Sample records for network seismic stations

  1. The performance of the stations of the Romanian seismic network in monitoring the local seismic activity (United States)

    Ardeleanu, Luminita Angela; Neagoe, Cristian


    The seismic survey of the territory of Romania is mainly performed by the national seismic network operated by the National Institute for Earth Physics of Bucharest. After successive developments and upgrades, the network consists at present of 123 permanent stations equipped with high quality digital instruments (Kinemetrics K2, Quantera Q330, Quantera Q330HR, PS6-24 and Basalt digitizers) - 102 real time and 20 off-line stations - which cover the whole territory of the country. All permanent stations are supplied with 3 component accelerometers (episenzor type), while the real time stations are in addition provided with broadband (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T, STS2) or short period (SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, GS21, L22_VEL) velocity sensors. Several communication systems are currently used for the real time data transmission: an analog line in UHF band, a line through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), a dedicated line through satellite, and a dedicated line provided by the Romanian Special Telecommunication Service. During the period January 1, 2006 - June 30, 2013, 5936 shallow depth seismic events - earthquakes and quarry blasts - with local magnitude ML ≥ 1.2 were localized on the Romanian territory, or in its immediate vicinity, using the records of the national seismic network; 1467 subcrustal earthquakes (depth ≥ 60 km) with magnitude ML ≥ 1.9 were also localized in the Vrancea region, at the bend of the Eastern Carpathians. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the individual contribution of the real time seismic stations to the monitoring of the local seismicity. The performance of each station is estimated by taking into consideration the fraction of events that are localised using the station records, compared to the total number of events of the catalogue, occurred during the time of station operation. Taking into account the nonuniform space distribution of earthquakes, the location of the site and the recovery

  2. How wind turbines affect the performance of seismic monitoring stations and networks (United States)

    Neuffer, Tobias; Kremers, Simon


    In recent years, several minor seismic events were observed in the apparently aseismic region of the natural gas fields in Northern Germany. A seismic network was installed in the region consisting of borehole stations with sensor depths up to 200 m and surface stations to monitor induced seismicity. After installation of the network in 2012, an increasing number of wind turbines was established in proximity (<5 km) to several stations, thereby influencing the local noise conditions. This study demonstrates the impact of wind turbines on seismic noise level in a frequency range of 1-10 Hz at the monitoring sites with correlation to wind speed, based on the calculation of power spectral density functions and I95 values of waveforms over a time period of 4 yr. It could be shown that higher wind speeds increase the power spectral density amplitudes at distinct frequencies in the considered frequency band, depending on height as well as number and type of influencing wind turbines. The azimuthal direction of incoming Rayleigh waves at a surface station was determined to identify the noise sources. The analysis of the perturbed wave field showed that Rayleigh waves with backazimuths pointing to wind turbines in operation are dominating the wave field in a frequency band of 3-4 Hz. Additional peaks in a frequency range of 1-4 Hz could be attributed to turbine tower eigenfrequencies of various turbine manufactures with the hub height as defining parameter. Moreover, the influence of varying noise levels at a station on the ability to automatically detect seismic events was investigated. The increased noise level in correlation to higher wind speeds at the monitoring sites deteriorates the station's recording quality inhibiting the automatic detection of small seismic events. As a result, functionality and task fulfilment of the seismic monitoring network is more and more limited by the increasing number of nearby wind turbines.

  3. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei


    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  4. Site response and station performance of the newly-upgraded Myanmar National Seismic Network (United States)

    Wolin, E.; Thiam, H. N.; MIN Htwe, Y. M.; Kyaw, T. L.; Tun, P. P.; Min, Z.; Htwe, S. H.; Aung, T. M.; Lin, K. K.; Aung, M. M.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Franke, M.; Hough, S. E.


    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Faults accommodating the oblique motion between India and Southeast Asia pose a hazard to the population of Myanmar, with few Mw>7 events in recent decades, but a number of Mw7-8 events documented in the historical record. A primary concern is the right-lateral Sagaing fault stretching more than 1000 km through the center of Myanmar in proximity to large cities such as Yangon, Mandalay, and the capital Nay Pyi Taw. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January of 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband/strong-motion seismic stations and real-time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station performance and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. With data from the upgraded stations, the MNSN is able to lower the event detection threshold relative to the threshold provided by the global network, improving the ability of the MNSN to report on locally felt events, and improving significantly the monitoring of ground motions within the country. MM stations have recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including a M6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and evaluate the site response of MM

  5. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  6. National Seismic Network of Georgia (United States)

    Tumanova, N.; Kakhoberashvili, S.; Omarashvili, V.; Tserodze, M.; Akubardia, D.


    Georgia, as a part of the Southern Caucasus, is tectonically active and structurally complex region. It is one of the most active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The deformation and the associated seismicity are due to the continent-continent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Seismic Monitoring of country and the quality of seismic data is the major tool for the rapid response policy, population safety, basic scientific research and in the end for the sustainable development of the country. National Seismic Network of Georgia has been developing since the end of 19th century. Digital era of the network started from 2003. Recently continuous data streams from 25 stations acquired and analyzed in the real time. Data is combined to calculate rapid location and magnitude for the earthquake. Information for the bigger events (Ml>=3.5) is simultaneously transferred to the website of the monitoring center and to the related governmental agencies. To improve rapid earthquake location and magnitude estimation the seismic network was enhanced by installing additional 7 new stations. Each new station is equipped with coupled Broadband and Strong Motion seismometers and permanent GPS system as well. To select the sites for the 7 new base stations, we used standard network optimization techniques. To choose the optimal sites for new stations we've taken into account geometry of the existed seismic network, topographic conditions of the site. For each site we studied local geology (Vs30 was mandatory for each site), local noise level and seismic vault construction parameters. Due to the country elevation, stations were installed in the high mountains, no accessible in winter due to the heavy snow conditions. To secure online data transmission we used satellite data transmission as well as cell data network coverage from the different local companies. As a result we've already have the improved earthquake location and event magnitudes. We

  7. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti (United States)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.


    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  8. History and operational capability of the Ethiopian Seismic Station ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data facilitate quick interpretations of seismic signals using computers. The seismic stations are in a good position to date to monitor major seismic activities of the Ethiopian rift. The earthquake locations estimated using data from our own network are found to be reliable with reasonable accuracy. A total of 15 ...

  9. New Seismic Monitoring Station at Mohawk Ridge, Valles Caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter Morse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Two new broadband digital seismic stations were installed in the Valles Caldera in 2011 and 2012. The first is located on the summit of Cerros del Abrigo (station code CDAB) and the second is located on the flanks of San Antonio Mountain (station code SAMT). Seismic monitoring stations in the caldera serve multiple purposes. These stations augment and expand the current coverage of the Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN), which is operated to support seismic and volcanic hazards studies for LANL and northern New Mexico (Figure 1). They also provide unique continuous seismic data within the caldera that can be used for scientific studies of the caldera’s substructure and detection of very small seismic signals that may indicate changes in the current and evolving state of remnant magma that is known to exist beneath the caldera. Since the installation of CDAB and SAMT, several very small earthquakes have already been detected near San Antonio Mountain just west of SAMT (Figure 2). These are the first events to be seen in that area. Caldera stations also improve the detection and epicenter determination quality for larger local earthquakes on the Pajarito Fault System east of the Preserve and the Nacimiento Uplift to the west. These larger earthquakes are a concern to LANL Seismic Hazards assessments and seismic monitoring of the Los Alamos region, including the VCNP, is a DOE requirement. Currently the next closest seismic stations to the caldera are on Pipeline Road (PPR) just west of Los Alamos, and Peralta Ridge (PER) south of the caldera. There is no station coverage near the resurgent dome, Redondo Peak, in the center of the caldera. Filling this “hole” is the highest priority for the next new LASN station. We propose to install this station in 2018 on Mohawk Ridge just east of Redondito, in the same area already occupied by other scientific installations, such as the MCON flux tower operated by UNM.

  10. A multi-station matched filter and coherent network processing approach to the automatic detection and relative location of seismic events (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Kværna, Tormod


    Correlation detectors facilitate seismic monitoring in the near vicinity of previously observed events at far lower detection thresholds than are possible using the methods applied in most existing processing pipelines. The use of seismic arrays has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial in pressing down the detection threshold, due to superior noise suppression, and also in eliminating vast numbers of false alarms by performing array processing on the multi-channel output of the correlation detectors. This last property means that it is highly desirable to run continuous detectors for sites of repeating seismic events on a single-array basis for many arrays across a global network. Spurious detections for a given signal template on a single array can however still occur when an unrelated wavefront crosses the array from a very similar direction to that of the master event wavefront. We present an algorithm which scans automatically the output from multiple stations - both array and 3-component - for coherence between the individual station correlator outputs that is consistent with a disturbance in the vicinity of the master event. The procedure results in a categorical rejection of an event hypothesis in the absence of support from stations other than the one generating the trigger and provides a fully automatic relative event location estimate when patterns in the correlation detector outputs are found to be consistent with a common event. This coherence-based approach removes the need to make explicit measurements of the time-differences for single stations and this eliminates a potential source of error. The method is demonstrated for the North Korea nuclear test site and the relative event location estimates obtained for the 2006, 2009, and 2013 events are compared with previous estimates from different station configurations.

  11. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ) (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.


    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  12. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin


    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  13. Multi-Use Seismic Stations for Earthquake Early Warning (United States)

    Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Moores, A. O.; Bainbridge, G. S.; Easton, D.


    Earthquake Early Warning network performance improves with the number and density of sensing stations, quality of the sites, quality of strong-motion instrumentation, degree of coverage near at-risk populated areas and potential fault zones, and minimizing latency of signal processing and transmission. Seismic research tends to emphasize competing requirements: low-noise sites, high-performance broadband seismic instrumentation, and high-quality signal processing without regard for latency. Recent advances in instrumentation and processing techniques have made feasible the concept of a multi-use seismic station in which strong-motion and weak-motion seismometry are both cost-effectively served without compromising the performance demands of either. We present a concept for a multi-use seismic station that cost-effectively meets the needs of both earthquake early warning and high-quality seismic research. One significant enabler is a 6-channel dual-sensor instrument that combines a 120s broadband seismometer and a class A accelerometer in a single ultra-compact sonde suitable for direct burial. Combining two sensors into one effectively adds broadband capability to a station without increasing the already optimized site footprint, preparation and management costs associated with shallow direct-burial installations. The combined sensors also complement each other, simplifying and speeding installation (for example, the accelerometer provides real-time tilt readings useful to leveling the seismometer). Integration simplifies alignment to North, as there is only one instrument to orient. A dual-use 6-channel digitizer simultaneously provides two sets of independently processed streams from both sensors, one set optimized for low-latency earthquake warning, and the other set for high quality seismic research purposes. Such a dual-use seismic station can serve both seismic research and civil warning infrastructure objectives without adding significantly to the cost of a

  14. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were used to create the station history plots which display the travel times, the distance time curve and events location on a world seismicity map with Zaria as the center. KEY WORDS: History, Events, Station, Teleseismic, Travel time. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) 2005: 309-315.

