportive learning media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ICT collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation within the Nigerian educational system. The concept of ICT was concisely explained vis-à-vis the social network concept, theory and collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation. Different types of social network are highlighted among which Facebook, ...

  3. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  4. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...... to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths....

  5. Distributed Data Networks That Support Public Health Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabano, David C; Cole, Elizabeth; Holve, Erin; Davidson, Arthur J

    Data networks, consisting of pooled electronic health data assets from health care providers serving different patient populations, promote data sharing, population and disease monitoring, and methods to assess interventions. Better understanding of data networks, and their capacity to support public health objectives, will help foster partnerships, expand resources, and grow learning health systems. We conducted semistructured interviews with 16 key informants across the United States, identified as network stakeholders based on their respective experience in advancing health information technology and network functionality. Key informants were asked about their experience with and infrastructure used to develop data networks, including each network's utility to identify and characterize populations, usage, and sustainability. Among 11 identified data networks representing hundreds of thousands of patients, key informants described aggregated health care clinical data contributing to population health measures. Key informant interview responses were thematically grouped to illustrate how networks support public health, including (1) infrastructure and information sharing; (2) population health measures; and (3) network sustainability. Collaboration between clinical data networks and public health entities presents an opportunity to leverage infrastructure investments to support public health. Data networks can provide resources to enhance population health information and infrastructure.

  6. Social Network Supported Process Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  7. Social network supported process recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen

    2014-01-01

    Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  8. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Jebaseeli Samuelraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6 is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node’s mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node’s mobility should be modified to support group nodes’ mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  9. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  10. Business Process Modeling Languages Supporting Collaborative Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimani Malekan, H.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    Formalizing the definition of Business Processes (BPs) performed within each enterprise is fundamental for effective deployment of their competencies and capabilities within Collaborative Networks (CN). In our approach, every enterprise in the CN is represented by its set of BPs, so that other

  11. Management of information supporting Collaborative Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic creation of opportunity-based goal-oriented Collaborative Networks (CNs), among organizations or individuals, requires the availability of a variety of up-to-date information. In order to effectively address the complexity, dynamism, and scalability of actors, domains, and operations in

  12. Flexible Decision Support in Dynamic Interorganizational Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Collins (John); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); M. Gini (Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAn effective Decision Support System (DSS) should help its users improve decision-making in complex, information-rich, environments. We present a feature gap analysis that shows that current decision support technologies lack important qualities for a new generation of agile business

  13. Distributed Emulation in Support of Large Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Provider LTE Long Term Evolution MB Megabyte MIPS Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages MRT Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit NPS Naval...environment, modifications to a network, protocol, or model can be executed – and the effects measured – without affecting real-world users or services...produce their results when analyzing performance of Long Term Evolution ( LTE ) gateways [3]. Many research scenarios allow problems to be represented

  14. Intelligent Configuration of Social Support Networks around Depressed Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping someone who is depressed can be very important to the depressed person. A number of supportive family members or friends can often make a big difference. This paper addresses how a social support network can be formed, taking the needs of the support recipient and the possibilities of the

  15. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  16. CryptoCache: A Secure Sharable File Cache for Roaming Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2000-01-01

    . Conventional distributed file systems cache everything locally or not at all; there is no possibility to cache files on nearby nodes.In this paper we present the design of a secure cache system called CryptoCache that allows roaming users to cache files on untrusted file hosting servers. The system allows...... flexible sharing of cached files among unauthenticated users, i.e. unlike most distributed file systems CryptoCache does not require a global authentication framework.Files are encrypted when they are transferred over the network and while stored on untrusted servers. The system uses public key......Small mobile computers are now sufficiently powerful to run many applications, but storage capacity remains limited so working files cannot be cached or stored locally. Even if files can be stored locally, the mobile device is not powerful enough to act as server in collaborations with other users...

  17. Network support for e-Science in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, M.; Macahdo, I.; Faerman, M.; Moura, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Computer networks in Latin America have connected scientists in the region to their peers in other parts of the world since 1986. Starting with the creation of Internet2 in 1996, a new global research network has been extended throughout the world, providing communications infrastructure for large-scale international scientific collaboration. With the creation of the RedCLARA network and its links to Europe and the US between 2004 and 2005, this global network reached the majority of Latin America countries, setting the stage for much closer collaboration between scientists in Latin America and their counterparts in other countries. In this article we describe the development of the research networking infrastructure currently available within the region together with its inter-regional connections, and how this infrastructure is being used for support of e-science. Particular attention is given to the role of the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region, and of their association, CLARA, in providing networking support for e-science projects. CLARA and Latin American NRENs are active partners in the EU-supported EELA and RINGrid projects, and also are making significant supporting contributions to the success of other international projects with Latin American partners, in fields such as High-Energy Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Geodesy, to single out the early adopters of advanced networking technologies. These contributions are described in the article. The article concludes describing future trends in networking infrastructure in the region, in order to meet foreseeable demands for e-science support. These include the widespread adoption of optical networking and support for grid-based applications, as well as the provisioning of significantly higher international bandwidth to meet the declared needs for international collaboration in a number of fields including those mentioned above. (Author)

  18. MINDS - Medical Information Network Decision Support System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armenian, H. K

    2008-01-01

    .... The increase in and complexity of medical data at various levels of resolution has increased the need for system level advancements in clinical decision support systems that provide computer-aided...

  19. Support network and social support for children with special health care need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Araújo Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand and identify the support network and social support from the perspective of families of children with chronic conditions. Methods: a qualitative study, with content analysis of 134 records, followed by ten semi-structured interviews. Results: the analysis has revealed that the primary caregiver, the mother, participates in a network of limited support, only with the help of her husband, children, grandparents and the child´s godparents. They also have a social network through a multidisciplinary team, which in some cases is not effective. Conclusion: families have a deficient and limited support network and the demand for care rely only on the support of the husband, grandparents, children, and godparents. Social networking refers to the philanthropic institutions, while the aid of public service, basic health unit is basic.

  20. Core Support to Global Development Network (GND) - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Global Development Network (GDN) was launched by the World Bank in 1999 on the premise that good policy research, properly applied, can accelerate development and improve people's lives. Working mainly through regional networks, GDN supports economic and, increasingly, social science research in and on ...

  1. Combining morphological analysis and Bayesian Networks for strategic decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis (MA) and Bayesian networks (BN) are two closely related modelling methods, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages for strategic decision support modelling. MA is a method for defining, linking and evaluating...

  2. Construction of an institutional network for homeless support: weaving networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Giraldo Rátiva

    2007-04-01

    Conclusion. Within the detected institutions different levels from attention for the population exist inhabitant and ex-inhabitant of infantile and adult street (prevention, promotion, rehabilitation in addition to support and pursuit by these institutions within the Public and Deprived sector.

  3. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morters, M K; Bharadwaj, S; Whay, H R; Cleaveland, S; Damriyasa, I Md; Wood, J L N

    2014-09-01

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and absolving humans from the responsibility of providing adequate care for a domesticated species. Mark-recapture methods previously used to estimate the fraction of unowned dogs in free-roaming populations have limitations, particularly when most of the dogs are owned. We used participatory methods, described as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), as a novel alternative to mark-recapture methods in two villages in Bali, Indonesia. PRA was implemented at the banjar (or sub-village)-level to obtain consensus on the food sources of the free-roaming dogs. Specific methods included semi-structured discussion, visualisation tools and ranking. The PRA results agreed with the preceding household surveys and direct observations, designed to evaluate the same variables, and confirmed that a population of unowned, free-roaming dogs in sufficiently good condition to be sustained independently of direct human support was unlikely to exist. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social networks, support and early psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer-Anderson, C; Morgan, C

    2013-06-01

    Background. There is strong evidence that those with a long-standing psychotic disorder have fewer social contacts and less social support than comparison groups. There is less research on the extent of social contacts and support prior to or at the onset of psychosis. In the light of recent evidence implicating a range of social experiences and contexts at the onset of psychosis, it is relevant to establish whether social networks and support diminished before or at the time of onset and whether the absence of such supports might contribute to risk, either directly or indirectly. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review of this literature to establish what is currently known about the relationship between social networks, support and early psychosis. Methods. We identified all studies investigating social networks and support in first episode psychosis samples and in general population samples with measures of psychotic experiences or schizotype by conducting systematic searches of electronic databases using pre-defined search terms and criteria. Findings were synthesized using non-quantitative approaches. Results. Thirty-eight papers were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was marked methodological heterogeneity, which limits the capacity to draw direct comparisons. Nonetheless, the existing literature suggests social networks (particularly close friends) and support diminished both among first episode samples and among non-clinical samples reporting psychotic experiences or with schizotype traits, compared with varying comparison groups. These differences may be more marked for men and for those from minority ethnic populations. Conclusions. Tentatively, reduced social networks and support appear to pre-date onset of psychotic disorder. However, the substantial methodological heterogeneity among the existing studies makes comparisons difficult and suggests a need for more robust and comparable studies on networks, support and early psychosis.

  5. Tourists’ Perceptions of the Free-Roaming Dog Population in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Beckman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to establish how visiting tourists to Samoa perceived free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris and their management, additionally some factors that influence their perceptions were assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 281 tourists across Samoa over 5 weeks. Free-roaming dogs were seen by 98.2% (n = 269/274 of respondents, with 64.9% (n = 137/211 reporting that their presence had a negative effect on overall holiday experience. Respondents staying in the Apia (capital city area were more likely to consider dogs a problem (p < 0.0001, and there was a significant association between whether the respondent owned a dog and if they thought dogs were a nuisance in Samoa (p < 0.003. Forty-four percent (20/89 of non-dog owners agreed that dogs were a nuisance compared to 22% (80/182 of dog owners. The majority felt that dogs required better control and management in Samoa (81%, n = 222 and that there were too many “stray” dogs (67.9%, n = 188. More respondents were negatively affected by the dogs’ presence (64.9%, 137/211, and felt that the dogs made their holiday worse, than respondents that felt the dogs’ presence improved their holiday experience (35.1%, 74/211. Most respondents stated that the dogs had a low impact (one to three; 68%, 187/275 on their stay in Samoa, whilst 24% (65/275 and 8% (23/275 stated they had a medium or high impact, respectively, on their stay. Respondents showed strong support for humane population management. Free-roaming dogs present a complex problem for Samoa and for its tourism industry in particular. The findings of this study further support the need for more discussion and action about the provision of veterinary services and population management for dogs in Samoa. It also provides information complementing an earlier study of the attitudes of local Samoans.

  6. Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina

    2008-08-01

    Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.

  7. IP access networks with QoS support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargento, Susana; Valadas, Rui J. M. T.; Goncalves, Jorge; Sousa, Henrique

    2001-07-01

    The increasing demand of new services and applications is pushing for drastic changes on the design of access networks targeted mainly for residential and SOHO users. Future access networks will provide full service integration (including multimedia), resource sharing at the packet level and QoS support. It is expected that using IP as the base technology, the ideal plug-and-play scenario, where the management actions of the access network operator are kept to a minimum, will be achieved easily. This paper proposes an architecture for access networks based on layer 2 or layer 3 multiplexers that allows a number of simplifications in the network elements and protocols (e.g. in the routing and addressing functions). We discuss two possible steps in the evolution of access networks towards a more efficient support of IP based services. The first one still provides no QoS support and was designed with the goal of reusing as much as possible current technologies; it is based on tunneling to transport PPP sessions. The second one introduces QoS support through the use of emerging technologies and protocols. We illustrate the different phases of a multimedia Internet access session, when using SIP for session initiation, COPS for the management of QoS policies including the AAA functions and RSVP for resource reservation.

  8. Software/hardware distributed processing network supporting the Ada environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard J.; Pryk, Zen

    1993-09-01

    A high-performance, fault-tolerant, distributed network has been developed, tested, and demonstrated. The network is based on the MIPS Computer Systems, Inc. R3000 Risc for processing, VHSIC ASICs for high speed, reliable, inter-node communications and compatible commercial memory and I/O boards. The network is an evolution of the Advanced Onboard Signal Processor (AOSP) architecture. It supports Ada application software with an Ada- implemented operating system. A six-node implementation (capable of expansion up to 256 nodes) of the RISC multiprocessor architecture provides 120 MIPS of scalar throughput, 96 Mbytes of RAM and 24 Mbytes of non-volatile memory. The network provides for all ground processing applications, has merit for space-qualified RISC-based network, and interfaces to advanced Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools for application software development.

  9. Ad hoc Sensor Networks to Support Maritime Interdiction Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Osmundson, John; Bordetsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Networking sensors, decision centers, and boarding parties supports success in Maritime Interdiction Operations. Led by a team from Naval Post-graduate School (NPS), experiments were conducted in 2012 to test the use of ad-hoc, self-forming communication networks to link sensors, people, and decision centers. The experiments involved international participants and successfully shared valuable biometric and radiological sensor data between boarding parties and decis...

  10. Communication: Photodissociation of CH3CHO at 308 nm: Observation of H-roaming, CH3-roaming, and transition state pathways together along the ground state surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Kuan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Hung, Kai-Chan; Kasai, Toshio; Lin, King-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Following photodissociation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 308 nm, the CO(v = 1-4) fragment is acquired using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The CO(v = 1) rotational distribution shows a bimodal feature; the low- and high-J components result from H-roaming around CH3CO core and CH3-roaming around CHO radical, respectively, in consistency with a recent assignment by Kable and co-workers (Lee et al., Chem. Sci. 5, 4633 (2014)). The H-roaming pathway disappears at the CO(v ≥ 2) states, because of insufficient available energy following bond-breaking of H + CH3CO. By analyzing the CH4 emission spectrum, we obtained a bimodal vibrational distribution; the low-energy component is ascribed to the transition state (TS) pathway, consistent with prediction by quasiclassical trajectory calculations, while the high-energy component results from H- and CH3-roamings. A branching fraction of H-roaming/CH3-roaming/TS contribution is evaluated to be (8% ± 3%)/(68% ± 10%)/(25% ± 5%), in which the TS pathway was observed for the first time. The three pathways proceed concomitantly along the electronic ground state surface.

  11. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.

  13. Towards integrated crisis support of regional emergency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, D H

    1999-01-01

    Emergency and crisis management pose multidimensional information systems challenges for communities across North America. In the quest to reduce mortality and morbidity risks and to increase the level of crisis preparedness, regional emergency management networks have evolved. Integrated Crisis Support Systems (ICSS) are enabling information technologies that assist emergency managers by enhancing the ability to strategically manage and control these regional emergency networks efficiently and effectively. This article underscores the ICCS development, control and leadership issues and their promising implications for regional emergency management networks.

  14. QoS support over ultrafast TDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Paolo; Siu, Kai-Yeung; Finn, Steven G.

    1999-08-01

    HLAN is a promising architecture to realize Tb/s access networks based on ultra-fast optical TDM technologies. This paper presents new research results on efficient algorithms for the support of quality of service over the HLAN network architecture. In particular, we propose a new scheduling algorithm that emulates fair queuing in a distributed manner for bandwidth allocation purpose. The proposed scheduler collects information on the queue of each host on the network and then instructs each host how much data to send. Our new scheduling algorithm ensures full bandwidth utilization, while guaranteeing fairness among all hosts.

  15. Implementing e-network-supported inquiry learning in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The successful implementation of electronically networked (e-networked) tools to support an inquiry-learning approach in secondary science classrooms is dependent on a range of factors spread between teachers, schools, and students. The teacher must have a clear understanding of the nature......-construct knowledge using a wide range of resources for meaning making and expression of ideas. These outcomes were, however, contingent on the interplay of teacher understanding of the nature of science inquiry and school provision of an effective technological infrastructure and support for flexible curriculum...... of inquiry, the school must provide effective technological infrastructure and sympathetic curriculum parameters, and the students need to be carefully scaffolded to the point of engaging with the inquiry process. Within this study, e-networks supported students to exercise agency, collaborate, and co...

  16. Support network of adolescents with chronic disease: adolescents' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyngäs, Helvi

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the support network of adolescents with a chronic disease from their own perspective. Data were collected by interviewing adolescents with asthma, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The sample consisted of 40 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years. Interview data were examined using content analysis. Six main categories were established to describe the support network of adolescents with a chronic disease: parents, peers, school, health care providers, technology and pets. Peers were divided into two groups: fellow sufferers and peers without a chronic disease. At school, teachers, school nurses and classmates were part of the support network. Health care providers included nurses, physicians and physiotherapists. Technology was also part of the support network and included four techniques that may be used to communicate: computers, mobile telephones, television and videos. The results provided a useful insight into the social network of adolescents with chronic disease and serve to raise awareness of the problems and opinions experienced by adolescents with this condition.

  17. Community detection in complex networks using proximate support vector clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Zhang, Baihai; Chai, Senchun; Xia, Yuanqing

    2018-03-01

    Community structure, one of the most attention attracting properties in complex networks, has been a cornerstone in advances of various scientific branches. A number of tools have been involved in recent studies concentrating on the community detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose a support vector clustering method based on a proximity graph, owing to which the introduced algorithm surpasses the traditional support vector approach both in accuracy and complexity. Results of extensive experiments undertaken on computer generated networks and real world data sets illustrate competent performances in comparison with the other counterparts.

  18. Networks in Later Life: An Examination of Race Differences in Social Support Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, M. Kristen; O'Neill, Gregory S.

    2001-01-01

    Considers race differences in the determinants of social support network characteristics using data from Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly. Focuses on the extent to which race differences in network dimensions are present and whether variations can be attributed to social structural positions held. Results indicate…

  19. State Support: A Prerequisite for Global Health Network Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; Smith, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Shiffman recently summarized lessons for network effectiveness from an impressive collection of case-studies. However, in common with most global health governance analysis in recent years, Shiffman underplays the important role of states in these global networks. As the body which decides and signs international agreements, often provides the resourcing, and is responsible for implementing initiatives all contributing to the prioritization of certain issues over others, state recognition and support is a prerequisite to enabling and determining global health networks’ success. The role of states deserves greater attention, analysis and consideration. We reflect upon the underappreciated role of the state within the current discourse on global health. We present the tobacco case study to illustrate the decisive role of states in determining progress for global health networks, and highlight how states use a legitimacy loop to gain legitimacy from and provide legitimacy to global health networks. Moving forward in assessing global health networks’ effectiveness, further investigating state support as a determinant of success will be critical. Understanding how global health networks and states interact and evolve to shape and support their respective interests should be a focus for future research. PMID:29524958

  20. Quality of Service in Networks Supporting Cultural Multimedia Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of representative multimedia applications in the cultural heritage sector, as well as research results on quality of service (QoS) mechanisms in internet protocol (IP) networks that support such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a literature review. Findings: Cultural…

  1. Network-aware support for mobile distributed teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Jong, A. de; Brake, G.M. te; Greefe, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment evaluated network-aware support to increase understanding of the factors that are important for successful teamwork in mobile geographically dispersed teams of first responders. Participants performed a simulated search and rescue team task and were equipped with a digitized map and

  2. Does Artificial Neural Network Support Connectivism's Assumptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahdouh, Alaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivism was presented as a learning theory for the digital age and connectivists claim that recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more specifically, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) support their assumptions of knowledge connectivity. Yet, very little has been done to investigate this brave allegation. Does the advancement…

  3. Fracture Network Modeling and GoldSim Simulation Support

    OpenAIRE

    杉田 健一郎; Dershowiz, W.

    2003-01-01

    During Heisei-14, Golder Associates provided support for JNC Tokai through data analysis and simulation of the MIU Underground Rock Laboratory, participation in Task 6 of the Aspo Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport, and analysis of repository safety assessment technologies including cell networks for evaluation of the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) and total systems performance assessment (TSPA).

  4. Supporting Control Room Operators in Highly Automated Future Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Minjiang; Catterson, Victoria; Syed, Mazheruddin

    2017-01-01

    Operating power systems is an extremely challenging task, not least because power systems have become highly interconnected, as well as the range of network issues that can occur. It is therefore a necessity to develop decision support systems and visualisation that can effectively support the hu...... the human operators for decisionmaking in the complex and dynamic environment of future highly automated power system. This paper aims to investigate the decision support functions associated with frequency deviation events for the proposed Web of Cells concept....

  5. Working with NASA's OSS E/PO Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2001-11-01

    With greater and greater emphasis on the inclusion of a public engagement component in all government-supported research funding, many members of the DPS are finding it difficult to find sufficient time and funding to develop a wide-reaching and effective E/PO program. NASA's Office of Space Science, over the last five years, has built a Support Network to assist its funded scientists to establish partnerships with local and/or national science formal or informal education organizations, who are anxious to connect with and use the expertise of space scientists. The OSS Support Network consists of four theme-based 'Forums,' including the Solar System Exploration (SSE) Forum, specifically designed for working with planetary scientists, and seven regional 'Brokers-Facilitators' who are more familiar with partnership and other potential avenues for involvement by scientists. The services provided by the Support Network are free to both the scientists and their potential partners and is not limited to NASA-funded scientists. In addition to its assistance to space scientists, the Support Network is involved in a number of other overarching efforts, including support of a Solar System Ambassador Program, a Solar System Educator Program, Space Place (web and e-mail science products for libraries and small planetariums and museums), an on-line Space Science Resource Directory, annual reports of Space Science E/PO activity, identifying and filling in 'holes' and 'over-populations' in a solar system E/PO product matrix of grade level versus product versus content, research on product effectiveness, and scientific and educational evaluation of space science products. Forum and Broker-Facilitator contact information is available at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/education/resources/ecosystem/index.htm. Handouts with additional information will be available at the meeting.

  6. Should government support business angel networks? The tale of Danish business angels network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2011-01-01

    . This article discusses the possible rationale for governments to support BANs and what criteria to apply when evaluating such networks. The article is based on an in-depth observation study of the whole life cycle of a national BAN – the Danish Business Angel Network (DBAN) – and a comparison with a similar......Policies promoting informal venture capital generally and business angel networks (BANs) in particular have gained increased attention in recent years. As a consequence, BANs are now widespread across Europe. However, there continues to be a debate whether BANs should be supported with public money...... whether to provide continuing support to BANs they should evaluate not only their immediate effectiveness but also whether BANs should be considered a part of the general small business support infrastructure....

  7. Social Support Networks Among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on “chosen families” within LGBT communities more so than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, co-workers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate at White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. PMID:26752447

  8. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech...... is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....

  9. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: social support network perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Diene Monique; Pádua, Elisabete Matallo Marchesini De; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Leitão, Maria Neto da Cruz; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2017-07-20

    To identify and analyze the social support network of families involved in violence against children and adolescents, from the perspective of health professionals and families in a municipality of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was a qualitative strategic social study, anchored in the paradigm of complexity. Data were collected from 41 health professionals and 15 families using institutional or personal network maps, and semi-structured interviews. Analysis was conducted by organizing the data, constructing theoretical frameworks, and categorizing resulting information. The category "weaving the network" was unveiled, with family experiences and professionals focused on a logic of fragmentation of care. The creation and implementation of public policy are urgently needed to address the needs of this population, by empowering families and communities and developing research that respects the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon.

  10. Time Course of Brain Network Reconfiguration Supporting Inhibitory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Tzvetan; Westner, Britta U; Silton, Rebecca L; Sass, Sarah M; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2018-05-02

    Hemodynamic research has recently clarified key nodes and links in brain networks implementing inhibitory control. Although fMRI methods are optimized for identifying the structure of brain networks, the relatively slow temporal course of fMRI limits the ability to characterize network operation. The latter is crucial for developing a mechanistic understanding of how brain networks shift dynamically to support inhibitory control. To address this critical gap, we applied spectrally resolved Granger causality (GC) and random forest machine learning tools to human EEG data in two large samples of adults (test sample n = 96, replication sample n = 237, total N = 333, both sexes) who performed a color-word Stroop task. Time-frequency analysis confirmed that recruitment of inhibitory control accompanied by slower behavioral responses was related to changes in theta and alpha/beta power. GC analyses revealed directionally asymmetric exchanges within frontal and between frontal and parietal brain areas: top-down influence of superior frontal gyrus (SFG) over both dorsal ACC (dACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dACC control over middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and frontal-parietal exchanges (IFG, precuneus, MFG). Predictive analytics confirmed a combination of behavioral and brain-derived variables as the best set of predictors of inhibitory control demands, with SFG theta bearing higher classification importance than dACC theta and posterior beta tracking the onset of behavioral response. The present results provide mechanistic insight into the biological implementation of a psychological phenomenon: inhibitory control is implemented by dynamic routing processes during which the target response is upregulated via theta-mediated effective connectivity within key PFC nodes and via beta-mediated motor preparation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hemodynamic neuroimaging research has recently clarified regional structures in brain networks supporting inhibitory control. However, due to

  11. Supports for shock, vibration and seismic isolation for tube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisecaru, Ilie; Serban, Viorel; Sandrea Madalina

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for diminishing the shocks, vibrations and seismic movements in pipe networks, with a simultaneous reduction in the general stress conditions in piping and supports. Total removal or reduction of vibrations is a hard problem which was not yet tackled either theoretically, in the sense of an analytical procedure for the analysis of occurrence and development of shocks and vibrations in complex systems, or practically, since the current supports and dampers cannot provide enough damping within all the frequency ranges met in the technical domain. Stiffness of classical supports do not allow always satisfactory source isolation to prevent propagation from environment of shocks and vibrations, Considering the actual condition met in the nuclear power plants, power plants and thermal power plants, etc. this paper represents a major practical aid because it provides new solutions for diminishing shocks, vibrations and seismic movements. Aiming at diminishing the effects of vibrations in pipe networks, this paper presents the results obtained in the design, construction and testing of new types of supports that include sandwich type components made up of elastic blade packages with controlled distortion provided by the central and peripheral stiff parts called SERB. With the new type of supports, the control of the distortion at static and dynamic loads and the thermal displacements is achieved by the relative movement among the sandwich structure subassemblies and by the sandwich structure distortion controlled by the central and peripheral distorting parts that generate a non - linear geometric response which has an easily controllable stiffness and damping, due to their non - linear geometric behavior. The supports of the new type are adjustable to the load and distortion level without overstressing the component material, due to a non - linear geometric behavior while the contact pressure among the blades is limited to pre-set values. Due

  12. 75 FR 22263 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... likely that leaving negotiations involving home roaming strictly to the market without any underlying... that can serve as a bar to negotiation of reasonable arrangements. 18. The Commission rejects... Commission [[Page 22267

  13. Using ELECTRE TRI to support maintenance of water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Trojan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems encountered in the context of the maintenance management of water supply are evidenced by the lack of decision support models which gives a manager overview of the system. This paper, therefore, develops a model that uses, in its framework, the multicriteria outranking method ELECTRE TRI. The objective is to sort the areas of water flow measurement of a water distribution network, by priority of maintenance, with data collected from an automated system of abnormalities detection. This sorting is designed to support maintenance decisions in terms of the measure more appropriate to be applied per region. To illustrate the proposed model, an application was performed in a city with 100 thousand water connections. With this model it becomes possible to improve the allocation of maintenance measures for regions and mainly to improve the operation of the distribution network.

  14. Network operations support systems as a competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Andrew K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this paper is to perfom an analysis of TELUS and to examine if Network Operation Support Systems (OSS) can provide TELUS with a sustainable competitive advantage. The paper begins with the first three chapter exploring overviews of the components of the Canadian Telecommunications services industry, TELUS and its products, and the markets and revenues. The next chapter is an industry analysis of the industry landscape and its players. Michael Porter's Five Forces model ...

  15. Burst switched optical networks supporting legacy and future service types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzl, Gerald; Hayat, Faisal; Holynski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the principles and the paradigm of OBS an overview addressing expectable performance and application issues is presented. Proposals on OBS were published over a decade and the presented techniques spread into many directions. The paper comprises discussions of several challenges that ...... and found capable to overcome shortcomings of recent proposals. In conclusion, an OBS that offers different connection types may support most client demands within a sole optical network layer....

  16. Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline Magnuson, Zev Winkelman C O R P O R A T...Syria (ISIS), like no other terrorist organization before, has used Twitter and other social media channels to broadcast its message, inspire followers...and recruit new fighters. Though much less heralded, ISIS opponents have also taken to Twitter to cas- tigate the ISIS message. This report draws on

  17. Wireless networks of opportunity in support of secure field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Lewis, Mark

    1997-02-01

    Under funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for joint military and law enforcement technologies, demonstrations of secure information transfer in support of law enforcement and military operations other than war, using wireless and wired technology, were held in September 1996 at several locations in the United States. In this paper, the network architecture, protocols, and equipment supporting the demonstration's scenarios are presented, together with initial results, including lessons learned and desired system enhancements. Wireless networks of opportunity encompassed in-building (wireless-LAN), campus-wide (Metricom Inc.), metropolitan (AMPS cellular, CDPD), and national (one- and two-way satellite) systems. Evolving DARPA-sponsored packet radio technology was incorporated. All data was encrypted, using multilevel information system security initiative (MISSI)FORTEZZA technology, for carriage over unsecured and unclassified commercial networks. The identification and authentication process inherent in the security system permitted logging for database accesses and provided an audit trail useful in evidence gathering. Wireless and wireline communications support, to and between modeled crisis management centers, was demonstrated. Mechanisms for the guarded transport of data through the secret-high military tactical Internet were included, to support joint law enforcement and crisis management missions. A secure World Wide Web (WWW) browser forms the primary, user-friendly interface for information retrieval and submission. The WWW pages were structured to be sensitive to the bandwidth, error rate, and cost of the communications medium in use (e.g., the use of and resolution for graphical data). Both still and motion compressed video were demonstrated, along with secure voice transmission from laptop computers in the field. Issues of network bandwidth, airtime costs, and deployment status are discussed.

  18. Decision Support System for Hepatitis Disease Diagnosis using Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Lakho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical judgments are tough and challenging as the decisions are often based on the deficient and ambiguous information. Moreover, the result of decision process has direct effects on human lives. The act of human decision declines in emergency situations due to the complication, time limit, and high risks. Therefore, provision of medical diagnosis plays a dynamic role, specifically in the preliminary stage when a physician has limited diagnosis experience and identifies the directions to be taken for the treatment process. Computerized Decision Support Systems have brought a revolution in the medical diagnosis. These automatic systems support the diagnosticians in the course of diagnosis. The major role of Decision Support Systems is to support the medical personnel in decision-making procedures regarding disease diagnosis and treatment recommendation. The proposed system provides easy support in Hepatitis disease recognition. The system is developed using the Bayesian network model. The physician provides the input to the system in the form of symptoms stated by the patient. These signs and symptoms match with the casual relationships present in the knowledge model. The Bayesian network infers conclusion from the knowledge model and calculates the probability of occurrence of Hepatitis B, C and D disorders.

  19. Fracture network modeling and GoldSim simulation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kenichiro; Dershowitz, William

    2004-01-01

    During Heisei-15, Golder Associates provided support for JNC Tokai through discrete fracture network data analysis and simulation of the MIU Underground Rock Laboratory, participation in Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport, and development of methodologies for analysis of repository site characterization strategies and safety assessment. MIU Underground Rock Laboratory support during H-15 involved development of new discrete fracture network (DFN) models for the MIU Shoba-sama Site, in the region of shaft development. Golder developed three DFN models for the site using discrete fracture network, equivalent porous medium (EPM), and nested DFN/EPM approaches. Each of these models were compared based upon criteria established for the multiple modeling project (MMP). Golder supported JNC participation in Task 6AB, 6D and 6E of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport during H-15. For Task 6AB, Golder implemented an updated microstructural model in GoldSim, and used this updated model to simulate the propagation of uncertainty from experimental to safety assessment time scales, for 5 m scale transport path lengths. Task 6D and 6E compared safety assessment (PA) and experimental time scale simulations in a 200 m scale discrete fracture network. For Task 6D, Golder implemented a DFN model using FracMan/PA Works, and determined the sensitivity of solute transport to a range of material property and geometric assumptions. For Task 6E, Golder carried out demonstration FracMan/PA Works transport calculations at a 1 million year time scale, to ensure that task specifications are realistic. The majority of work for Task 6E will be carried out during H-16. During H-15, Golder supported JNC's Total System Performance Assessment (TSPO) strategy by developing technologies for the analysis of precipitant concentration. These approaches were based on the GoldSim precipitant data management features, and were

  20. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Survey on Mobility Support in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have attracted research interests from the community, as more promising healthcare applications have a tendency to employ them as underlying network technology. While taking design issues, such as small size hardware as well as low power computing, into account, a lot of research has been proposed to accomplish the given tasks in WBAN. However, since most of the existing works are basically developed by assuming all nodes in the static state, these schemes therefore cannot be applied in real scenarios where network topology between sensor nodes changes frequently and unexpectedly according to human moving behavior. However, as far as the authors know, there is no survey paper to focus on research challenges for mobility support in WBAN yet. To address this deficiency, in this paper, we present the state-of-the-art approaches and discuss the important features of related to mobility in WBAN. We give an overview of mobility model and categorize the models as individual and group. Furthermore, an overview of networking techniques in the recent literature and summary are compiled for comparison in several aspects. The article also suggests potential directions for future research in the field.