  15. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.


    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. The Italian National Seismic Network (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto


    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  17. A New Design of Seismic Stations Deployed in South Tyrol (United States)

    Melichar, P.; Horn, N.


    When designing the seismic network in South Tyrol, the seismic service of Austria and the Civil defense in South Tyrol combined more that 10 years experience in running seismic networks and private communication systems. In recent years the high data return rate of > 99% and network uptime of > 99.% is achieved by the combination of high quality station design and equipment, and the use of the Antelope data acquisition and processing software which comes with suite of network monitoring & alerting tools including Nagios, etc. The new Data Center is located in city of Bolzano and is connected to the other Data Centers in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy for data back up purposes. Each Data Center uses also redundant communication system if the primary system fails. When designing the South Tyrol network, new improvements were made in seismometer installations, grounding, lighting protection and data communications in order to improve quality of data recorded as well as network up-time, and data return. The new 12 stations are equipped with 6 Channels Q330+PB14f connected to STS2 + EpiSensor sensor. One of the key achievements was made in the grounding concept for the whole seismic station - and aluminum boxes were introduced which delivered Faraday cage isolation. Lightning protection devices are used for the equipment inside the aluminum housing where seismometer and data logger are housed. For the seismometer cables a special shielding was introduced. The broadband seismometer and strong-motion sensor are placed on a thick glass plate and therefore isolated from the ground. The precise seismometer orientation was done by a special groove on the glass plate and in case of a strong earthquake; the seismometer is tide up to the base plate. Temperature stability was achieved by styrofoam sheets inside the seismometer aluminum protection box.

  18. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi


    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  19. Configuration of the Network of Seismological Stations in Kosova


    , Zenun Elezaj


    One of the most rational forms of protection against earthquakes is certainly the seismic monitoring that should provide data for the seismic microzoning, planning and design of new structures as well as data for comparison of the input seismic design parameters with the actual data on the occurred earthquakes. From these reasons, it was decided to install a network of 8 seismological stations in the Kosovo territory that will be telemetrically connected with the central station in Prishtina ...

  20. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.


    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  1. The California Integrated Seismic Network (United States)

    Hellweg, M.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Shakal, A.


    The mission of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is to operate a reliable, modern system to monitor earthquakes throughout the state; to generate and distribute information in real-time for emergency response, for the benefit of public safety, and for loss mitigation; and to collect and archive data for seismological and earthquake engineering research. To meet these needs, the CISN operates data processing and archiving centers, as well as more than 3000 seismic stations. Furthermore, the CISN is actively developing and enhancing its infrastructure, including its automated processing and archival systems. The CISN integrates seismic and strong motion networks operated by the University of California Berkeley (UCB), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) offices in Menlo Park and Pasadena, as well as the USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP), and the California Geological Survey (CGS). The CISN operates two earthquake management centers (the NCEMC and SCEMC) where statewide, real-time earthquake monitoring takes place, and an engineering data center (EDC) for processing strong motion data and making it available in near real-time to the engineering community. These centers employ redundant hardware to minimize disruptions to the earthquake detection and processing systems. At the same time, dual feeds of data from a subset of broadband and strong motion stations are telemetered in real- time directly to both the NCEMC and the SCEMC to ensure the availability of statewide data in the event of a catastrophic failure at one of these two centers. The CISN uses a backbone T1 ring (with automatic backup over the internet) to interconnect the centers and the California Office of Emergency Services. The T1 ring enables real-time exchange of selected waveforms, derived ground motion data, phase arrivals, earthquake parameters, and ShakeMaps. With the goal of operating similar and redundant

  2. Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations (United States)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy


    This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

  3. Community Seismic Network (CSN) (United States)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.


    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  4. The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis (United States)

    Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou


    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to

  5. Studies of infrasound propagation using the USArray seismic network (Invited) (United States)

    Hedlin, M. A.; Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K. T.


    Although there are currently ~ 100 infrasound arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Much structure in the atmosphere is short-lived and occurs at spatial scales much smaller than the average distance between infrasound stations. Relatively large infrasound signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasound arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasound wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound signals and shed more light on the nature of infrasound propagation. We present early results from our studies of impulsive atmospheric sources, such as series of UTTR rocket motor detonations in Utah. The Utah blasts have been well recorded by USArray seismic stations and infrasound arrays in Nevada and Washington State. Recordings of seismic signals from a series of six events in 2007 are used to pinpoint the shot times to anticipate studying dense acoustic network recordings as the USArray is currently being upgraded with infrasound microphones. These new sensors will allow us to make semi-continental scale network recordings of infrasound signals free of concerns about how the signals observed on seismic channels were modified when being coupled to seismic.

  6. The Jalisco Seismic Telemetric Network (RESJAL) (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Gonzalez-Ledezma, M.; Garcia-Puga, J.


    The region of Jalisco is one of the most active seismic regions in Mexico, the main tectonic units in this region are the Jalisco Block and the Rivera Plate. The greatest earthquake (M=8.2) occurred in Mexico in the Twenty-Century (1932) took place in the coast of Jalisco, this was followed by another one (Ms =7.8) fifteen days later. In 1995 an earthquake magnitude 8.0 took place in the coast of Jalisco, but its rupture area was only the southern half of the rupture area proposed for the 1932 earthquakes, these facts suggest the existence of an important seismic Gap in the north coast of Jalisco which includes the area of Bahía de Banderas. However, not only subduction earthquakes occurred in this region there are also large inland earthquakes, such as the December 27, 1568 and February 11, 1872 events. There are also three active volcanoes Sanganguey, Ceboruco and the most active volcano in Mexico, the Colima volcano. In spite of these facts and the risk associated to these processes, there were only one seismological permanent station in Chamela on the coast of Jalisco and an analog telemetric network (RESCO) located on the Colima Volcano and the south part of the Colima Rift Zone (CRZ). By these reasons, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Jalisco (Jalisco Civil Defense) began a project to install a Digital Telemetric Network in the region in several phases, this project is carrying out jointly with SisVOc UdeG.; due to the size of the area and the topography of the region it is very difficult to get direct telemetric links, by these reasons the network is designed in cells with nodes, where the nodes are the different Campus of the University of Guadalajara located in the region, all Campus are linked by a computer network. First phase started in August 2001, it includes the installation of six stations, each station with a Kinemetrics Everest 24 bit datalogger, GPS time, and a Lennartz LE3Dlite 1Hz sensor, using KNI NMS to control and data acquisition

  7. Site characterization of the national seismic network of Italy (United States)

    Bordoni, Paola; Pacor, Francesca; Cultrera, Giovanna; Casale, Paolo; Cara, Fabrizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Famiani, Daniela; Ladina, Chiara; PIschiutta, Marta; Quintiliani, Matteo


    The national seismic network of Italy (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) consists of more than 400 seismic stations connected in real time to the institute data center in order to locate earthquakes for civil defense purposes. A critical issue in the performance of a network is the characterization of site condition at the recording stations. Recently INGV has started addressing this subject through the revision of all available geological and geophysical data, the acquisition of new information by means of ad-hoc field measurements and the analysis of seismic waveforms. The main effort is towards building a database, integrated with the other INGV infrastructures, designed to archive homogeneous parameters through the seismic network useful for a complete site characterization, including housing, geological, seismological and geotechnical features as well as the site class according to the European and Italian building codes. Here we present the ongoing INGV activities.

  8. Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects (United States)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer


    location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data, and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the seismic signal with travel time and ambient seismic noise with depth to be able to correctly deal with borehole station networks. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. This talk will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type, and discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

  9. Ground motion simulations for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania and seismic hazard assessment (United States)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu


    This research focuses on the evaluation of soil conditions for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania, their influence on stochastic finite-fault simulations, and the impact of using them on the seismic hazard assessment. First, the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) are evaluated using ground motions recorded in 32 seismic stations during small magnitude ( M W ≤ 6.0) Vrancea seismic events. Most of the seismic stations situated in the southern part of Romania exhibit multiple HVSR peaks over a broad period range. However, only the seismic stations in the eastern-most part of Romania have clear short-period predominant periods. Subsequently, stochastic finite-fault simulations are performed in order to evaluate the influence of the soil conditions on the ground motion amplitudes. The analyses show that the earthquake magnitude has a larger influence on the computed ground motion amplitudes for the short- and medium-period range, while the longer-period spectral ordinates tend to be influenced more by the soil conditions. Next, the impact of the previously evaluated soil conditions on the seismic hazard results for Romania is also investigated. The results reveal a significant impact of the soil conditions on the seismic hazard levels, especially for the sites characterized by long-period amplifications (sites situated mostly in southern Romania), and a less significant influence in the case of sites which have clear short predominant periods.

  10. A Machine Learning Approach for Improving the Detection Capabilities at 3C Seismic Stations (United States)

    Riggelsen, Carsten; Ohrnberger, Matthias


    We apply and evaluate a recent machine learning method for the automatic classification of seismic waveforms. The method relies on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) and supervised learning to improve the detection capabilities at 3C seismic stations. A time-frequency decomposition provides the basis for the required signal characteristics we need in order to derive the features defining typical "signal" and "noise" patterns. Each pattern class is modeled by a DBN, specifying the interrelationships of the derived features in the time-frequency plane. Subsequently, the models are trained using previously labeled segments of seismic data. The DBN models can now be compared against in order to determine the likelihood of new incoming seismic waveform segments to be either signal or noise. As the noise characteristics of seismic stations varies smoothly in time (seasonal variation as well as anthropogenic influence), we accommodate in our approach for a continuous adaptation of the DBN model that is associated with the noise class. Given the difficulty for obtaining a golden standard for real data (ground truth) the proof of concept and evaluation is shown by conducting experiments based on 3C seismic data from the International Monitoring Stations, BOSA and LPAZ.

  11. Rapid response seismic networks in Europe: lessons learnt from the L'Aquila earthquake emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Strollo


    Full Text Available

    The largest dataset ever recorded during a normal fault seismic sequence was acquired during the 2009 seismic emergency triggered by the damaging earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy. This was possible through the coordination of different rapid-response seismic networks in Italy, France and Germany. A seismic network of more than 60 stations recorded up to 70,000 earthquakes. Here, we describe the different open-data archives where it is possible to find this unique set of data for studies related to hazard, seismotectonics and earthquake physics. Moreover, we briefly describe some immediate and direct applications of emergency seismic networks. At the same time, we note the absence of communication platforms between the different European networks. Rapid-response networks need to agree on common strategies for network operations. Hopefully, over the next few years, the European Rapid-Response Seismic Network will became a reality.

  12. Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.


    design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. In this talk we will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type. We will discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

  13. Towards the Establishment of the Hawaii Integrated Seismic Network for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Shiro, B. R.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Okubo, P. G.; Wolfe, C. J.


    The NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) located in `Ewa Beach, Hawai`i, provides warnings to the State of Hawai`i regarding locally generated tsunamis. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) located in Hawai`i National Park monitors earthquakes on the island of Hawai`i in order to characterize volcanic and earthquake activity and hazards. In support of these missions, PTWC and HVO operate seismic networks for rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential and volcanic risk, respectively. These existing seismic networks are comprised mostly of short-period vertical seismometers with analog data collection and transmission based on decades-old technology. The USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) operates 31 accelerometers throughout the state, but none currently transmit their data in real time. As a result of enhancements to the U.S. Tsunami Program in the wake of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, PTWC is upgrading and expanding its seismic network using digital real-time telemetry from broadband and strong motion accelerometer stations. Through new cooperative agreements with partners including the USGS (HVO and NSMP), IRIS, University of Hawai`i, and Germany's GEOFON, the enhanced seismic network has been designed to ensure maximum benefit to all stakeholders. The Hawaii Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) will provide a statewide resource for tsunami, earthquake, and volcanic warnings. Furthermore, because all data will be archived by the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC), the HISN will become a research resource to greater scientific community. The performance target for the enhanced HISN is for PTWC to provide initial local tsunami warnings within 90 seconds of the earthquake origin time. This will be accomplished using real-time digital data transmission over redundant paths and by implementing contemporary analysis algorithms in real-time and near-real-time. Earthquake location, depth, and

  14. Earthquake detection capability of the Swiss Seismic Network (United States)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Schorlemmer, D.; Woessner, J.; Wiemer, S.; Giardini, D.


    A reliable estimate of completeness magnitudes is vital for many seismicity- and hazard-related studies. Here we adopted and further developed the Probability-based Magnitude of Completeness (PMC) method. This method determines network detection completeness (MP) using only empirical data: earthquake catalogue, phase picks and station information. To evaluate the applicability to low- or moderate-seismicity regions, we performed a case study in Switzerland. The Swiss Seismic Network (SSN) at present is recording seismicity with one of the densest networks of broad-band sensors in Europe. Based on data from 1983 January 1 to 2008 March 31, we found strong spatio-temporal variability of network completeness: the highest value of MP in Switzerland at present is 2.5 in the far southwest, close to the national boundary, whereas MP is lower than 1.6 in high-seismicity areas. Thus, events of magnitude 2.5 can be detected in all of Switzerland. We evaluated the temporal evolution of MP for the last 20 yr, showing the successful improvement of the SSN. We next introduced the calculation of uncertainties to the probabilistic method using a bootstrap approach. The results show that the uncertainties in completeness magnitudes are generally less than 0.1 magnitude units, implying that the method generates stable estimates of completeness magnitudes. We explored the possible use of PMC: (1) as a tool to estimate the number of missing earthquakes in moderate-seismicity regions and (2) as a network planning tool with simulation computations of installations of one or more virtual stations to assess the completeness and identify appropriate locations for new station installations. We compared our results with an existing study of the completeness based on detecting the point of deviation from a power law in the earthquake-size distribution. In general, the new approach provides higher estimates of the completeness magnitude than the traditional one. We associate this observation

  15. Site characterization using noninvasive single- and multi-station methods at southern California seismic stations (United States)

    Yong, A.; Martin, A. J.; Pfau, J.; McPhillips, D.; Alvarez, M.; Lydeen, S.; Clerc, F.; Leue, N.


    In-situ measurements of shear-wave velocity (Vs) are used commonly to evaluate seismic response at earthquake monitoring station and project sites. Vs30, the time-averaged Vs in the upper 30 m, is a common parameter used to capture seismic site response and is used in almost all modern ground motion prediction equations. Traditional invasive downhole methods directly measure Vs; however, these methods are often cost- and/or environmentally-prohibitive and their results do not always reflect the lateral variability of seismic conditions beyond the immediate vicinity of the test site. In comparison, noninvasive methods record active- or passive-source data consisting of surface or body waves and are less prohibitive to use. Moreover, these methods use multiple horizontally-spaced surface receivers (multi-station array), thus, lateral variability beneath the array is accounted for in their results. Most noninvasive methods, however, indirectly measure Vs, and thus have inherent uncertainties. We have used a suite of noninvasive methods at ten stations in southern California. We record microseisms using standalone single-stations, located at the end- and mid-points of the measurement array, and over the same period, we also collect records from the seismic station. Using both single- and seismic-station records, we calculate the horizontal-to-vertical-spectra-ratios (HVSR), resonance frequency, and power spectral density to study site characteristics, including noise levels. For soil sites, we generally find insignificant lateral variability in subsurface conditions beneath our multi-station arrays by matching similar spectral peaks and frequencies in the three HVSR records; for rock sites, the magnitudes of the HVSR values are not as discernible. While we find general agreement in Vs30 computed using a variety of methods at each site, preliminary results for low-noise sites using standalone passive methods have large uncertainty in their computed Vs30 values.

  16. Establishing seismic network capabilities in Haïti (United States)

    Clouard, Valerie; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Prepetit, Claude; McNamara, Daniel; Hough, Susan; Saint-Louis, Mildor; Altidor, Jean-Robert


    The January 12, 2010 earthquake ruptured a poorly instrumented region that is located on a complex, wide, deformed zone on the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the North American Plate. This event evidenced the need for a permanent seismic network in Haiti. Immediately after the 2010 earthquake, a strong motion network was deployed by USGS and 3 broadband seismometers were installed by the NRCAN. All this instrumentation is still working, however, it is mainly located around Port-au-Prince. In 2011, the UTS (Technical Unit of Seismology) was created by the BME (Mining and Energy Bureau) to take in charge the seismic monitoring of the national territory and a Memorandum of Understanding was signed with IPGP that would help through its Antilles Volcano and Seismic Observatories. After a 2-month training in Martinique of Haitian operators, Earthworm and Seiscomp3 were installed on the UTS server and neighboring country stations were include to the detection network. To enlarge the seismic networks to the whole territory, 10 broadband seismometers and 6 accelerometers were acquired. With these new stations, which will be installed in 2014 in secured places equipped with internet or VSAT antenna and with network code AY, the seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes change: 1) Earthquake detection from 30 seconds to 10, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold from M3.8 to M2.8, and 3) Initial hypocenter error from 5km to less than 2 km. The remaining efforts should focus on permanent and qualified human resources to maintain these networks.

  17. Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing (United States)

    Hennet, C. B.; Van der Vink, G. E.; Richards, P. G.; Adushkin, V. V.; Kopnichev, Y. F.; Geary, R.

    As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against clandestine testing. The recent release of information by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) on previously unannounced nuclear tests provides an opportunity to assess the ability of multi-use seismic networks to help monitor nuclear testing across the globe.Here we look at the extent to which the formerly unannounced tests were recorded and identified on the basis of publicly available seismographic data recorded by five seismic networks. The data were recorded by networks in southern Nevada and northern California at stations less than 1500 km from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and two networks in the former Soviet Union at stations farther than 1500 km from the NTS.

  18. A method to establish seismic noise baselines for automated station assessment (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.; Benz, H.M.; Buland, R.P.


    We present a method for quantifying station noise baselines and characterizing the spectral shape of out-of-nominal noise sources. Our intent is to automate this method in order to ensure that only the highest-quality data are used in rapid earthquake products at NEIC. In addition, the station noise baselines provide a valuable tool to support the quality control of GSN and ANSS backbone data and metadata. The procedures addressed here are currently in development at the NEIC, and work is underway to understand how quickly changes from nominal can be observed and used within the NEIC processing framework. The spectral methods and software used to compute station baselines and described herein (PQLX) can be useful to both permanent and portable seismic stations operators. Applications include: general seismic station and data quality control (QC), evaluation of instrument responses, assessment of near real-time communication system performance, characterization of site cultural noise conditions, and evaluation of sensor vault design, as well as assessment of gross network capabilities (McNamara et al. 2005). Future PQLX development plans include incorporating station baselines for automated QC methods and automating station status report generation and notification based on user-defined QC parameters. The PQLX software is available through the USGS (http://earthquake. and IRIS ( pqlx/).

  19. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.


    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  20. Calibration of Regional Seismic Stations in the Middle East with Shots in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M N; Kuleli, S; Gurbuz, C; Kalafat, D; Nekler, T; Zor, K; Yilmazer, M; Ogutcu, Z; Schultz, C A; Harris, D B


    The objective of this project is to calibrate regional travel-times and propagation characteristics of seismic waves in Turkey and surrounding areas in the Middle East in order to enhance detection and location capabilities in the region. Important data for the project will be obtained by large calibration shots in central and eastern Turkey. The first, a two-ton shot, was fired in boreholes near Keskin in central Anatolia on 23 November 2002. The explosives were placed in 14 holes, each 80 m deep, arranged in concentric circular arrays. Ninety temporary seismic stations were deployed within a 300 km radius around the shot. The permanent stations of the Turkish National Seismic Network provided a good azimuthal coverage as well as three radial traverses. Most stations within a radius of 200 km recorded the shot. Travel-time data have been analyzed to obtain a detailed crustal model under the shot and along the profiles. The model gives a 35 km thick crust, characterized by two layers with velocities of 5.0 and 6.4 km/s. The P{sub n} velocity was found to be 7.8 km/s. The crustal thickness decreases to the north where the profile crosses the North Anatolian fault. There is a slight increase in crustal velocities, but no change in crustal thickness to the west. Data analysis effort is continuing to refine the regional velocity models and to obtain station corrections.

  1. The Global Detection Capability of the IMS Seismic Network in 2013 Inferred from Ambient Seismic Noise Measurements (United States)

    Gaebler, P. J.; Ceranna, L.


    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection thresholdcan be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  2. Studying Fin Whales with Seafloor Seismic Networks (United States)

    Wilcock, W. S.; Soule, D. C.; Weirathmueller, M.; Thomson, R.