  2. Fracture network modeling and GoldSim simulation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kenichirou; Dershowitz, W.

    2005-01-01

    During Heisei-16, Golder Associates provided support for JNC Tokai through discrete fracture network data analysis and simulation of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), participation in Task 6 of the AEspoe Task Force on Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Transport, and development of methodologies for analysis of repository site characterization strategies and safety assessment. MIU support during H-16 involved updating the H-15 FracMan discrete fracture network (DFN) models for the MIU shaft region, and developing improved simulation procedures. Updates to the conceptual model included incorporation of 'Step2' (2004) versions of the deterministic structures, and revision of background fractures to be consistent with conductive structure data from the DH-2 borehole. Golder developed improved simulation procedures for these models through the use of hybrid discrete fracture network (DFN), equivalent porous medium (EPM), and nested DFN/EPM approaches. For each of these models, procedures were documented for the entire modeling process including model implementation, MMP simulation, and shaft grouting simulation. Golder supported JNC participation in Task 6AB, 6D and 6E of the AEspoe Task Force on Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Transport during H-16. For Task 6AB, Golder developed a new technique to evaluate the role of grout in performance assessment time-scale transport. For Task 6D, Golder submitted a report of H-15 simulations to SKB. For Task 6E, Golder carried out safety assessment time-scale simulations at the block scale, using the Laplace Transform Galerkin method. During H-16, Golder supported JNC's Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) strategy by developing technologies for the analysis of the use site characterization data in safety assessment. This approach will aid in the understanding of the use of site characterization to progressively reduce site characterization uncertainty. (author)

  3. Fracture network modeling and GoldSim simulation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kenichiro; Dershowitz, William

    2003-01-01

    During Heisei-14, Golder Associates provided support for JNC Tokai through data analysis and simulation of the MIU Underground Rock Laboratory, participation in Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport, and analysis of repository safety assessment technologies including cell networks for evaluation of the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) and total systems performance assessment (TSPA). MIU Underground Rock Laboratory support during H-14 involved discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling in support of the Multiple Modelling Project (MMP) and the Long Term Pumping Test (LPT). Golder developed updated DFN models for the MIU site, reflecting updated analyses of fracture data. Golder also developed scripts to support JNC simulations of flow and transport pathways within the MMP. Golder supported JNC participation in Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport during H-14. Task 6A and 6B compared safety assessment (PA) and experimental time scale simulations along a pipe transport pathway. Task 6B2 extended Task 6B simulations from 1-D to 2-D. For Task 6B2, Golder carried out single fracture transport simulations on a wide variety of generic heterogeneous 2D fractures using both experimental and safety assessment boundary conditions. The heterogeneous 2D fractures were implemented according to a variety of in plane heterogeneity patterns. Multiple immobile zones were considered including stagnant zones, infillings, altered wall rock, and intact rock. During H-14, JNC carried out extensive studies of the distributed rock zone (DRZ) surrounding repository tunnels and drifts. Golder supported this activity be evaluating the calculation time necessary for simulating a reference heterogeneous DRZ cell network for a range of computational strategies. To support the development of JNC's total system performance assessment (TSPA) strategy, Golder carried out a review of the US DOE Yucca Mountain Project TSPA. This

  4. Smartphone and GPS technology for free-roaming dog population surveillance - a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Ippoliti, Carla; Di Flaviano, Daniele; De Ruvo, Andrea; Messori, Stefano; Giovannini, Armando; Dalla Villa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (FRD) represent a potential threat to the quality of life in cities from an ecological, social and public health point of view. One of the most urgent concerns is the role of uncontrolled dogs as reservoirs of infectious diseases transmittable to humans and, above all, rabies. An estimate of the FRD population size and characteristics in a given area is the first step for any relevant intervention programme. Direct count methods are still prominent because of their non-invasive approach, information technologies can support such methods facilitating data collection and allowing for a more efficient data handling. This paper presents a new framework for data collection using a topological algorithm implemented as ArcScript in ESRI® ArcGIS software, which allows for a random selection of the sampling areas. It also supplies a mobile phone application for Android® operating system devices which integrates Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google MapsTM. The potential of such a framework was tested in 2 Italian regions. Coupling technological and innovative solutions associated with common counting methods facilitate data collection and transcription. It also paves the way to future applications, which could support dog population management systems.

  5. International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) and the Nuclear Security Training and Support Centre (NSSC) Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Dmitriy

    2013-01-01

    International Nuclear Security Education Network established in 2010: A partnership between the IAEA and universities, research institutions and other stakeholders - •Promotion of nuclear security education; • Development of educational materials; • Professional development for faculty members; • Collaborative research and resource sharing. Currently over 90 members from 38 member states. Mission: to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. Nuclear Security Support Centre: Primary objectives are: • Develop human resources through the implementation of a tailored training programme; • Develop a network of experts; • Provide technical support for lifecycle equipment management and scientific support for the detection of and the response to nuclear security events

  6. Eco label and integrated product policies. Supporting companies by networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Iraldo, F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 IEFE Bocconi University (Italy) carried out a project for the diffusion of the European Commission Eco label, the certification of the environmental quality of products. What clearly emerges from this experience is that some Italian SMEs, among the most innovative and market-oriented, are prone and ready to grasp the opportunities connected with the Eco label adoption. The more these enterprises are capable of starting up a network of socio-institutional actors eager to support them in promoting the environmental quality of their products, the more they succeed in exploiting the above mentioned opportunities [it

  7. The structural and functional brain networks that support human social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, M P; Mars, R B; Sallet, J; Dunbar, R I M; Fellows, L K

    2018-02-20

    Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS). A voxel-based morphology analysis demonstrated correlations between gray matter (GM) volume and SNS in limbic and temporal lobe regions. These structural changes co-occured with functional network differences. As a function of SNS, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed altered resting-state functional connectivity with the default mode network (DMN). Finally, we integrated these three complementary methods, interrogating the relationship between social GM clusters and specific WM and resting-state networks (RSNs). Probabilistic tractography seeded in these GM nodes utilized the SNS-related WM pathways. Further, the spatial and functional overlap between the social GM clusters and the DMN was significantly closer than other control RSNs. These integrative analyses provide convergent evidence of the role of specific circuits in SNS, likely supporting the adaptive behavior necessary for success in extensive social environments. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Incremental Support Vector Machine Framework for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Motai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the emerging requirements of surveillance networks, we present in this paper an incremental multiclassification support vector machine (SVM technique as a new framework for action classification based on real-time multivideo collected by homogeneous sites. The technique is based on an adaptation of least square SVM (LS-SVM formulation but extends beyond the static image-based learning of current SVM methodologies. In applying the technique, an initial supervised offline learning phase is followed by a visual behavior data acquisition and an online learning phase during which the cluster head performs an ensemble of model aggregations based on the sensor nodes inputs. The cluster head then selectively switches on designated sensor nodes for future incremental learning. Combining sensor data offers an improvement over single camera sensing especially when the latter has an occluded view of the target object. The optimization involved alleviates the burdens of power consumption and communication bandwidth requirements. The resulting misclassification error rate, the iterative error reduction rate of the proposed incremental learning, and the decision fusion technique prove its validity when applied to visual sensor networks. Furthermore, the enabled online learning allows an adaptive domain knowledge insertion and offers the advantage of reducing both the model training time and the information storage requirements of the overall system which makes it even more attractive for distributed sensor networks communication.

  9. Support Networks for the Greek Family with Preschool or School-Age Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibidaki, Assimina; Tsamparli, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The interaction of the family with disabled children with the support networks is a research area of high interest (Hendriks, De Moor, Oud & Savelberg, 2000). It has been shown that support networks may prove to be very helpful for a family and especially for a family with a disabled child. Support networks play a primordial role…

  10. Social networking in online support groups for health: how online social networking benefits patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.

  11. CLIPS based decision support system for water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandeep

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in knowledge representation of a water distribution network (WDN problem has contributed to the limited use of artificial intelligence (AI based expert systems (ES in the management of these networks. This paper presents a design of a Decision Support System (DSS that facilitates "on-demand'' knowledge generation by utilizing results of simulation runs of a suitably calibrated and validated hydraulic model of an existing aged WDN corresponding to emergent or even hypothetical but likely scenarios. The DSS augments the capability of a conventional expert system by integrating together the hydraulic modelling features with heuristics based knowledge of experts under a common, rules based, expert shell named CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System. In contrast to previous ES, the knowledge base of the DSS has been designed to be dynamic by superimposing CLIPS on Structured Query Language (SQL. The proposed ES has an inbuilt calibration module that enables calibration of an existing (aged WDN for the unknown, and unobservable, Hazen-Williams C-values. In addition, the daily run and simulation modules of the proposed ES further enable the CLIPS inference engine to evaluate the network performance for any emergent or suggested test scenarios. An additional feature of the proposed design is that the DSS integrates computational platforms such as MATLAB, open source Geographical Information System (GIS, and a relational database management system (RDBMS working under the umbrella of the Microsoft Visual Studio based common user interface. The paper also discusses implementation of the proposed framework on a case study and clearly demonstrates the utility of the application as an able aide for effective management of the study network.

  12. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  14. Toward Predicting Social Support Needs in Online Health Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Je; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Kwon, Bum Chul; Yi, Ji Soo; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina

    2017-08-02

    While online health social networks (OHSNs) serve as an effective platform for patients to fulfill their various social support needs, predicting the needs of users and providing tailored information remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to discriminate important features for identifying users' social support needs based on knowledge gathered from survey data. This study also provides guidelines for a technical framework, which can be used to predict users' social support needs based on raw data collected from OHSNs. We initially conducted a Web-based survey with 184 OHSN users. From this survey data, we extracted 34 features based on 5 categories: (1) demographics, (2) reading behavior, (3) posting behavior, (4) perceived roles in OHSNs, and (5) values sought in OHSNs. Features from the first 4 categories were used as variables for binary classification. For the prediction outcomes, we used features from the last category: the needs for emotional support, experience-based information, unconventional information, and medical facts. We compared 5 binary classifier algorithms: gradient boosting tree, random forest, decision tree, support vector machines, and logistic regression. We then calculated the scores of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) to understand the comparative effectiveness of the used features. The best performance was AUC scores of 0.89 for predicting users seeking emotional support, 0.86 for experience-based information, 0.80 for unconventional information, and 0.83 for medical facts. With the gradient boosting tree as our best performing model, we analyzed the strength of individual features in predicting one's social support need. Among other discoveries, we found that users seeking emotional support tend to post more in OHSNs compared with others. We developed an initial framework for automatically predicting social support needs in OHSNs using survey data. Future work should involve nonsurvey

  15. Mobility support and networking for women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellis, Giovanna; Didenkulova, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Mobility support for women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) career is an increasingly important issue in today's world. Cutting edge research tends to be undertaken via international collaboration, often within networks built up by moving to a new country. In addition, many of today's funding opportunities are geared towards international cooperation. There have been quite a few debates and several projects based on extended surveys to understand the role and impact of mobility on a scientific career. Although in general it is true that these issues are sensitive to the country and the scientific field for example, it is believed by the scientific community at least, that there is a connection between mobility and scientific excellence. Rewarding mobility is becoming a concern at the European level because mechanisms to measure in the best and objective way possible scientific excellence are not homogeneous. But still mobility is a key issue to strengthen a researcher's scientific curriculum and be recognised at the international level. Women have been widely recognised as a source of untapped potential. Different steps have been taken so far for a deeper understanding of barriers and different obstacles faced by women in the Science field. Present calls in the Science in Society panel in HORIZON 2020 deal with the horizontal and vertical segregation experienced by women in their careers and best practices to manage these issues. The general aim is to foster women participation in all scientific fields with particular regard to male dominated disciplines as STEM and increase the number and the effective representation of women in decision-making positions, to help also speed up the whole process. Mobility has demonstrated to be partly gender sensitive and this needs to be addressed in some way in order to ensure at least equal opportunities to male and female scientists regarding possibilities and benefits offered by mobility programmes

  16. Coherent oscillatory networks supporting short-term memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lisa; Kounios, John

    2009-01-09

    Accumulating evidence suggests that top-down processes, reflected by frontal-midline theta-band (4-8 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations, strengthen the activation of a memory set during short-term memory (STM) retention. In addition, the amplitude of posterior alpha-band (8-13 Hz) oscillations during STM retention is thought to reflect a mechanism that protects fragile STM activations from interference by gating bottom-up sensory inputs. The present study addressed two important questions about these phenomena. First, why have previous studies not consistently found memory set-size effects on frontal-midline theta? Second, how does posterior alpha participate in STM retention? To answer these questions, large-scale network connectivity during STM retention was examined by computing EEG wavelet coherence during the retention period of a modified Sternberg task using visually-presented letters as stimuli. The results showed (a) increasing theta-band coherence between frontal-midline and left temporal-parietal sites with increasing memory load, and (b) increasing alpha-band coherence between midline parietal and left temporal/parietal sites with increasing memory load. These findings support the view that theta-band coherence, rather than amplitude, is the key factor in selective top-down strengthening of the memory set and demonstrate that posterior alpha-band oscillations associated with sensory gating are involved in STM retention by participating in the STM network.

  17. Content-aware network storage system supporting metadata retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Qin, Leihua; Zhou, Jingli; Nie, Xuejun

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, content-based network storage has become the hot research spot of academy and corporation[1]. In order to solve the problem of hit rate decline causing by migration and achieve the content-based query, we exploit a new content-aware storage system which supports metadata retrieval to improve the query performance. Firstly, we extend the SCSI command descriptor block to enable system understand those self-defined query requests. Secondly, the extracted metadata is encoded by extensible markup language to improve the universality. Thirdly, according to the demand of information lifecycle management (ILM), we store those data in different storage level and use corresponding query strategy to retrieval them. Fourthly, as the file content identifier plays an important role in locating data and calculating block correlation, we use it to fetch files and sort query results through friendly user interface. Finally, the experiments indicate that the retrieval strategy and sort algorithm have enhanced the retrieval efficiency and precision.

  18. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a) The...

  19. Networking support for collaborative virtual reality projects in national, european and international context

    OpenAIRE

    Hommes, F.; Pless, E.

    2004-01-01

    The report describes experiences from networking support for two three years virtual reality projects. Networking requirements depending on the virtual reality environment and the planned distributed scenarios are specified and verified in the real network. Networking problems especially due to the collaborative, distributed character of interaction via the Internet are presented.

  20. Network characteristics, perceived social support, and psychological adjustment in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  1. Combining morphological analysis and Bayesian networks for strategic decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A de Waal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis (MA and Bayesian networks (BN are two closely related modelling methods, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages for strategic decision support modelling. MA is a method for defining, linking and evaluating problem spaces. BNs are graphical models which consist of a qualitative and quantitative part. The qualitative part is a cause-and-effect, or causal graph. The quantitative part depicts the strength of the causal relationships between variables. Combining MA and BN, as two phases in a modelling process, allows us to gain the benefits of both of these methods. The strength of MA lies in defining, linking and internally evaluating the parameters of problem spaces and BN modelling allows for the definition and quantification of causal relationships between variables. Short summaries of MA and BN are provided in this paper, followed by discussions how these two computer aided methods may be combined to better facilitate modelling procedures. A simple example is presented, concerning a recent application in the field of environmental decision support.

  2. A support network typology for application in older populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers the support networks of older people in populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households and examines the most vulnerable network types in terms of loneliness and isolation. Current common typologies of support networks may not be sensitive to differences within and between different cultures. This paper uses cross-sectional data drawn from 590 elders (Gujaratis, Punjabis and Sylhetis) living in the United Kingdom and South Asia. Six variables were used in K-means cluster analysis to establish a new network typology. Two logistic regression models using loneliness and isolation as dependent variables assessed the contribution of the new network type to wellbeing. Four support networks were identified: 'Multigenerational Households: Older Integrated Networks', 'Multigenerational Households: Younger Family Networks', 'Family and Friends Integrated Networks' and 'Non-kin Restricted Networks'. Older South Asians with 'Non-kin Restricted Networks' were more likely to be lonely and isolated compared to others. Using network typologies developed with individualistically oriented cultures, distributions are skewed towards more robust network types and could underestimate the support needs of older people from familistic cultures, who may be isolated and lonely and with limited informal sources of help. The new typology identifies different network types within multigenerational households, identifies a greater proportion of older people with vulnerable networks and could positively contribute to service planning.

  3. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  4. The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.

  5. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were

  6. 75 FR 22338 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... host's own proprietary information services. In addition, some commenters proposed specific measures to... Commission seeks comment on whether it should adopt any measures or restrictions to help preserve investment... such as LTE impact the technical challenges to developing such roaming arrangements or otherwise affect...

  7. Social Networks, Interpersonal Social Support, and Health Outcomes: A Health Communication Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the development, impact, and several major research findings of studies in the area of social network support and health outcomes. The review focuses largely on the development of online social support networks and the ways in which they may interact with face-to-face support networks to influence physical and psychological health outcomes. The manuscript discusses this area, and it presents a research agenda for future work in this area from an Associate Editor’s pe...

  8. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  9. Abstraction networks for terminologies: Supporting management of "big knowledge".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Michael; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Ochs, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Terminologies and terminological systems have assumed important roles in many medical information processing environments, giving rise to the "big knowledge" challenge when terminological content comprises tens of thousands to millions of concepts arranged in a tangled web of relationships. Use and maintenance of knowledge structures on that scale can be daunting. The notion of abstraction network is presented as a means of facilitating the usability, comprehensibility, visualization, and quality assurance of terminologies. An abstraction network overlays a terminology's underlying network structure at a higher level of abstraction. In particular, it provides a more compact view of the terminology's content, avoiding the display of minutiae. General abstraction network characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the notion of meta-abstraction network, existing at an even higher level of abstraction than a typical abstraction network, is described for cases where even the abstraction network itself represents a case of "big knowledge." Various features in the design of abstraction networks are demonstrated in a methodological survey of some existing abstraction networks previously developed and deployed for a variety of terminologies. The applicability of the general abstraction-network framework is shown through use-cases of various terminologies, including the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Important characteristics of the surveyed abstraction networks are provided, e.g., the magnitude of the respective size reduction referred to as the abstraction ratio. Specific benefits of these alternative terminology-network views, particularly their use in terminology quality assurance, are discussed. Examples of meta-abstraction networks are presented. The "big knowledge" challenge constitutes the use and maintenance of terminological structures that

  10. Application of modern technology for fieldwork support in network operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-04-01

    Demands for rational and efficient operation and management in several business sectors such as power-, oil- and gas industry, telecommunication, water and multi-utility has lead to big changes for personnel in charge of managing the infrastructure and for the field-workers. Contractors providing services for the large power network companies do not have the local knowledge about construction projects, and there are increased demands on efficiency related to completion, documentation and reporting. This implies a need for transmission of knowledge and experiences between office and the field, and support for fieldwork in the form of applications using various technological possibilities. Field solutions that have well-developed technical and organisational properties will make administration of the infrastructure more efficient, and raise the quality of the work. The choice of mobile service will always be a compromise between several different wishes and needs. The properties of hardware, software and communication options will often influence possible choices in the respective fields. As an important step in testing of hardware, software and communication, some prototypes have been developed for Pocket Pc. The prototypes 'Befaring' and 'HelikopterBefaring' have been chosen because they contain many of the elements that are important in a mobile solution. In addition a prototype for internet applications has been developed ('HelikopterBefaringMottak') and a Windows application ('HelikopterBefaringPresentasjon') in order to visualise the received and managed information sent from the mobile units. The technological development both in software, hardware, GPS and mobile telephones is extremely rapid, and the first mobile solutions with Pocket Pc, mobile telephone and GPS in one integrated unit is already on the market (ml)

  11. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  12. How Might Better Network Theories Support School Leadership Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how recent research in education has applied different aspects of "network" theory to the study of school leadership. Constructs from different network theories are often used because of their perceived potential to clarify two perennial issues in leadership research. The first is the relative importance of formal and…

  13. Remote but Not Removed: Professional Networks That Support Rural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Danette

    2018-01-01

    The Northwest Rural Innovation and Student Engagement (NW RISE) Network connects rural educators in the Pacific Northwest to help them succeed in the profession and overcome the challenges caused by teacher isolation. In this article, the author takes stock of what was learned in the four years since the network was established. She also shares…

  14. Supporting Communities in Programmable Grid Networks: gTBN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christea, M.L; Strijkers, R.J.; Marchal, D.; Gommans, L.; Laat, C. de; Meijer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents the generalised Token Based Networking (gTBN) architecture, which enables dynamic binding of communities and their applications to specialised network services. gTBN uses protocol independent tokens to provide decoupling of authorisation from time of usage as well as

  15. Social Support Theory: A New Framework for Exploring Gender Differences in Business Owner Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    The paper argues that to advance knowledge about small firm networks and consider the impact of gender, research should also consider the network experiences of women business owners. To engage in such research, this paper proposes a conceptual model of business owner networking which is informed...... by social support theory....

  16. Structural and Supportive Changes in Couples' Family and Friendship Networks across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Cox, Martha J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Payne, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Examines patterns of change in family and friend network with parenthood in 137 couples surveyed before the birth of their first child. Husbands and wives who reported larger network sizes and support prior to their first child's birth were more likely to report larger networks after birth. Changes in parents' social systems were related to…

  17. Interfacing Nuclear Security and Safeguards through Education and Support Centre Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the work of the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) and the International Nuclear Security Training and Support Centre Network (NSSC) as the means to achieve sustainable human resource development in member states. The paper also examines how both security and safeguards can benefit from collaborative and coordinated activities when such networks focus on practical achievements. (author)

  18. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cohort Differences in Received Social Support in Later Life: The Role of Network Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanet, Bianca; Antonucci, Toni C

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to assess cohort differences in received emotional and instrumental support in relation to network types. The main guiding hypothesis is that due to increased salience of non-kin with recent social change, those in friend-focused and diverse network types receive more support in later birth cohorts than earlier birth cohorts. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam are employed. We investigate cohort differences in total received emotional and instrumental support in a series of linear regression models comparing birth cohorts aged 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, and 85-94 across three time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012). Four network types (friend, family, restricted, and diverse) are identified. Friend-focused networks are more common in later birth cohorts, restrictive networks less common. Those in friend-focused networks in later cohorts report receiving more emotional and instrumental support. No differences in received support are evident upon diverse networks. The increased salience of non-kin is reflected in an increase in received emotional and instrumental support in friend-focused networks in later birth cohorts. The preponderance of non-kin in networks should not be perceived as a deficit model for social relationships as restrictive networks are declining across birth cohorts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.

  1. Personal support networks, social capital, and risk of relapse among individuals treated for substance use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the

  2. Computer-Supported Modelling of Multi modal Transportation Networks Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Zelenika

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by

  3. Social Networks, Psychosocial Adaptation, and Preventive/Developmental Interventions: The Support Development Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, David M.

    The Support Development Group is an approach which explores and develops a theory for the relationship between network characteristics and notions of psychosocial adaptation. The approach is based on the assumption that teaching people to view their social world in network terms can be helpful to them. The Support Development Workshop is presented…

  4. Network Financial Support and Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among a Highly Disadvantaged Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined multiple dimensions of social support as predictors of depressive symptoms among a highly vulnerable population. Social network analysis was used to assess perceived and enacted dimensions of support (emotional, financial, instrumental), network conflict, closeness, and composition. Participants were 393 current and former…

  5. Network Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…

  6. Experiencing Rights within Positive, Person-Centred Support Networks of People with Intellectual Disability in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A.; Donelly, M.; Whitaker, L.; Dew, A.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Knox, M.; Shelley, K.; Parmenter, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This research describes issues related to human rights as they arose within the everyday lives of people in nine personal support networks that included adult Australians with an intellectual disability (ID). Method: The research was part of a wider 3-year ethnographic study of nine personal support networks. A major criterion for…

  7. Nationwide Network of TalentPoints: The Hungarian Approach to Talent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter; Rajnai, Gabor; Sulyok, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 a novel approach to talent support was promoted by several talent support programmes in Hungary. The new idea was a network approach. The nationwide network of so-called TalentPoints and its framework, the Hungarian Genius Program, gained substantial European Union funding in 2009, and today it is growing rapidly. A novel concept of talent…

  8. Support for Protests in Latin America: Classifications and the Role of Online Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R. Mourão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Latin Americans marched the streets in a wave of protests that swept almost every country in the region. Yet few studies have assessed how Latin Americans support various forms of protest, and how new technologies affect attitudes toward protest tactics. Using data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (N = 37,102, cluster analyses grouped citizens into four distinct groups depending on their support for protests. Most Latin Americans support moderate forms of protest, rejecting more radical tactics. Online networking is associated with support for both moderate and radical protests. But those who support only moderate protests use online networking sites more than Latin Americans as a whole, while those who support radical protests use online networking sites significantly less. Our findings suggest that only peaceful and legal demonstrations have been normalized in the region, and online networking foments support for moderate protest tactics.

  9. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-08-01

    One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation. In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol

  10. Examining the Relationships Between Education, Social Networks and Democratic Support With ABM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an agent-based model that explores the relationships between education, social networks, and support for democratic ideals. This study examines two factors thai affect democratic support, education, and social networks. Current theory concerning these two variables suggests that positive relationships exist between education and democratic support and between social networks and the spread of ideas. The model contains multiple variables of democratic support, two of which are evaluated through experimentation. The model allows individual entities within the system to make "decisions" about their democratic support independent of one another. The agent based approach also allows entities to utilize their social networks to spread ideas. Current theory supports experimentation results. In addion , these results show the model is capable of reproducing real world outcomes. This paper addresses the model creation process and the experimentation procedure, as well as future research avenues and potential shortcomings of the model

  11. Social networks, time homeless, and social support: A study of men on Skid Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2013-12-18

    Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.

  12. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.; Whicker, F.W.; Lipscomb, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou herds in northern Alaska during 1963 to 1970 were estimated by applying a two-compartment, eight parameter cesium-137 kinetics model to measured fallout 137 Cs concentrations in lichen and caribou. Estimates for winter equilibrium periods (January to April) for each year ranged from 3.7 to 6.9 kg dry weight lichens per day for adult female caribou. Further refinement of these estimations were obtained by calculating probabilistic distributions of intake rates by stochastic processes based upon the mean and standard error intervals of the eight parameters during 1965 and 1968. A computer program generated 1,000 randomly sampled values within each of the eight parameter distributions. Results substantiate the contention that lichen forage ingestion rates by free-roaming caribou are significantly greater than previously held

  13. Using Bayesian networks to support decision-focused information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Elsaesser, C.; Seligman, L. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper has described an approach to controlling the process of pulling data/information from distributed data bases in a way that is specific to a persons specific decision making context. Our prototype implementation of this approach uses a knowledge-based planner to generate a plan, an automatically constructed Bayesian network to evaluate the plan, specialized processing of the network to derive key information items that would substantially impact the evaluation of the plan (e.g., determine that replanning is needed), automated construction of Standing Requests for Information (SRIs) which are automated functions that monitor changes and trends in distributed data base that are relevant to the key information items. This emphasis of this paper is on how Bayesian networks are used.

  14. State Support: A Prerequisite for Global Health Network Effectiveness Comment on "Four Challenges that Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; Smith, Richard D

    2017-07-24

    Shiffman recently summarized lessons for network effectiveness from an impressive collection of case-studies. However, in common with most global health governance analysis in recent years, Shiffman underplays the important role of states in these global networks. As the body which decides and signs international agreements, often provides the resourcing, and is responsible for implementing initiatives all contributing to the prioritization of certain issues over others, state recognition and support is a prerequisite to enabling and determining global health networks' success. The role of states deserves greater attention, analysis and consideration. We reflect upon the underappreciated role of the state within the current discourse on global health. We present the tobacco case study to illustrate the decisive role of states in determining progress for global health networks, and highlight how states use a legitimacy loop to gain legitimacy from and provide legitimacy to global health networks. Moving forward in assessing global health networks' effectiveness, further investigating state support as a determinant of success will be critical. Understanding how global health networks and states interact and evolve to shape and support their respective interests should be a focus for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  16. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P < 0.0001) more per day than dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Municipal consultants’ participation in building networks to support science teachers’ work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses particularly on the role of municipal science consultants in developing and maintaining network activities and connections among primary school science teachers. The hypothesis is that consultants play a crucial role in supporting strategic planning, and sustaining contacts...... and activities within professional learning networks. The research is framed by a project that involved 80 primary science teachers in 20 schools. The aim of the project was to develop network activities that facilitate sustainable change of the participating schools’ collective culture and practice of science...... science consultants’ participation in supporting network activities enable the participants to share and develop teaching activities....

  18. Supporting differentiated quality of service in optical burst switched networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Bassiouni, Mostafa A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose and evaluate two new schemes for providing differentiated services in optical burst switched (OBS) networks. The two new schemes are suitable for implementation in OBS networks using just-in-time (JIT) or just-enough-time (JET) scheduling protocols. The first scheme adjusts the size of the search space for a free wavelength based on the priority level of the burst. A simple equation is used to divide the search spectrum into two parts: a base part and an adjustable part. The size of the adjustable part increases as the priority of the burst becomes higher. The scheme is very easy to implement and does not demand any major software or hardware resources in optical cross-connects. The second scheme reduces the dropping probability of bursts with higher priorities through the use of different proactive discarding rates in the network access station (NAS) of the source node. Our extensive simulation tests using JIT show that both schemes are capable of providing tangible quality of service (QoS) differentiation without negatively impacting the throughput of OBS networks.

  19. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  20. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  1. Adaptive Information Access in Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, due to wide applicability of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) added by the low cost sensor devices, its popularity among the researchers and industrialists are very much visible. A substantial amount of works can be seen in the literature on WSN which are mainly focused on application...

  2. Fast demand response in support of the active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.; Heskes, P.; Crolla, P.; Burt, G.; Warmer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management has traditionally been investigated for "normal" operation services such as balancing and congestion management. However they potentially could be utilized for Distributed Network Operator (DNO) services. This paper investigates and validates the use of a supply and demand

  3. Early Career Academic Staff Support: Evaluating Mentoring Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. Denard; Lunsford, Laura Gail; Rodrigues, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Which academics benefit from participation in formal mentoring programmes? This study examined the needs and mentoring networks of new academics with evaluative data from a pilot mentoring programme. Themes from these data point towards re-envisioning initiatives for academic staff development. First, an examination of the expansion of mentoring…

  4. Social networks of HIV-positive women and their association with social support and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Rice, Eric; Craddock, Jaih; Pimentel, Veronica; Beaver, Patty

    2017-02-01

    Social support is important to the mental health and well-being of HIV-positive women. Limited information exists about the specific structure and composition of HIV-positive women's support networks or associations of these network properties with mental health outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors examine whether support network characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. Survey and network data were collected from HIV-positive women (N = 46) via a web-based survey and an iPad application in August 2012. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models in SAS. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with a greater number of doctors in a woman's network; having more HIV-positive network members was associated with less symptom reporting. Women who reported more individuals who could care for them had more family support. Those who reported feeling loved were less likely to report disclosure stigma. This work highlighted that detailed social network data can increase our understanding of social support so as to identify interventions to support the mental health of HIV-positive women. Most significant is the ongoing need for support from peers.