    Baleen whales are found throughout the world's oceans and their welfare captivates the general public. Depending on the species, baleen whales vocalize at frequencies ranging from ~10 Hz to several kilohertz. Passive acoustic studies of whale calls are used to investigate behavior and habitat usage, monitor the recovery of populations from whaling and assess the impacts of anthropogenic sounds. Since airguns are a significant source of sound in the oceans, the research goals of academic seismologists can lead to conflicts with those who advocate for whale conservation while being unwilling to consider the societal benefits of marine geophysical studies. In contrast, studies that monitor earthquakes with ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) provide an opportunity to enhance studies of baleen whales and improve relationships with environmental advocates. The bandwidth of the typical high-frequency or intermediate-band ocean bottom seismometer overlaps the call frequency of the two largest baleen whale species; blue whales generate sequences of 10- to 20-s-long calls centered at ~16 Hz and fin whales produce long sequences of downswept 1-s-long chirps centered at ~20 Hz. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of OBS networks to monitor calling patterns and determine tracks for fin and blue whales. We will summarize the results from a study to track fin whales near the Endeavour hydrothermal vent fields on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and investigate a potential correlation between the density of whales and enhanced zooplankton found throughout the water column overlying the vent fields. From 2003-2006 an 8-station local seismic network that was designed to monitor hydrothermal earthquakes also recorded ~300,000 fin whale vocalizations, mostly in the fall and winter. Automatic picking and localization techniques that are analogous to those used to analyze earthquakes are employed to determine whale tracks. The tracks are then used to interpret calling patterns in the

  3. A deployment of broadband seismic stations in two deep gold mines, South Africa (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Boettcher, Margaret S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.


    In-mine seismic networks throughout the TauTona and Mponeng gold mines provide precise locations and seismic source parameters of earthquakes. They also support small-scale experimental projects, including NELSAM (Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines), which is intended to record, at close hand, seismic rupture of a geologic fault that traverses the project region near the deepest part of TauTona. To resolve some questions regarding the in-mine and NELSAM networks, we deployed four portable broadband seismic stations at deep sites within TauTona and Mponeng for one week during September 2007 and recorded ground acceleration. Moderately large earthquakes within our temporary network were recorded with sufficiently high signal-to-noise that we were able to integrate the acceleration to ground velocity and displacement, from which moment tensors could be determined. We resolved the questions concerning the NELSAM and in-mine networks by using these moment tensors to calculate synthetic seismograms at various network recording sites for comparison with the ground motion recorded at the same locations. We also used the peak velocity of the S wave pulse, corrected for attenuation with distance, to estimate the maximum slip within the rupture zone of an earthquake. We then combined the maximum slip and seismic moment with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate maximum slip rates within the same high-slip patches of the rupture zone. For the four largest earthquakes recorded within our network, all with magnitudes near 2, these inferred maximum slips range from 4 to 27 mm and the corresponding maximum slip rates range from 1 to 6 m/s. These results, in conjunction with information from previous ground motion studies, indicate that underground support should be capable of withstanding peak ground velocities of at least 5 m/s.

  4. Analysis of the Seismicity Associated to the Subduction of the Rivera Plate using OBS and Onland Stations. (United States)

    Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Marquez-Ramirez, V. H.; Ambros, M.; Gomez, A.; Sandoval, J. M.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.


    The second stage of TsuJal Project includes the study of passive seismic activity in the region of the plate Rivera and Jalisco block by anchoring OBS and densifying the network of seismic stations on land for at least four months. This stage began in April 2016 with the deployment of 25 Obsidian stations with sensor Le-3D MkIII from the northern part of Nayarit state to the south of Colima state, including the Marias Islands. This temporal seismic network complements the Jalisco Seismic Network (RESAJ) for a total of 50 stations. Offshore, ten OBS type LCHEAPO 2000 with 4 channel (3 seismic short period and 1 pressure) were deployed, in the period from 19 to 30 April 2016 using the BO El Puma from UNAM. The OBS were deployed in an array from the Marias Islands to offcoast of the border of Colima and Michoacan states. On May 4, an earthquake with Ml = 4.2 took place in the contact area of the Rivera Plate, Cocos Plate and the Middle America Trench, subsequently occurred a seismic swarm with over 200 earthquakes until May 16, including an earthquake with Ml = 5.0 on May 7. A second swarm took place between May 28 and Jun 4 including an earthquake with Ml = 4.8 on Jun 1. An analysis of the quality of different location methods is presented: automatic preliminary RESAJ location using Antelope; location with revised RESAJ phases in Antelope; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo and a regional velocity model; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo adding data from the temporal seismic network stations; and finally the relocation adding the data from the OBS network. Moreover, the tectonic implications of these earthquakes are discussed.

  5. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.


    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  6. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro


    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM. Obviously, there can be also different configurations to fit different needs: From horizontal geophones, to the use of accelerometers to substitute the geophone and miniaturize even less the size of the seismic

  7. Emergency seismic and CGPS networks: a first employment for the L'Aquila Mw 6.3 earthquake (United States)

    Abruzzese, L.; Avallone, A.; Cecere, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cardinale, V.; Castagnozzi, A.; Cogliano, R.; Criscuoli, F.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Ambrosio, C.; de Luca, G.; D'Anastasio, E.; Falco, L.; Flammia, V.; Migliari, F.; Minichiello, F.; Memmolo, A.; Monachesi, G.; Moschillo, R.; Pignone, M.; Pucillo, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Zarrilli, L.; Delladio, A.; Govoni, A.; Franceschi, D.; de Martin, M.; Moretti, M.


    During the last 2 years, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) developed an important real-time temporary seismic network infrastructure in order to densify the Italian National Seismic Network in epicentral areas thus enhancing the localization of the micro-seismicity after main earthquake events. This real-time temporary seismic network is constituted by various mobile and autonomous seismic stations that in group of three are telemetered to a Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT). This system uses a dedicated bandwidth on UHF, Wi-Fi and satellite frequency that allows the data flow in real-time at INGV centre in Rome (and Grottaminarda as backup center). The deployment of the seismic network is managed in a geographical information systems (GIS) by particular scenarios that visualizes, for the epicentral area, information about instrumental seismicity, seismic risk, macroseismic felts and territorial data. Starting from digital terrain model, the surface spatial analysis (Viewshed, Observer Point) allows the geographic arrangement of the stations and relative scenarios. The April, 6th, 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila destructive earthquake represented the first real-case to test the entire emergency seismic network infrastructure. Less than 6 hours after the earthquake occurrence, a first accelerometer station was already sending data at INGV seismic monitoring headquarters. A total number of 9 seismic stations have been installed within 3 days after the earthquake. Furthermore, 5 permanent GPS stations have been installed in the epicentral area within 1 to 9 days after the main shock to detect the post-seismic deformation induced by the earthquake. We will show and describe the details of the Emergency Seismic Network infrastructure, and the first results from the collected data.

  8. Recent developments in the setting up of the Malta Seismic Network (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano


    Weak to moderate earthquakes in the Sicily Channel have until now been either poorly located or left undetected. The number of seismic stations operated by various networks: Italy (INGV), Tunisia (TT), and Libya (LNSN) have now improved considerably, however most of the seismicity occurs offshore, in the central part of the Channel, away from the mainland stations. Seismic data availability from island stations across the Channel has been limited or had intermittent transmission hindering proper real-time earthquake monitoring and hypocentre relocation. In order to strengthen the seismic monitoring of the Sicily Channel, in particular the central parts of the Channel, the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta, has, in the last year, been installing a permanent seismic network across the Maltese archipelago: the Malta Seismic Network (ML). Furthermore the SMRU has upgraded its IT facilities to run a virtual regional seismic network composed of the stations on Pantelleria and Lampedusa, together with all the currently publicly available stations in the region. Selected distant seismic stations found elsewhere in the Mediterranean and across the globe have also been incorporated in the system in order to enhance the overall performance of the monitoring and to detect potentially damaging regional earthquakes. Data acquisition and processing of the seismic networks are run by SeisComP. The new installations are part of the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013. The new system allows the SMRU to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentre locations in the region, and issue automatic SMS alert for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network and for strong earthquakes elsewhere. Within the SIMIT project, the alert system will include civil protection departments in Malta and Sicily. We present the recent developments of the real and virtual seismic network, and discuss the

  9. history and operational capability of the ethiopian seismic station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Alemaya (ALME), Asmera (ASME), Dessie (DESE) and. Wendogenet (WNDE). Later on, the portacorders were replaced by Lennartz analog recorders with time marks made by internal clocks and synchronized daily to radio-broadcast time. Substantial amount of data were collected with the old station network and bulletins ...

  10. A comprehensive approach for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring (United States)

    Stabile, T. A.; Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Ferulano, M. F.; Vetri, M. L. V.; Barzaghi, L. P.


    The accurate determination of locations and magnitudes of seismic events in a monitored region is important for many scientific, industrial and military studies and applications; for these purposes a wide variety of seismic networks are deployed throughout the world. It is crucial to know the performance of these networks not only in detecting and locating seismic events of different sizes throughout a specified source region, but also by evaluating their location errors as a function of the magnitude and source location. In this framework, we have developed a method for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring. For a specified network geometry, station characteristics and a target monitoring volume, the method determines the lowest magnitude of events that the seismic network is able to detect (Mwdetect), and locate (Mwloc) and estimates the expected location and origin time errors for a specified magnitude. Many of the features related to the seismic signal recorded at a single station are considered in this methodology, including characteristics of the seismic source, the instrument response, the ambient noise level, wave propagation in a layered, anelastic medium and uncertainties on waveform measures and the velocity model. We applied this method to two different network typologies: a local earthquake monitoring network, Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), installed along the Campania-Lucania Apennine chain in Southern Italy, and a hypothetic borehole network for monitoring microfractures induced during the hydrocarbon extraction process in an oil field. The method we present may be used to aid in enhancing existing networks and/or understanding their capabilities, such as for the ISNet case study, or to optimally design the network geometry in specific target regions, as for the borehole network example.

  11. Sensor Emplacement Techniques and Seismic Noise Analysis for USArray Transportable Array Seismic Stations (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Woodward, R.; Sauter, A.