  5. Utilizing Social Network Analysis in Support of Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Commission . . . . . . . . 4-8 IEC Independent Election Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 AISA Afghanistan Investment Support Agency...source sample are either in the government or connected to it through the Afghanistan Investment Support Agency ( AISA ). This agency represents an... edition , 1980. 25. Jock Covey, Michael J. Dziedzic, and Leonard R. Hawley. The Quest for Viable Peace: International Intervention and Strategies for

  6. Educational Designs Supporting Student Engagement Through Network Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, new pedagogical approaches emphasizing collaboration or learning in networks have been developed following the introduction of new technologies, especially the spread of social media. It is interesting to see such pedagogical developments in relation to similar approaches......, developed from the traditions of organizing university studies through student-driven project work and problem-driven learning approaches, which have been developed at the Danish universities of Roskilde and Aalborg as early as from the beginning of the 1970s. Specific educational designs integrating...... digital media are discussed, especially focusing on student engagement and the implications of organizing the pedagogical practice as networked project work. The discussions are based on the author’s experiences during 16 years of teaching and supervising at the Danish Master’s Program of ICT and Learning...

  7. Educational designs supporting student engagement through networked project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche Nielsen, Jørgen; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2013-01-01

    within a networked learning structure are studying in groups combining on-site seminars with independent and challenging virtually organized project periods, implementing new educational technology, which require teachers who are flexible and aware of the different challenges in the networked environment...... activities that unfold. This interplay is important in order to make a difference, as the experience is that new technologies do not in themselves guarantee increasing learning quality. The chapter will discuss examples of how learners as well as teachers have developed imaginative ways of implementing new...... technological possibilities in educational settings. The examples will include how sometimes seemingly simple technologies can be used in innovative pedagogical ways to increase learners’ involvement. Another example to be discussed in the chapter derives from an online seminar on ICT and Learning...

  8. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks for a Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Mortera; Paola Vicard; Cecilia Vergari

    2012-01-01

    We study an economic decision problem where the actors are two rms and the Antitrust Authority whose main task is to monitor and prevent rms potential anti-competitive behaviour. The Antitrust Au- thority's decision process is modelled using a Bayesian network whose relational structure and parameters are estimated from data provided by the Authority itself. Several economic variables in uencing this de- cision process are included in the model. We analyse how monitoring by the Antitrust Auth...

  9. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  10. Argonne National Laboratory high performance network support of APS experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knot, M.J.; McMahon, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently positioned to provide access to high performance regional and national networks. Much of the impetus for this effort is the anticipated needs of the upcoming experimental program at the APS. Some APS collaborative access teams (CATs) are already pressing for network speed improvements and security enhancements. Requirements range from the need for high data rate, secure transmission of experimental data, to the desire to establish a open-quote open-quote virtual experimental environment close-quote close-quote at their home institution. In the near future, 155 megabit/sec (Mb/s) national and regional asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks will be operational and available to APS users. Full-video teleconferencing, virtual presence operation of experiments, and high speed, secure transmission of data are being tested and, in some cases, will be operational. We expect these efforts to enable a substantial improvement in the speed of processing experimental results as well as an increase in convenience to the APS experimentalist. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.

  12. Social network: evaluation of the support or containment contexts of lesbian mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firley Poliana da Silva Lúcio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the social network of lesbian mothers, from the social contexts of support or restraint. Method: Descriptive, exploratory study, of qualitative approach, based on the theoretical reference of Social Network, with eight lesbian mothers selected through Snowball technique, using semi-structured interview. Data analysis was performed with IRAMUTEQ software, through Similarity Analysis. Results: The social network is configured as: 1 Emotional distance and non-acceptance of motherhood by the family members - primary network elements; 2 Interference in the socio-cultural medium for the effectiveness of the mother-child bond - secondary network elements. Final considerations: Social network is grounded on trivialized and negative conceptions that highlight prejudice and disrespect. The discussion of this theme contributes to a greater visibility of those new family arrangements as well as to reduce stigmas e prejudices that pervade the social network components of these women.

  13. Migration patterns and influence of support networks: A case study of West Africans in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chelpi-den Hamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the influence of support networks in the migration process of West African migrants to the Netherlands. Taking a case-oriented biographic approach, the article analyzes the migration stories of several West African migrants with a focus on the networks that facilitated their

  14. Requirements for advanced decision support tools in future distribution network planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the need and requirements for advanced decision support tools in future network planning from a distribution network operator perspective. The existing tools will no longer be satisfactory for future application due to present developments in the electricity sector that increase

  15. Hypothesis Management Framework: a exible design pattern for belief networks in decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosliga, S.P. van; Voorde, I. van de

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a design pattern for building belief networks for application domains in which causal models are hard to construct. In this approach we pursue a modular belief network structure that is easily extended by the users themselves, while remaining reliable for decision support. The

  16. An Agent Model for a Human’s Social Support Network Tie Preference During Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Lang, J.; Mitra, S.; Parsons, S.; Pasi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Seeking support from their environment is important for people suffering from a depression. People usually have different social networks to which they are attached with different ties. In this paper, a computational model is presented that describes the selection of network members for seeking

  17. A decision support system for pre-earthquake planning of lifeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J.W. [Tianjin Univ. (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the frame of a decision support system for pre-earthquake planning of gas and water networks. The system is mainly based on the earthquake experiences and lessons from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. The objective of the system is to offer countermeasures and help make decisions for seismic strengthening, remaking, and upgrading of gas and water networks.

  18. Academic self-efficacy, growth mindsets, and university students' integration in academic and social support networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zander, Lysann; Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Crayen, Claudia; Hannover, Bettina

    Combining complete social networks and structural equation modeling, we investigate how two learning-related cognitions, academic self-efficacy and growth mindsets, relate to integration in support networks of 580 university students in 30 seminar groups. We assessed integration as popularity in

  19. A Team Formation and Project-based Learning Support Service for Social Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Van de Vrie, Evert; Obreza, Matija; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Internet affords new approaches to learning. Geographically dispersed self-directed learners can learn in computer-supported communities, forming social learning networks. However, self-directed learners can suffer from a lack of continuous motivation. And surprisingly, social learning networks

  20. Organized network for supporting the amateur-scientist co-operation in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2014-04-01

    PROAM network is a working group of Ursa Astronomical Association [1] for supporting Finnish amateur astronomers participating to co-operation projects between professional and amateur astronomers. The network relays the information on projects, maintains professional contacts and arranges training on technical skills for research work.

  1. Mentoring Support and Power: A Three Year Predictive Field Study on Protege Networking and Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.

    2009-01-01

    Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…

  2. Contingent association between the size of the social support network and osteoporosis among Korean elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Seo, Da Hea; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Chang Oh; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between the number of personal ties (or the size of the social support network) and the incidence of osteoporosis among older women in Korea. Data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly Study were used. Bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femur neck. T-score, the standardized bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult, was measured and the presence of osteoporosis was determined, if the T-score was social support network size was measured by self-responses (number of confidants and spouse). Of the 1,846 participants, 44.9% were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The association between the social support network size and the incidence of osteoporosis was curvilinear in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Having more people in one's social support network size was associated with lower risk of osteoporosis until it reached around four. Increasing the social support network size beyond four, in contrast, was associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis. This association was contingent on the average intimacy level of the social network. At the highest average intimacy level ("extremely close"), increasing the number of social support network members from one to six was associated with linear decrease in the predicted probability of osteoporosis from 45% to 30%. However, at the lowest average intimacy level ("not very close"), the predicted probability of osteoporosis dramatically increased from 48% to 80% as the size of the social network increased from one to six. Our results show that maintaining a large and intimate social support network is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis among elderly Korean women, while a large but less-intimate social relationship is associated with a higher risk.

  3. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) LANDSAT GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) Landsat Geological Survey of AL (GSA) Analysis dataset analyzed changes in the coastal shoreline and...

  4. In-House Communication Support System Based on the Information Propagation Model Utilizes Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Teranishi, Yuuichi; Harumoto, Kaname; Shimojo, Shinji

    Almost all companies are now utilizing computer networks to support speedier and more effective in-house information-sharing and communication. However, existing systems are designed to support communications only within the same department. Therefore, in our research, we propose an in-house communication support system which is based on the “Information Propagation Model (IPM).” The IPM is proposed to realize word-of-mouth communication in a social network, and to support information-sharing on the network. By applying the system in a real company, we found that information could be exchanged between different and unrelated departments, and such exchanges of information could help to build new relationships between the users who are apart on the social network.

  5. AWESOME: A widget-based dashboard for awareness-support in Research Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Mletzko, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Mletzko, C., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). AWESOME: A widget-based dashboard for awareness-support in Research Networks. In Proceedings of The PLE Conference 2011. July, 11-13, 2011, Southampton, UK.

  6. A Belief Network Decision Support Method Applied to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Staker, R

    2003-01-01

    This report demonstrates the application of a Bayesian Belief Network decision support method for Force Level Systems Engineering to a collection of projects related to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management...

  7. Application of the network robustness index to identify critical links supporting Vermont's Bulk milk transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    The food supply chain is an interwoven network consisting of producers, processors, : manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and consumers. With the exception of direct : marketing or community-supported agriculture systems, some or all of these int...

  8. Social Support System in Learning Network for lifelong learners: A Conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadeem, Danish; Stoyanov, Slavi; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Nadeem, D., Stoyanov, S., & Koper, R. (2009). Social support system in learning network for lifelong learners: A Conceptual framework [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 19(4/5/6), 337-351.

  9. Network Operations Support Plan for the Spot 2 mission (revision 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbitzky, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Network Operations Support Plan (NOSP) is to indicate operational procedures and ground equipment configurations for the SPOT 2 mission. The provisions in this document take precedence over procedures or configurations in other documents.

  10. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  11. Overcoming barriers to scheduling embedded generation to support distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J.; Formby, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Current scheduling of embedded generation for distribution in the UK is limited and patchy. Some DNOs actively schedule while others do none. The literature on the subject is mainly about accommodating volatile wind output, and optimising island systems, for both cost of supply and network stability. The forthcoming NETA will lower prices, expose unpredictable generation to imbalance markets and could introduce punitive constraint payments on DNOs, but at the same time create a dynamic market for both power and ancillary services from embedded generators. Most renewable generators either run as base load (e.g. waste ) or according to the vagaries of the weather (e.g. wind, hydro), so offer little scope for scheduling other than 'off'. CHP plant is normally heat- led for industrial processes or building needs, but supplementary firing or thermal storage often allow considerable scope for scheduling. Micro-CHP with thermal storage could provide short-term scheduling, but tends to be running anyway during the evening peak. Standby generation appears to be ideal for scheduling, but in practice operators may be unwilling to run parallel with the network, and noise and pollution problems may preclude frequent operation. Statistical analysis can be applied to calculate the reliability of several generators compared to one; with a large number of generators such as micro-CHP reliability of a proportion of load is close to unity. The type of communication for generation used will depend on requirements for bandwidth, cost, reliability and whether it is bundled with other services. With high levels of deeply embedded, small-scale generation using induction machines, voltage control and black start capability will become important concerns on 11 kV and LV networks. This will require increased generation monitoring and remote control of switchgear. Examples of cost benefits from scheduling are given, including deferred reinforcement, increased exports on non

  12. Supporting Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP in Wireless Meshed Networks using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the potential and impact of the FRANC network coding protocol for delivering high quality Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) in wireless networks. Although DASH aims to tailor the video quality rate based on the available throughput to the destination, it relies...

  13. Software Defined Networking to support IP address mobility in future LTE network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    The existing LTE network architecture dose not scale well to increasing demands due to its highly centralized and hierarchical composition. In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture. Next, we develop two IP

  14. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support in lung cancer care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Berkan Sesen

    Full Text Available Survival prediction and treatment selection in lung cancer care are characterised by high levels of uncertainty. Bayesian Networks (BNs, which naturally reason with uncertain domain knowledge, can be applied to aid lung cancer experts by providing personalised survival estimates and treatment selection recommendations. Based on the English Lung Cancer Database (LUCADA, we evaluate the feasibility of BNs for these two tasks, while comparing the performances of various causal discovery approaches to uncover the most feasible network structure from expert knowledge and data. We show first that the BN structure elicited from clinicians achieves a disappointing area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (± 0.03, whereas a structure learned by the CAMML hybrid causal discovery algorithm, which adheres with the temporal restrictions, achieves 0.81 (± 0.03. Second, our causal intervention results reveal that BN treatment recommendations, based on prescribing the treatment plan that maximises survival, can only predict the recorded treatment plan 29% of the time. However, this percentage rises to 76% when partial matches are included.

  15. State Support: A Prerequisite for Global Health Network Effectiveness; Comment on “Four Challenges that Global Health Networks Face”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marten

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiffman recently summarized lessons for network effectiveness from an impressive collection of case-studies. However, in common with most global health governance analysis in recent years, Shiffman underplays the important role of states in these global networks. As the body which decides and signs international agreements, often provides the resourcing, and is responsible for implementing initiatives all contributing to the prioritization of certain issues over others, state recognition and support is a prerequisite to enabling and determining global health networks’ success. The role of states deserves greater attention, analysis and consideration. We reflect upon the underappreciated role of the state within the current discourse on global health. We present the tobacco case study to illustrate the decisive role of states in determining progress for global health networks, and highlight how states use a legitimacy loop to gain legitimacy from and provide legitimacy to global health networks. Moving forward in assessing global health networks’ effectiveness, further investigating state support as a determinant of success will be critical. Understanding how global health networks and states interact and evolve to shape and support their respective interests should be a focus for future research.

  16. Creating Efficient Instrumentation Networks to Support Parametric Risk Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, P.

    2009-04-01

    The development and institutionalisation of Catastrophe modelling during the 1990s opened the way for Catastrophe risk securitization transactions in which catastrophe risk held by insurers is transferred to the capital markets in the form of a bond. Cat Bonds have been one of the few areas of the capital markets in which the risk modelling has remained secure and the returns on the bonds have held up well through the 2008 Credit Crunch. There are three ways of structuring the loss triggers on bonds: ‘indemnity triggers' - reflecting the actual losses to the issuers; ‘index triggers' reflecting the losses to some index such as reported insurance industry loss and ‘parametric triggers' reflecting the parameters of the underlying catastrophe event itself. Indemnity triggers require that the investors trust that the insurer is reporting all their underlying exposures, while both indemnity and index losses may take 1-2 years to settle before all the claims are reported and resolved. Therefore parametric structures have many advantages, in particular in that the bond can be settled rapidly after an event. The challenge is to create parametric indices that closely reflect the actual losses to the insurer - ie that minimise ‘basis risk'. First generation parametric indices had high basis risk as they were crudely based on the magnitude of an earthquake occurring within some defined geographical box, or the intensity of a hurricane relative to the distance of the storm from some location. Second generation triggers involve taking measurements of ground motion or windspeed or flood depths at many locations and weighting each value so that the overall index closely mimics insurance loss. Cat bonds with second generation parametric triggers have been successfully issued for European Windstorm, UK Flood and California and Japan Earthquake. However the spread of second generation parametric structures is limited by the availability of suitable networks of

  17. SANDS: an architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2007-10-11

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics.

  18. Women supporting women: Networked civic engagement to foster ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    “Women supporting Women” is an applied research project led by Fundación ... It will build a participatory governance structure and a learning community integrated ... of female community leaders, and an executive team based at Fundación.

  19. Collaborative networks in support of service-enhanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Koelmel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The development and support of highly customized and service-enhanced products requires new organizational structures, involving the manufacturers, customers and local suppliers in a process of co-creation. This requires the implementation of the glocal enterprise notion with value creation from

  20. Support and Maintenance of the International Monitoring System network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jose; Bazarragchaa, Sergelen; Kilgour, Owen; Pretorius, Jacques; Werzi, Robert; Beziat, Guillaume; Hamani, Wacel; Mohammad, Walid; Brely, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    The Monitoring Facilities Support Section of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has as its main task to ensure optimal support and maintenance of an array of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories distributed worldwide. Raw seismic, infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide data from these facilities constitutes the basic product delivered by the International Monitoring System (IMS). In the process of maintaining such a wide array of stations of different technologies, the Support Section contributes to ensuring station mission capability. Mission capable data availability according to the IMS requirements should be at least 98% annually (no more than 7 days down time per year per waveform stations - 14 continuous for radionuclide stations) for continuous data sending stations. In this presentation, we will present our case regarding our intervention at stations to address equipment supportability and maintainability, as these are particularly large activities requiring the removal of a substantial part of the station equipment and installation of new equipment. The objective is always to plan these activities while minimizing downtime and continuing to meet all IMS requirements, including those of data availability mentioned above. We postulate that these objectives are better achieved by planning and making use of preventive maintenance, as opposed to "run-to-failure" with associated corrective maintenance. We use two recently upgraded Infrasound Stations (IS39 Palau and IS52 BIOT) as a case study and establish a comparison between these results and several other stations where corrective maintenance was performed, to demonstrate our hypothesis.

  1. TRACKING VEHICLE IN GSM NETWORK TO SUPPORT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Koppanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA. Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project is presented.

  2. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-01-01

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  3. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-12-20

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  4. Acoustic richness modulates the neural networks supporting intelligible speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune-Sang; Min, Nam Eun; Wingfield, Arthur; Grossman, Murray; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-03-01

    The information contained in a sensory signal plays a critical role in determining what neural processes are engaged. Here we used interleaved silent steady-state (ISSS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how human listeners cope with different degrees of acoustic richness during auditory sentence comprehension. Twenty-six healthy young adults underwent scanning while hearing sentences that varied in acoustic richness (high vs. low spectral detail) and syntactic complexity (subject-relative vs. object-relative center-embedded clause structures). We manipulated acoustic richness by presenting the stimuli as unprocessed full-spectrum speech, or noise-vocoded with 24 channels. Importantly, although the vocoded sentences were spectrally impoverished, all sentences were highly intelligible. These manipulations allowed us to test how intelligible speech processing was affected by orthogonal linguistic and acoustic demands. Acoustically rich speech showed stronger activation than acoustically less-detailed speech in a bilateral temporoparietal network with more pronounced activity in the right hemisphere. By contrast, listening to sentences with greater syntactic complexity resulted in increased activation of a left-lateralized network including left posterior lateral temporal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant interactions between acoustic richness and syntactic complexity occurred in left supramarginal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus, indicating that the regions recruited for syntactic challenge differed as a function of acoustic properties of the speech. Our findings suggest that the neural systems involved in speech perception are finely tuned to the type of information available, and that reducing the richness of the acoustic signal dramatically alters the brain's response to spoken language, even when intelligibility is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  5. Discursive Deployments: Mobilizing Support for Municipal and Community Wireless Networks in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rosio; Rodriguez, Juana Maria

    2008-08-16

    This paper examines Municipal Wireless (MW) deployments in the United States. In particular, the interest is in understanding how discourse has worked to mobilize widespread support for MW networks. We explore how local governments discursively deploy the language of social movements to create a shared understanding of the networking needs of communities. Through the process of"framing" local governments assign meaning to the MW networks in ways intended to mobilize support anddemobilize opposition. The mobilizing potential of a frame varies and is dependent on its centrality and cultural resonance. We examine the framing efforts of MW networks by using a sample of Request for Proposals for community wireless networks, semi-structured interviews and local media sources. Prominent values that are central to a majority of the projects and others that are culturally specific are identified and analyzed for their mobilizing potency.

  6. Five-year trajectories of social networks and social support in older adults with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Allaire, Jason C; Olsen, Maren K; Steffens, David C; Hoyle, Rick H; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2007-12-01

    Research with nondepressed adults suggests that social networks and social support are stable over the life course until very late age. This may not hold true for older adults with depression. We examined baseline status and trajectories of social networks and social support at the group and individual levels over five years. The sample consisted of 339 initially depressed adults aged 59 or older (M = 69 years) enrolled in a naturalistic study of depression. Measures of social ties, including social network size, frequency of interaction, instrumental support, and subjective support, were administered at baseline and yearly for five years. Latent growth curve models were estimated for each aspect of social ties. On average, social network size and frequency of interaction were low at baseline and remained stable over time, whereas subjective and instrumental support were high at baseline yet increased over time. There was significant variation in the direction and rate of change over time, which was not predicted by demographic or clinical factors. Because increasing social networks may be ineffective and may not be possible for a portion of people who already receive maximal support, interventions to increase social support may only work for a portion of older depressed adults.

  7. Support network for families of children and adolescents with visual impairment: strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Mayara Caroline; Broekman, Gabriela Van Der Zwaan; Souza, Renata Olzon Dionysio de; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de; Wernet, Monika; Dupas, Giselle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to understand the interactions established between social support networks and families that have children and adolescents with visual impairment, in two different cities in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This was a qualitative, descriptive study with symbolic interactionism as a theoretical framework. A genogram, ecomap and semi-structured interviews with 18 families were used. The method adopted for data analysis was narrative analysis. Two themes were found: potentials derived from the relationship with the support network, and, counterpoints in the support network. The family members accessed other members of their own family, friends, spiritual and cultural activities, health services, government institutions, and philanthropic organizations as support networks. The weakness in health services support is an obstacle to comprehensive healthcare for children and adolescents living in city A. In city B, other possibilities exist because it has a reference service. Despite the weaknesses in the support network in both cities, the family articulates and develops a foundation so that they can provide the best situation possible for their child or adolescent. It is up to health professionals to provide support to families and empower them to care for their members.

  8. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, Carolina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006-2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others - such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others - who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks.

  9. Interaction patterns of nurturant support exchanged in online health social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine Y; Yang, Christopher C

    2012-05-03

    Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions

  10. An Analysis for the Use of Research and Education Networks and Commercial Network Vendors in Support of Space Based Mission Critical and Non-Critical Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, and in the past, dedicated communication circuits and "network services" with very stringent performance requirements are being used to support manned and unmanned mission critical ground operations at GSFC, JSC, MSFC, KSC and other NASA facilities. Because of the evolution of network technology, it is time to investigate using other approaches to providing mission services for space ground operations. The current NASA approach is not in keeping with the evolution of network technologies. In the past decade various research and education networks dedicated to scientific and educational endeavors have emerged, as well as commercial networking providers, that employ advanced networking technologies. These technologies have significantly changed networking in recent years. Significant advances in network routing techniques, various topologies and equipment have made commercial networks very stable and virtually error free. Advances in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing will provide tremendous amounts of bandwidth for the future. The question is: Do these networks, which are controlled and managed centrally, provide a level of service that equals the stringent NASA performance requirements. If they do, what are the implication(s) of using them for critical space based ground operations as they are, without adding high cost contractual performance requirements? A second question is the feasibility of applying the emerging grid technology in space operations. Is it feasible to develop a Space Operations Grid and/or a Space Science Grid? Since these network's connectivity is substantial, both nationally and internationally, development of these sorts of grids may be feasible. The concept of research and education networks has evolved to the international community as well. Currently there are international RENs connecting the US in Chicago to and from Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific rim, Russia and Canada. And most countries in these areas have their

  11. Embedded Efficiency: A Social Networks Approach to Popular Support and Dark Network Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Sean F. Everton, and Dan Cunningham. “Dark Network Resilience in a Hostile Environment: Optimizing Centralization and Density.” Criminology , Criminal...33 Sean F. Everton and Dan Cunningham, “Dark Network Resilience in a Hostile Environment: Optimizing Centralization and Density,” Criminology ...Centralization and Density” Criminology , Criminal Justice Law, & Society 16, no. 1 (2015): 1- 20. Gill, Paul, Jeongyoon Lee, Karl R. Rethemeyer, John

  12. Reference models supporting enterprise networks and virtual enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses different types of reference models applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of Virtual Enterprises (VEs). Reference models are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE into a configuration task, and hence reducing...... the time needed for VE creation. The reference models are analysed through a mapping onto the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) based upon GERAM and created in the IMS GLOBEMEN project....

  13. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  14. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  15. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nenadovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and

  16. Fuzzy Neural Networks for Decision Support in Negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakas, D. P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large number of parameters which one can take into account when building a negotiation model. These parameters in general are uncertain, thus leading to models which represents them with fuzzy sets. On the other hand, the nature of these parameters makes them very difficult to model them with precise values. During negotiation, these parameters play an important role by altering the outcomes or changing the state of the negotiators. One reasonable way to model this procedure is to accept fuzzy relations (from theory or experience). The action of these relations to fuzzy sets, produce new fuzzy sets which describe now the new state of the system or the modified parameters. But, in the majority of these situations, the relations are multidimensional, leading to complicated models and exponentially increasing computational time. In this paper a solution to this problem is presented. The use of fuzzy neural networks is shown that it can substitute the use of fuzzy relations with comparable results. Finally a simple simulation is carried in order to test the new method.

  17. Suppressing epidemic spreading in multiplex networks with social-support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Ruijie; Tang, Ming; Cai, Shimin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-01-01

    Although suppressing the spread of a disease is usually achieved by investing in public resources, in the real world only a small percentage of the population have access to government assistance when there is an outbreak, and most must rely on resources from family or friends. We study the dynamics of disease spreading in social-contact multiplex networks when the recovery of infected nodes depends on resources from healthy neighbors in the social layer. We investigate how degree heterogeneity affects the spreading dynamics. Using theoretical analysis and simulations we find that degree heterogeneity promotes disease spreading. The phase transition of the infected density is hybrid and increases smoothly from zero to a finite small value at the first invasion threshold and then suddenly jumps at the second invasion threshold. We also find a hysteresis loop in the transition of the infected density. We further investigate how an overlap in the edges between two layers affects the spreading dynamics. We find that when the amount of overlap is smaller than a critical value the phase transition is hybrid and there is a hysteresis loop, otherwise the phase transition is continuous and the hysteresis loop vanishes. In addition, the edge overlap allows an epidemic outbreak when the transmission rate is below the first invasion threshold, but suppresses any explosive transition when the transmission rate is above the first invasion threshold.

  18. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  19. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2013-06-01

    We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.

  20. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  1. [Characteristics of social supportive network serving the older female sex workers in Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Q; Li, Y F; Jiang, Z X; Zhang, X J; Yuan, X; Zhang, N; Li, X F; Jiang, B F

    2016-02-01

    To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks. Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis, fitted test and estimation. A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members, and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5). Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos), 613 were female sex workers fellows, accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%). Characteristics of small size and non-relative relationships were seen more obviously among OFSWs with non-local registration and the ratings of emotional support (4.42±2.38) was significantly lower than the tangible support (5.73 ± 1.69) (Psocial support from friends who were also female sex workers. Stronger the joint strength between egos and alters, greater the homogeneity between the two was seen. Tighter relations among the alter egos, higher degree of average social support of the egos were acquired.

  2. Effects of Social Support Network Size on Mortality Risk: Considerations by Diabetes Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Ford, M Allison

    2018-05-01

    Previous work demonstrates that social support is inversely associated with mortality risk. Less research, however, has examined the effects of the size of the social support network on mortality risk among those with and without diabetes, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed through 2011. This study included 1,412 older adults (≥60 years of age) with diabetes and 5,872 older adults without diabetes. The size of the social support network was assessed via self-report and reported as the number of participants' close friends. Among those without diabetes, various levels of social support network size were inversely associated with mortality risk. However, among those with diabetes, only those with a high social support network size (i.e., at least six close friends) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. That is, compared to those with zero close friends, those with diabetes who had six or more close friends had a 49% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). To mitigate mortality risk, a greater social support network size may be needed for those with diabetes.

  3. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhu; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was of low or

  4. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  5. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  6. An Integrated Information Retrieval Support System for Campus Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new integrated information retrieval support system (IIRSS) which can help Web search engines retrieve cross-lingual information from heterogeneous resources stored in multi-databases in Intranet. The IIRSS, with a three-layer architecture, can cooperate with other application servers running in Intranet. By using intelligent agents to collect information and to create indexes on-the-fly, using an access control strategy to confine a user to browsing those accessible documents for him/her through a single portal, and using a new cross-lingual translation tool to help the search engine retrieve documents, the new system provides controllable information access with different authorizations, personalized services, and real-time information retrieval.

  7. Satisfaction with support versus size of network: differential effects of social support on psychological distress in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Support to women who denounce experiences of violence based on her social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Becker Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the possibilities of help/support through the mapping and acknowledgement of the social network of women who denounce experiences of violence at a Police Precinct for Women.Method: qualitative study based on the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network, through interviews with 19 women.Results: the analysis of the network maps evidenced that the primary social network was more present than the secondary on and, despite consisting of significant relations, it demonstrates limitations. The women access the secondary network occasionally in the violence problem and/or its repercussions in their life and health. The discrete presence of the health network in the composition of the social network was revealed and, when mentioned, the relation between the health professional and the woman was characterized as fragile.Conclusion: the importance of the social network relates to the creation of spaces of help/support for the women beyond the moment of the aggression, which accompany them throughout their process of emancipation from an experience annulled by violence, considering that each woman acts and makes decisions in the relational context when she is ready for it.

  9. Attention supports verbal short-term memory via competition between dorsal and ventral attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, Wim; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM.

  10. Research on intrusion detection based on Kohonen network and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Chunyan; Yang, Hengcheng; Gong, Zeweiyi

    2018-05-01

    In view of the problem of low detection accuracy and the long detection time of support vector machine, which directly applied to the network intrusion detection system. Optimization of SVM parameters can greatly improve the detection accuracy, but it can not be applied to high-speed network because of the long detection time. a method based on Kohonen neural network feature selection is proposed to reduce the optimization time of support vector machine parameters. Firstly, this paper is to calculate the weights of the KDD99 network intrusion data by Kohonen network and select feature by weight. Then, after the feature selection is completed, genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method are used for parameter optimization to find the appropriate parameters and classify them by support vector machines. By comparing experiments, it is concluded that feature selection can reduce the time of parameter optimization, which has little influence on the accuracy of classification. The experiments suggest that the support vector machine can be used in the network intrusion detection system and reduce the missing rate.

  11. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED. Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. Conclusion: The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others – such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others – who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks. Keywords: eating disorders, social networks, social support, family relations, peer relations

  12. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-06-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.

  13. Constant load supports attenuating shocks and vibrations for networks of pipes submitted to large thermal dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisecaru, Ilie; Panait; Adrian; Serban, Viorel; Ciocan, George; Androne, Marian; Florea, Ioana; State, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To avoid some drawbacks in the classical supports employed currently in networks of pipes it was conceived, designed, built and experimentally tested a new type of constant load supports which attenuate largely the shocks and vibrations for networks of pipes subjected to large thermal dilatation. These supports are particularly needed for solving the severe problems of the vibrations in networks of pipes in thermoelectric stations, nuclear power plants, or heavy water production plants. These supports allow building networks of new types, more reliable and of lower cost. The new type of support was developed on the basis of a number of patents protected by OSIM. It has a simple structure, ensures a secure functioning without blocking or other kinds of failures and is resistant to a very large variety of stresses. The new type of support of constant load avoids the drawbacks in classical supports i.e. the stress/deformation diagram is practically independent of stress level. The characteristic of the support is geometrically non-linear and presents a plateau with a small slope over a rather large deformation range which results from a serially mounted structure of sandwiches the deformation of which is controlled by a system of deforming central and peripheral pieces. The new supports of constant load, called SERB-PIPE, present a controlled elasticity and a high degree of damping as the package of elastic blades (the sandwich structure) is made of two sub-packages with relative movements what ensure the attenuation of the shocks and vibrations produced by the fluid flow within the pipes and or by seismic motions. By contrast with classical supports, the new supports have a simple structure and a high reliability. Breakdown under stress leading to severe changes in the stress distribution in pipe networks, which could generate overloads in pipes and over-loading in other supports, cannot occur. One can also mention that these supports can be built in a

  14. Association of Social Support Network Size With Receipt of Cataract Surgery in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Brian C; Choi, HwaJung; Woodward, Maria A; Ehrlich, Joshua R

    2018-04-01

    Cataract-related vision impairment is an important public health issue that tends to affect older adults. Little is known about the association between older adults' social support networks and their likelihood of receiving cataract surgery. To determine if older adults with smaller social support networks are less likely to receive cataract surgery. Retrospective cohort study. The National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally representative US survey, administered annually from 2011 to 2015 to a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older with no cataract surgery prior to the start of the study. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate if the number of persons in an individual's social support network influenced whether that individual received cataract surgery during a given year of the study. Overall, 3448 participants were interviewed from 2011 to 2015 for a total of 9760 observations. Of these observations, 3084 (weighted, 38.81%; 95% CI, 37.28-40.35) were aged 70 to 74 years, 5211 (weighted, 52.32%; 95% CI, 50.19-54.44) were women; 5899 (weighted, 78.53%; 95% CI, 76.29-80.61) were white, 2249 (weighted, 9.55%; 95% CI, 8.45-10.78) were black, 537 (weighted, 7.18%; 95% CI, 5.88-8.73) were Hispanic, and 303 (weighted, 4.74%; 95% CI, 3.56-62.9) reported other races. Medicare beneficiaries with smaller social support networks (0-2 individuals) were less likely to receive cataract surgery in a given year (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.96) than those with larger support networks (≥3 individuals). The adjusted predicted proportion of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery was 4.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-6.7%) and 7.5% (95% CI, 6.9%-8.1%) for those with small and large social support networks, respectively. Having fewer non-spouse/partner family members in the support network was associated with decreased odds of receiving cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.85), but having spouses

  15. The Role of Informal Support Networks in Teaching the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.

    2017-06-01

    This study reports the participation of 13 secondary science teachers in informal support networks and how that participation was associated with their nature of science (NOS) teaching practices 2 to 5 years after having graduated from the same science teacher education program. The nine teachers who participated in informal support networks taught the NOS at high/medium levels, while the four non-participating teachers taught the NOS at low levels. The nine high/medium NOS implementation teachers credited the informal support networks for maintaining/heightening their sense of responsibility for teaching NOS and for helping them navigate institutional constraints that impede effective NOS instruction. Several high/medium NOS instruction implementers initially struggled to autonomously frame and resolve the complexities experienced in schools and thus drew from the support networks to engage in more sophisticated forms of teacher decision-making. In contrast, the NOS pedagogical decisions of the four teachers not participating in support networks were governed primarily by the expectations and constraints experienced in their schools. Implications of this study include the need for reconsidering the structure of teacher mentorship programs to ensure they do not promote archaic science teaching practices that are at odds with reform efforts in science education.

  16. Pre-service teachers opinions on cloud supported social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Ozcan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service\tteachers\tare\texpected\tto\tuse\tnew\ttechnologies\tsuch\tas\tGoogle+\twhich\tfacilitates\tcontacting,\tsharing\tin\tcertain\tenvironments\tand\tworking\tcollaboratively\twith\tthe\thelp\tof\tcloud\tsupport\tin\ttheir\tlessons\teffectively.\tThis study aims to examine pre-service teachers’ opinions regarding the use of Google+ to support lesson activities.\tIn\tthis\tstudy\tthe\tdata\twas\tcollected\tusing\tsemi-structured\tinterview\ttechniques\tcarried\tout\twith\tpreservice teachers (n=15\tchosen\tby\tpurposeful sampling.\tThe\tpurposes\tof\tusing\tGoogle+\twere sharing,\tchatting\tand\tcommunication,\twhereas\tGoogle\tDocs\twas\tmostly\tused\tfor\tits\tefficiency,\tinteraction,\tthe\tprudential\tpurpose\tof\tuse\tand\tto\tsupport\tteaching.\tWhen\tthe\tviews\tof\tthe\tpre-service\tteachers\tregarding\tthe\tuse\tof\tGoogle+\twere examined\tit\twas\tfound\tthat\tinterface\tbeing\tthought\tto\tbe\tmore\tcomplex\tthan\tother\tsocial\tnetworks\taffected\tthe teachers’\tfirst\timpressions\tnegatively.\tAs\tthe\tnegative\tfirst\timpression\ttowards\tGoogle+\tchanged\tin\ttime,\tit\twas\tstated to have provided a number of teaching opportunities. Some suggestions regarding the opportunities Google+\toffers\twere\talso\tmade.

  17. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404

  18. The influence of social networks on self-management support: a metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Koetsenruijter, Jan

    2014-07-15

    There is increasing recognition that chronic illness management (CIM) is not just an individual but a collective process where social networks can potentially make a considerable contribution to improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness. However, the mechanisms (processes, activities) taking place within social networks are insufficiently understood. The aim of this review was to focus on identifying the mechanisms linking social networks with CIM. Here we consider network mechanisms as located within a broader social context that shapes practices, behaviours, and the multiplicity of functions and roles that network members fulfil. A systematic search of qualitative studies was undertaken on Medline, Embase, and Web for papers published between 1st January 2002 and 1st December 2013. Eligible for inclusion were studies dealing with diabetes, and with conditions or health behaviours relevant for diabetes management; and studies exploring the relationship between social networks, self-management, and deprivation. 25 papers met the inclusion criteria. A qualitative metasynthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. The main themes identified were: 1) sharing knowledge and experiences in a personal community; 2) accessing and mediation of resources; 3) self-management support requires awareness of and ability to deal with network relationships. These translated into line of argument synthesis in which three network mechanisms were identified. These were network navigation (identifying and connecting with relevant existing resources in a network), negotiation within networks (re-shaping relationships, roles, expectations, means of engagement and communication between network members), and collective efficacy (developing a shared perception and capacity to successfully perform behaviour through shared effort, beliefs, influence, perseverance, and objectives). These network mechanisms bring to the fore the close

  19. The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN): A member-driven network approach to supporting women in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R. T.; Fischer, E. V.; Glessmer, M. S.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Rodriguez, C.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Laursen, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is an organization of women geoscientists, many in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote success in scientific careers by facilitating career development, community, informal mentoring and support, and professional collaborations. ESWN currently connects nearly 2000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral scientists, tenure and non-tenure track faculty from diverse colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. In 2009, ESWN received an NSF ADVANCE PAID award, with the primary goals to grow our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, to design and administer career development workshops, to promote professional networking at scientific conferences, and to develop web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Now at the end of the grant, ESWN members have reported gains in a number of aspects of their personal and professional lives including: knowledge about career resources; a greater understanding of the challenges facing women in science and resources to overcome them; a sense of community and less isolation; greater confidence in their own career trajectories; professional collaborations; emotional support on a variety of issues; and greater engagement and retention in scientific careers. The new ESWN web center (www.ESWNonline.org), a major development supported by NSF ADVANCE and AGU, was created to facilitate communication and networking among our members. The web center offers a state-of-the-art social networking platform and features: 1) a public site offering information on ESWN, career resources for all early career scientists, and a 'members' spotlight' highlighting members' scientific and professional achievements; and 2) a password protected member area where users can personalize profiles, create and

  20. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, Stanley D; Wilson, Evan C; Brown, Justin L; Anchor, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10), with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  1. The Design and Implementation of Virtual Roaming in Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Lucheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional residence is the continuation of intangible cultural heritage and the primitive soil for development. At present, the protection and inheritance of traditional villages have been impacted by the process of modernization, and the phenomenon of assimilation is very serious. This article takes the above questions as the breakthrough point, and then analyzes why and how to use virtual reality technology to better solve the above problems, and take the Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional dwellings as the specific example to explore. First, using VR technology, with real images and sound, the paper simulate a near real virtual world. Secondly, we collect a large amount of real image information, and make the visualization model of building by using 3DMAX software platform, UV Mapping and Rendering optimization. Finally, the Vizard virtual reality development platform was used to establish the roaming system and realize the virtual interaction. The roaming system was posted online so that overcome the disadvantages of not intuitive and low capability of interaction, and these new ideas can give a whole new meaning in the protection projects of the cultural relic buildings. At the same time, visitors could enjoy the "Dian-style" architectural style and cultural connotation of dwelling house in Diqing Yunnan.

  2. Assessing the Role of Free-Roaming Horses in a Social-Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Jonaki; Murphy, Stephen D.

    2015-08-01

    Management actions concerning free-roaming horses attract controversy in many areas. In the Chilcotin region of British Columbia, Canada, social and cultural values influence debates about management of free-roaming horses and perceptions of their ecological impacts. A dearth of current, empirical research on the role and impacts of horses in local ecosystems results in management decisions being informed largely by studies from other ecoregions and locations, which may not accurately represent local ecological, social, cultural, and economic influences. We initiated the first socio-ecological study of horse sub-populations, their grazing habitat, and past management approaches affecting current conditions in the ?Elegesi Qayuse Wild Horse Preserve in Xeni Gwet'in (Tsilhqot'in) First Nations' territory. This exploratory study used mixed methods including a review of literature and unpublished data, assessment of vegetation in core grazing habitat, and exploration of local ecological and cultural knowledge and perceptions. Plant community composition and abundance in core grazing habitat of the Wild Horse Preserve are consistent with a structurally sound ecosystem. Socio-cultural factors are important for managers to consider in effective decision-making concerning horse populations.

  3. Novel roaming and stationary tethered aerial robots for continuous mobile missions in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cai, Guowei; Seneviratne, Lakmal [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs) for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs) for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  4. Novel Roaming and Stationary Tethered Aerial Robots for Continuous Mobile Missions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom W. Gu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  5. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley D Gehrt

    Full Text Available Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10, with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  6. A Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA Based on PEAS for NCW in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Joo Koo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can be implemented as one of sensor systems in Network Centric Warfare (NCW. Mobility support and energy efficiency are key concerns for this application, due to multiple mobile users and stimuli in real combat field. However, mobility support approaches that can be adopted in this circumstance are rare. This paper proposes Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA based on Probing Environment and Adaptive Sleeping (PEAS to support the simultaneous mobility of both multiple users and stimuli by sharing the information of stimuli in WSNs. Simulations using Qualnet are conducted, showing that MMSA can support multiple mobile users and stimuli with good energy efficiency. It is expected that the proposed MMSA can be applied to real combat field.

  7. A Hardware-Supported Algorithm for Self-Managed and Choreographed Task Execution in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Bordel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor networks are composed of a great number of tiny resource-constraint nodes, whose management is increasingly more complex. In fact, although collaborative or choreographic task execution schemes are which fit in the most perfect way with the nature of sensor networks, they are rarely implemented because of the high resource consumption of these algorithms (especially if networks include many resource-constrained devices. On the contrary, hierarchical networks are usually designed, in whose cusp it is included a heavy orchestrator with a remarkable processing power, being able to implement any necessary management solution. However, although this orchestration approach solves most practical management problems of sensor networks, a great amount of the operation time is wasted while nodes request the orchestrator to address a conflict and they obtain the required instructions to operate. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed a new mechanism for self-managed and choreographed task execution in sensor networks. The proposed solution considers only a lightweight gateway instead of traditional heavy orchestrators and a hardware-supported algorithm, which consume a negligible amount of resources in sensor nodes. The gateway avoids the congestion of the entire sensor network and the hardware-supported algorithm enables a choreographed task execution scheme, so no particular node is overloaded. The performance of the proposed solution is evaluated through numerical and electronic ModelSim-based simulations.

  8. Social networks and health among older adults in Lebanon: the mediating role of support and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one's network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  10. Perception of adult men on their preventive practices and health support networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to know the preventive practices adopted by adult men in daily life and to identify health support networks. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, made during the months of November and December 2012, at two emergency units, along with 32 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis with thematic modality. Results: men highlighted different preventive practices such as sanitizing hands, eating properly, having screening tests, avoiding psychoactive substance abuse, using personal protective equipment at work and condoms during sex. Most of the participants had nuclear family and its members were their primary support network regarding the health-disease process. Conclusion: it is for health team members to try to leverage the adoption of preventive practices by adult men from the support networks they consider significant.

  11. Social support and social network as intermediary social determinants of dental caries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanini, Humberto; Marshman, Zoe; Vettore, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intermediary social determinants, namely social support and social network with dental caries in adolescents. An adapted version of the WHO social determinants of health conceptual framework was used to organize structural and intermediary social determinants of dental caries into six blocks including perceived social support and number of social networks. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 542 students between 12 and 14 years of age in public schools located in the city of Dourados, Brazil in 2012. The outcome variables were caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1) and current dental caries (component D of DMFT ≥ 1) recorded by a calibrated dentist. Individual interviews were performed to collect data on perceived social support and numbers of social networks from family and friends and covariates. Multivariate Poisson regressions using hierarchical models were conducted. The prevalence of adolescents with caries experience and current dental caries was 55.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Adolescents with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01-2.14) were more likely to have DMFT ≥ 1. Current dental caries was associated with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15-4.44). Social support and social network were influential psychosocial factors to dental caries in adolescents. This finding requires confirmation in other countries but potentially has implications for programmes to promote oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Size of the social network versus quality of social support: which is more protective against PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jonathan; Keyes, Katherine M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-08-01

    Supportive social networks are important to the post-traumatic response process. However, the effects of social network structure may be distinct from the perceived function of those networks. The present study examined the relative importance of role diversity and perceived strength of social support in mitigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were drawn from respondents who report lifetime potentially traumatic events in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 31,650). The Social Network Index (SNI) was used to measure the diversity of social connections. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12) was used to measure the perceived availability of social support within the network. Odds of current PTSD were compared among individuals representing four dichotomous types of social support: high diversity/high perceived strength, high diversity/low perceived strength, low diversity/high perceived strength, and low diversity/low perceived strength to examine which type of support is more protective against PTSD. Unadjusted odds of PTSD were 1.59 (95 % CI 1.39-1.82) for those with low versus high perceived support strength, and 1.10 (0.94-1.28) among those with non-diverse versus diverse social networks. Compared to the reference group (high diversity/high perceived strength), the adjusted odds of current PTSD were higher for two groups: low diversity/low perceived strength (OR = 1.62; 1.33-1.99), and low diversity/high perceived strength (OR = 1.57; 1.3-1.91). The high diversity/low perceived strength group had no greater odds of PTSD (OR = 1.02; 0.81-1.28). The diversity of a social network is potentially more protective against PTSD than the perception of strong social support. This suggests that programs, which engage individuals in social groups and activities may effectively attenuate the risk of PTSD. A better understanding of how these networks operate with respect to PTSD prevention and mitigation holds

  13. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. Support networks and people with physical disabilities: social inclusion and access to health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Cristina Marques de Almeida; De Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes; Bezerra, Maria Aparecida; Nascimento, João Paulo da Silva; Neves, Robson da Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Ribeiro, Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the formation of social support networks of people with physical disabilities, and how these networks can help facilitate access to health services and promote social inclusion. It is a cross-sectional study, with data collected via a form applied to physically disabled persons over eighteen years of age registered with the Family Health Teams of the municipal district of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. It was observed that the support networks of these individuals predominantly consist of family members (parents, siblings, children, spouses) and people outside the family (friends and neighbors). However, 50% of the interviewees declared that they could not count on any support from outside the family. It was observed that the support network contributes to access to the services and participation in social groups. However, reduced social inclusion was detected, due to locomotion difficulties, this being the main barrier to social interaction. Among those individuals who began to interact in society, the part played by social support was fundamental.

  15. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander Catarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could

  16. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd

    2012-09-17

    To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members

  17. Source and Size of Social Support Network on Sedentary Behavior Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. 2519 older adults (60+ years). Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report. Sources evaluated include spouse, son, daughter, sibling, neighbor, church member, and friend. Regarding size of social network, participants were asked, "In general, how many close friends do you have?" Multivariable linear regression. After adjustment, there was no evidence of an association between the size of social support network and sedentary behavior. With regard to specific sources of social support, spousal social support was associated with less sedentary behavior (β = -11.6; 95% confidence interval: -20.7 to -2.5), with evidence to suggest that this was only true for men. Further, an inverse association was observed between household size and sedentary behavior, with those having a greater number of individuals in the house having lower levels of sedentary behavior. These associations occurred independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, age, gender, race-ethnicity, measured body mass index, total cholesterol, self-reported smoking status, and physician diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, or diabetes. Spouse-specific emotion-related social support (particularly for men) and household size were associated with less sedentary behavior.

  18. Integrated Multimedia Based Intelligent Group Decision Support System for Electrical Power Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Saxena

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Power Network in recent time requires an intelligent, virtual environment based decision process for the coordination of all its individual elements and the interrelated tasks. Its ultimate goal is to achieve maximum productivity and efficiency through the efficient and effective application of generation, transmission, distribution, pricing and regulatory systems. However, the complexity of electrical power network and the presence of conflicting multiple goals and objectives postulated by various groups emphasized the need of an intelligent group decision support system approach in this field. In this paper, an Integrated Multimedia based Intelligent Group Decision Support System (IM1GDSS is presented, and its main components are analyzed and discussed. In particular attention is focused on the Data Base, Model Base, Central Black Board (CBB and Multicriteria Futuristic Decision Process (MFDP module. The model base interacts with Electrical Power Network Load Forecasting and Planning (EPNLFP Module; Resource Optimization, Modeling and Simulation (ROMAS Module; Electrical Power Network Control and Evaluation Process (EPNCAEP Module, and MFDP Module through CBB for strategic planning, management control, operational planning and transaction processing. The richness of multimedia channels adds a totally new dimension in a group decision making for Electrical Power Network. The proposed IMIGDSS is a user friendly, highly interactive group decision making system, based on efficient intelligent and multimedia communication support for group discussions, retrieval of content and multi criteria decision analysis.

  19. Social support and subsequent disability: it is not the size of your network that counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme; Dobson, Annette

    2012-09-01

    high levels of social support and engagement may help sustain good health and functional ability. However, the definition of social support in previous research has been inconsistent and findings are mixed. The aim of this analysis was to explore the effect of two aspects of social support on subsequent disability in a group of community dwelling older women and men. data were drawn from two concurrent prospective observational cohort studies of community-based older Australian women (N = 2,013) and men (N = 680). Baseline and follow-up data were drawn from the second (1999) and fifth (2008) surveys of the women and the second (2001) and third (2008) surveys of the men. At baseline, social support was measured by the two subscales (social network and subjective support) of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). The outcome measure was Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). overall, social network size was not associated with subsequent disability in either women or men. After adjusting for health status at baseline, lack of satisfaction with social support was associated with greater difficulties in ADLs and IADLs for both women and men. our results suggest that the provision of social support is insufficient to limit subsequent disability: support provided must be subjectively perceived to be relevant and adequate.

  20. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  1. Detection of Babesia hongkongensis sp. nov. in a Free-Roaming Felis catus Cat in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Hui, Janet J. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic Babesia-like trophozoites were seen in postmortem kidney sections of a free-roaming cat in Hong Kong. DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes had only 96.7% and 90.4% nucleotide identity with known Babesia sequences. We propose that this new species be named Babesia hongkongensis.

  2. Detection of Babesia hongkongensis sp. nov. in a free-roaming Felis catus cat in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Hui, Janet J Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-08-01

    Intraerythrocytic Babesia-like trophozoites were seen in postmortem kidney sections of a free-roaming cat in Hong Kong. DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes had only 96.7% and 90.4% nucleotide identity with known Babesia sequences. We propose that this new species be named Babesia hongkongensis.

  3. Use of social network to support visually impaired people: A Facebook case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda Caran

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies can be seen as an important factor for social inclusion in its different aspects - economic, social, relational and informational, among others. Inclusion potentiality is even more relevant for groups of people who face limiting life conditions which determine social barriers. This study investigated the social support offered to people with disabilities based on the social network analysis method. The research objective was to make the online support dynamics for low vision people, friends and relatives evident, having as case study the Facebook Low Vision group. The social network modelling and quantitative analysis were performed from user data collection, posts, comments and likes. Contents were classified according to the type of support (Emotional or Instrumental and according to its intention (Offered or Requested, represented in graphs as indicators for analysis. Results pointed towards a larger use rate of Instrumental and Offered support although a more intense and comprehensive exchange of Emotional and Requested support was found. Data collection limitations indicate the need for more empirical studies on the social use of socio-technical networks for different types of social support. This theme points to a research agenda about the role of information and communication technologies as a possible condition for inclusion, life quality and well-being of people with disabilities.

  4. Late Departures from Paper-Based to Supported Networked Learning in South Africa: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Illasha; Beter, Petra; Esterhuizen, Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Fragmented connectivity in South Africa is the dominant barrier for digitising initiatives. New insights surfaced when a university-based nursing programme introduced tablets within a supportive network learning environment. A qualitative, explorative design investigated adult nurses' experiences of the realities when moving from paper-based…

  5. Effects of the ISIS Recommender System for Navigation Support in Self-Organised Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Waterink, Wim; Nadolski, Rob; Berlanga, Adriana; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The need to support users of the Internet with the selection of information is becoming more important. Learners in complex, self-organising Learning Networks have similar problems and need guidance to find and select most suitable learning activities, in order to attain their lifelong learning goals in the most efficient way. Several research…

  6. Can a Social Networking Site Support Afterschool Group Learning of Mandarin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Schools are often encouraged to facilitate extra-curricular learning within their own premises. This study addresses the potential of social networking sites (SNS) for supporting such out-of-class study. Given concerns that learning on these sites may happen at a surface level, we adopted self-determination theory for designing a social networking…

  7. The influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggens, Lilian; van der Werf, M. P. C.; Bosker, R. J.

    In this paper, the influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education is examined. Furthermore, the paper aimed at clarifying the possible mediating role of achievement motivation, time spent on studying and working, procrastination and

  8. GMPLS control plane extensions in support of flex-grid enabled elastic optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    of generalized labels format and enable enhancements for the wavelength selection procedures. OSPF-TE enables the creation of spectrum databases based on novel LSA sub-TLV attributes capable of advertising spectrum status. Based on the implemented extensions, we propose and evaluate advanced distributed spectrum...... allocation schemes and strategies for dynamic routing algorithms in support of flex-grid optical networks....

  9. Distributed generation in the Dutch LV network - self-supporting residential area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, M.; Vanalme, G.M.A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Bongaerts, M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A self-supporting residential area is seen as an alternative operational approach of power supply in low voltage (LV) networks. The intention of the new approach is to exploit the advantages of distributed generation (DG) and avoid the difficulties, that come with DG when implemented in the

  10. A Contextualised Multi-Platform Framework to Support Blended Learning Scenarios in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Tim; Fuertes, Alba; Schmeits, Tally; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    De Jong, T., Fuertes, A., Schmeits, T., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2009). A Contextualised Multi-Platform Framework to Support Blended Learning Scenarios in Learning Networks. In D. Goh (Ed.), Multiplatform E-Learning Systems and Technologies: Mobile Devices for Ubiquitous ICT-Based Education (pp.

  11. Artificial neural network decision support systems for new product development project selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieme, R.J.; Song, Michael; Calantone, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors extend and develop an artificial neural network decision support system and demonstrate how it can guide managers when they make complex new product development decisions. The authors use data from 612 projects to compare this new method with traditional methods for predicting various

  12. Social Embeddedness and Late-Life Parenthood : Community Activity, Close Ties, and Support Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenger, G. Clare; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Melkas, Tuula; Knipscheer, Kees C.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways in which patterns of marriage and fertility shape older people’s involvement in community groups and their support networks. The data are from Australia, Finland, Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show

  13. Social embeddedness and late-life parenthood: community activity, close ties and support networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenger, G.; Dykstra, P.A.; Melkas, T.; Knipscheer, K.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways in which patterns of marriage and fertility shape older people’s involvement in community groups and their support networks. The data are from Australia, Finland, Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show

  14. Social embeddedness and late-life parenthood: Community activity, close ties, and support networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenger, G.C.; Dykstra, P.A.; Melkas, T.; Knipscheer, C.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways in which patterns of marriage and fertility shape older people's involvement in community groups and their support networks. The data are from Australia, Finland, Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show

  15. Social Embeddedness and Late-Life Parenthood: Community Activity, Close Ties, and Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, G. Clare; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Melkas, Tuula; Knipscheer, Kees C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways in which patterns of marriage and fertility shape older people's involvement in community groups and their support networks. The data are from Australia, Finland, Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show that childless older adults, regardless of…

  16. Actor-network-theory perspective on a forestry decision support system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, L.G.J.; Ferritti, V.

    2014-01-01

    Use of decision support systems (DSS) has thus far been framed as a social process of adoption or technical process of usability. We analyze the development of a DSS as a process of institutionalization of new as well as drift of existing practices. We write an Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) account,

  17. Project team formation support for self-directed learners in social learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spoelstra, H., Van Rosmalen, P., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Project team formation support for self-directed learners in social learning networks. In P. Kommers, P. Isaias, & N. Bessis (Eds.), Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Web Based Communities and Social Media (ICWBC & SM 2012)

  18. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support: A rational approach to dynamic decision-making under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation deals with decision support in the context of clinical oncology. (Dynamic) Bayesian networks are used as a framework for (dynamic) decision-making under uncertainty and applied to a variety of diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment problems in medicine. It is shown that the proposed

  19. An Implementation of a Twitter-Supported Personal Learning Network to Individualize Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyamport, W. H., III.

    2013-01-01

    In this action research study, eight teachers at an elementary school were trained in the use of Twitter to support the development of a personal learning network as a strategy to address non-differentiated professional development at the school. The main research question for this study was: In what ways, if any, can the use of a…

  20. Analysis of Voltage Support by Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Juul Møller, René

    2014-01-01

    of incorporating electric vehicles (EVs) in a low voltage distribution network with high penetration of photovoltaic installations (PVs), and focuses on analysing potential voltage support functions from EVs and PVs. In addition, the paper evaluates the benefits that reactive power control may provide...

  1. How an existing telecommunications network can support the deployment of smart meters in a water utility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Barros Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study, based on interviews and technical analysis of a Brazilian water utility with more than 10 million clients, aims to understand what kind of adjusts on a telecommunications network, developed for operational and corporate use, demands to support a smart metering system, identifying this synergies and challenges.

  2. Measuring young children's perceptions of support, control, and maintenance in their own social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boosman, K.P.A.; Van der Meulen, Matty; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight children (aged 3;7-7;6) and one of their parents took part in a study concerning children perceptions of their social networks. The study made use of a newly developed instrument-the Support, Control and Maintenance Pictures Interview (SCAMPI). The SCAMPI offers an individualized

  3. Genotet: An Interactive Web-based Visual Exploration Framework to Support Validation of Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bowen; Doraiswamy, Harish; Chen, Xi; Miraldi, Emily; Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario Luis; Hafemeister, Christoph; Madar, Aviv; Bonneau, Richard; Silva, Cláudio T

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is a fundamental goal in biology, and one of the most important components of TRNs are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that specifically bind to gene promoter and enhancer regions to alter target gene expression patterns. Advances in genomic technologies as well as advances in computational biology have led to multiple large regulatory network models (directed networks) each with a large corpus of supporting data and gene-annotation. There are multiple possible biological motivations for exploring large regulatory network models, including: validating TF-target gene relationships, figuring out co-regulation patterns, and exploring the coordination of cell processes in response to changes in cell state or environment. Here we focus on queries aimed at validating regulatory network models, and on coordinating visualization of primary data and directed weighted gene regulatory networks. The large size of both the network models and the primary data can make such coordinated queries cumbersome with existing tools and, in particular, inhibits the sharing of results between collaborators. In this work, we develop and demonstrate a web-based framework for coordinating visualization and exploration of expression data (RNA-seq, microarray), network models and gene-binding data (ChIP-seq). Using specialized data structures and multiple coordinated views, we design an efficient querying model to support interactive analysis of the data. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our framework through case studies for the mouse immune system (a dataset focused on a subset of key cellular functions) and a model bacteria (a small genome with high data-completeness).

  4. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C.; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. Objectives To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. Methods We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. Main results We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). Conclusions This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard

  5. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Shi

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult.To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness.We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence.We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively. The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence.This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was

  6. Social networks and social support for healthy eating among Latina breast cancer survivors: implications for social and behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.

  7. Large-Scale Brain Networks Supporting Divided Attention across Spatial Locations and Sensory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    implicated during divided attention across spatial locations and sensory modalities, pointing out the importance of investigating effective connectivity of large-scale brain networks supporting complex behavior.

  8. Large-Scale Brain Networks Supporting Divided Attention across Spatial Locations and Sensory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Santangelo

    2018-02-01

    brain networks implicated during divided attention across spatial locations and sensory modalities, pointing out the importance of investigating effective connectivity of large-scale brain networks supporting complex behavior.

  9. A network architecture supporting consistent rich behavior in collaborative interactive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James; Glencross, Mashhuda; Pettifer, Steve; Hubbold, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Network architectures for collaborative virtual reality have traditionally been dominated by client-server and peer-to-peer approaches, with peer-to-peer strategies typically being favored where minimizing latency is a priority, and client-server where consistency is key. With increasingly sophisticated behavior models and the demand for better support for haptics, we argue that neither approach provides sufficient support for these scenarios and, thus, a hybrid architecture is required. We discuss the relative performance of different distribution strategies in the face of real network conditions and illustrate the problems they face. Finally, we present an architecture that successfully meets many of these challenges and demonstrate its use in a distributed virtual prototyping application which supports simultaneous collaboration for assembly, maintenance, and training applications utilizing haptics.

  10. Disaster preparedness networks in rural Midwest communities: Organizational roles, collaborations, and support for older residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Zhu, Xi; Robinson, Erin L; Schroer, Audrey

    2018-05-17

    This study investigated the roles and interconnections among community organizations belonging to local disaster coalitions in Midwest in supporting older residents. Representatives from 44 organizations participated in one-time survey. Most were non-profit (68%) or federal/state/local government agencies (23%). The analyses of 761 relationships showed stronger collaborations in assessment (average strength=2.88 on a 5-point scale), emergency response (2.72), and planning (2.61); and weaker collaborations in co-sponsoring programs (1.71) and supporting older residents (2.03). The extent of collaboration (network density) to support older adults was also low. Coalitions may enhance network density and centralization by developing sub-committee structure and strengthening existing collaborations.

  11. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  12. Effects of sex and reproductive state on interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sparkes

    Full Text Available Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.

  13. Effects of sex and reproductive state on interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Jessica; Körtner, Gerhard; Ballard, Guy; Fleming, Peter J S; Brown, Wendy Y

    2014-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.

  14. A Self-Organizing Spatial Clustering Approach to Support Large-Scale Network RTK Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lili; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-06

    The network real-time kinematic (RTK) technique can provide centimeter-level real time positioning solutions and play a key role in geo-spatial infrastructure. With ever-increasing popularity, network RTK systems will face issues in the support of large numbers of concurrent users. In the past, high-precision positioning services were oriented towards professionals and only supported a few concurrent users. Currently, precise positioning provides a spatial foundation for artificial intelligence (AI), and countless smart devices (autonomous cars, unmanned aerial-vehicles (UAVs), robotic equipment, etc.) require precise positioning services. Therefore, the development of approaches to support large-scale network RTK systems is urgent. In this study, we proposed a self-organizing spatial clustering (SOSC) approach which automatically clusters online users to reduce the computational load on the network RTK system server side. The experimental results indicate that both the SOSC algorithm and the grid algorithm can reduce the computational load efficiently, while the SOSC algorithm gives a more elastic and adaptive clustering solution with different datasets. The SOSC algorithm determines the cluster number and the mean distance to cluster center (MDTCC) according to the data set, while the grid approaches are all predefined. The side-effects of clustering algorithms on the user side are analyzed with real global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data sets. The experimental results indicate that 10 km can be safely used as the cluster radius threshold for the SOSC algorithm without significantly reducing the positioning precision and reliability on the user side.