    In preparation for the upcoming deployment of EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has supported exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement, and communication concepts appropriate for this challenging high-latitude environment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and in the lower-48 of the U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the weight of the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where there are few roads, cellular communications are scarce, most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the state. We will review the methods used for directly emplacing broadband seismometers in comparison to the current methods used for the lower-48 TA. These new methods primarily focus on using a portable drill to make a bored hole three to five meters, beneath the active layer of the permafrost, or by coring 1-2 meters deep into surface bedrock. Both methods are logistically effective in preliminary trials. Subsequent station performance has been assessed quantitatively using probability density functions summed from power spectral density estimates. These are calculated for the continuous time series of seismic data recorded for each channel of the seismometer. There are five test stations currently operating in Alaska. One was deployed in August 2011 and the remaining four in October 2012. Our results show that the performance of seismometers in Alaska with auger-hole or core-hole installations can sometimes exceed that of the quietest TA stations in the lower-48, particularly horizontal components at long periods. A

  12. Impact of sensor installation techniques on seismic network performance (United States)

    Bainbridge, Geoffrey; Laporte, Michael; Baturan, Dario; Greig, Wesley


    The magnitude of completeness (Mc) of a seismic network is determined by a number of factors including station density, self-noise and passband of the sensor used, ambient noise environment and sensor installation method and depth. Sensor installation techniques related to depth are of particular importance due to their impact on overall monitoring network deployment costs. We present a case study which evaluates performance of Trillium Compact Posthole seismometers installed using different methods as well as depths, and evaluate its impact on seismic network operation in terms of the target area of interest average magnitude of completeness in various monitoring applications. We evaluate three sensor installation methods: direct burial in soil at 0.5 m depth, 5 m screwpile and 15 m cemented casing borehole at sites chosen to represent high, medium and low ambient noise environments. In all cases, noise performance improves with depth with noise suppression generally more prominent at higher frequencies but with significant variations from site to site. When extended to overall network performance, the observed noise suppression results in improved (decreased) target area average Mc. However, the extent of the improvement with depth varies significantly, and can be negligible. The increased cost associated with installation at depth uses funds that could be applied to the deployment of additional stations. Using network modelling tools, we compare the improvement in magnitude of completeness and location accuracy associated with increasing installation depth to those associated with increased number of stations. The appropriate strategy is applied on a case-by-case and driven by network-specific performance requirements, deployment constraints and site noise conditions.

  13. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru. (United States)

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.


    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  14. From seismic network optimization to real-time diagnosis of magma migration (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Aoki, Y.


    Triggering mechanism of a seismic swarm has to be identified with great confidence in real time. Crisis response will not be the same whether magma is involved or not. The method based on the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis enables a rapid and unambiguous diagnosis to detect migrating micro-seismicity. Combined with other measurements, this migrating seismicity could be linked to complex motions of magma within the volcanic edifice. The beauty of this method lies in the fact that the ratio of seismic energy recorded at different stations is independent of the seismic energy radiated at the source. Drastic changes in attenuation are unlikely to occur at the time scale of magma intrusion, therefore temporal evolutions in the measured ratio have to be explained by a change in the source location. Based on a simple assumption this technique can be used to assess the potential of existing monitoring seismic network to detect migrating events in real-time. It can also be used to design monitoring seismic network based on the available number of sensors as well as from field constraints. Network capability also depends on the noise level at each station, therefore this noise is used to define the magnitude threshold that can be detected as a function of the distance.

  15. Detecting and Monitoring for Induced Seismicity without a Local Seismic Network: Application to the Youngstown, Ohio Induced Seismic Sequence (United States)

    Holtkamp, S. G.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Currie, B. S.


    From March to December 2011, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Ohio Seismic Network (ODNR OSN) recorded 11 earthquakes in Youngstown, OH. Pumping stopped after a local seismic network was installed in December and showed the earthquakes were nucleating near a nearby wastewater injection well. Unfortunately, 11 events identified by ODNR plus the local data represent a limited characterization of the sequence, making it difficult to confirm a causal relationship between injection and the earthquakes. This is a limitation of traditional seismic techniques, which required an earthquake to be M>~2.0 to be identified by ODNR before the local deployment. While local seismic deployments can provide adequate resolution to test triggering hypotheses, they suffer from two disadvantages: (1) these deployments are costly and scientifically focused, and (2) they only monitor seismicity after they are installed, and so are unable to characterize the beginning of the seismic sequence. Since there are over 200,000 wells associated with energy technologies in the US, it is not reasonable to install or expect local seismic observational capabilities with each potential case of induced seismicity. To address this limitation, we have developed a multiple station template matching (waveform cross correlation) algorithm, which is able to detect events ~10x smaller than traditional techniques, utilizing regional broadband seismometers located within 200km of the earthquakes. With this technique, we detect ~280 earthquakes in the Youngstown earthquake sequence, allowing us to test the correlation between seismicity and injection. We find that the earthquakes started two weeks after injection began and ended 2 weeks after injection ended. Our improved catalog shows that the rate of earthquakes closely follows the injection history, with a gradual rate increase at the beginning of the sequence and an abrupt reduction in earthquake rate after injection ceased. A combination of relative

  16. SISMIKO: emergency network deployment and data sharing for the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Moretti


    Full Text Available At 01:36 UTC (03:36 local time on August 24th 2016, an earthquake Mw 6.0 struck an extensive sector of the central Apennines (coordinates: latitude 42.70° N, longitude 13.23° E, 8.0 km depth. The earthquake caused about 300 casualties and severe damage to the historical buildings and economic activity in an area located near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV located in few minutes the hypocenter near Accumoli, a small town in the province of Rieti. In the hours after the quake, dozens of events were recorded by the National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN of the INGV, many of which had a ML > 3.0. The density and coverage of the RSN in the epicentral area meant the epicenter and magnitude of the main event and subsequent shocks that followed it in the early hours of the seismic sequence were well constrained. However, in order to better constrain the localizations of the aftershock hypocenters, especially the depths, a denser seismic monitoring network was needed. Just after the mainshock, SISMIKO, the coordinating body of the emergency seismic network at INGV, was activated in order to install a temporary seismic network integrated with the existing permanent network in the epicentral area. From August the 24th to the 30th, SISMIKO deployed eighteen seismic stations, generally six components (equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer, with thirteen of the seismic station transmitting in real-time to the INGV seismic monitoring room in Rome. The design and geometry of the temporary network was decided in consolation with other groups who were deploying seismic stations in the region, namely EMERSITO (a group studying site-effects, and the emergency Italian strong motion network (RAN managed by the National Civil Protection Department (DPC. Further 25 BB temporary seismic stations were deployed by colleagues of the British Geological Survey

  17. The Central and Eastern U.S. Seismic Network: Legacy of USArray (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Astiz, L.; Benz, H.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Reyes, J. C.; Sharer, G.; Vernon, F.; Woodward, R.


    As the USArray Transportable Array entered the central and eastern United States, several Federal agencies (National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy) recognized the unique opportunity to retain TA stations beyond the original timeline. The mission of the CEUSN is to produce data that enables researchers and Federal agencies alike to better understand the basic geologic questions, background earthquake rates and distribution, seismic hazard potential, and associated societal risks of this region. The selected long-term sub-array from Transportable Array (TA) stations includes nearly 200 sites, complemented by 100 broadband stations from the existing regional seismic networks to form the Central and Eastern United States Network (CEUSN). Multiple criteria for site selection were weighed by an inter-agency TA Station Selection (TASS) Working Group: seismic noise characteristics, data availability in real time, proximity to nuclear power plants, and homogeneous distribution throughout the region. The Array Network Facility (ANF) started collecting data for CEUSN network stations since late 2013, with all stations collected since May 2014. Regional seismic data streams are collected in real-time from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). TA stations selected to be part of CEUSN, retain the broadband sensor to which a 100 sps channel is added, the infrasound and environmental channels, and, at some stations, accelerometers are deployed. The upgraded sites become part of the N4 network for which ANF provides metadata and can issue remote commands to the station equipment. Stations still operated by TA, but planned for CEUSN, are included in the virtual network so all stations are currently available now. By the end of 2015, the remaining TA stations will be upgraded. Data quality control procedures developed for TA stations at ANF and at the DMC are currently performed on N4 data. However

  18. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network (United States)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.


    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake

  19. New comprehensive standard seismic noise models and 3D seismic noise variation for Morocco territory, North Africa, obtained using seismic broadband stations (United States)

    El Fellah, Younes; El-Aal, Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd; Harnafi, Mimoun; Villaseñor, Antonio


    In the current work, we constructed new comprehensive standard seismic noise models and 3D temporal-spatial seismic noise level cubes for Morocco in north-west Africa to be used for seismological and engineering purposes. Indeed, the original global standard seismic noise models published by Peterson (1993) and their following updates by Astiz and Creager (1995), Ekström (2001) and Berger et al. (2003) had no contributing seismic stations deployed in North Africa. Consequently, this preliminary study was conducted to shed light on seismic noise levels specific to north-west Africa. For this purpose, 23 broadband seismic stations recently installed in different structural domains throughout Morocco are used to study the nature and characteristics of seismic noise and to create seismic noise models for Morocco. Continuous data recorded during 2009, 2010 and 2011 were processed and analysed to construct these new noise models and 3D noise levels from all stations. We compared the Peterson new high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) with the Moroccan high-noise model (MHNM) and low-noise model (MLNM). These new noise models are comparable to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) models in the short period band; however, in the period range 1.2 s to 1000 s for MLNM and 10 s to 1000 s for MHNM display significant variations. This variation is attributed to differences in the nature of seismic noise sources that dominate Morocco in these period bands. The results of this study have a new perception about permanent seismic noise models for this spectacular region and can be considered a significant contribution because it supplements the Peterson models and can also be used to site future permanent seismic stations in Morocco.

  20. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman


    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  1. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa


    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  2. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area. (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa


    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ∼ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ∼ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ∼-0.1 to ∼0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station

  3. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network: Recent Developments (United States)

    Bhadha, R.; Chen, S.; Crummey, J.; Hauksson, E.; Solanki, K.; Thomas, V. I.; Watkins, M.; Yip, R.; Yu, E.; Given, D.; Peats, R.; Schwarz, S.


    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalEMA, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and maintenance of the ANSS Quake Monitoring System (AQMS) software to add new features and improve robustness; 6) Supports the deployment of AQMS to other ANSS member regional seismic networks. The public regularly accesses the CISN, SCSN, and SCEDC web pages for up-to-date quake info and more than 230,000 users subscribe to the Electronic Notification System (ENS) which sends rapid notifications via email and cell phones. We distribute our products via Internet (EIDS), email, and paging, to USGS in Reston and Golden, FEMA, CalEMA, local governments, partner members, and other subscribers. We have developed CISN Display and provide ShakeCast for customers who require real-time earthquake information. The SCSN also exchanges waveform, phase pick, and amplitude data in real-time with several other partner networks, including Menlo Park, UCB, UNR, Anza network, the Tsunami Warning Centers, IRIS, and the NEIC. We operate a number of 24/7 on-call rotations to provide quick response to verify seismic events as well as addressing systems and telemetry issues. As part of our goals to improve quality, robustness, and coverage, some of our recent efforts include: 1) Converting the digital stations in the network to Q330 dataloggers; 2) Developing command and control capabilities such as automated mass re-centering; 3) Migration from serial to Ethernet communications; 4) Clustering of data acquisition servers for fail-over to improve data availability; 5) Use of

  4. Development of real time monitor system displaying seismic waveform data observed at seafloor seismic network, DONET, for disaster management information (United States)

    Horikawa, H.; Takaesu, M.; Sueki, K.; Takahashi, N.; Sonoda, A.; Miura, S.; Tsuboi, S.