  15. Changes in support networks in late middle age: the extension of gender and educational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Claude S; Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women's network advantages over men and college graduates' network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in "talk" support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huichao; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; Li, Hongyu; Song, Luping; Chen, Lingjuan; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-12-01

    The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral relevance of these intrinsic networks using data from 88 brain-damaged patients, finding that across patients the relative strength of functional connectivity of the two networks significantly correlated with the noun-object vs. verb-action relative behavioral performances. In summary, we found that verbs-actions and nouns-objects are supported by separable intrinsic functional networks and that the integrity of such networks accounts for the relative noun-object- and verb-action-selective deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of structured support vector machine backpropagation to a convolutional neural network for human pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Peerajak; Chongstitvatana, Prabhas

    2017-08-01

    In this study, for the first time, we show how to formulate a structured support vector machine (SSVM) as two layers in a convolutional neural network, where the top layer is a loss augmented inference layer and the bottom layer is the normal convolutional layer. We show that a deformable part model can be learned with the proposed structured SVM neural network by backpropagating the error of the deformable part model to the convolutional neural network. The forward propagation calculates the loss augmented inference and the backpropagation calculates the gradient from the loss augmented inference layer to the convolutional layer. Thus, we obtain a new type of convolutional neural network called an Structured SVM convolutional neural network, which we applied to the human pose estimation problem. This new neural network can be used as the final layers in deep learning. Our method jointly learns the structural model parameters and the appearance model parameters. We implemented our method as a new layer in the existing Caffe library. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. YouTube Social Network as a Business Support

    OpenAIRE

    Phí, Manh Hoang

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on familiarizing the reader with the phenomenon of the YouTube social network and its possibilities for business support. The first chapter of the theoretical part introduces the reader to the basic characteristics of online marketing and its tools. The second chapter is dedicated to the YouTube social network, where the reader first learns about the key moments in YouTube history and current statistical facts. Furthermore the bachelor thesis describes the YouT...

  19. Social support network characteristics of incarcerated women with co-occurring major depressive and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargiso, Jessica E; Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well-understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women's social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that, on average, women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women's social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women's social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.

  20. Go Ask Alice: Uncovering the Role of a University Partner in an Informal Science Curriculum Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study from the Linking Instructors Networks of Knowledge in Science Education project, which aims to examine the informal science curriculum support networks of teachers in a school-university curriculum reform partnership. We used social network analysis and qualitative methods to reveal characteristics of the informal…

  1. Network support, technology use, depression, and ART adherence among HIV-positive MSM of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, I W; Tan, D; Dunlap, S L; Palmer, L; Beougher, S; Cederbaum, J A

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. This relationship may be moderated by an individual's social network characteristics. Our study sought to examine social network correlates of treatment adherence among HIV-positive men recruited from social service agencies throughout Los Angeles County (N = 150) to inform technology-driven social support interventions for this population. We administered egocentric social network and computer-assisted survey interviews focused on demographic characteristics, health history, depressive symptoms, and ART adherence, where adherence was assessed by the number of reasons participants missed taking their medication, if ever. Significant univariate correlates of adherence were included in a multivariable regression analysis, where the moderating effect of having a network member who reminds participants to take their HIV medication on the relationship between depression and adherence was tested. Over 60% of participants reported clinically significant depressive symptoms; this was significantly associated with lower adherence among those without someone in their social network to remind them about taking their HIV medication, even after adjusting for covariates in an ordinary least squares regression (adjusted mean difference b = -1.61, SE = 0.42, p = 0.0003). Having a network member who reminds participants to take their ART medication significantly ameliorated the negative association between depression and treatment adherence, especially for those reporting greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.0394). Additionally, participants demonstrated high rates of technology use to communicate with social network members. In order to achieve the aims of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, innovative interventions addressing mental health to improve ART adherence are needed. Network strategies that leverage technology may be helpful for improving ART

  2. Collectivism culture, HIV stigma and social network support in Anhui, China: a path analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chunpeng; Guida, Jennifer; Sun, Yehuan; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    HIV stigma is rooted in culture and, therefore, it is essential to investigate it within the context of culture. The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism-collectivism, HIV stigma, and social network support. A social network study was conducted among 118 people living with HIVAIDS in China, who were infected by commercial plasma donation, a nonstigmatized behavior. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups, family members, friends, and neighbors. Path analyses revealed (1) a higher level of family ICIAI was significantly associated with a higher level of HIV self-stigma (β=0.32); (2) a higher level of friend ICIAI was associated with a lower level of self-stigma (β=-035); (3) neighbor ICIAI was associated with public stigma (β=-0.61); (4) self-stigman was associated with social support from neighbors (β=-0.27); and (5) public stigma was associated with social support from neighbors (β=-0.24). This study documents that HIV stigma may mediate the relationship between collectivist culture and social network support, providing an empirical basis for interventions to include aspects of culture into HIV intervention strategies.

  3. A model for the electronic support of practice-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin A; Delaney, Brendan C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Sandberg, Elisabeth A; Speedie, Stuart; Richard Hobbs, F D

    2012-01-01

    The principal goal of the electronic Primary Care Research Network (ePCRN) is to enable the development of an electronic infrastructure to support clinical research activities in primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs). We describe the model that the ePCRN developed to enhance the growth and to expand the reach of PBRN research. Use cases and activity diagrams were developed from interviews with key informants from 11 PBRNs from the United States and United Kingdom. Discrete functions were identified and aggregated into logical components. Interaction diagrams were created, and an overall composite diagram was constructed describing the proposed software behavior. Software for each component was written and aggregated, and the resulting prototype application was pilot tested for feasibility. A practical model was then created by separating application activities into distinct software packages based on existing PBRN business rules, hardware requirements, network requirements, and security concerns. We present an information architecture that provides for essential interactions, activities, data flows, and structural elements necessary for providing support for PBRN translational research activities. The model describes research information exchange between investigators and clusters of independent data sites supported by a contracted research director. The model was designed to support recruitment for clinical trials, collection of aggregated anonymous data, and retrieval of identifiable data from previously consented patients across hundreds of practices. The proposed model advances our understanding of the fundamental roles and activities of PBRNs and defines the information exchange commonly used by PBRNs to successfully engage community health care clinicians in translational research activities. By describing the network architecture in a language familiar to that used by software developers, the model provides an important foundation for the

  4. Reciprocal Family, Friendship and Church Support Networks of African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne M; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined reciprocal support networks involving extended family, friends and church members among African Americans. Our analysis examined specific patterns of reciprocal support (i.e., received only, gave only, both gave and received, neither gave or received), as well as network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) as correlates of reciprocal support. The analysis is based on the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Overall, our findings indicate that African Americans are very involved in reciprocal support networks with their extended family, friends and church members. Respondents were most extensively involved in reciprocal supports with extended family members, followed closely by friends and church networks. Network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) were significantly and consistently associated with involvement with reciprocal support exchanges for all three networks. These and other findings are discussed in detail. This study complements previous work on the complementary roles of family, friend and congregational support networks, as well as studies of racial differences in informal support networks.

  5. Design Methodology of a Sensor Network Architecture Supporting Urgent Information and Its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tetsuya; Wakamiya, Naoki; Murata, Masayuki

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to become an important social infrastructure which helps our life to be safe, secure, and comfortable. In this paper, we propose design methodology of an architecture for fast and reliable transmission of urgent information in wireless sensor networks. In this methodology, instead of establishing single complicated monolithic mechanism, several simple and fully-distributed control mechanisms which function in different spatial and temporal levels are incorporated on each node. These mechanisms work autonomously and independently responding to the surrounding situation. We also show an example of a network architecture designed following the methodology. We evaluated the performance of the architecture by extensive simulation and practical experiments and our claim was supported by the results of these experiments.

  6. [Health system sustainability from a network perspective: a proposal to optimize healthy habits and social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; Fernández Peña, Rosario; Cabrera León, Andrés; Muñoz Doyague, María F; Llopis Cañameras, Jaime; Arias Ramos, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The search of new health management formulas focused to give wide services is one of the priorities of our present health policies. Those formulas examine the optimization of the links between the main actors involved in public health, ie, users, professionals, local socio-political and corporate agents. This paper is aimed to introduce the Social Network Analysis as a method for analyzing, measuring and interpreting those connections. The knowledge of people's relationships (what is called social networks) in the field of public health is becoming increasingly important at an international level. In fact, countries such as UK, Netherlands, Italy, Australia and U.S. are looking formulas to apply this knowledge to their health departments. With this work we show the utility of the ARS on topics related to sustainability of the health system, particularly those related with health habits and social support, topics included in the 2020 health strategies that underline the importance of the collaborative aspects in networks.

  7. Development of a sedation protocol using orally administered tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine in free-roaming dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Chun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yu, Kuan-Hua; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the sedative effects in dogs of tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine (TZA) or ketamine-flunitrazepam (KF) administered orally and to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulated TZA for capturing free-roaming dogs. Experimental study followed by a field trial. Six research dogs and 27 free-roaming dogs. In a pilot study, six research dogs were administered liquid TZA (20 mg kg -1 tiletamine-zolazepam and 2 mg kg -1 acepromazine) or liquid KF (50 mg kg -1 ketamine and 2 mg kg -1 flunitrazepam) orally: treatment 1, forcefully squirting liquid medication into the mouth; treatment 2, encapsulating liquid medication for administration in canned food; treatment 3, administering liquid medication mixed with gravy. Sedation was scored. A follow-up field trial attempted capture of 27 free-roaming dogs. In the pilot study, the median time (range) to lateral recumbency (% dogs) after TZA administration was: treatment 1, 47.5 (35-80) minutes (67%); treatment 2, 30 (15-65) minutes (83%); and treatment 3, 75 (45-110) minutes (100%). No dogs in KF treatment 2 or 3 achieved lateral recumbency. Based on these results, 20 free-roaming dogs were offered encapsulated TZA in canned food: TZ (20 mg kg -1 ) and acepromazine (2 mg kg -1 ). Of these, no further drugs to four dogs (one dog captured), 10 dogs were administered a second dose within 30 minutes (five dogs captured) and six dogs were administered TZ (5 mg kg -1 ) and xylazine (1.1-2.2 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly by blow dart (six dogs captured). Seven dogs were initially offered twice the TZA dose (five dogs captured). In total, 63% free-roaming dogs were captured after administration of encapsulated TZA in canned food. Oral administration of encapsulated TZA in canned dog food can aid in the capture of free-roaming dogs, but additional drugs may be required. The sedation onset time and medication palatability influenced the capture rate. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and

  8. The Relationship Between Use of Social Network Sites, Online Social Support, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Existing work on the effects of social network sites (SNS) on well-being has often stressed that SNS can help people gain social support from their online networks, which positively affects their well-being. However, the majority of studies in this area have been cross-sectional in nature and/or relied on student samples. Using data from six waves of a longitudinal study with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, we first examined whether users and nonusers of SNS differ in online social support and well-being (as indicated by life satisfaction and stress). In a second step, we investigated in more detail how SNS use – more specifically, asking for advice and the number of strong ties on these SNS – are related to online social support, stress, and satisfaction with life. Overall, our results provide no evidence for SNS use and online social support affecting either stress or life satisfaction. SNS users reported more online social support than nonusers did, but also higher levels of stress; the two groups did not differ in overall life satisfaction. With regard to the underlying processes, we found positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between asking for advice on SNS and online social support, indicating that SNS can be an effective tool for receiving social support. However, online social support was not related to higher life satisfaction or reduced stress 6 months later; instead, it seems that SNS users with lower life satisfaction and/or higher stress seek more social support online by asking for advice on SNS. PMID:29147141

  9. Ecological Networks and Community Attachment and Support Among Recently Resettled Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica R; Greene, R Neil; Browning, Christopher R; Shantzek, Cece

    2018-03-25

    Interventions aimed at enhancing mental health are increasingly centered around promoting community attachment and support. However, few have examined and tested the specific ecological factors that give rise to these key community processes. Drawing from insights from the ecological network perspective, we tested whether spatial and social overlap in routine activity settings (e.g., work, school, childcare) with fellow ethnic community members is associated with individuals' attachment to their ethnic communities and access to social resources embedded in their communities. Data on routine activity locations drawn from the Refugee Well-Being Project (based in a city in the Southwestern United States) were used to reconstruct the ecological networks of recently resettled refugee communities, which were two-mode networks that comprise individuals and their routine activity locations. Results indicated that respondents' community attachment and support increased with their ecological network extensity-which taps the extent to which respondents share routine activity locations with other community members. Our study highlights a key ecological process that potentially enhances individuals' ethnic community attachment that extends beyond residential neighborhoods. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  10. Social implications of children's smartphone addiction: The role of support networks and social engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jennifer

    2018-06-05

    Background and aims Most studies have regarded smartphone addiction as a condition stemming from individuals' psychological issues, so research has rarely examined it in relation to a lack of social resources and its social impacts. However, this study reinterprets smartphone addiction as a social problem stemming from a lack of offline social networks and resulting in a decline of social engagement. Methods This study drew on a survey of 2,000 children in Korea consisting of 991 males and 1,009 females with an average age of 12 years old. Using the STATA 14 structural equation modeling program, this study examined the relationships between children's lack of social networks, smartphone addiction, and social engagement. Results Social network variables, such as formal organizational membership, quality of relationship with parents, size of the peer group, and peer support, decrease smartphone addiction. Simply having good relationships and reciprocal feelings with peers do not have any influence on the smartphone addiction. The more the children become addicted to smartphones, the less they participate in social engagement. Discussion and conclusions This study provides a new understanding of smartphone addiction by focusing on its social aspects, augmenting prior studies that have addressed psychological factors. Findings suggest that children's lack of social networks may inhibit comfortable social interactions and feelings of support in the offline environment, which can heighten their desire to escape to smartphones. These children, unlike non-addicts, may not take advantage of the media to enrich their social lives and increase their level of social engagement.

  11. CompareSVM: supervised, Support Vector Machine (SVM) inference of gene regularity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Zeeshan; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rahaman, M D Matiur; Chen, Ming

    2014-11-30

    Predication of gene regularity network (GRN) from expression data is a challenging task. There are many methods that have been developed to address this challenge ranging from supervised to unsupervised methods. Most promising methods are based on support vector machine (SVM). There is a need for comprehensive analysis on prediction accuracy of supervised method SVM using different kernels on different biological experimental conditions and network size. We developed a tool (CompareSVM) based on SVM to compare different kernel methods for inference of GRN. Using CompareSVM, we investigated and evaluated different SVM kernel methods on simulated datasets of microarray of different sizes in detail. The results obtained from CompareSVM showed that accuracy of inference method depends upon the nature of experimental condition and size of the network. For network with nodes (SVM Gaussian kernel outperform on knockout, knockdown, and multifactorial datasets compared to all the other inference methods. For network with large number of nodes (~500), choice of inference method depend upon nature of experimental condition. CompareSVM is available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/CompareSVM/ .

  12. Water demand prediction using artificial neural networks and support vector regression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression Ishmael S. Msiza1, Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo1,2, Tshilidzi Marwala3 . 1Modelling and Digital Science, CSIR, Johannesburg,SOUTH AFRICA 2Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge..., Massachusetts, USA 3School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Email: imsiza@csir.co.za, nelwamon@fas.harvard.edu, tshilidzi.marwala@wits.ac.za Abstract— Computational Intelligence techniques...

  13. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas, Carolina; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, an...

  14. Enhanced Situational Awareness and Decision Support for Operators of Future Distributed Power Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaher, Ammar S. A. E.; Catterson, V. M.; Syed, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes scenarios proposed for a control room decision support system aimed at future power network operators. The purpose is to consider the requirements of the future control room from the perspective of the operator under the conditions of a significant frequency excursion incident....... The control room visualisation and decision support functionality for aiding the operator in restoring the frequency to its target value will be considered. The analysis takes place within the Web-ofCells framework, adopted to deal with power system control through a web of subsystems, called cells, which...

  15. Dynamic Connectivity between Brain Networks Supports Working Memory: Relationships to Dopamine Release and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Snellenberg, Jared X.; Benavides, Caridad; Slifstein, Mark; Wang, Zhishun; Moore, Holly; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2016-01-01

    STATEMENT It is unclear how communication between brain networks responds to changing environmental demands during complex cognitive processes. Also, unknown in regard to these network dynamics is the role of neuromodulators, such as dopamine, and whether their dysregulation could underlie cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric illness. We found that connectivity between brain networks changes with working-memory load and greater increases predict better working memory performance; however, it was not related to capacity for dopamine release in the cortex. Patients with schizophrenia did show dynamic internetwork connectivity; however, this was more weakly associated with successful performance in patients compared with healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that dynamic interactions between brain networks may support the type of flexible adaptations essential to goal-directed behavior. PMID:27076432

  16. Dynamic Connectivity between Brain Networks Supports Working Memory: Relationships to Dopamine Release and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Clifford M; Van Snellenberg, Jared X; Benavides, Caridad; Slifstein, Mark; Wang, Zhishun; Moore, Holly; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Horga, Guillermo

    2016-04-13

    how communication between brain networks responds to changing environmental demands during complex cognitive processes. Also, unknown in regard to these network dynamics is the role of neuromodulators, such as dopamine, and whether their dysregulation could underlie cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric illness. We found that connectivity between brain networks changes with working-memory load and greater increases predict better working memory performance; however, it was not related to capacity for dopamine release in the cortex. Patients with schizophrenia did show dynamic internetwork connectivity; however, this was more weakly associated with successful performance in patients compared with healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that dynamic interactions between brain networks may support the type of flexible adaptations essential to goal-directed behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364378-12$15.00/0.

  17. Competing infant feeding information in mothers' networks: advice that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Lynn, Freda B; Williams, Natalie A; Schafer, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    To identify the social contextual factors, specifically the presence of information that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations, associated with infant feeding behaviours among mothers in low-income areas. Cross-sectional survey evaluating social support networks and social relationships involved in providing care to the infant along with feeding beliefs and practices. Out-patient paediatric and government-funded (Women, Infants, and Children) clinics in an urban, low-income area of the south-eastern USA. Eighty-one low-income mothers of infants between 0 and 12 months old. Most mothers reported receiving both supportive and undermining advice. The presence of breast-feeding advice that supports clinical recommendations was associated with two infant feeding practices that are considered beneficial to infant health: ever breast-feeding (OR=6·7; 95% CI 1·2, 38·1) and not adding cereal in the infant's bottle (OR=15·9; 95% CI 1·1, 227·4). Advice that undermines clinical recommendations to breast-feed and advice about solid foods were not associated with these behaviours. Efforts to facilitate optimal infant feeding practices may focus on increasing information supportive of clinical recommendations while concentrating less on reducing the presence of undermining information within mothers' networks. Cultural norms around breast-feeding may be stronger than the cultural norms around the introduction of solid foods in mothers' social environments; thus, additional efforts to increase information regarding introduction of solid foods earlier in mothers' infant care career may be beneficial.

  18. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  19. Online Academic Networks as Knowledge Brokers: The Mediating Role of Organizational Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mădălina Vătămănescu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Placing online academic networks in the framework of social, cultural and institutional “deterritorialization,” the current paper aims at investigating the functionality of these new forms of transnational and trans-organizational aggregations as knowledge brokers. The emphasis is laid on the influence of human collective intelligence and consistent knowledge flows on research innovation, considering the role of organizational support within higher education systems. In this respect, the research relied on a questionnaire-based survey with 140 academics from European emerging countries, the data collected being processed via a partial least squares structural equation modelling technique. Evidence was brought that, as knowledge brokers, online academic networks are systems aimed to support the access to human collective intelligence and consistent knowledge flows which exert a positive influence on research innovation, both directly and indirectly, by means of formal and informal organizational support. As facilitators of collaborative environments for individuals with specialized knowledge, competence, expertise and experience, online academic networks have set themselves up as an agora for academics worldwide and as an outlet for their acumen and literacy.

  20. Standardization of Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Miyuki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Lebowitz, Adam; Shiratori, Yuki; Doi, Nagafumi; Matsui, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) as a standardized brief inventory measuring various aspects of social support. We confirmed the reliability and validity for function and direction of support and standardized the BISSEN. For Sample 1, a stratified random sampling method was used to select 5200 residents in Japan. We conducted mail surveys and responses were retrieved from 2274 participants (collection rate 43.7%). Participants completed a questionnaire packet that included BISSEN, suicidal ideation, depression, support seeking, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Sample 2 surveys for test-retest reliability were conducted on 23 residents at approximately two-week intervals. Participants were asked about gender, age, and BISSEN. First, we assessed the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct, convergent, and concurrent validity. McDonald's omega (.73-.92) and test-retest correlations (.78-.85) demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Depression, support seeking, and MSPSS were significantly correlated with all scores of BISSEN. The non-suicidal ideation group had significantly more support compared to the suicidal ideation group. Therefore, function and direction of support in BISSEN had sufficient reliability and validity. Next, we standardized BISSEN using Z-scores and percentile rank with respect to each 12 norm groups by age and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: a model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Rosenberg, Jenny; Egbert, Nicole; Ploeger, Nicole A; Bernard, Daniel R; King, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. The Impacts of Network Centrality and Self-Regulation on an E-Learning Environment with the Support of Social Network Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2015-01-01

    An e-learning environment that supports social network awareness (SNA) is a highly effective means of increasing peer interaction and assisting student learning by raising awareness of social and learning contexts of peers. Network centrality profoundly impacts student learning in an SNA-related e-learning environment. Additionally,…

  3. DSSNET, a network of users and developers of decision support systems for emergency response in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, H.C.; Raskob, W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, computerised systems for off-site management and response in case of a nuclear accident were developed and installed in many European countries. Some of the systems are in use in only one country, whereas other systems have found broader application in Europe. Examples of these systems are IMIS (D), ARGOS (DK), running in Denmark, Lithuania and Poland and RODOS, a real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergency management in Europe, which is now installed for operational or test-operational use in many European countries. During the development and installation phases of these decision support systems the necessity emerged, that there is a need for an intensive feedback between developers and users. Therefore, under the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission a network has been installed to intensify the communication and increase the understanding between the operational community and the many and diverse disciplines involved in RD for improvement, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management, called DSSNET. This poster demonstrates how the network is organised, namely with different work groups, exercises and meetings. Each working group addresses one of seven work packages: - Preparation and conduct of exercises (WP1), - User interfaces, results and interaction with decision makers (WP2), - Exchange of data information relevant for decision-making (WP3), System functions, networks and processing of on-line data (WP4), European database (WP5), Coordination of the network (WP6), Hydrological modelling (WP7). Main focus is given to WP4, in which information of on-line monitoring from more than 10 European counties is collected. Information was collated with the help of questionnaires which are send out on a regular basis. The evaluation of the various questionnaires summarises the different systems in use for stack monitoring, retrieving on

  4. The role of remote engagement in supporting boundary chain networks across Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary organizations serve multiple roles in linking science and decision making, including brokering knowledge, supporting local- and cross-level networks, facilitating the co-production of knowledge, and negotiating conflict. Yet they face several challenges in providing services for an ever-increasing number of actors and institutions interested in climate information and adaptation. This study evaluates how the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP innovated its boundary spanning role to improve outcomes by partnering with other boundary organizations through its ongoing climate webinar series. We utilize the concept of boundary chains to investigate outcomes associated with different extended network connections. Our evaluation is based on the analysis three datasets, including interviews (2013 and two web-based questionnaires (2010 and 2013–2015. Findings from the evaluation reveal several ways that remote engagement via the ACCAP webinar series facilitates learning, decision application, and cross-level network building, and overcomes barriers associated with large geographic distances between communities. In an organic evolution and innovation of the climate webinar series, ACCAP partnered with other boundary organizations to establish satellite hub sites to facilitate in-person gatherings at remote locations, thereby increasing the number and diversity of participants served and supporting local networking within organizations, agencies, and communities. Leveraging complementary resources through the satellite hub sites provided mutual benefits for ACCAP and partnering boundary organizations. These findings advance our understanding of the value of remote engagement in supporting boundary spanning processes and how boundary organizations innovate their roles to build capacity and increase the usability of climate information.

  5. A Self-Organizing Spatial Clustering Approach to Support Large-Scale Network RTK Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Shen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The network real-time kinematic (RTK technique can provide centimeter-level real time positioning solutions and play a key role in geo-spatial infrastructure. With ever-increasing popularity, network RTK systems will face issues in the support of large numbers of concurrent users. In the past, high-precision positioning services were oriented towards professionals and only supported a few concurrent users. Currently, precise positioning provides a spatial foundation for artificial intelligence (AI, and countless smart devices (autonomous cars, unmanned aerial-vehicles (UAVs, robotic equipment, etc. require precise positioning services. Therefore, the development of approaches to support large-scale network RTK systems is urgent. In this study, we proposed a self-organizing spatial clustering (SOSC approach which automatically clusters online users to reduce the computational load on the network RTK system server side. The experimental results indicate that both the SOSC algorithm and the grid algorithm can reduce the computational load efficiently, while the SOSC algorithm gives a more elastic and adaptive clustering solution with different datasets. The SOSC algorithm determines the cluster number and the mean distance to cluster center (MDTCC according to the data set, while the grid approaches are all predefined. The side-effects of clustering algorithms on the user side are analyzed with real global navigation satellite system (GNSS data sets. The experimental results indicate that 10 km can be safely used as the cluster radius threshold for the SOSC algorithm without significantly reducing the positioning precision and reliability on the user side.

  6. Maintenance and Logistics Support for the International Monitoring System Network of the CTBTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, F.; Brely, N.; Akrawy, M.

    2007-05-01

    The global network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), once completed, will consist of 321 monitoring facilities of four different technologies: hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasonic, and radionuclide. As of today, about 65% of the installations are completed and contribute data to the products issued by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In order to accomplish the task to reliably collect evidence for any potential nuclear test explosion anywhere on the planet, all stations are required to perform to very high data availability requirements (at least 98% data availability over a 12-month period). To enable reaching this requirement, a three-layer concept has been developed to allow efficient support of the IMS stations: Operations, Maintenance and Logistics, and Engineering. Within this concept Maintenance and Logistics provide second level support of the stations, whereby problems arising at the station are assigned through the IMS ticket system to Maintenance if they cannot be resolved on the Operations level. Maintenance will then activate the required resources to appropriately address and ultimately resolve the problem. These resources may be equipment support contracts, other third party contracts, or the dispatch of a maintenance team. Engineering Support will be activated if the problem requires redesign of the station or after catastrophic failures when a total rebuild of a station may be necessary. In this model, Logistics Support is responsible for parts replenishment and support contract management. Logistics Support also collects and analyzes relevant failure mode and effect information, develops supportability models, and has the responsibility for document management, obsolescence, risk & quality, and configuration management, which are key elements for efficient station support. Maintenance Support in addition is responsible for maintenance strategies, for

  7. Network externalities in telecommunication industry: An analysis of Serbian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with network competition and provides empirical analysis of market concentration, network and call externalities, access pricing, price discrimination and switching costs in Serbian mobile phone telecommunications market. It is shown that network externalities governed the expansion of this market until 2008. Upon entry of VIP incumbents didn't engage in predatory behaviour towards entrant aiming to benefit from locked- in users. The policy of mobile phone number portability reduced on-net prices and substantially increased consumer's surplus. In contrast to some previous research, this policy was pro-competitive in Serbia. We have also determined that users of the network with the largest market share benefit the most from call externalities. Finally, one network does not price discriminate between outgoing and incoming roaming calls, which implies that users of this network have higher level pecuniary externalities in roaming compared to users of price discriminating networks.

  8. A Social Network Perspective on Peer Supported Learning in MOOCs for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Kellogg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent phenomenon in the MOOC space has been the development of courses tailored to educators serving in K-12 settings. MOOCs, particularly as a form of educator professional development, face a number of challenges. Academics, as well as pundits from traditional and new media, have raised a number of concerns about MOOCs, including the lack of instructional and social supports. It is an assumption of this study that challenges arising form this problem of scale can be addressed by leveraging these massive numbers to develop robust online learning communities. This mixed-methods case study addresses critical gaps in the literature and issues of peer support in MOOCs through an examination of the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of peer networks. Findings from this study demonstrate that even with technology as basic as a discussion forum, MOOCs can be leveraged to foster these networks and facilitate peer-supported learning. Although this study was limited to two unique cases along the wide spectrum of MOOCs, the methods applied provide other researchers with an approach for better understanding the dynamic process of peer supported learning in MOOCs.

  9. Understanding the social and community support networks of American Indian women cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Liddell, Jessica; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Hee Yun

    2018-04-02

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and although cancer disparities among AI women are alarming, there is little research focused on the topic of social support and cancer treatment and outcomes. A community advisory board was used to develop and administer the project, and a qualitative descriptive study methodology was used. This research was conducted in partnership with two community-based hospitals in the Northern Plains. The sample included 43 AI female cancer survivors who were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that AI cancer survivors' non-familial support systems included friends (n = 12), support groups (n = 6), churches (n = 10), co-workers (n = 5), communities (n = 4), support from health practitioners (n = 3) and additional forms of support. Results indicate that survivors' networks are diverse, and support broad prevention programs that reach out to churches, community groups, and online forums. These sources of supports can be enhanced through sustainable community-based infrastructures.

  10. The "Tracked Roaming Transect" and distance sampling methods increase the efficiency of underwater visual censuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Underwater visual census (UVC is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments involving UVC techniques may be increased by augmenting the number of replicates or the area surveyed. In this work we present and test the efficiency of an UVC method based on diver towed GPS, the Tracked Roaming Transect (TRT, designed to maximize transect length (and thus the surveyed area with respect to diving time invested in monitoring, as compared to Conventional Strip Transects (CST. Additionally, we analyze the effect of increasing transect width and length on the precision of density estimates by comparing TRT vs. CST methods using different fixed widths of 6 and 20 m (FW3 and FW10, respectively and the Distance Sampling (DS method, in which perpendicular distance of each fish or group of fishes to the transect line is estimated by divers up to 20 m from the transect line. The TRT was 74% more time and cost efficient than the CST (all transect widths considered together and, for a given time, the use of TRT and/or increasing the transect width increased the precision of density estimates. In addition, since with the DS method distances of fishes to the transect line have to be estimated, and not measured directly as in terrestrial environments, errors in estimations of perpendicular distances can seriously affect DS density estimations. To assess the occurrence of distance estimation errors and their dependence on the observer's experience, a field experiment using wooden fish models was performed. We tested the precision and accuracy of density estimators based on fixed widths and the DS method. The accuracy of the estimates was measured comparing the actual

  11. Environmental Impact and Relative Invasiveness of Free-Roaming Domestic Carnivores—a North American Survey of Governmental Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lepe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the United States and Canadian governmental agencies investigated the environmental impact and relative invasiveness of free-roaming domestic non-native carnivores—dogs, cats, and ferrets. Agencies represented wildlife, fish, game, natural or environmental resources, parks and recreation, veterinary and human health, animal control, and agriculture. Respondents were asked to document the number and frequency of sightings of unconfined animals, evidence for environmental harm, and the resulting “degree of concern” in their respective jurisdictions. Results confirmed the existence of feral (breeding cats and dogs, documenting high levels of concern regarding the impact of these animals on both continental and surrounding insular habitats. Except for occasional strays, no free-roaming or feral ferrets were reported; nor were there reports of ferrets impacting native wildlife, including ground-nesting birds, or sensitive species. This is the first study to report the relative impact of free-roaming domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats meet the current definition of “invasive” species, whereas ferrets do not. Differences in how each species impacts the North American environment highlights the complex interaction between non-native species and their environment. Public attitudes and perceptions regarding these species may be a factor in their control and agency management priorities.

  12. A Network Topology Control and Identity Authentication Protocol with Support for Movable Sensor Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming

    2015-12-01

    It is expected that in the near future wireless sensor network (WSNs) will be more widely used in the mobile environment, in applications such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for marine monitoring and mobile robots for environmental investigation. The sensor nodes' mobility can easily cause changes to the structure of a network topology, and lead to the decline in the amount of transmitted data, excessive energy consumption, and lack of security. To solve these problems, a kind of efficient Topology Control algorithm for node Mobility (TCM) is proposed. In the topology construction stage, an efficient clustering algorithm is adopted, which supports sensor node movement. It can ensure the balance of clustering, and reduce the energy consumption. In the topology maintenance stage, the digital signature authentication based on Error Correction Code (ECC) and the communication mechanism of soft handover are adopted. After verifying the legal identity of the mobile nodes, secure communications can be established, and this can increase the amount of data transmitted. Compared to some existing schemes, the proposed scheme has significant advantages regarding network topology stability, amounts of data transferred, lifetime and safety performance of the network.

  13. Role of vision loss, functional limitations and the supporting network in depression in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nispen, Ruth M A; Vreeken, Hilde L; Comijs, Hannie C; Deeg, Dorly J H; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevalence of depression in visually impaired older persons is high, the association between vision loss and depression seems to be influenced by factors other than visual impairment. In this study, the role of vision loss, functional limitations and social network characteristics in relation to depressive symptoms was investigated. Cross-sectional data (N = 1237) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used to investigate the prevalence of depression (Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale) within subgroups with increasing vision loss. In linear regression models, functional limitations and social network characteristics were examined as possible mediators in the association between vision loss and depression. Having a partner was considered to be a potential moderator. Although a significant linear trend was found in the presence of depressive symptoms with 14% in normally sighted, 23% in mild and 37% in severe vision loss (χ(2)(1) = 14.9; p depression. Mediators were functional limitations (p depression, a trend was found with increasing severity of vision loss, indicating the need for more attention in (mental) health care and low-vision rehabilitation. In the general older population, vision loss was not an independent determinant of depression but was mediated by functional limitations and social network size. Rather than receiving actual social support, the idea of having a social network to rely on when needed seemed to be associated with lower levels of depression. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  15. Bidirectional QoS support for novelty detection applications based on hierarchical wireless sensor network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark; Hu, Fei; Kumar, Sunil

    2004-10-01

    The research on the Novelty Detection System (NDS) (called as VENUS) at the authors' universities has generated exciting results. For example, we can detect an abnormal behavior (such as cars thefts from the parking lot) from a series of video frames based on the cognitively motivated theory of habituation. In this paper, we would like to describe the implementation strategies of lower layer protocols for using large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to NDS with Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Wireless data collection framework, consisting of small and low-power sensor nodes, provides an alternative mechanism to observe the physical world, by using various types of sensing capabilities that include images (and even videos using Panoptos), sound and basic physical measurements such as temperature. We do not want to lose any 'data query command' packets (in the downstream direction: sink-to-sensors) or have any bit-errors in them since they are so important to the whole sensor network. In the upstream direction (sensors-to-sink), we may tolerate the loss of some sensing data packets. But the 'interested' sensing flow should be assigned a higher priority in terms of multi-hop path choice, network bandwidth allocation, and sensing data packet generation frequency (we hope to generate more sensing data packet for that novel event in the specified network area). The focus of this paper is to investigate MAC-level Quality of Service (QoS) issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for Novelty Detection applications. Although QoS has been widely studied in other types of networks including wired Internet, general ad hoc networks and mobile cellular networks, we argue that QoS in WSN has its own characteristics. In wired Internet, the main QoS parameters include delay, jitter and bandwidth. In mobile cellular networks, two most common QoS metrics are: handoff call dropping probability and new call blocking probability. Since the main task of WSN is to detect and report

  16. Network and social support in family care of children with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennafort, Viviane Peixoto Dos Santos; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    to understand the influence of network and social support in the care of a child with type 1 diabetes. qualitative study, with assumptions of ethnonursing, conducted in a reference service specialized in the treatment of diabetes, in 2014, in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. Twenty-six members of the family and their respective school children participated in the study. The process of collection and analysis followed the observation-participation-reflection model. the analytical categories showed that the social network in the care of children with diabetes helped sharing of information and experiences, moments of relaxation and aid in the acquisition of supplies for treatment, with positive repercussions in the family context, generating well-being and confidence in the care of children with diabetes. the cultural care provided by nurses strengthens the network and social support because it encourages autonomy in the promotion of the quality of life of children with type 1 diabetes and their families.

  17. T-wave end detection using neural networks and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-León, Alexander Alexeis; Varon, Carolina; Willems, Rik; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vázquez-Seisdedos, Carlos Román

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach for detecting the end of the T-wave in the electrocardiogram (ECG) using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Both, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks and Fixed-Size Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (FS-LSSVM) were used as regression algorithms to determine the end of the T-wave. Different strategies for selecting the training set such as random selection, k-means, robust clustering and maximum quadratic (Rényi) entropy were evaluated. Individual parameters were tuned for each method during training and the results are given for the evaluation set. A comparison between MLP and FS-LSSVM approaches was performed. Finally, a fair comparison of the FS-LSSVM method with other state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting the end of the T-wave was included. The experimental results show that FS-LSSVM approaches are more suitable as regression algorithms than MLP neural networks. Despite the small training sets used, the FS-LSSVM methods outperformed the state-of-the-art techniques. FS-LSSVM can be successfully used as a T-wave end detection algorithm in ECG even with small training set sizes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Innovative Improvement and Intensification of Business Relationships Supported by Cooperative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vančová, Viera; Čambál, Miloš; Cagáňová, Dagmar

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, the opportunity for companies to be involved in cluster initiatives and international business associations is a major factor that contributes to the increase of their innovative potential. Companies organized in technological clusters have greater access to mutual business contacts, faster information transfer and deployment of advanced technologies. These companies cooperate more frequently with universities and research - development institutions on innovative projects. An important benefit of cluster associations is that they create a suitable environment for innovation and the transfer of knowledge by means of international cooperation and networking. This supportive environment is not easy to access for different small and mediumsized companies, who are not members of any clusters or networks. Supplier-customer business channels expand by means of transnational networks and exchanges of experience. Knowledge potential is broadened and joint innovative projects are developed. Reflecting the growing importance of clusters as driving forces of economic and regional development, a number of cluster policies and initiatives have emerged in the last few decades, oriented to encourage the establishment of new clusters, to support existing clusters, or to assist the development of transnational cooperation. To achieve the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy, European countries should have an interest in building strong clusters and developing cluster cooperation by sharing specialized research infrastructures and testing facilities and facilitating knowledge transfer for crossborder cooperation. This requires developing a long term joint strategy in order to facilitate the development of open global clusters and innovative small and medium entrepreneurs.

  19. ‘Living' theory: a pedagogical framework for process support in networked learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa Levy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the broad outcome of an action research project in which practical theory was developed in the field of networked learning through case-study analysis of learners' experiences and critical evaluation of educational practice. It begins by briefly discussing the pedagogical approach adopted for the case-study course and the action research methodology. It then identifies key dimensions of four interconnected developmental processes–orientation, communication, socialisation and organisation–that were associated with ‘learning to learn' in the course's networked environment, and offers a flavour of participants' experiences in relation to these processes. A number of key evaluation issues that arose are highlighted. Finally, the paper presents the broad conceptual framework for the design and facilitation of process support in networked learning that was derived from this research. The framework proposes a strong, explicit focus on support for process as well as domain learning, and progression from tighter to looser design and facilitation structures for process-focused (as well as domain-focused learning tasks.

  20. Family interaction and a supportive social network as salutogenic factors in childhood atopic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per A; Kjellman, N-I Max; Björkstén, Bengt

    2002-02-01

    The role of psycho-social factors in the development of allergy was studied prospectively in 82 infants with a family history of atopy. The family participated in a standardized family test when the children were 18 months old. The ability to adjust to demands of the situation ('adaptability'), and the balance between emotional closeness and distance ('cohesion'), were assessed from videotapes by independent raters. Families rated as functional in both of these aspects were classified as 'functional', otherwise as 'dysfunctional'. The social network, life events, atopic symptoms (based on postal inquiries regarding symptoms answered by the parents, and on physical examinations), psychiatric symptoms, and socio-economic circumstances of the families were evaluated when the children were 18 months and 3 years of age. The children were classified as atopic (asthmatic symptoms or eczema) or as non-atopic. All but two children with atopic disease at 3 years of age had atopic disease before 18 months of age, while 32 of 60 children with atopic disease at 18 months of age had no problems by 3 years of age. An unbalanced family interplay at 18 months was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.99 for continuing atopic illness at 3 years of age (1.18 eczema on three or more localizations (RR reduced by 4.5%), and the amount of cat allergen in household dust (RR reduced by 3%). Recovery from atopic illness between 18 months and 3 years of age was four times as probable in families with functional interaction and a good social supportive network when children were 18 months of age, than in dysfunctional families with a poor social network (74% versus 20% p emotional distress than did healthy children (p = 0.02). Dysfunctional family interaction patterns were more commonly observed in families of children who at 3 years of age still had atopic symptoms, than in children who had recovered. The patterns included expression of emotion and reaction to the needs of others

  1. FRAMEWORK OF TAILORMADE DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND NEURAL NETWORK DRIVER MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya HIROSE, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, tailormade medical treatment is receiving much attention in the field of medical care. It is also desirable for driving support systems to reflect the driving characteristics of individuals as much as possible, begin monitoring the driver when a driver starts driving and calculates the driver model, and supports them with a model that makes the driver feel quite normal. That is the construction of Tailormade Driving Support Systems (TDSS. This research proposes a concept and a framework of TDSS, and presents a driver model that uses a neural network to build the system. As for the feasibility of this system, the research selects braking as a typical constituent element, and illustrates and reviews the results of experiments and simulations.

  2. Childhood adversity, social support networks and well-being among youth aging out of care: An exploratory study of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P

    2017-10-01

    The goals of the present study are to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and adult well-being among vulnerable young adults formerly placed in substitute care, and to investigate how characteristics of their social support networks mediate this association. A sample of 345 Israeli young adults (ages 18-25), who had aged out of foster or residential care, responded to standardized self-report questionnaires tapping their social support network characteristics (e.g., network size or adequacy) vis-à-vis several types of social support (emotional, practical, information and guidance), experiences of childhood adversity, and measures of well-being (psychological distress, loneliness, and life satisfaction). Structural equation modelling (SEM) provided support for the mediating role of social support in the relationship between early adversity and adult well-being. Although network size, frequency of contact with its members, satisfaction with support, and network adequacy, were all negatively related to early adversity, only network adequacy showed a major and consistent contribution to the various measures of well-being. While patterns were similar across the types of support, the effects of practical and guidance support were most substantial. The findings suggest that the detrimental long-term consequences of early adversity on adult well-being are related not only to impaired structural aspects of support (e.g., network size), but also to a decreased ability to recognize available support and mobilize it. Practical and guidance support, more than emotional support, seem to be of critical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wavelength detection in FBG sensor networks using least squares support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Tundong; Fu, Xiaoli

    2014-04-01

    A wavelength detection method for a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network is proposed based on least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). As a kind of promising machine learning technique, LS-SVR is employed to approximate the inverse function of the reflection spectrum. The LS-SVR detection model is established from the training samples, and then the Bragg wavelength of each FBG can be directly identified by inputting the measured spectrum into the well-trained model. We also discuss the impact of the sample size and the preprocess of the input spectrum on the performance of the training effectiveness. The results demonstrate that our approach is effective in improving the accuracy for sensor networks with a large number of FBGs.

  4. Support Networks among micro entrepreneurial women: comparison between Bangladesh, India and the Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Sato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.

  5. A conceptual methodology to design a decision support system to leak detection programs in water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Federico, V.; Bottarelli, M.; Di Federico, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines a conceptual methodology to develop a decision support system to assist technicians managing water networks in selecting the appropriate leak detection method(s). First, the necessary knowledge about the network is recapitulated: location and characteristics of its physical components, but also water demand, breaks in pipes, and water quality data. Second, the water balance in a typical Italian Agency is discussed, suggesting method and procedures to evacuate and/or estimate each term in the mass balance equation. Then the available methods for leak detection are described in detail, from those useful in the pre-localization phase to those commonly adopted to pinpoint pipe failures and allow a rapid repair. Criteria to estimate costs associated with each of these methods are provided. Finally, the proposed structure of the DSS is described [it

  6. The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S

    2016-12-30

    This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germinal J Cantó

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53% cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30% cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23% cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45% cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13% with nematodes, 145 (40% with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05. The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094.

  8. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  9. Realistic 3D Terrain Roaming and Real-Time Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Xiang; Liu, Gang; He, Zhenwen; Qi, Guang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an integrate method, which can provide access to current status and the dynamic visible scanning topography, to enhance the interactive during the terrain roaming and real-time flight simulation. A digital elevation model and digital ortho-photo map data integrated algorithm is proposed as the base algorithm for our approach to build a realistic 3D terrain scene. A new technique with help of render to texture and head of display for generating the navigation pane is used. In the flight simulating, in order to eliminate flying "jump", we employs the multidimensional linear interpolation method to adjust the camera parameters dynamically and steadily. Meanwhile, based on the principle of scanning laser imaging, we draw pseudo color figures by scanning topography in different directions according to the real-time flying status. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is prospective for applications and the method can improve the effect and enhance dynamic interaction during the real-time flight.

  10. Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Free-Roaming Dogs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwicha Kasemsuwan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As part of the ongoing endeavor to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies in Thailand, renewed interest has been shown in oral vaccination of dogs as a supplementary tool to increase vaccination coverage of the dog population. (2 Methods: Three different bait types were tested using a hand-out model on the campus of the Kasetsart University and the surrounding temples in Thailand during September 2017, consisting of two industrial manufactured baits (fish meal and egg-flavored and one bait made from local material (boiled pig intestine placed in collagen casing. A PVC-capsule containing dyed water was inserted in the bait. (3 Results: The fishmeal bait was significantly less often accepted and consumed (50.29% than the other two baits (intestine bait—79.19%; egg bait—78.77%. Delivery and release of the dyed water in the oral cavity was highest in the egg-flavored bait (84.50%, followed by the intestine bait (76.61% and fishmeal (54.85% baits. Bait acceptance was influenced by sex, age, and body size of the dog. Also, the origin of the dogs had a significant effect: temple dogs accepted the baits more often than street dogs. (4 Conclusion: A significant portion of the free-roaming dog population in this study can be vaccinated by offering vaccine baits.

  11. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van Leeuwen, J P; Hendriks, W H; van der Poel, A F B

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were described taxonomically, and analyzed for crude protein content as well as fatty acid content and composition. Most of the dry matter intake was in the form of animal material (61%) stemming from nine arthropod orders. The most abundant were alates of the termite Drepanotermes sp., accounting for 95% of the total number of prey items and more than half of the total dry matter (DM) intake. Plant material contributed 16% of the total DM intake. The diets were high in crude protein (41-50% DM) and the total fatty acid content was 14-27% of the DM intake. The main fatty acid was C18:1n9c (51-56% of total fatty acids), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 and n6) comprised 6-8% of the total fat intake. Our data suggest that P. vitticeps is an opportunistic predator, which exploits the seasonal availability of prey. Based on our data and other studies, a diet consisting of several insect species, supplemented with leafy vegetables, rich in n3 FA's, would best resemble the expected natural diet of P. vitticeps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Social networks and support in first episode psychosis: exploring the role of loneliness and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Oliver; Onwumere, Juliana; Kane, Fergus; Morgan, Craig; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate social support and network features in people with first episode psychosis, and to examine anxiety as a possible mediator between loneliness and a rating of paranoia. METHOD Thirty eight people with first-episode psychosis were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Self report questionnaires and structured interviews assessed symptoms, functioning, and qualitative social network and support features. A mood-induction task involved watching anxiety-inducing pictures on a computer screen. Visual analogue scales assessed changes in paranoia, anxiety and loneliness and a mediation analysis was conducted. RESULTS One third of the sample (34%) had no confidant (95% CI 18.4%, 50.0%). The average number of weekly contacts was 3.9, with 2.6 lonely days. Poor perceived social support, loneliness and the absence of a confidant were strongly associated with psychosis and depressive symptoms (.35loneliness and paranoia was mediated through anxiety (ab=.43, z=3.5; pAnxiety may be one pathway through which loneliness affects psychosis. Interventions which focus on this are indicated. PMID:23955376

  13. Social networks and support in first-episode psychosis: exploring the role of loneliness and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Oliver; Onwumere, Juliana; Kane, Fergus; Morgan, Craig; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    To investigate social support and network features in people with first-episode psychosis, and to examine anxiety as a possible mediator between loneliness and a rating of paranoia. Thirty-eight people with first-episode psychosis were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaires and structured interviews assessed symptoms, functioning, and qualitative social network and support features. A mood-induction task involved watching anxiety-inducing pictures on a computer screen. Visual analogue scales assessed changes in paranoia, anxiety and loneliness and a mediation analysis was conducted. One-third of the sample (34%) had no confidant [95% CI (18.4, 50.0%)]. The average number of weekly contacts was 3.9, with 2.6 lonely days. Poor perceived social support, loneliness and the absence of a confidant were strongly associated with psychosis and depressive symptoms (0.35 loneliness and paranoia was mediated through anxiety (ab = 0.43, z = 3.5; p Anxiety may be one pathway through which loneliness affects psychosis. Interventions which focus on this are indicated.

  14. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.

  15. An IEEE 802.11 EDCA Model with Support for Analysing Networks with Misbehaving Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szott Szymon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel model of IEEE 802.11 EDCA with support for analysing networks with misbehaving nodes. In particular, we consider backoff misbehaviour. Firstly, we verify the model by extensive simulation analysis and by comparing it to three other IEEE 802.11 models. The results show that our model behaves satisfactorily and outperforms other widely acknowledged models. Secondly, a comparison with simulation results in several scenarios with misbehaving nodes proves that our model performs correctly for these scenarios. The proposed model can, therefore, be considered as an original contribution to the area of EDCA models and backoff misbehaviour.

  16. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  17. How do students from Student Incubators (SI) use networks and how can SI support the activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Student Entrepreneur’s (SE) use of networks as part of their activities in a Student Incubator (SI). Recommendations are made as to how SI can create activities to support students' use of internal and external relationships and discusses the paradox between running a learning...... in an entrepreneurial context. Often the increasing attention to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial processes will probably emphasise growth and development environments (e.g. SIs) at educational institutions. An aspect which is currently not given much attention but which have considerable influence on both learning...

  18. Social networks, work and network-based resources for the management of long-term conditions: a framework and study protocol for developing self-care support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadia Dharmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Methods Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT, and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE approach to self-care support. Discussion The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.

  19. Offline Social Relationships and Online Cancer Communication: Effects of Social and Family Support on Online Social Network Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.

  20. Lean on me? The influence of parental separation and divorce on children’s support networks in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Dronkers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 14-year old children in four European countries, this study compares the support networks of children in intact and separated families. It is found that a parental separation has significant effects on the nature of these networks. Children of separated parents are less likely to

  1. Predictors of change in social networks, support and satisfaction following a first episode psychosis: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Owens, Liz; Lyne, John; O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Drennan, Jonathan; Sheridan, Ann; Pilling, Mark; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Diminished social networks are common in psychosis but few studies have measured these comprehensively and prospectively to determine how networks and support evolve during the early phase. There is little information regarding perceived support in the early phase of illness. The aim of this study was to describe social support, networks and perceived satisfaction, explore the clinical correlates of these outcomes and examine whether phases of untreated psychosis are linked with social network variables to determine potential opportunities for intervention. During the study period, we assessed 222 people with first-episode psychosis at entry into treatment using valid and reliable measures of diagnosis, positive and negative symptoms, periods of untreated psychosis and prodrome and premorbid adjustment. For follow-up we contacted participants to conduct a second assessment (n=158). There were 97 people who participated which represented 61% of those eligible. Social network and support information obtained at both time points included the number of friends, self-reported satisfaction with support and social network size and clinician's evaluation of the degree of support received through networks. Mixed effects modelling determined the contribution of potential explanatory variables to social support measured. A number of clinical variables were linked with social networks, support and perceived support and satisfaction. The size of networks did not change over time but those with no friends and duration of untreated psychosis was significantly longer for those with no friends at entry into treatment (n=129, Median=24.5mths, IQR=7.25-69.25; Mann-Whitney U=11.78, p=0.008). Social support at baseline and at one year was predicted by homelessness (t=-2.98, p=0.001, CI -4.74 to -1.21), duration of untreated psychosis (t=-0.86, p=0.031, CI -1.65 to -0.08) and premorbid adjustment (t=-2.26, p=0.017, CI -4.11 to -0.42). Social support improved over time but the duration

  2. Social support network characteristics of incarcerated women with co-occurring major depressive and substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually-diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women’s social networks, including the strength of support, network characterist...

  3. Electrocardiogram Pattern Recognition and Analysis Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sansone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems for Electrocardiogram (ECG analysis support the clinician in tedious tasks (e.g., Holter ECG monitored in Intensive Care Units or in prompt detection of dangerous events (e.g., ventricular fibrillation. Together with clinical applications (arrhythmia detection and heart rate variability analysis, ECG is currently being investigated in biometrics (human identification, an emerging area receiving increasing attention. Methodologies for clinical applications can have both differences and similarities with respect to biometrics. This paper reviews methods of ECG processing from a pattern recognition perspective. In particular, we focus on features commonly used for heartbeat classification. Considering the vast literature in the field and the limited space of this review, we dedicated a detailed discussion only to a few classifiers (Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines because of their popularity; however, other techniques such as Hidden Markov Models and Kalman Filtering will be also mentioned.

  4. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  5. Winrock International's Renewable Energy Support Office (REPSO) network: success stories and lessons learned from the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azurdia-Bravo, I.; Panggabean, L.M.; Pereira, O.S.; Ramana, V.V.; Santibanez-Yeneza, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Winrock International's Clean Energy Group (CEG) is dedicated to the increased use of environmentally sustainable renewable energy technologies in a manner that enhances economic development. One specific objective of the CEG is to reduce the relative risks associated with investing in such technology options and to facilitate their widespread commercialization and use. A key component of the CEG's approach has been to establish a network of Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs) in those developing countries with the greatest current and projected growth in demand for electricity and related energy services. Through these locally staffed REPSOs, Winrock has built on-the-ground capacity in renewable energy, accelerated scale-up and commercialization of renewable energy technologies, improved access to rural energy services, and facilitated industry linkages. To date, the consortium of the CEG, the REPSO network, and all Winrock's private and public partners have facilitated the installation of more than 500 MW of on-grid capacity, roughly 7,000 off-grid systems, mobilized at least 50 businesses or joint ventures, and leveraged over 1 billion US dollars in clean energy financing. The following paper shares some of the major lessons learned in the institutional and technical capacity building of the REPSO network and in the projects and activities it has implemented. This paper presents recent noteworthy REPSO successes and results, and also describes Winrock and the REPSOs goals for the new Millennium. (author)

  6. Ontology: A Support Structure for a V-Labs Network: Euronet-Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Cordeiro Correia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our propose is to build a network of virtual laboratories, based in a Virtual Closet that will contain all the elements and parts that are needed to build the various experiences available in a v-labs network (that we call Euronet-Lab. To build this complex network we need to find a system that supports effectively this structure. This probably will be a enormous database of v-labs and independent elements, where will be possible sometimes to “recycle” some of the elements. This means “re-use” the same element several times in many experiences. To do this is necessary to have a structure that allows us to have several instances of the same element. It’s important that in our structure and virtual environment we can create several “images” of the same reality and this images can be used simultaneously in different circuits/experiments. This means that we can create several instances of the same element, to be used in different experiences and exercises.

  7. Automated and comprehensive link engineering supporting branched, ring, and mesh network topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, J.; Khomchenko, D.; Yevseyenko, D.; Meester, J.; Richter, A.

    2016-02-01

    Link design, while relatively easy in the past, can become quite cumbersome with complex channel plans and equipment configurations. The task of designing optical transport systems and selecting equipment is often performed by an applications or sales engineer using simple tools, such as custom Excel spreadsheets. Eventually, every individual has their own version of the spreadsheet as well as their own methodology for building the network. This approach becomes unmanageable very quickly and leads to mistakes, bending of the engineering rules and installations that do not perform as expected. We demonstrate a comprehensive planning environment, which offers an efficient approach to unify, control and expedite the design process by controlling libraries of equipment and engineering methodologies, automating the process and providing the analysis tools necessary to predict system performance throughout the system and for all channels. In addition to the placement of EDFAs and DCEs, performance analysis metrics are provided at every step of the way. Metrics that can be tracked include power, CD and OSNR, SPM, XPM, FWM and SBS. Automated routine steps assist in design aspects such as equalization, padding and gain setting for EDFAs, the placement of ROADMs and transceivers, and creating regeneration points. DWDM networks consisting of a large number of nodes and repeater huts, interconnected in linear, branched, mesh and ring network topologies, can be designed much faster when compared with conventional design methods. Using flexible templates for all major optical components, our technology-agnostic planning approach supports the constant advances in optical communications.

  8. Ontology-supported research on vaccine efficacy, safety and integrative biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun

    2014-07-01

    While vaccine efficacy and safety research has dramatically progressed with the methods of in silico prediction and data mining, many challenges still exist. A formal ontology is a human- and computer-interpretable set of terms and relations that represent entities in a specific domain and how these terms relate to each other. Several community-based ontologies (including Vaccine Ontology, Ontology of Adverse Events and Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events) have been developed to support vaccine and adverse event representation, classification, data integration, literature mining of host-vaccine interaction networks, and analysis of vaccine adverse events. The author further proposes minimal vaccine information standards and their ontology representations, ontology-based linked open vaccine data and meta-analysis, an integrative One Network ('OneNet') Theory of Life, and ontology-based approaches to study and apply the OneNet theory. In the Big Data era, these proposed strategies provide a novel framework for advanced data integration and analysis of fundamental biological networks including vaccine immune mechanisms.

  9. A telemedicine network to support paediatric care in small hospitals in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Carsten; Niemi, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with the Tanzanian Telemedicine Network in supporting paediatric care at 40 small, rural hospitals in the country. The network began operating in 2008. Store and forward telemedicine was provided via the open source software iPath. The 33 volunteer consultants were based in several countries, although most of them had practical experience in Tanzania. During the first three years of network operation there were 533 referrals. There were 159 paediatric cases (median age five years). Three paediatric specialists provided most consultations (64%), but other specialists provided recommendations when required. The response time was usually less than two days (median 6 h; inter-quartile range 2-24 h). A precise recommendation was not always provided, but since all consultants had an intimate knowledge of the state of health services in Tanzania, their advice was usually well adapted to the local circumstances of the hospitals. Referral to a higher level of care was recommended in 26 cases (16%). A simple web-based telemedicine system combined with email alerts is feasible in remote locations in Tanzania, even where fast Internet connections are not available. Copyright © 2012 by the Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd

  10. Bioinformatic Integration of Molecular Networks and Major Pathways Involved in Mice Cochlear and Vestibular Supporting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Teresa; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2018-01-01

    Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear.org/index.html) and obtained gene expression fold-change between ENHCs and non-epithelial cells (NECs) against HCs for each gene. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) with a log2 fold change between 1 and -1 were discarded. The remaining genes were selected to search for interactions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING platform. Specific molecular networks for ENHCs in the cochlea and the vestibular organs were generated and significant pathways were identified. Results : Between 1723 and 1559 DEG were found in the mouse cochlear and vestibular tissues, respectively. Six main pathways showed enrichment in the supporting cells in both tissues: (1) "Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteases"; (2) "Calcium Transport I"; (3) "Calcium Signaling"; (4) "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling"; (5) "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases"; and (6) "Axonal Guidance Si". In the mouse cochlea, ENHCs showed a significant enrichment in 18 pathways highlighting "axonal guidance signaling (AGS)" ( p = 4.37 × 10 -8 ) and "RhoGDI Signaling" ( p = 3.31 × 10 -8 ). In the vestibular dataset, there were 20 enriched pathways in ENHCs, the most significant being "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling" ( p = 8.71 × 10 -6 ), "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ) and "Calcium Signaling" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ). Among the top ranked networks, the most biologically significant network contained the

  11. Support vector machine classification and characterization of age-related reorganization of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Desphande, Alok S; Vergun, Svyatoslav; Nair, Veena A; Song, Jie; Biswal, Bharat B; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2012-03-01

    Most of what is known about the reorganization of functional brain networks that accompanies normal aging is based on neuroimaging studies in which participants perform specific tasks. In these studies, reorganization is defined by the differences in task activation between young and old adults. However, task activation differences could be the result of differences in task performance, strategy, or motivation, and not necessarily reflect reorganization. Resting-state fMRI provides a method of investigating functional brain networks without such confounds. Here, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used in an attempt to differentiate older adults from younger adults based on their resting-state functional connectivity. In addition, the information used by the SVM was investigated to see what functional connections best differentiated younger adult brains from older adult brains. Three separate resting-state scans from 26 younger adults (18-35 yrs) and 26 older adults (55-85) were obtained from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) dataset made publically available in the 1000 Functional Connectomes project www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000. 100 seed-regions from four functional networks with 5mm(3) radius were defined based on a recent study using machine learning classifiers on adolescent brains. Time-series for every seed-region were averaged and three matrices of z-transformed correlation coefficients were created for each subject corresponding to each individual's three resting-state scans. SVM was then applied using leave-one-out cross-validation. The SVM classifier was 84% accurate in classifying older and younger adult brains. The majority of the connections used by the classifier to distinguish subjects by age came from seed-regions belonging to the sensorimotor and cingulo-opercular networks. These results suggest that age-related decreases in positive correlations within the cingulo-opercular and default networks, and decreases in

  12. Self-supported supercapacitor membrane through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yueping; Liu, Jianwei; Li, Jun

    2010-08-01

    We report on a study on the development of a self-supported membrane of carbon nanotube (CNT) mixed with MnO2 nanowires as supercapacitors. Both single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) have been explored to serve as the electrically conductive networks to connect redox active MnO2 nanowires. High-quality alpha-MnO2 nanowires were synthesized using bulk alpha-MnO2 crystals as the precursor by a facile hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared alpha-MnO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray and electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Supercapacitor membranes were prepared by filtration of mixture solutions of MnO2 nanowires and CNTs at various ratios, forming entangled networks which are self-supported and directly used as supercapacitor electrodes without binders or backing metals. Cyclic voltammetry at various scan rates and charge--discharging measurements are used to characterize the supercapacitance of the CNT-MnO2 nanowire membranes. The specific capacitance has been found to be increased by several times over that of pure CNT membranes after incorporation of MnO2 nanowires.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS BY NEURAL NETWORKS, DECISION TREES AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial intentions of students are important to recognize during the study in order to provide those students with educational background that will support such intentions and lead them to successful entrepreneurship after the study. The paper aims to develop a model that will classify students according to their entrepreneurial intentions by benchmarking three machine learning classifiers: neural networks, decision trees, and support vector machines. A survey was conducted at a Croatian university including a sample of students at the first year of study. Input variables described students’ demographics, importance of business objectives, perception of entrepreneurial carrier, and entrepreneurial predispositions. Due to a large dimension of input space, a feature selection method was used in the pre-processing stage. For comparison reasons, all tested models were validated on the same out-of-sample dataset, and a cross-validation procedure for testing generalization ability of the models was conducted. The models were compared according to its classification accuracy, as well according to input variable importance. The results show that although the best neural network model produced the highest average hit rate, the difference in performance is not statistically significant. All three models also extract similar set of features relevant for classifying students, which can be suggested to be taken into consideration by universities while designing their academic programs.

  14. Improved Clinical Efficacy with Wound Support Network Between Hospital and Home Care Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Tone Kristin; Storheim, Elisabeth; Gundersen, Stina; Kleven, Linn; Johnson, Maria; Sandvik, Leiv; Kvaerner, Kari Jorunn; Ørjasæter, Nils-Otto

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a wound support network model between the primary home care service and the hospital. The impact on wound healing rate, cost benefit, and transfer of knowledge was investigated. The intervention group was exposed to a wound support network (n = 32), and the control group continued standard organization of treatment (n = 21). Nonrandomized controlled study; observations were made before (baseline) and after the implementation of the intervention (12 weeks). Patients with chronic wounds (lasting >6 weeks and with wound area >1 cm) in Oslo, Norway. Closure of the observation wound; wound size; total number of wounds; presence of eczema, edema, and pain; number of dressings per week; time spent per dressing; and number of control appointments at the hospital. The economic impact is calculated for the hospital and for the community of Oslo, Norway. The number of control appointments (t = 3.80, P home care service and the hospital is cost-effective, improves clinical efficacy of the home care services' work, and reduces the need for consultations at the hospital.