    Mega-thrust earthquakes are anticipated to occur in the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan. In the source areas, we have deployed seafloor seismic network, DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis), in 2010 in order to monitor seismicity, crustal deformations, and tsunamis. DONET system consists of totally 20 stations, which is composed of six kinds of sensors, including strong-motion seismometers and quartz pressure gauges. Those stations are densely distributed with an average spatial interval of 15-20 km and cover near the trench axis to coastal areas. Observed data are transferred to a land station through a fiber-optical cable and then to JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) data management center through a private network in real time. After 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, each local government close to Nankai Trough try to plan disaster prevention scheme. JAMSTEC will disseminate DONET data combined with research accomplishment so that they will be widely recognized as important earthquake information. In order to open DONET data observed for research to local government, we have developed a web application system, REIS (Real-time Earthquake Information System). REIS is providing seismic waveform data to some local governments close to Nankai Trough as a pilot study. As soon as operation of DONET is ready, REIS will start full-scale operation. REIS can display seismic waveform data of DONET in real-time, users can select strong motion and pressure data, and configure the options of trace view arrangement, time scale, and amplitude. In addition to real-time monitoring, REIS can display past seismic waveform data and show earthquake epicenters on the map. In this presentation, we briefly introduce DONET system and then show our web application system. We also discuss our future plans for further developments of REIS.

  5. Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Backbone Network: Data and Seismic Metadata (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ANSS Backbone Network is based on the core of the original US National Seismic Network. In partnership with the National Science Foundation, the USGS worked with...

  6. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN (United States)

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.


    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  7. Management of seismic data on network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bu Heung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    KIGAM has managed magnetic tapes written in seismic data acquired in Korea offshore and abroad since 1979. For now, it amounts about 13,000 tapes and other documents of seismic data are reserved by KIGAM also. For handling with them, FOX-PRO database management system has been used since 1993. In case of one user, it seems useful and convenient because the program is very easy to use and many well done utility was provided. In contrast with that, it has many problems also. For example, a user who wants to query information of these magnetic tapes must go magnetic tape room where the system is installed and he must know how to use the utilities of the FOX-PRO database management system. For the reason of above, the seismic data processing team attempted to change the FOX-PRO system with other client-server system supports networking on internet. After many testing and considering, they selected like as following hardware and software( System: PC with networking, OS: Linux and Unix, Software: Just Logic/SQL). The main reasons for selecting above system, first, any kinds of personal computer are available and easy to get. Secondly, Linux and Unix OS are good for using network. Especially, Linux is free and easy to get on many internet ftp sites. Lastly Just Logic/SQL is for client-server system, supports Linux OS and the programming style is very similar to C language. The contents of this report are as follows. In chapter 2, the Just Logic/SQL system structure and existing files through the sub-directories are showed and commented. In chapter 3, the statements using in Just Logic/SQL are explained and some examples are showed. In chapter 4, shows two example programs making seismic database including rack list, optical disk table respectively. The rack list table is the database of magnetic tapes managed by KIGAM. The optical disk table is the information record about how many, what tapes are converted to optical disk. (author). 4 tabs.

  8. The European Virtual Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) and ORFEUS (United States)

    van Eck, Torild; Sleeman, Reinoud; van den, Gert-Jan Hazel; Networks, Contributing


    Since 2002 ORFEUS has been coordinating the VEBSN concept, in which (near) real-time data is exchanged between Seismological observatory networks and the Orfeus Data Center (ODC). Seismological observatories in and around Europe have usually as primary objective the monitoring and analysis of current local and regional seismicity and seismic hazard. The data gathered by the observatories is, however, also valuable for fundamental research within global and European scale seismology; and therefore a primary data source for Academic seismological research. Within the VEBSN concept, the ODC provides and improves Quality control procedures for the observatories and the observatories provide real-time data for long-term secure waveform data archives at the ODC accessible for seismological research. In this concept the data remains ownership of the contributing network, while the ODC provides a secure back-up archive of waveform data. By facilitating a few data exchange mechanism with emphasis on SeedLink, the VEBSN strategy also enables observatories to exchange data between each other, thus enhancing the capabilities of the local or regional network and improving its performance for their monitoring and hazard objectives More recently, the ODC has been enlarged into the European Distributed waveform Data Archive (EIDA) in which currently GFZ/GEOFON, INGV and RESIF participate in an effort to extend the accessible waveform archive beyond only the VEBSN data. Currently the VEBSN consists of more then 450 3-component stations, each channel well defined with a full up-to-date SEED volume, providing all relevant metadata for a full reconstruction of the true ground motion. This encompases only about 45% of the operational BB stations in the European-Mediterranean area and our goal is to enlarge this.

  9. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Enprima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. In the beginning, the network consisted of six seismic stations. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the years 2002 - 2004. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The longest interruption occurred 16.-17.6.2004, when two new seismic stations were installed in the network and the operation procedure was changed. Altogether 757 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -3.5 to ML = 1.2. All of them are explosions or other artificial events. So far, none of the 757 observed events can be classified as microearthquakes. Five of the events have characteristics that make the origin of the recorded signal uncertain. They are quite unlikely microearthquakes, but they are not typical examples of artificial seismic signals either. When the experience and the data set of the Olkiluoto microearthquakes increase the identification of events will be more definite. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. (orig.)

  10. Seismic Noise Analysis and Reduction through Utilization of Collocated Seismic and Atmospheric Sensors at the GRO Chile Seismic Network (United States)

    Farrell, M. E.; Russo, R. M.


    The installation of Earthscope Transportable Array-style geophysical observatories in Chile expands open data seismic recording capabilities in the southern hemisphere by nearly 30%, and has nearly tripled the number of seismic stations providing freely-available data in southern South America. Through the use of collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at these stations we are able to analyze how local atmospheric conditions generate seismic noise, which can degrade data in seismic frequency bands at stations in the ';roaring forties' (S latitudes). Seismic vaults that are climate-controlled and insulated from the local environment are now employed throughout the world in an attempt to isolate seismometers from as many noise sources as possible. However, this is an expensive solution that is neither practical nor possible for all seismic deployments; and also, the increasing number and scope of temporary seismic deployments has resulted in the collection and archiving of terabytes of seismic data that is affected to some degree by natural seismic noise sources such as wind and atmospheric pressure changes. Changing air pressure can result in a depression and subsequent rebound of Earth's surface - which generates low frequency noise in seismic frequency bands - and even moderate winds can apply enough force to ground-coupled structures or to the surface above the seismometers themselves, resulting in significant noise. The 10 stations of the permanent Geophysical Reporting Observatories (GRO Chile), jointly installed during 2011-12 by IRIS and the Chilean Servicio Sismológico, include instrumentation in addition to the standard three seismic components. These stations, spaced approximately 300 km apart along the length of the country, continuously record a variety of atmospheric data including infrasound, air pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. The collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at each station allow us to analyze both datasets together, to

  11. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain eruptive sequences (United States)

    Caudron, C.; Taisne, B.; Garces, M. A.


    The Kelud eruption was one of the strongest volcanic eruption of the decade. The eruption occurred on the 13th of February 2014 and ejected volcanic ash up to 20 km of altitude. The eruption also destroyed most of the instruments deployed in the near field. Therefore, not much information could be unraveled from the local volcano monitoring system. An explosion was clearly captured at many infrasound stations of the IMS network (and in Singapore), making it one of the biggest volcanic events recorded by the network. The high intensity, deep frequency, and infrasonic detection range of >10,000 km is characteristic of an eruptive column that injects ash into aircraft cruising altitudes and is an evident threat to aviation. The explosion signal was particularly rich in very long periods (~ 200s) and could be resolved as two distinct pulses at some sites. Interestingly, many broadband seismic instruments also recorded this event as far as 5000 kilometers. By inspecting the seismic data of the instruments located closer to the edifice (~ 150 km), we could clearly distinguish two different pulses separated by 17 minutes, followed by the arrival of very low frequencies (thanks to the coupling between ground and atmosphere). One pulse vs two pulses might have strong implications for the subsequent ash modelling. Due to the violence of the events, 4 stations out of 5 were destructed and the remaining one was saturated. This illustrates that data streams from broadband seismometers and infrasound sensors located at safe distances are extremely useful for deciphering the dynamic of the eruption and its implication in term of local, regional and global impact.

  12. How a Country-Wide Seismological Network Can Improve Understanding of Seismicity and Seismic Hazard -- The Example of Bhutan (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Diehl, T.; Singer, J.; Kissling, E. H.; Clinton, J. F.; Wiemer, S.


    The Eastern Himalayas are home to a seemingly complex seismo-tectonic evolution. The rate of instrumental seismicity is lower than the average along the orogen, there is no record of large historical events, but both paleoseismology and GPS studies point to potentially large (M>8) earthquakes. Due to the lack of a permanent seismic monitoring system in the area, our current level of understanding is inappropriate to create a reliable quantitative seismic hazard model for the region. Existing maps are based on questionable hypotheses and show major inconsistencies when compared to each other. Here we present results on national and regional scales from a 38-station broadband seismological network we operated for almost 2 years in the Kingdom of Bhutan. A thorough, state-of-the-art analysis of local and regional earthquakes builds a comprehensive catalogue that reveals significantly (2-to-3 orders of magnitude) more events than detected from global networks. The seismotectonic analysis reveals new patterns of seismic activity as well as striking differences over relatively short distances within the Himalayas, only partly explained by surface observations such as geology. We compare a priori and a posteriori (BMC) magnitude of completeness maps and show that our network was able to detect all felt events during its operation. Some of these events could be felt at surprisingly large distances. Based on our experiment and experience, we draft the pillars on which a permanent seismological observatory for Bhutan could be constructed. Such a continuous monitoring system of seismic activity could then lead to a reliable quantitative seismic hazard model for Bhutan and surrounding regions, and serve as a base to improve building codes and general preparedness.

  13. Automated Moment Tensor Solution for the Southern California Seismic Network (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Hauksson, E.; Solanki, K.


    Automatically generated moment tensor solutions have recently been added to the suite of real-time products produced by the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN/CISN). The moment magnitude, Mw, and the moment tensor are available within minutes for all regional earthquakes that trigger the network with Ml>4.0, and in special cases for events between Ml 3.5-4.0. The method uses the 1-D Time-Domain INVerse Code (TDMT_INVC) software package developed by Doug Dreger, which is routinely used in real-time by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory. Green's Functions are determined for various velocity profiles in Southern California, which are used in the inversion of observed three component broadband waveforms (10s-100s) for a number of stations. The duty seismologists will review the automatically generated solution before distribution. A web-interface has been developed to evaluate the quality of the automatic solution, and determine whether it meets the minimum requirements for an immediate distribution. Simple modifications to the stations selected for the inversion are possible, and the inversion can be re-run to optimise the solution. The Mw determined with this method will be the official SCSN/CISN Mw solution for the event. Comparisons of the moment tensors determined using this 1-D model are made with 3-D models generated for larger earthquakes in the Southern California to facilitate calibration of the automated algorithm.