  15. Artificial neural network to support thermohydraulic design optimization for an advanced nuclear heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Linda, Ondrej; Manic, Milos

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading a number of initiatives, including one known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. One of the NGNP nuclear system concepts is the Very High Temperature (gas-cooled) Reactor (VHTR) that may be coupled to a hydrogen generating plant to support the anticipated hydrogen economy. For the NGNP, an efficient power conversion system using an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) is key to electricity and/or process heat generation (hydrogen production). Ideally, it's desirable for the IHX to be compact and thermally efficient. However, traditional heat exchanger design practices do not assure that the design parameters are optimized. As part of NGNP heat exchanger design and optimization project, this research paper thus proposes developing a recurrent-type Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Hopfield Network (HN) model, in which the activation function is modified, as a design optimization approach to support a NGNP thermal system candidate, the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Four quadratic functions, available in literature, were used to test the presented methodology. The results computed by an artificially intelligent approach were compared to another approach, the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the HN results are close to GA in optimization of multi-variable second-order equations. (author)

  16. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  17. Social Network Analysis as a Methodological Approach to Explore Health Systems: A Case Study Exploring Support among Senior Managers/Executives in a Hospital Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2018-03-13

    Health systems research recognizes the complexity of healthcare, and the interacting and interdependent nature of components of a health system. To better understand such systems, innovative methods are required to depict and analyze their structures. This paper describes social network analysis as a methodology to depict, diagnose, and evaluate health systems and networks therein. Social network analysis is a set of techniques to map, measure, and analyze social relationships between people, teams, and organizations. Through use of a case study exploring support relationships among senior managers in a newly established hospital group, this paper illustrates some of the commonly used network- and node-level metrics in social network analysis, and demonstrates the value of these maps and metrics to understand systems. Network analysis offers a valuable approach to health systems and services researchers as it offers a means to depict activity relevant to network questions of interest, to identify opinion leaders, influencers, clusters in the network, and those individuals serving as bridgers across clusters. The strengths and limitations inherent in the method are discussed, and the applications of social network analysis in health services research are explored.

  18. Social Network Analysis as a Methodological Approach to Explore Health Systems: A Case Study Exploring Support among Senior Managers/Executives in a Hospital Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife De Brún

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Health systems research recognizes the complexity of healthcare, and the interacting and interdependent nature of components of a health system. To better understand such systems, innovative methods are required to depict and analyze their structures. This paper describes social network analysis as a methodology to depict, diagnose, and evaluate health systems and networks therein. Social network analysis is a set of techniques to map, measure, and analyze social relationships between people, teams, and organizations. Through use of a case study exploring support relationships among senior managers in a newly established hospital group, this paper illustrates some of the commonly used network- and node-level metrics in social network analysis, and demonstrates the value of these maps and metrics to understand systems. Network analysis offers a valuable approach to health systems and services researchers as it offers a means to depict activity relevant to network questions of interest, to identify opinion leaders, influencers, clusters in the network, and those individuals serving as bridgers across clusters. The strengths and limitations inherent in the method are discussed, and the applications of social network analysis in health services research are explored.

  19. Friendship networks of inner-city adults: a latent class analysis and multi-level regression of supporter types and the association of supporter latent class membership with supporter and recipient drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S B; German, Danielle; Knowlton, Amy R; Latkin, Carl A

    2010-03-01

    Social support is a multi-dimensional construct that is important to drug use cessation. The present study identified types of supportive friends among the social network members in a community-based sample and examined the relationship of supporter-type classes with supporter, recipient, and supporter-recipient relationship characteristics. We hypothesized that the most supportive network members and their support recipients would be less likely to be current heroin/cocaine users. Participants (n=1453) were recruited from low-income neighborhoods with a high prevalence of drug use. Participants identified their friends via a network inventory, and all nominated friends were included in a latent class analysis and grouped based on their probability of providing seven types of support. These latent classes were included as the dependent variable in a multi-level regression of supporter drug use, recipient drug use, and other characteristics. The best-fitting latent class model identified five support patterns: friends who provided Little/No Support, Low/Moderate Support, High Support, Socialization Support, and Financial Support. In bivariate models, friends in the High, Low/Moderate, and Financial Support were less likely to use heroin or cocaine and had less conflict with and were more trusted by the support recipient than friends in the Low/No Support class. Individuals with supporters in those same support classes compared to the Low/No Support class were less likely to use heroin or cocaine, or to be homeless or female. Multivariable models suggested similar trends. Those with current heroin/cocaine use were less likely to provide or receive comprehensive support from friends. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima; Loques, Orlando Filho; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences

  1. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima, E-mail: edhyly@ic.uff.br; Loques, Orlando Filho [Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences.

  2. Social support networks and depression of women suffering from early-stage breast cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Cristina; Vespa, Anna; Papa, Roberta; Mariotti, Carlo; Cascinu, Stefano; Rossini, Simonetta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of depression, anxiety, and social support using the structural model of the social network. By comparing the networks of two samples of breast cancer sufferers and healthy control participants, it was possible to identify differences in their relationships, in the shape of the networks themselves, and in the levels of depression and anxiety. Women with breast cancer described smaller and denser networks, including mainly kins whereas the healthy women included more friends, coworkers, and leisure companions. The levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women with breast cancer. Social network and social support measure correlated differently with depression and anxiety in the two groups.

  3. A low-cost multichannel wireless neural stimulation system for freely roaming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Objectives. Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural activity are the basis of many therapies and neural prostheses. Conventional stimulation systems have a number of practical limitations, especially in experiments involving freely roaming subjects. Our main objective was to develop a modular, versatile and inexpensive multichannel wireless system able to overcome some of these constraints. Approach. We have designed and implemented a new multichannel wireless neural stimulator based on commercial components. The system is small (2 cm × 4 cm × 0.5 cm) and light in weight (9 g) which allows it to be easily carried in a small backpack. To test and validate the performance and reliability of the whole system we conducted several bench tests and in vivo experiments. Main results. The performance and accuracy of the stimulator were comparable to commercial threaded systems. Stimulation sequences can be constructed on-the-fly with 251 selectable current levels (from 0 to 250 µA) with 1 µA step resolution. The pulse widths and intervals can be as long as 65 ms in 2 µs time resolution. The system covers approximately 10 m of transmission range in a regular laboratory environment and 100 m in free space (line of sight). Furthermore it provides great flexibility for experiments since it allows full control of the stimulator and the stimulation parameters in real time. When there is no stimulation, the device automatically goes into low-power sleep mode to preserve battery power. Significance. We introduce the design of a powerful multichannel wireless stimulator assembled from commercial components. Key features of the system are their reliability, robustness and small size. The system has a flexible design that can be modified straightforwardly to tailor it to any specific experimental need. Furthermore it can be effortlessly adapted for use with any kind of multielectrode arrays.

  4. Real-time distributed scheduling algorithm for supporting QoS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Anthony C.; Siu, Kai-Yeung

    1998-10-01

    Most existing or proposed WDM networks employ circuit switching, typically with one session having exclusive use of one entire wavelength. Consequently they are not suitable for data applications involving bursty traffic patterns. The MIT AON Consortium has developed an all-optical LAN/MAN testbed which provides time-slotted WDM service and employs fast-tunable transceivers in each optical terminal. In this paper, we explore extensions of this service to achieve fine-grained statistical multiplexing with different virtual circuits time-sharing the wavelengths in a fair manner. In particular, we develop a real-time distributed protocol for best-effort traffic over this time-slotted WDM service with near-optical fairness and throughput characteristics. As an additional design feature, our protocol supports the allocation of guaranteed bandwidths to selected connections. This feature acts as a first step towards supporting integrated services and quality-of-service guarantees over WDM networks. To achieve high throughput, our approach is based on scheduling transmissions, as opposed to collision- based schemes. Our distributed protocol involves one MAN scheduler and several LAN schedulers (one per LAN) in a master-slave arrangement. Because of propagation delays and limits on control channel capacities, all schedulers are designed to work with partial, delayed traffic information. Our distributed protocol is of the `greedy' type to ensure fast execution in real-time in response to dynamic traffic changes. It employs a hybrid form of rate and credit control for resource allocation. We have performed extensive simulations, which show that our protocol allocates resources (transmitters, receivers, wavelengths) fairly with high throughput, and supports bandwidth guarantees.

  5. A dynamic Bayesian network based approach to safety decision support in tunnel construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Huitao; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.; Deng, Qianli; Teng, Jiaying

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic decision approach with step-by-step procedures based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), aiming to provide guidelines for dynamic safety analysis of the tunnel-induced road surface damage over time. The proposed DBN-based approach can accurately illustrate the dynamic and updated feature of geological, design and mechanical variables as the construction progress evolves, in order to overcome deficiencies of traditional fault analysis methods. Adopting the predictive, sensitivity and diagnostic analysis techniques in the DBN inference, this approach is able to perform feed-forward, concurrent and back-forward control respectively on a quantitative basis, and provide real-time support before and after an accident. A case study in relating to dynamic safety analysis in the construction of Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is used to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach, as well as its application potential. The relationships between the DBN-based and BN-based approaches are further discussed according to analysis results. The proposed approach can be used as a decision tool to provide support for safety analysis in tunnel construction, and thus increase the likelihood of a successful project in a dynamic project environment. - Highlights: • A dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) based approach for safety decision support is developed. • This approach is able to perform feed-forward, concurrent and back-forward analysis and control. • A case concerning dynamic safety analysis in Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is presented. • DBN-based approach can perform a higher accuracy than traditional static BN-based approach

  6. An intelligent operator support system for dynamic positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Broek, J. van den; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Waa, J.S. van der

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a human-centered approach to Dynamic Position-ing systems which combines multiple technologies in an intelligent operator sup-port system (IOSS). IOSS allows the operator to be roaming and do other tasks in quiet conditions. When conditions become more demanding, the IOSS calls

  7. Free-roaming dogs control activities in one Italian province (2000-2013: Is the implemented approach effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, standards for the management of free-roaming dogs (FRDs are defined by regional norms, generating a high variability of approaches around the country. Despite efforts carried out by the competent authorities, FRDs are still a reality impacting upon animal health and welfare and public costs. A similar scenario can be found in many other Mediterranean and Balkan counties. Here we present 14 years of data (2000–2013 retrieved from the admission dog registry of a public shelter (PS responsible for the collection of stray dogs from one Italian province. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the local FRD population, identifying its source and to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions implemented by the local authorities. In the investigated period, 7,475 dogs were admitted to the PS. Despite the intense sterilisation plan (mean 381.7 sterilisations per year, the overall number of dogs entering PS did not decrease consistently across the years. Results highlighted a lack of responsibility of owners by failing to sterilise and identify their dogs and allowing intact animals to roam free, therefore producing uncontrolled and unwanted litters. The current dog population management strategy, based on both sheltering and capture-neuter-release programmes, is insufficient to tackle the straying phenomenon. Educational and sterilisation programmes should be an integral part of a successfully implemented FRD control plan. Our results provide further insight on free-roaming dog population dynamics and control systems, and may have important implications for many other local contexts across Europe trying to overcome the straying phenomenon.

  8. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Anna M; Brown, Joel S; Bigambo, Machunde A; Whelan, Christopher J; Mehta, Supriya D; Santymire, Rachel M; Lankester, Felix J; Faust, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  9. Evolving earth-based and in-situ satellite network architectures for Mars communications and navigation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Weinberg, Aaron; McOmber, Robert

    1991-09-01

    Results of on-going studies to develop navigation/telecommunications network concepts to support future robotic and human missions to Mars are presented. The performance and connectivity improvements provided by the relay network will permit use of simpler, lower performance, and less costly telecom subsystems for the in-situ mission exploration elements. Orbiting relay satellites can serve as effective navigation aids by supporting earth-based tracking as well as providing Mars-centered radiometric data for mission elements approaching, in orbit, or on the surface of Mars. The relay satellite orbits may be selected to optimize navigation aid support and communication coverage for specific mission sets.

  10. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia; Tan, Guozhen; Yu, Chao

    2017-10-09

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  11. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  12. Social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers: Can social support and social capital be enhanced by online social networks? - A structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  14. SARS-coronavirus replication is supported by a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kèvin Knoops

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses, a large group including human pathogens such as SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, replicate in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Their replication complexes are commonly associated with modified host cell membranes. Membrane structures supporting viral RNA synthesis range from distinct spherular membrane invaginations to more elaborate webs of packed membranes and vesicles. Generally, their ultrastructure, morphogenesis, and exact role in viral replication remain to be defined. Poorly characterized double-membrane vesicles (DMVs were previously implicated in SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. We have now applied electron tomography of cryofixed infected cells for the three-dimensional imaging of coronavirus-induced membrane alterations at high resolution. Our analysis defines a unique reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum that integrates convoluted membranes, numerous interconnected DMVs (diameter 200-300 nm, and "vesicle packets" apparently arising from DMV merger. The convoluted membranes were most abundantly immunolabeled for viral replicase subunits. However, double-stranded RNA, presumably revealing the site of viral RNA synthesis, mainly localized to the DMV interior. Since we could not discern a connection between DMV interior and cytosol, our analysis raises several questions about the mechanism of DMV formation and the actual site of SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. Our data document the extensive virus-induced reorganization of host cell membranes into a network that is used to organize viral replication and possibly hide replicating RNA from antiviral defense mechanisms. Together with biochemical studies of the viral enzyme complex, our ultrastructural description of this "replication network" will aid to further dissect the early stages of the coronavirus life cycle and its virus-host interactions.

  15. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  16. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2016-08-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee-Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  17. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  18. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  19. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Chen, Shaoli; Zhu, Xiaomin

    2015-11-19

    Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  20. A Network-Attached Storage System Supporting Guaranteed QoS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Hua-feng; YU Sheng-sheng; LU Hong-wei

    2005-01-01

    We propose a network-attached storage system that can support guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS), called POPNet Storage. The special policy of date access and disk scheduling is enable users to access files quickly and directly with guaranteed QoS in the POPNet Storage. The POPNet Storage implements a measurement-based admission control algorithm (PSMBAC) to determine whether to admit a new data access request stream and admit as many requests as possible while meeting the QoS guarantees to its clients. The data reconstruction algorithms in the POPNet Storage also put more emphasis on data availability and guaranteed QoS, thus it is designed to complete the data recovery as soon as possible and at the same time provide the guaranteed QoS for high-priority data access. The experiment results show that the POPNet Storage can provide more significant performance, reliability, and guaranteed QoS than conventional storage systems.

  1. Building a Network to Support Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Jacqueline D.; Dyer, Ruth A.; Franks, Suzanne E.; Montelone, Beth A.

    Women today constitute over half of the U.S. population and almost half of its overall workforce, yet they make up less than a quarter of the science and engineering workforce. Many historical and social factors contribute to this discrepancy, and numerous individual, institutional, and governmental attempts have been made to redress it. However, many of the efforts to promote, include, and engage girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and professions have been made in isolation. At Kansas State University, the authors have begun a systemic effort to increase the participation of girls and women in STEM. This article describes the creation and initial activities of a network of partners that includes universities, school districts, corporations, governmental agencies, and nonprofit organizations, assembled under the aegis of a project supported by funding from the National Science Foundation.

  2. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-07-09

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption.

  3. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  4. Burst-Switched Optical Networks Supporting Legacy and Future Service Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Franzl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the principles and the paradigm of OBS an overview addressing expectable performance and application issues is presented. Proposals on OBS were published over a decade and the presented techniques spread into many directions. The paper comprises discussions of several challenges that OBS meets, in order to compile the big picture. The OBS principle is presented unrestricted to individual proposals and trends. Merits are openly discussed, considering basic teletraffic theory and common traffic characterisation. A more generic OBS paradigm than usual is impartially discussed and found capable to overcome shortcomings of recent proposals. In conclusion, an OBS that offers different connection types may support most client demands within a sole optical network layer.

  5. SELF: expert system for supporting verification of network operating constraints in power transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoria, R; Migliardi, P [Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Pogliano, P [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze (CISE), Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Performing planned studies into very large HV transmission systems is a very complex task which requires the use of simulation models and the application of the heuristic acquired by expert palnners during previous studies. The ENEL Electric Research Center and the CISE Artificial Intelligence Section have developed a knowledge-based system, named SELF, which is aimed at supporting the transmission system palnner. SELF is capable of assisting the engineer both in finding the convergence of the load flow calculation and determining solutions that respect active power, voltage and VAR operating constraints. This paper describes the overall architecture of the system and shows its integration in a larger planning environment called SPIRA, currently utilized at ENEL. More details are given on the least completed modules, the redispatching and network reinforcement subsystems which deal with active power constraint verification.

  6. Perceived Stress in Online Prostate Cancer Community Participants: Examining Relationships with Stigmatization, Social Support Network Preference, and Social Support Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.

  7. The Influence of Social Networks and Social Support on Health Among Older Koreans at High Risk of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soondool; Jeon, Haesang; Song, Ahyoung

    Despite compelling evidence showing that social networks and social support are associated with depression, relatively little research is available on this topic for older Koreans at high risk of depression. This article aimed to examine the relationship among different types of social networks (family vs. friends), social support (instrumental vs. emotional), and perceived general health among older Koreans at high risk of depression. We would then test for possible differences in pathways between two age groups (60-74 years vs. 75 years and older). Using data from the 2008 Survey of Elderly Life and Welfare Need, age 60-74 years (n = 2,815) and age 75 years and older (n = 1,784) were analyzed separately. Path analyses were used to examine the relationships among social network, support, and health among Korean older adults at high risk of depression. Findings highlighted the complex associations among social networks, social support, and perceived general health within old age. Moreover, this study called attention to the negative association between instrumental support from family networks and perceived general health among older Koreans aged 60-74 years at high risk of depression. The work discussed in this article would help inform the design of much needed and effective social intervention programs for the growing number of Korean older adults with depression.

  8. Comparative Study Between Support Vector Machines And Neural Networks For Lithological Discrimination Using Hyper spectral Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, A.M.; Abd Elwahab, M.S.; Farag, M.A.; Yahia, M.A.; Ramadan, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing hyper spectral data has many applications especially in the field of , earth science. Utilization of this technology has shown a rapid increase in many areas of economic and scientific significance. Hyper spectral sensors capture the detailed spectral signatures that uniquely characterize a great number of diverse surface materials. Classification, clustering, and visualization of these very high dimensional signatures need untraditional methods. Different approaches for spectral image interpretation have been studied using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to meet the challenge of high dimensionality. The study used SVMs for geological mapping of hyper spectral imagery at Abu Zenima area, western Sinai, Egypt, the hyper spectral data has been captured in 2003 by Hyperion instrument on the United States Geological survey (USGS) Earth Observing 1 (EO-I) satellite. Precisely the study compares between the use of SVMs and a neural network built on the concept of SVMs, this network uses the Kernel-Adatron algorithm with the Gaussian kernel for the process of training. The SVMs also uses the Gaussian kernel with different bandwidths to enhance the performance of the interpretation process; the results are compared in details. The Neural Network was trained with four data sets, the first consists of 11310 samples, gives recognition rate of 84%, the second has 22620 samples, recognition rate was 91.5%; the third has 33930 samples, recognition rate was 94.6%; finally the fourth has 45240 samples, recognition rate of 99.2%. The previous results fall in comparison with the results of SVMs which use two algorithms for training the first is the one against one algorithm which gave a recognition rate of 84% for the first data set, a recognition rate of 76.9% for the second data set, a recognition rate of 95.2% for the third one and 98.5% for the fourth one. and the other is one against many algorithms which gave a recognition

  9. Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social

  10. OA20 The positioning of family, friends, community, and service providers in support networks for caring at end-of-life: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Rosenberg, John; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-04-01

    Although there is ample evidence of the risk to carers from the burden of caring, there is also evidence that a caring network can relieve the burden on the principal carer, strengthen community relationships, and increase 'Death Literacy' in the community. There is often an assumption that, in caring networks, family and service providers are central and friends and community are marginal. We examined whether this is the case in practice using SNA. To identify the relative positioning of family, friends, community, and service providers in caring networks. In interviews with carers (N = 23) and focus groups with caring networks (N = 13) participants were asked to list the people in the caring network and rate the strength of their relationships to them (0 no relationship to 3 strong relationship). SNA in UCInet was used to map the networks, examine density (number and strength of relationships) across time (when caring began to the present) and across relationship types (family, friends, community, and service providers) supplemented by qualitative data. The analysis revealed significant increases in the density of the networks over time. The density of relationships with friends was similar to that other family. Community and service providers had significantly lower density. Qualitative analysis revealed that often service providers were not seen as part of the networks. To avoid carer burnout, it is important not to make assumptions about where carers obtain support but work with each carer to mobilise any support that is available. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  12. Energy-Efficient Region Shift Scheme to Support Mobile Sink Group in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yongbin; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Aldwairi, Monther; Kim, Ki-Il

    2017-12-30

    Mobile sink groups play crucial roles to perform their own missions in many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In order to support mobility of such sink groups, it is important to design a mechanism for effective discovery of the group in motion. However, earlier studies obtain group region information by periodic query. For that reason, the mechanism leads to significant signaling overhead due to frequent flooding for the query regardless of the group movement. Furthermore, the mechanism worsens the problem by the flooding in the whole expected area. To deal with this problem, we propose a novel mobile sink group support scheme with low communication cost, called Region-Shift-based Mobile Geocasting Protocol (RSMGP). In this study, we utilize the group mobility feature for which members of a group have joint motion patterns. Thus, we could trace group movement by shifting the region as much as partial members move out of the previous region. Furthermore, the region acquisition is only performed at the moment by just deviated members without collaboration of all members. Experimental results validate the improved signaling overhead of our study compared to the previous studies.

  13. Value Network of Amazon Non Timber Forest Products: A Mapping Tool to Support a Complex Network Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Straatmann , Jeferson; Gerolamo , Mateus ,; Carpinetti , Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Part 3: Value Chain for Enhancing Collaborative Networks; International audience; The Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) value chains are viewed as an alternative for the forest conservation and for the improvement of life conditions of Traditional Communities. These products are part of different chemical, cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries, which are trying to improve the sustainability of their supply chains. For the improvement of inter-organizational NTFP network in the Amazon r...

  14. Research on Social Networking Sites and Social Support from 2004 to 2015: A Narrative Review and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; Martinez, Lourdes; Holmstrom, Amanda; Chung, Minwoong; Cox, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a narrative review of scholarship on social support through social networking sites (SNSs) published from 2004 to 2015. By searching keywords related to social support and SNSs in major databases for social sciences, we identified and content analyzed directly relevant articles (N = 88). The article summarizes the prevalence of theory usage; the function of theory usage (e.g., testing a theory, developing a theory); major theories referenced; and methodologies, including research designs, measurement, and the roles of social support and SNS examined in this literature. It also reports four themes identified across the studies, indicating the trends in the current research. Based on the review, the article presents a discussion about study sites, conceptualization of social support, theoretical coherence, the role of social networks, and the dynamic relationships between SNS use and social support, which points out potential avenues for shaping a future research agenda.

  15. An image-guided radiotherapy decision support framework incorporating a Bayesian network and visualization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Catriona; Deegan, Timothy; Bednarz, Tomasz; Poulsen, Michael; Harden, Fiona; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2018-05-17

    To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FAS TV _ OAR ), delivered dose, and treatment plan compliance (TPC). Variables influencing tumor volume (TV) targeting accuracy such as intrafraction motion, and contouring and couch shift errors were also represented. A score of overall TPC (FAS global ) and factors such as image quality were used to inform the BN output node providing advice about proceeding with treatment. The BN was quantified using conditional probabilities generated from published studies, FAS TV _ OAR /global modeling, and a survey of IGRT decision-making practices. A new IGRT visualization tool (IGRT REV ), in the form of Mollweide projection plots, was developed to provide a global summary of residual errors after online CBCT-planning CT registration. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the BN and the relative influence of the network variables on TPC and the decision to proceed with treatment. The IGRT REV plots were evaluated in conjunction with the BN scenario testing, using additional test data generated from retrospective CBCT-planning CT soft-tissue registrations for 13/36 patients whose data were used in the FAS TV _ OAR /global modeling. Modeling of the TV targeting errors resulted in a very low probability of corrected distances between the CBCT and planning CT prostate or PSV volumes being within their thresholds. Strength of influence evaluation with and without the BN TV targeting error nodes indicated that rectum- and bladder-related network variables had the highest relative importance. When the TV targeting error nodes were excluded

  16. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Department of Physical Chemistry, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C., E-mail: chemmcl@emory.edu [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-28

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH{sub 2}OO and anti/syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH{sub 2}OO and anti-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH{sub 3}C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C–H bonds. For syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH{sub 3} group by the terminal O atom producing CH{sub 2}C(H)O–OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH{sub 2}OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction.

  17. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia; Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH 2 OO and anti/syn-CH 3 C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH 2 OO and anti-CH 3 C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH 3 C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C–H bonds. For syn-CH 3 C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH 3 group by the terminal O atom producing CH 2 C(H)O–OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH 2 OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction

  18. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

  19. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  20. The WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre Network - a support to users in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate, like weather, has no limits. Therefore the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialized United Nations organization, has established a three-level infrastructure to better serve its member countries. This structure comprises Global Producing Centres for Long-range Forecasts (GPCs), Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) and National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services (NMHSs), in most cases representing their countries in WMO governance bodies. The elements of this infrastructure are also part of and contribute to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) agreed to be established by World Climate Conference 3 (WCC-3) and last year's Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (WMO Cg-XVI). RCCs are the core element of this infrastructure at the regional level and are being establish in all WMO Regional Associations (RAs), i.e. Africa (RA I); Asia (II); South America (III); North America, Central America and the Caribbean (IV); South-West Pacific (V); Europe (VI). Addressing inter-regional areas of common interest like the Mediterranean or the Polar Regions may require inter-regional RCCs. For each region the RCCs follow a user driven approach with regard to governance and structure as well as products generated for the users in the respective region. However, there are common guidelines all RCCs do have to follow. This is to make sure that services are provided based on best scientific standards, are routinely and reliably generated and made available in an operational mode. These guidelines are being developed within WMO and make use of decade-long experience gained in the business of operational weather forecast. Based on the requirements of the 50 member countries of WMO RA VI it was agreed to establish the WMO RCC as a network of centres of excellence that create regional products including long-range forecasts that support regional and national climate activities, and thereby strengthen the capacity of WMO Members in the region to

  1. IAEA support to the sustainability of nuclear research institutions through networking and coalitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videnovic, I.R.; Goldman, I.N.; Bradley, E.E.; Ridikas, D.; Adelfang, P.; Acuna, O.E.; )

    2009-01-01

    enhanced international and regional cooperation may be the best prospect not only to assure the survival of the most capable reactors but also as a means of providing high quality research reactor capabilities to individual countries that do not need or cannot afford to maintain and operate a research reactor on their own. The role of the IAEA in this field is thus to provide key support for fledgling coalitions by serving as an honest broker and a forum for enhancing regional cooperation and promoting the formation of partnerships and coalitions. The Agency is best placed to coordinate the formulation of specific ideas for enhanced regional and international cooperation between research reactors and users in order to improve sustainability. The Department of Technical Cooperation, the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications of the IAEA are working together in European regional project entitled 'Enhancing the Sustainability of Research Reactors and Their Safe Operation Through Regional Cooperation, Networking and Coalitions' (RER/4/032) to improve business planning, expand awareness of potential customers and increase contacts between prospective customers and research reactor service providers, and to increase effectiveness of nuclear research and education through sustainable networking. (authors)

  2. Mining protein interactomes to improve their reliability and support the advancement of network medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    networks that are currently available are incomplete and a significant percentage of their interactions are false positives. Fortunately, the structural properties observed in good quality social or technological networks are also present in biological

  3. User Requirements for Technology to Assist Aging in Place: Qualitative Study of Older People and Their Informal Support Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Phoebe; Hunter, Inga; Whiddett, Dick; Lockhart, Caroline; Guesgen, Hans; Singh, Amardeep

    2018-06-06

    Informal support is essential for enabling many older people to age in place. However, there is limited research examining the information needs of older adults' informal support networks and how these could be met through home monitoring and information and communication technologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate how technologies that connect older adults to their informal and formal support networks could assist aging in place and enhance older adults' health and well-being. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 older adults and a total of 31 members of their self-identified informal support networks. They were asked questions about their information needs and how technology could support the older adults to age in place. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed. The analysis identified three overarching themes: (1) the social enablers theme, which outlined how timing, informal support networks, and safety concerns assist the older adults' uptake of technology, (2) the technology concerns theme, which outlined concerns about cost, usability, information security and privacy, and technology superseding face-to-face contact, and (3) the information desired theme, which outlined what information should be collected and transferred and who should make decisions about this. Older adults and their informal support networks may be receptive to technology that monitors older adults within the home if it enables aging in place for longer. However, cost, privacy, security, and usability barriers would need to be considered and the system should be individualizable to older adults' changing needs. The user requirements identified from this study and described in this paper have informed the development of a technology that is currently being prototyped. ©Phoebe Elers, Inga Hunter, Dick Whiddett, Caroline Lockhart, Hans Guesgen, Amardeep Singh. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 06.06.2018.

  4. Power structure among the actors of financial support to the poor to access health services: Social network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Manal; Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Kangarani, Hannaneh Mohammadi; Ashtarian, Kioomars

    2017-12-01

    The extent of universal health coverage in terms of financial protection is worrisome in Iran. There are challenges in health policies to guarantee financial accessibility to health services, especially for poor people. Various institutions offer support to ensure that the poor have financial access to health services. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship network among the institutions active in this field. This study is a policy document analysis. It evaluates the country's legal documents in the field of financial support to the poor for healthcare after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. The researchers looked for the documents on the related websites and referred to the related organizations. The social network analysis approach was chosen for the analysis of the documents. Block-modelling and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to determine the network structures. The UCINET software was employed to analyse the data. Most the main actors of this network are chosen from the government budget. There is no legal communication and cooperation among some of the actors because of their improper position in the network. Seven blocks have been clustered by CONCOR in terms of the actor's degree of similarity. The social distance among the actors of the seven blocks is very short. Power distribution in the field of financial support to the poor has a fragmented structure; however, it is mainly run by a dominant block consisting of The Supreme Council of Welfare and Social Security, Health Insurance Organization, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The financial support for the poor network involves multiple actors. This variety has created a series of confusions in terms of the type, level, and scope of responsibilities among the actors. The weak presence legislative and regulatory institutions and also non-governmental institutions are the main weak points of this network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of the Social Support Networks of Maltreated Youth: Exploring the Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Foster Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample of 454 adolescents (241 boys, 9-13 years old at enrollment) who took part in a longitudinal study of child maltreatment. Participants completed three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results showed that on average, maltreated adolescents named significantly fewer people in their network than comparison adolescents. At Time 2, comparison adolescents reported more same-aged friends. In the maltreatment group, youth with a foster parent reported significantly more older friends than maltreated youth with a kin caregiver. Fewer maltreated youth named a biological parent on the social support questionnaire at all three time points. More youth in kinship care described their caregiver as supportive than those in foster care. These findings indicate that despite heterogeneous placement histories, social support networks among maltreated youth were very similar.

  6. Social support and intellectual disabilities: a comparison between social networks of adults with intellectual disability and those with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, T; Burns, J

    2009-05-01

    Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and integration. However, previous studies have shown that this does not always lead to the formation of social relationships. To date few studies have looked at how having an ID leads to impoverished social networks. This study aimed to do this by contrasting the social relationships of people with physical disabilities (PD) and people with ID. Two groups of participants were recruited; 30 people with mild ID and 17 people with PD. Social and functional support networks were assessed, in addition to life experiences. Between and within group differences were then explored statistically. Adults with ID had more restricted social networks than PD, despite being involved in more activities. Social support for adults with ID was mainly provided by family and carers and few relationships with non-disabled people were identified. In contrast adults with PD had larger social networks than had been reported in the mainstream literature and had a balance of relationships with disabled and non-disabled people. The results suggest that there are additional processes attached to having an ID, which lead to continued impoverished lifestyles. The findings also endorse other work that suggests being physically integrated and engaged in a wide range of activities does not guarantee good social and emotional support.

  7. Secure Your Wireless Network: Going Wireless Comes with Its Own Special Set of Security Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Jane; Musa, Atif

    2004-01-01

    Imagine a completely wireless school, an open network in which all students and staff can roam around using laptops or handheld computers to browse the Internet, access files and applications on the school server, and communicate with each other and the world via e-mail. It's a great picture--and at some schools the future is already here. But…

  8. Perceived stress in online prostate cancer community participants: Examining relationships with stigmatization, social support network preference, and social support seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate

  9. Measures of Patient Activation and Social Support in a Peer-Led Support Network for Women With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy

    Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.

  10. "We Tend to Stick Together and Mostly We Stick to Our Own Kind": British Indian Women and Support Networks at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the support networks that are available to British Indian women studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South-East of England, UK. It will examine the support that women draw upon whilst at university and discuss the ways in which these support networks enable women to develop strategies for success.…

  11. Social Networking and Social Support in Tourism Experience: The Moderating Role of Online Self-Presentation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jeongmi; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how tourists' self-presentation is managed on social networking sites (SNS). Specifically, the study investigated the effects of SNS use on social support and tourism experience and the moderating role of the different tourists' self......-presentation strategies. The results emphasize the importance of SNS use for tourists to seek support from their social network while traveling. The study clarifies the importance of SNS use for tourism experience, in that the more tourists are engaged in social activities through SNS while traveling, the more social...... support they will get, which will contribute positively to their tourism experience. Also, it is argued that social support does not always directly result from the intense SNS use, but rather moderated by tourists' self-presentation strategies....

  12. Teleaudiology: efficacy assessment of an online social network as a support tool for parents of children candidates for cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Camila Piccini; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an online social network as a support for parents of children with hearing impairment. Twenty-two mothers, randomly divided into experimental (n=11) and control (n=11) groups, filled in an online form containing the Parental Stress Index - Short Form (PSI-SF). Only the experimental group had access to the "Babies' Portal" social network. Both groups filled in the online form once again 3 months after the first assessment, for evaluating the use and participation in the social network. The posts on the social network were rated by two independent raters regarding themes and mechanisms of self-help. No difference was observed in mean PSI-SF scores between the groups for both assessments. Intragroup analysis showed no difference for total and subscale results of PSI-SF between the two data collected for both groups except for the "Defensive Response" subscale, in which a decrease was observed in the score for the control group. The most frequent posting themes were related to personal information and expressions of religious beliefs. Regarding self-help mechanisms, a higher frequency of exchanging experiences and gratitude expressions was observed. Participants in the experimental group stated they would have liked to participate more frequently in the social network as they considered this tool important because of the exchange of information and experience with other mothers and hearing health-care professionals. The posts and the assessment of participants indicated the potential of this network to support parents of children with hearing impairment.

  13. The application of artificial neural networks and support vector regression for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of commercial eye drop contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Maryam; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR) as intelligent methods coupled with UV spectroscopy for simultaneous quantitative determination of Dorzolamide (DOR) and Timolol (TIM) in eye drop. Several synthetic mixtures were analyzed for validating the proposed methods. At first, neural network time series, which one type of network from the artificial neural network was employed and its efficiency was evaluated. Afterwards, the radial basis network was applied as another neural network. Results showed that the performance of this method is suitable for predicting. Finally, support vector regression was proposed to construct the Zilomole prediction model. Also, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean recovery (%) were calculated for SVR method. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them. Also, the effect of interferences was investigated in spike solutions.

  14. Social Support Networks and Quality of Life of Rural Men in a Context of Marriage Squeeze in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sasa; Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle

    2018-07-01

    A significant number of rural Chinese men are facing difficulties in finding a spouse and may fail to ever marry due to a relative scarcity of women in the adult population. Research has indicated that marriage squeeze is a stressful event which is harmful to men's quality of life, and also weakens their social support networks. Using data collected in rural Chaohu city, Anhui, China, this study explores the effects of social support networks on quality of life of rural men who experience a marriage squeeze. The results indicate that the size of social contact networks is directly and positively associated with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and moderate the negative effect of age on quality of life. Having no or limited instrumental support network and social contact network are double-edged swords, which have direct negative associations with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and have moderate effects on the relationship between marriage squeeze and quality of life.

  15. Homework through a network: designing technologies to support learning activities within the home and between home and school

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Katie C.

    2009-01-01

    Government policy and academic research both talk about transforming learning through networked technologies – sharing newly available information about the learning context with new partners to support lifelong learning activities, and giving learners increased power and autonomy. This thesis examines how such learning opportunities might be supported. In order to ground these learning opportunities in current educational activity it studies homework, which is an example of a learning activi...

  16. A Framework for Supporting Survivability, Network Planning and Cross-Layer Optimization in Future Multi-Domain Terabit Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, Ilya [Renaissance Computing Inst. (RENCI), Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Huang, Shu [Renaissance Computing Inst. (RENCI), Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gopidi, Rajesh [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-01-28

    This final project report describes the accomplishments, products and publications from the award. It includes the overview of the project goals to devise a framework for managing resources in multi-domain, multi-layer networks, as well the details of the mathematical problem formulation and the description of the prototype built to prove the concept.

  17. The influence of neighbourhood socio-demographic factors on densities of free-roaming cat populations in an urban ecosystem in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkler, H.; Hatna, E.; Terkel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Free-roaming cat populations are abundant in many urban ecosystems worldwide. Their management is necessary for reasons of public health, risk of wildlife predation and cat welfare related to their high densities. Trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs are now the main cat population control strategy in

  18. QoS Supported IPTV Service Architecture over Hybrid-Tree-Based Explicit Routed Multicast Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in multimedia streaming and multicast transport technology, current IP multicast protocols, especially PIM-SM, become the major channel delivery mechanism for IPTV system over Internet. The goals for IPTV service are to provide two-way interactive services for viewers to select popular program channel with high quality for watching during fast channel surfing period. However, existing IP multicast protocol cannot meet above QoS requirements for IPTV applications between media server and subscribers. Therefore, we propose a cooperative scheme of hybrid-tree based on explicit routed multicast, called as HT-ERM to combine the advantages of shared tree and source tree for QoS-supported IPTV service. To increase network utilization, the constrained shortest path first (CSPF routing algorithm is designed for construction of hybrid tree to deliver the high-quality video stream over watching channel and standard quality over surfing channel. Furthermore, the Resource Reservation Protocol- Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE is used as signaling mechanism to set up QoS path for multicast channel admission control. Our simulation results demonstrated that the proposed HT-ERM scheme outperforms other multicast QoS-based delivery scheme in terms of channel switching delay, resource utilization, and blocking ratio for IPTV service.

  19. Flexible establishment of functional brain networks supports attentional modulation of unconscious cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Adams, Sarah C; Kiefer, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In classical theories of attention, unconscious automatic processes are thought to be independent of higher-level attentional influences. Here, we propose that unconscious processing depends on attentional enhancement of task-congruent processing pathways implemented by a dynamic modulation of the functional communication between brain regions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested our model with a subliminally primed lexical decision task preceded by an induction task preparing either a semantic or a perceptual task set. Subliminal semantic priming was significantly greater after semantic compared to perceptual induction in ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) and inferior frontal cortex, brain areas known to be involved in semantic processing. The functional connectivity pattern of vOT varied depending on the induction task and successfully predicted the magnitude of behavioral and neural priming. Together, these findings support the proposal that dynamic establishment of functional networks by task sets is an important mechanism in the attentional control of unconscious processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tyler R; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW's content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system.

  1. A new range-free localisation in wireless sensor networks using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengfeng; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Tingting; Sun, Yujuan; Liu, Xing

    2018-02-01

    Location information of sensor nodes is of vital importance for most applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes a new range-free localisation algorithm using support vector machine (SVM) and polar coordinate system (PCS), LSVM-PCS. In LSVM-PCS, two sets of classes are first constructed based on sensor nodes' polar coordinates. Using the boundaries of the defined classes, the operation region of WSN field is partitioned into a finite number of polar grids. Each sensor node can be localised into one of the polar grids by executing two localisation algorithms that are developed on the basis of SVM classification. The centre of the resident polar grid is then estimated as the location of the sensor node. In addition, a two-hop mass-spring optimisation (THMSO) is also proposed to further improve the localisation accuracy of LSVM-PCS. In THMSO, both neighbourhood information and non-neighbourhood information are used to refine the sensor node location. The results obtained verify that the proposed algorithm provides a significant improvement over existing localisation methods.

  2. Systems Medicine in Oncology: Signaling Network Modeling and New-Generation Decision-Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Silvio; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Castagnino, Nicoletta; Tortolina, Lorenzo; Maffei, Massimo; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Nencioni, Alessio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Two different perspectives are the main focus of this book chapter: (1) A perspective that looks to the future, with the goal of devising rational associations of targeted inhibitors against distinct altered signaling-network pathways. This goal implies a sufficiently in-depth molecular diagnosis of the personal cancer of a given patient. A sufficiently robust and extended dynamic modeling will suggest rational combinations of the abovementioned oncoprotein inhibitors. The work toward new selective drugs, in the field of medicinal chemistry, is very intensive. Rational associations of selective drug inhibitors will become progressively a more realistic goal within the next 3-5 years. Toward the possibility of an implementation in standard oncologic structures of technologically sufficiently advanced countries, new (legal) rules probably will have to be established through a consensus process, at the level of both diagnostic and therapeutic behaviors.(2) The cancer patient of today is not the patient of 5-10 years from now. How to support the choice of the most convenient (and already clinically allowed) treatment for an individual cancer patient, as of today? We will consider the present level of artificial intelligence (AI) sophistication and the continuous feeding, updating, and integration of cancer-related new data, in AI systems. We will also report briefly about one of the most important projects in this field: IBM Watson US Cancer Centers. Allowing for a temporal shift, in the long term the two perspectives should move in the same direction, with a necessary time lag between them.

  3. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. eHealth Service Support in Future IPv6 Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Vèque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent vehicular networking activities include novel automotive applications, such as public vehicle to vehicle/infrastructure (V2X, large scale deployments, machine-to-machine (M2M integration scenarios, and more. The platform described in this paper focuses on the integration of eHealth in a V2I setting. This is to allow the use of Internet from a vehicular setting to disseminate health-related information. From an eHealth viewpoint, the use of remote healthcare solutions to record and transmit a patient’s vital signs is a special telemedicine application that helps hospital resident health professionals to optimally prepare the patient’s admittance. From the automotive perspective, this is a typical vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I communication scenario. This proposal provides an IPv6 vehicular platform, which integrates eHealth devices and allows sending captured health-related data to a personal health record (PHR application server in the IPv6 Internet. The collected data is viewed remotely by a doctor and supports his diagnostic decision. In particular, our work introduces the integration of vehicular and eHealth testbeds, describes related work and presents a lightweight auto-configuration method based on a DHCPv6 extension to provide IPv6 connectivity with a few numbers of messages.

  5. Fractional Snow Cover Mapping by Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, B. B.; Kuter, S.; Akyürek, Z.; Weber, G.-W.

    2017-11-01

    Snow is an important land cover whose distribution over space and time plays a significant role in various environmental processes. Hence, snow cover mapping with high accuracy is necessary to have a real understanding for present and future climate, water cycle, and ecological changes. This study aims to investigate and compare the design and use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) algorithms for fractional snow cover (FSC) mapping from satellite data. ANN and SVM models with different model building settings are trained by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance values of bands 1-7, normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index as predictor variables. Reference FSC maps are generated from higher spatial resolution Landsat ETM+ binary snow cover maps. Results on the independent test data set indicate that the developed ANN model with hyperbolic tangent transfer function in the output layer and the SVM model with radial basis function kernel produce high FSC mapping accuracies with the corresponding values of R = 0.93 and R = 0.92, respectively.

  6. Performance Comparison Between Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The largest region that produces oil palm in Indonesia has an important role in improving the welfare of society and economy. Oil palm has increased significantly in Riau Province in every period, to determine the production development for the next few years with the functions and benefits of oil palm carried prediction production results that were seen from time series data last 8 years (2005-2013. In its prediction implementation, it was done by comparing the performance of Support Vector Regression (SVR method and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. From the experiment, SVR produced the best model compared with ANN. It is indicated by the correlation coefficient of 95% and 6% for MSE in the kernel Radial Basis Function (RBF, whereas ANN produced only 74% for R2 and 9% for MSE on the 8th experiment with hiden neuron 20 and learning rate 0,1. SVR model generates predictions for next 3 years which increased between 3% - 6% from actual data and RBF model predictions.

  7. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  8. Understanding the Collaborative Planning Process in Homeless Services: Networking, Advocacy, and Local Government Support May Reduce Service Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpe, Meghan; Mosley, Jennifer E; Smith, Bikki Tran

    2018-06-07

    The Continuum of Care (CoC) process-a nationwide system of regional collaborative planning networks addressing homelessness-is the chief administrative method utilized by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development to prevent and reduce homelessness in the United States. The objective of this study is to provide a benchmark comprehensive picture of the structure and practices of CoC networks, as well as information about which of those factors are associated with lower service gaps, a key goal of the initiative. A national survey of the complete population of CoCs in the United States was conducted in 2014 (n = 312, 75% response rate). This survey is the first to gather information on all available CoC networks. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to determine the relationship between internal networking, advocacy frequency, government investment, and degree of service gaps for CoCs of different sizes. United States. Lead contacts for CoCs (n = 312) that responded to the 2014 survey. Severity of regional service gaps for people who are homeless. Descriptive statistics show that CoCs vary considerably in regard to size, leadership, membership, and other organizational characteristics. Several independent variables were associated with reduced regional service gaps: networking for small CoCs (β = -.39, P < .05) and local government support for midsized CoCs (β = -.10, P < .05). For large CoCs, local government support was again significantly associated with lower service gaps, but there was also a significant interaction effect between advocacy and networking (β = .04, P < .05). To reduce service gaps and better serve the homeless, CoCs should consider taking steps to improve networking, particularly when advocacy is out of reach, and cultivate local government investment and support.

  9. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  10. Enhancing Use of Learning Sciences Research in Planning for and Supporting Educational Change: Leveraging and Building Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Bell, Philip; Bevan, Bronwyn; Buffington, Pam; Falk, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores practical ways to engage two areas of educational scholarship--research on science learning and research on social networks--to inform efforts to plan and support implementation of new standards. The standards, the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS; NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: For…

  11. Social Media as a Communication Support for Persons with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment: A Social Network Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted as a social network analysis of a Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain to address the lack of research examining social media and the potential value of on-line support for persons with mild acquired cognitive impairment.

  12. Experiences with using information and communication technology to build a multi-municipal support network for informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Bing-Jonsson, Pia C; Hanson, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This multi-municipal intervention study explored whether informal carers of frail older people and disabled children living at home made use of information and communication technology (ICT) to gain knowledge about caring and to form informal support networks, thereby improving their health. Seventy-nine informal carers accessed web-based information about caring and an e-based discussion forum via their personal computers. They were able to maintain contact with each other using a web camera and via normal group meetings. After the first 12 months, 17 informal carers participated in focus group interviews and completed a short questionnaire. Four staff members were also interviewed. Participant carers who had prior experiences with a similar ICT-based support network reported greater satisfaction and more extensive use of the network than did participants with no such prior experience. It seems that infrequent usage of the service may be explained by too few other carers to identify with and inappropriate recruitment procedures. Nevertheless, carers of disabled children reported that the intervention had resulted in improved services across the participant municipalities. To achieve optimal effects of an ICT-based support network due attention must be given to recruitment processes and social environment building for which care practitioners require training and support.

  13. Curriculum Assessment Using Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine Modeling Approaches: A Case Study. IR Applications. Volume 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chau-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) approaches have been on the cutting edge of science and technology for pattern recognition and data classification. In the ANN model, classification accuracy can be achieved by using the feed-forward of inputs, back-propagation of errors, and the adjustment of connection weights. In…

  14. Operationalizing an "Information Ecosystem" to support information management work of the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    As data collection ramps up across the LTAR Network, the “information ecosystem” (Kaplan et al. 2016 and Nardi and O’Day, 1999) must support three domains of sustainable agriculture, and data flow needs to be operationalized. Approaches to prioritizing, designing, and developing shared cyberinfrastr...

  15. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called 'Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond.' The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops; and, Select set of production applications

  16. UPPGHA: Uniform Privacy Preservation Group Handover Authentication Mechanism for mMTC in LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine Type Communication (MTC, as one of the most important wireless communication technologies in the future wireless communication, has become the new business growth point of mobile communication network. It is a key point to achieve seamless handovers within Evolved-Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN for massive MTC (mMTC devices in order to support mobility in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A networks. When mMTC devices simultaneously roam from a base station to a new base station, the current handover mechanisms suggested by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP require several handover signaling interactions, which could cause the signaling load over the access network and the core network. Besides, several distinct handover procedures are proposed for different mobility scenarios, which will increase the system complexity. In this paper, we propose a simple and secure uniform group-based handover authentication scheme for mMTC devices based on the multisignature and aggregate message authentication code (AMAC techniques, which is to fit in with all of the mobility scenarios in the LTE-A networks. Compared with the current 3GPP standards, our scheme can achieve a simple authentication process with robust security protection including privacy preservation and thus avoid signaling congestion. The correctness of the proposed group handover authentication protocol is formally proved in the Canetti-Krawczyk (CK model and verified based on the AVISPA and SPAN.

  17. Facebook friends with (health) benefits? Exploring social network site use and perceptions of social support, stress, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon

    2013-10-01

    There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.

  18. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lulu; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na 2 S 2 O 3 supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop

  19. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lulu [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Qiu, Guannan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@ahau.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop.

  20. ROAM: A Radial-Basis-Function Optimization Approximation Method for Diagnosing the Three-Dimensional Coronal Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmasse, Kevin; Nychka, Douglas W.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Fan, Yuhong; Flyer, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) routinely performs coronal polarimetric measurements using the Fe XIII 10747 and 10798 lines, which are sensitive to the coronal magnetic field. However, inverting such polarimetric measurements into magnetic field data is a difficult task because the corona is optically thin at these wavelengths and the observed signal is therefore the integrated emission of all the plasma along the line of sight. To overcome this difficulty, we take on a new approach that combines a parameterized 3D magnetic field model with forward modeling of the polarization signal. For that purpose, we develop a new, fast and efficient, optimization method for model-data fitting: the Radial-basis-functions Optimization Approximation Method (ROAM). Model-data fitting is achieved by optimizing a user-specified log-likelihood function that quantifies the differences between the observed polarization signal and its synthetic/predicted analog. Speed and efficiency are obtained by combining sparse evaluation of the magnetic model with radial-basis-function (RBF) decomposition of the log-likelihood function. The RBF decomposition provides an analytical expression for the log-likelihood function that is used to inexpensively estimate the set of parameter values optimizing it. We test and validate ROAM on a synthetic test bed of a coronal magnetic flux rope and show that it performs well with a significantly sparse sample of the parameter space. We conclude that our optimization method is well-suited for fast and efficient model-data fitting and can be exploited for converting coronal polarimetric measurements, such as the ones provided by CoMP, into coronal magnetic field data.

  1. The effects of pre-entry career maturity and support networks in workplace on newcomers' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2006-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of pre-entry experiences (i.e. career maturity), as well as support networks (i.e. informational and friendship), on newcomers' mental health (i.e. depression, self-esteem, psychosomatic symptoms, and work motivation). We performed a longitudinal study of 890 men and women who first entered the workplace in 2003. Surveys were distributed at two time points: just prior to entering the workplace, and two months after entering. Results indicated that career maturity related positively to newcomers' mental health, and newcomers with high career maturity were more successful in establishing positive relationships with superiors and co-workers. Although, informational support networks positively related to work motivation, friendship networks did not show any direct effects on mental health. These results underscore the crucial roles of career maturity and informational networks in facilitating the transition to the workplace. The results also provide empirical support for an expanded view of the importance of pre-entry experiences to workplace newcomers' mental health.

  2. Evidence of the paradoxical effect of social network support: A study among Filipino domestic workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Norman B; Mordeno, Imelu G; Latkin, Carl A; Hall, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Labor migrants are at an increased risk for poor mental health. Post-migration stressors contribute significantly to this risk. Social network supports are vitally important to protect health but little is known about the role of social network supports among labor migrants. The current study evaluated the role of migration stressors on poor mental health among Filipino female domestic workers (FDW) and whether family and friend social network support (SNS) modified this relationship. Data were collected from 261 FDWs in Macau, China from May to September 2013. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to test for direct and moderating effects of social networks on psychological distress. Post-migration stress was associated with increased anxiety, depression, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SNS from family was not associated with the four psychological symptoms nor did it modify the association between stress and these symptoms. SNS from friends was positively associated with these symptoms, and significantly moderated the relationship between stress and these symptoms. Counterintuitive to the known buffering effects of SNS, greater SNS was associated with greater psychological symptoms among FDWs exposed to post-migration stressors. The present findings suggest that reliance on SNS to cope with post-migration stressors may worsen psychological distress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Decision Support System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is one of the major causes of visual loss among the elderly. It causes degeneration of cells in the macula. Early diagnosis can be helpful in preventing blindness. Drusen are the initial symptoms of AMD. Since drusen have a wide variety, locating them in screening images is difficult and time-consuming. An automated digital fundus photography-based screening system help overcome such drawbacks. The main objective of this study was to suggest a novel method to classify AMD and normal retinal fundus images. Materials and Methods: The suggested system was developed using convolutional neural networks. Several methods were adopted for increasing data such as horizontal reflection, random crop, as well as transfer and combination of such methods. The suggested system was evaluated using images obtained from STARE database and a local dataset. Results: The local dataset contained 3195 images (2070 images of AMD suspects and 1125 images of healthy retina and the STARE dataset comprised of 201 images (105 images of AMD suspects and 96 images of healthy retina. According to the results, the accuracies of the local and standard datasets were 0.95 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion: Diagnosis and screening of AMD is a time-consuming task for specialists. To overcome this limitation, we attempted to design an intelligent decision support system for the diagnosis of AMD fundus using retina images. The proposed system is an important step toward providing a reliable tool for supervising patients. Early diagnosis of AMD can lead to timely access to treatment.

  4. On-chip network interfaces supporting automatic burst write creation, posted writes and read prefetch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, R.; Windt, de J.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Networks-on-Chip are seen as a scalable solution for facilitating the development of Systems-on-Chip with an increasing number of IP cores. Many studies already address the implementation details of such networks and a large effort has been invested in optimizing the routing strategy and the

  5. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  6. Loneliness, social support networks, mood and wellbeing in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Bruce, Irene; Denihan, Aisling; Greene, Elaine; Kirby, Michael; Lawlor, Brian A

    2009-07-01

    Both loneliness and social networks have been linked with mood and wellbeing. However, few studies have examined these factors simultaneously in community-dwelling participants. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network, loneliness, depression, anxiety and quality of life in community dwelling older people living in Dublin. One thousand two hundred and ninety-nine people aged 65 and over, recruited through primary care practices, were interviewed in their own homes using the GMS-AGECAT. Social network was assessed using Wenger's typology. 35% of participants were lonely, with 9% describing it as painful and 6% as intrusive. Similarly, 34% had a non-integrated social network. However, the two constructs were distinct: 32% of participants with an integrated social network reported being lonely. Loneliness was higher in women, the widowed and those with physical disability and increased with age, but when age-related variables were controlled for this association was non-significant. Wellbeing, depressed mood and hopelessness were all independently associated with both loneliness and non-integrated social network. In particular, loneliness explained the excess risk of depression in the widowed. The population attributable risk (PAR) associated with loneliness was 61%, compared with 19% for non-integrated social network. Taken together they had a PAR of 70% Loneliness and social networks both independently affect mood and wellbeing in the elderly, underlying a very significant proportion of depressed mood.

  7. Network cyberinfrastructure as a shared platform to support multi-site research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-site research across the Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network requires access to data and information. We present some existing examples where you can get data from across the network and summarize the rich inventory of measurements taken across LTAR sites. But data management suppo...

  8. Supporting the Maritime Information Dominance: Optimizing Tactical Network for Biometric Data Sharing in Maritime Interdiction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    biometric data collection. Capture role- player mock biometric data including finger prints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. (MOC training...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS by Adam R. Sinsel...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam R

  9. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  10. A metropolitan optical network with support for multicasting in the optical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Bochove, van A.C.; Geuzebroek, D.; Salvador, M.R.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the FLAMINGO1 network architecture, an all-optical wavelength-and-timeslotted Metropolitan Optical Network based on a multiple-ring topology. A couple of important aspects of this architecture include all-optical packet switching at intermediate nodes on a ring and the ability to put IP

  11. A Metropolitan Optical Network with support for multicasting in the optical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; van Bochove, A.C.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Salvador, M.R.; Thienpont, H.; Berghmans, F.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the FLAMINGO1 network architecture, an all-optical wavelength-and-timeslotted Metropolitan Optical Network based on a multiple-ring topology. A couple of important aspects of this architecture include all-optical packet switching at intermediate nodes on a ring and the ability to put IP

  12. Technologies That Support Marketing and Market Development in SMEs—Evidence from Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Fabian; Hatak, Isabella; Kraus, Sascha; Niemand, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on information technology implementation and usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and applies a special focus on social networks. Specifically, this research investigates antecedents of social network usage in SMEs and respective performance

  13. Modeling and management of information supporting functional dimension of Collaborative Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Ermilova, E.; Msanjila, S.S.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Hameurlain, A.; Küng, J.; Wagner, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluent creation of opportunity-based short-term Collaborative Networks (CNs) among organizations or individuals requires the availability of a variety of up-to-date information. A pre-established properly administrated strategic-alliance Collaborative Network (CN) can act as the breeding environment

  14. Product Configurators as a means to support the Exchange of Knowledge in Company Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2002-01-01

    to develop and implement a structured procedure for building product models. In the following focus will be on the adaption of product modelling techniques when dealing with companies in a network. Four different network types will be introduced. They will be used to describe different product model...

  15. Rapid Operational Access and Maneuver Support (ROAMS) Platform for Improved Military Logistics Lines of Communication and Operational Vessel Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    discussed in detail. Toolbox: AdH. AdH is a finite element engine capable of solving the 2D and three-dimensional (3D) shallow water equations, the...sites will be the shortest that exists on the mesh. However, the algorithm neither guarantees that the found path will satisfy all navigation...between resolution and computation time. Penalty Function: Draft. The draft constraint ensures that the vessel operates only in sufficiently deep

  16. A systematic review of the impact of stroke on social support and social networks: associated factors and patterns of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Sarah; Moss, Becky; Harrison, Kirsty; Hilari, Katerina

    2016-08-01

    Identify what factors are associated with functional social support and social network post stroke; explore stroke survivors' perspectives on what changes occur and how they are perceived. The following electronic databases were systematically searched up to May 2015: Academic Search Complete; CINAHL Plus; E-journals; Health Policy Reference Centre; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES; PsycINFO; and SocINDEX. PRISMA guidelines were followed in the conduct and reporting of this review. All included studies were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tools. Meta-ethnographic techniques were used to integrate findings from the qualitative studies. Given the heterogeneous nature of the quantitative studies, data synthesis was narrative. Seventy research reports met the eligibility criteria: 22 qualitative and 48 quantitative reporting on 4,816 stroke survivors. The qualitative studies described a contraction of the social network, with non-kin contact being vulnerable. Although family were more robust network members, significant strain was observed within the family unit. In the quantitative studies, poor functional social support was associated with depression (13/14 studies), reduced quality of life (6/6 studies) and worse physical recovery (2/2 studies). Reduced social network was associated with depression (7/8 studies), severity of disability (2/2 studies) and aphasia (2/2 studies). Although most indicators of social network reduced post stroke (for example, contact with friends, 5/5 studies), the perception of feeling supported remained relatively stable (4/4 studies). Following a stroke non-kin contact is vulnerable, strain is observed within the family unit, and poor social support is associated with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  18. New Abstraction Networks and a New Visualization Tool in Support of Auditing the SNOMED CT Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan

    2012-01-01

    Medical terminologies are large and complex. Frequently, errors are hidden in this complexity. Our objective is to find such errors, which can be aided by deriving abstraction networks from a large terminology. Abstraction networks preserve important features but eliminate many minor details, which are often not useful for identifying errors. Providing visualizations for such abstraction networks aids auditors by allowing them to quickly focus on elements of interest within a terminology. Previously we introduced area taxonomies and partial area taxonomies for SNOMED CT. In this paper, two advanced, novel kinds of abstraction networks, the relationship-constrained partial area subtaxonomy and the root-constrained partial area subtaxonomy are defined and their benefits are demonstrated. We also describe BLUSNO, an innovative software tool for quickly generating and visualizing these SNOMED CT abstraction networks. BLUSNO is a dynamic, interactive system that provides quick access to well organized information about SNOMED CT. PMID:23304293

  19. Neural Network Molecule: a Solution of the Inverse Biometry Problem through Software Support of Quantum Superposition on Outputs of the Network of Artificial Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Volchikhin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is to accelerate the solution of neural network biometrics inverse problem on an ordinary desktop computer. Materials and Methods: To speed up the calculations, the artificial neural network is introduced into the dynamic mode of “jittering” of the states of all 256 output bits. At the same time, too many output states of the neural network are logarithmically folded by transitioning to the Hamming distance space between the code of the image “Own” and the codes of the images “Alien”. From the database of images of “Alien” 2.5 % of the most similar images are selected. In the next generation, 97.5 % of the discarded images are restored with GOST R 52633.2-2010 procedures by crossing parent images and obtaining descendant images from them. Results: Over a period of about 10 minutes, 60 generations of directed search for the solution of the inverse problem can be realized that allows inversing matrices of neural network functionals of dimension 416 inputs to 256 outputs with restoration of up to 97 % information on unknown biometric parameters of the image “Own”. Discussion and Conclusions: Supporting for 10 minutes of computer time the 256 qubit quantum superposition allows on a conventional computer to bypass the actual infinity of analyzed states in 5050 (50 to 50 times more than the same computer could process realizing the usual calculations. The increase in the length of the supported quantum superposition by 40 qubits is equivalent to increasing the processor clock speed by about a billion times. It is for this reason that it is more profitable to increase the number of quantum superpositions supported by the software emulator in comparison with the creation of a more powerful processor.

  20. Evaluation of Data Transfer Performance Between Moving Sender and Receiver in Mobile Communication Networks for Heterogeneous Service Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication networks are acquiring more and more commercial relevance because of recent advances in inter-vehicular communications via the DSRC/WAVE standard, which stimulates a brand new family of visionary services for vehicles, from road safety to entertainment and multimedia applications. After deep analysis of the literature it was decided to investigate evaluation of data transfer performance between moving sender and receiver in mobile communication network for heterogeneous service support. After careful analysis of the simulation tools the NCTUns 6.0 software package was chosen for planned investigations. The results illustrate that the longest communication can be maintained at the maximum number of vehicles participating on the network, but the quality of communication is inversely proportional to the number of vehicles. On this changing topology network when growing number of nodes (vehicles increases flooding of network with the data packages and it determines many collisions. The number of rejected packages increases directly in proportion to the number of vehicles. When the number of nodes (vehicle increases—it is increasing the number of the received same packages which are received from different nodes in the recipient node. On the sender node, the packages are rejected because the collisions occur due to improperly functioning access channel allocation mechanisms. It can be concluded that the routing protocols created for a normal MANET networks is useless in a fast-changing topology large-scale vehicle communication network. To provide heterogeneous services new routing protocols and channel access methods are needed, specifically for vehicle communication networks.