  14. Mikhnevo: from seismic station no. 1 to a modern geophysical observatory (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Sanina, I. A.; Riznichenko, O. Yu.


    The Mikhnevo seismic station was founded in accordance with directive no. 1134 RS of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union of February 6, 1954. The station, installed south of Moscow, began its operations on monitoring nuclear tests in the United States and England in 1954. For dozens of years this station was the leading experimental base for elaborating new technical solutions and methods for monitoring nuclear explosions, equipped with modern seismological instruments. At present, the focus of activities has been moved from military applications to fundamental geophysical research. The station preserves its leading position in seismological observations due to the development of national high-performance digital instruments and creation of the small-aperture seismic array, the only one in the central part of European Russia, which is capable of recording weak seismic events with M L ≥ 1.5 within a distance of 100 km.


    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  16. Predicting the performance of local seismic networks using Matlab and Google Earth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul


    We have used Matlab and Google Earth to construct a prototype application for modeling the performance of local seismic networks for monitoring small, contained explosions. Published equations based on refraction experiments provide estimates of peak ground velocities as a function of event distance and charge weight. Matlab routines implement these relations to calculate the amplitudes across a network of stations from sources distributed over a geographic grid. The amplitudes are then compared to ambient noise levels at the stations, and scaled to determine the smallest yield that could be detected at each source location by a specified minimum number of stations. We use Google Earth as the primary user interface, both for positioning the stations of a hypothetical local network, and for displaying the resulting detection threshold contours.

  17. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion (United States)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.


    such as ANSS, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Bradley Lake Dam, Red Dog Mine, The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, and City and State Emergency Managers has helped link vast networks together so that the overall data transition can be varied. This lessens the likelihood of having a single point of failure for an entire network. Robust communication is key to retrieving seismic data. AEIC has gone through growing pains learning how to harden our network and encompassing the many types of telemetry that can be utilized in today's world. Redundant telemetry paths are a goal that is key to retrieving data, however at times this is not feasible with the vast size and terrain in Alaska. We will demonstrate what has worked for us and what our network consists of.

  18. Calibration and Recovery of Nuclear Test Seismic Ground-Motion Data from the Leo Brady Seismic Network (United States)

    Young, B.; Abbott, R. E.


    In 1960, Sandia National Laboratories established a small seismic network with stations in Nevada, Utah, and California with the mission to monitor underground nuclear tests (UGTs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). Over time, this seismic network came to be known as the Leo Brady Seismic Network (LBSN). The LBSN recorded approximately 800 UGTs at the NNSS from its inception through the end of testing in 1992. These irreplaceable data, mostly archived on analog, frequency-modulated magnetic tapes and stored in vaults, are now being digitized. This necessitated a calibration method to take the data from analog FM to digital counts to ground-motion units. Complicating the issue, the seismic system setup, telemetering, instrumentation, and calibration methods changed several times over the course of the LBSN's service life, and much of the documentation and knowledge of the system has been lost to time. The information necessary to understand, interpret, and ultimately calibrate these data was therefore collected from many disparate sources, each of which contains bits and pieces of relevant information. Contradictory information was often the rule rather than the exception. Where necessary (due to a lack of direct information) we made educated guesses as to the exact system, setup, and methodologies used. Ultimately, we documented the evolution and configuration of the seismic network, and determined both empirical and analytical approaches to calibrating these data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. ULF radio monitoring network in a seismic area (United States)

    Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru


    ULF monitoring is a part of a multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains). Four radio receivers (100 kHz - microwave) placed on faults in a high seismic area characterized by deep earthquakes detect fairly weak radio waves. The radio power is recorded in correlation with many other parameters related to near surface low atmosphere phenomena (seismicity, solar radiation, air ionization, electromagnetic activity, radon, CO2 concentration, atmospheric pressure, telluric currents, infrasound, seismo-acoustic emission, meteorological information). We follow variations in the earth's surface propagate radio waves avoiding reflection on ionosphere. For this reason the distance between stations is less than 60 km and the main source of emission is near (Bod broadcasting transmitter for long- and medium-wave radio, next to Brasov city). In the same time tectonic stress affects the radio propagation in air and it could generates ULF waves in ground (LAI coupling). To reduce the uncertainty is necessary to monitor a location for extended periods of time to outline local and seasonal fluctuations. Solar flares do not affect seismic activity but they produce disturbances in telecommunications networks and power grids. Our ULF monitoring correlated with two local magnetometers does not indicate this so far with our receivers. Our analysis was made during magnetic storms with Kp 7 and 8 according to NOAA satellites. To correlate the results we implemented an application that monitors the satellite EUTELSAT latency compared to WiMAX land communication in the same place. ULF band radio monitoring showed that our receiver is dependent on temperature and that it is necessary to introduce a band pass filter in data analysis. ULF data acquisition is performed by Kinemetrics and National Instruments digitizers with a sampling rate of 100 Hz in Miniseed format and then converted into text files with 1 Hz rate for analysis in very low

  20. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV (United States)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.


    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  1. Seismic Tomography of Siyazan - Shabran Oil and Gas Region Of Azerbaijan by Data of The Seismic Stations (United States)

    Yetirmishli, Gurban; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Nazim; Kazimova, Sabina; Ismailova, Saida


    The main purpose of the research was to build a reliable 3D model of the structure of seismic velocities in the earth crust on the territory of Siyazan-Shabran region of Azerbaijan, using the data of seismic telemetry stations spanning Siyazan-Shabran region (Siyazan, Altiagaj, Pirgulu, Guba, Khinalig, Gusar), including 7 mobile telemetry seismic stations. Interest to the problem of research seismic tomography caused by applied environmental objectives, such as the assessment of geological risks, engineering evaluation (stability and safety of wells), the task of exploration and mining operations. In the study region are being actively developed oil fields, and therefore, there is a risk of technogenic earthquakes. It was performed the calculation of first arrival travel times of P and S waves and the corresponding ray paths. Calculate 1D velocity model which is the initial model as a set of horizontal layers (velocity may be constant or changed linearly with depth on each layer, gaps are possible only at the boundaries between the layers). Have been constructed and analyzed the horizontal sections of the three-dimensional velocity model at different depths of the investigated region. By the empirical method was proposed density model of the sedimentary rocks at depths of 0-8 km.

  2. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (United States)

    Eveslage, Ingmar; Fischer, Joachim; Kühnlenz, Frank; Lichtblau, Björn; Milkereit, Claus; Picozzi, Matteo


    The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures (as we could proof during the L'Aquila earthquake) or technical systems and most recently for seismic microzonation. Nevertheless the main purpose SOSEWIN was initially invented for is the earthquake early warning and rapid response, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and processed within a station. Based on this, the network itself decides whether an event is detected cooperatively in a two-level hierarchical alarming protocol. Experiences and experiment results with the SOSEWIN-prototype installation in the Ataköy district of Istanbul (Turkey) are presented. The limited size of this installation with currently 20 nodes allows not answering certain questions regarding the useful or possible size of a SOSEWIN installation

  3. Detection of rainfall-induced landslides on regional seismic networks (United States)

    Manconi, Andrea; Coviello, Velio; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Picozzi, Matteo


    Seismic techniques are increasingly adopted to detect signals induced by mass movements and to quantitatively evaluate geo-hydrological hazards at different spatial and temporal scales. By analyzing landslide-induced seismicity, it is possible obtaining significant information on the source of the mass wasting, as well as on its dynamics. However, currently only few studies have performed a systematic back analysis on comprehensive catalogues of events to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithms. In this work, we analyze a catalogue of 1058 landslides induced by rainfall in Italy. Among these phenomena, there are 234 rock falls, 55 debris flows, 54 mud flows, and 715 unspecified shallow landslides. This is a subset of a larger catalogue collected by the Italian research institute for geo-hydrological protection (CNR IRPI) during the period 2000-2014 (Brunetti et al., 2015). For each record, the following information are available: the type of landslide; the geographical location of the landslide (coordinates, site, municipality, province, and 3 classes of geographic accuracy); the temporal information on the landslide occurrence (day, month, year, time, date, and 3 classes of temporal accuracy); the rainfall conditions (rainfall duration and cumulated event rainfall) that have resulted in the landslide. We consider here only rainfall-induced landslides for which exact date and time were known from chronicle information. The analysis of coeval seismic data acquired by regional seismic networks show clear signals in at least 3 stations for 64 events (6% of the total dataset). Among them, 20 are associated to local earthquakes and 2 to teleseisms; 10 are anomalous signals characterized by irregular and impulsive waveforms in both time and frequency domains; 33 signals are likely associated to the landslide occurrence, as they have a cigar-shaped waveform characterized by emerging onsets, duration of several tens of seconds, and low frequencies (1-10 Hz). For

  4. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2011. Excavation of the underground characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2011 Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of ONKALO. The configuration of the seismic network as well as the software packages applied in data processing and analyses have remained during the previous year. The design model of ONKALO and the brittle fault zone model of the Olkiluoto of the seismic visualization package Jdi were upgraded in 2011. The network has operated nearly continuously. There was a 14 minutes and 30 second long operation failure in December 2011. That was the first network operation failure in five years. Altogether 1223 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. Most of them (1098) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semiregional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1064 events). The magnitudes of the observed explosions inside the

  5. RMT focal plane sensitivity to seismic network geometry and faulting style (United States)

    Johnson, Kendra L.; Hayes, Gavin; Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, Harley M.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Bergman, Eric A.


    Modern tectonic studies often use regional moment tensors (RMTs) to interpret the seismotectonic framework of an earthquake or earthquake sequence; however, despite extensive use, little existing work addresses RMT parameter uncertainty. Here, we quantify how network geometry and faulting style affect RMT sensitivity. We examine how data-model fits change with fault plane geometry (strike and dip) for varying station configurations. We calculate the relative data fit for incrementally varying geometries about a best-fitting solution, applying our workflow to real and synthetic seismograms for both real and hypothetical station distributions and earthquakes. Initially, we conduct purely observational tests, computing RMTs from synthetic seismograms for hypothetical earthquakes and a series of well-behaved network geometries. We then incorporate real data and station distributions from the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD), which recorded aftershocks of the 2010 MW 8.8 Maule earthquake, and a set of regional stations capturing the ongoing earthquake sequence in Oklahoma and southern Kansas. We consider RMTs computed under three scenarios: (1) real seismic records selected for high data quality; (2) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for the observed source-station pairings and (3) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for all possible station-source pairings. To assess RMT sensitivity for each test, we observe the ‘fit falloff’, which portrays how relative fit changes when strike or dip varies incrementally; we then derive the ranges of acceptable strikes and dips by identifying the span of solutions with relative fits larger than 90 per cent of the best fit. For the azimuthally incomplete IMAD network, Scenario 3 best constrains fault geometry, with average ranges of 45° and 31° for strike and dip, respectively. In Oklahoma, Scenario 3 best constrains fault dip with an average range of 46°; however, strike is best constrained

  6. Site effects in the Amatrice municipality through dense seismic network and detailed geological-geophysical survey (United States)

    Cultrera, Giovanna; Cardinali, Mauro; de Franco, Roberto; Gallipoli, Maria Rosaria; Pacor, Francesca; Pergalani, Floriana; Milana, Giuliano; Moscatelli, Massimiliano


    After the first mainshock of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, several Italian Institutions (under the umbrella of the Italian Center for Seismic Microzonation; conducted a preparatory survey to seismic microzonation of the Amatrice municipality, badly affected by the Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake of August 24. Despite the difficulties due to the heavily damaged investigated area and the winter weather condition, a large amount of different data were gathered in a very short time: (i) geological and geomorphological surveys (field trip and photo-geological interpretation), (ii) geophysical measurements (noise single-station and arrays, geoelectric, seismic refraction, MASW), and (iii) continuous seismic recordings from temporary network. In particular, 35 seismic stations were installed from half-September to early-December in an area of 170 km2, equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer. They recorded thousands of earthquakes, including the Mw 6.5 of October 30, 2016; the continuous data will be organized in the EIDA repository ( through the INGV EIDA-node. The sites selection was performed according to the following criteria: representativeness of the geological conditions of 26 hamlets that experienced a damage level greater than VII MCS degree, optimization of the network geometry for array analysis, redundancy of bedrock reference sites, safety and accessibility. The photo-geology and the field investigations allowed the realization of a detailed geological-technical map of the area, characterized by peculiar features, namely the distinction between bedrock and Quaternary deposits (alluvial deposits and terraces, alluvial fans, landslides) and morpho-structural features (faults, folds, bedding attitude). Preliminary results allowed also the evaluation of the velocity models that show surface shear wave velocities (Vs) ranging from 200 m/s to 600 m/s. Data analysis of

  7. Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert B.


    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  8. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance (United States)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.


    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  9. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang


    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  10. Prediction of the seismic behavior of an underground railway station and a tunnel in Napoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fabozzi


    Overall, the results of the study demonstrated that the seismic increments of internal forces in the diaphragm walls of the station and in the segmented lining of the tunnel were quite significant. The case study encourages improving the reliability of simplified methods based on the more advanced dynamic approaches.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Northern New Mexico Seismic Network and seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cash, D.J.


    The Northern New Mexico Seismic Network (NNMSN) is described and the research conducted there briefly discussed. Its purpose is to: (1) monitor seismic activity that can pose a risk to the Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) monitor induced seismicity that might result from the Laboratory's experimental activities, such as the Hot Dry Rock project; (3) provide data for research in test ban verification; and (4) provide data for fundamental research in seismology, tectonics, and geologic structure of the Rio Grande Rift and the Jemez Mountains. (ACR)

  12. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.


    The NI broadband seismic network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity of North East Italy and surroundings as well as to provide high quality data for various research projects in regional and global broadband seismology, like moment tensor determination. The network, grown during the last 30 years within local Civil Defence agencies and neighbouring scientific institutions cooperation, currently consists of 11 digital broadband stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 and STS-1, Nanometrics Trillium 40 and Guralp CMG-3T seismometers with 120 and 40 seconds long period corners; most of the seismic stations are also equipped with accelerometers. Waveforms and parametric data of the NI seismic network are transmitted in real time to the Friuli-Venezia Giulia,Veneto and Provincia di Trento Civil Defence Agencies, to the Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and to the Earth Science Department (DST) of the Trieste University in Italy, to the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna, Austria and to the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO) in Ljubljana, Slovenia to support emergency management and seismological studies in the whole Alps-Dinarides junction zone. The commercial Antelope software suite from BRTT has been chosen as the common basis for real time data exchange, rapid location of earthquakes and alerting. In order to guarantee high quality installations, we sustain a continuous effort that involves searches for appropriate sites, away from sources of long period noise, improvements in installation procedures and insulation techniques, maintenance of transfer function files and routine monitoring of noise conditions at individual existing station. The quality of the seismic data is checked through the noise Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis. The insulation equipment that we designed for our network is a local adaptation of the pressure-thermal insulation

  13. AfricaArray: Building science capacity and improving seismic networks in Africa (United States)

    Nyblade, A.; Dirks, P.; Graham, G.


    AfricaArray is a long-term initiative to promote coupled training and research programs in geophysics for building and maintaining a scientific workforce for Africa's natural resource sector. The main goals of AfricaArray are to: 1) maintain and develop further geophysical training programs in Africa, in response to industry, government and university needs, 2) promote geophysical research in Africa, and establish an Africa-to-Africa research support system, 3) obtain geophysical data, through a network of shared observatories, to study scientific targets of economic and societal interest, as well as fundamental geological processes shaping the African continent. AfricaArray is supported by a public-private partnership consisting of many government organizations in the US and Africa, and mining and oil companies. AfricaArray has been built on existing programs and expertise within partner institutions and is being implemented in three phases over ten years. During Phase 1 (1/2005 - 12/2007), the educational program at the University of the Witwatersrand is being expanded and improved to provide B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree training in geophysics for students from across Africa. Seismic stations are being installed or upgraded in participating countries to form a network of shared scientific observatories, and technical personnel are being trained to operate and maintain the seismic equipment. Data from the seismic stations are being used for student thesis research projects, and the seismic network is helping to catalyze scientific community building through educational and research collaborations. During subsequent phases (2007-2014), the in-situ education and research program will grow to provide B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. training for many more African students, the network of shared scientific observatories will be expanded, temporary networks of seismic stations will be installed, sustainable centers of excellence in geophysics will be established at other

  14. Supervised machine learning on a network scale: application to seismic event classification and detection (United States)

    Reynen, Andrew; Audet, Pascal


    A new method using a machine learning technique is applied to event classification and detection at seismic networks. This method is applicable to a variety of network sizes and settings. The algorithm makes use of a small catalogue of known observations across the entire network. Two attributes, the polarization and frequency content, are used as input to regression. These attributes are extracted at predicted arrival times for P and S waves using only an approximate velocity model, as attributes are calculated over large time spans. This method of waveform characterization is shown to be able to distinguish between blasts and earthquakes with 99 per cent accuracy using a network of 13 stations located in Southern California. The combination of machine learning with generalized waveform features is further applied to event detection in Oklahoma, United States. The event detection algorithm makes use of a pair of unique seismic phases to locate events, with a precision directly related to the sampling rate of the generalized waveform features. Over a week of data from 30 stations in Oklahoma, United States are used to automatically detect 25 times more events than the catalogue of the local geological survey, with a false detection rate of less than 2 per cent. This method provides a highly confident way of detecting and locating events. Furthermore, a large number of seismic events can be automatically detected with low false alarm, allowing for a larger automatic event catalogue with a high degree of trust.

  15. Integration of a permanent OBS offshore NE Iberian Peninsula to the Catalan Seismic Network (United States)

    Frontera, T.; Olivera, C.; Jara, J. A.; Goula, X.; Ugalde, A.


    On August 2005 a permanent ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) and a differential pressure gauge (DPG) were installed inside the security perimeter of the Casablanca oil platform (40 km offshore Tarragona, NE Spain), within the framework of a project which has the aim of improving the knowledge of the seismicity and seismic risk in the region. This project is being carried out by the Institut Geològic de Catalunya (IGC) and the Observatori de l'Ebre, in collaboration with the Spanish oil company Repsol Investigaciones Petrolíferas. The sensors were submerged at about 400 m to the SW of the oil platform and were deposited at about 150 m in depth. Data are digitized on-site and are transmitted through a submarine cable to the platform, where they are recorded. In July 2007 via satellite signal transmission was implemented to have continuous and real time data, which allowed integrating the OBS into the Catalan Seismic Network. Since 1999 the objectives of the Catalan Seismic Network are, on the one hand, providing rapid information for Civil Defence Services and society in general and, on the other hand, to obtain systematically high quality data for the scientific community. This real time system is based on a VSAT seismic network and it has been implemented in Catalonia (Spain) by the IGC. The project of the network was planned to create robust, high performance field infrastructures through the installation of up to 21 stations equipped with three component broad band sensors and a high dynamic range and it has been developed in several steps. In 2009, 18 stations are operative: 14 broad band and 3 accelerometers on land and one broad band OBS. The stations are based on VSAT platforms that are transmitting continuously almost real time seismic data via satellite to the IGC hub. Once at seismic data reception centre data are continuously archived and processed with an automatic system. A study of the OBS signal in terms of noise has been made and compared to the

  16. MyShake: Initial Observations from a Global Smartphone Seismic Network (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.


    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It has two component: an android application running on the personal smartphones to detect earthquake-like motion, and a network detection algorithm to aggregate results from multiple smartphones to detect earthquakes. The MyShake application was released to the public on Feb 12th 2016. Within the first 5 months, there are more than 200 earthquakes recorded by the smartphones all over the world, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Greece, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. In this presentation, we will show the waveforms we recorded from the smartphones for different earthquakes, and the evidences for using this data as a supplementary to the current earthquake early warning system. We will also show the performance of MyShake system during the some earthquakes in US. In short, MyShake smartphone seismic network can be a nice complementary system to the current traditional seismic network, at the same time, it can be a standalone system in places where few seismic stations were installed to reduce the earthquake hazards.

  17. Introduction of digital object identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks (United States)

    Evans, Peter; Strollo, Angelo; Clark, Adam; Ahern, Tim; Newman, Rob; Clinton, John; Pequegnat, Catherine; Pedersen, Helle


    Proper attribution for scientific source data is important in promoting transparency and recognising the role of data providers in science. Data sets such as those produced by seismic networks now need to be citable and permanently locatable for research users. Recently the EIDA and IRIS-DMC communities have worked together on development of methods for generation, maintenance and promotion of persistent identifiers for seismic networks. This resulted in a 2014 Recommendation by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) on the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks. These can be cited equivalently to scientific papers, and tools such as DataCite allow the tracking of citations to these datasets. The GEOFON, IRIS and RESIF data centres have now begun to roll-out of these seismic network DOIs. This has involved working with principal investigators to prepare metadata consistent with the FDSN recommendation, preparation of landing pages, and changes to the web sites to promote DOIs where available. This has involved preparing improved descriptions of the data (metadata) and clarifying how individuals and institutions should best be recognised for their contributions to making the data available. We illustrate this process for a few representative networks. We will be in contact with additional network operators to help them establish DOIs for their networks in future.

  18. CASE-IPY: autonomous seismic stations newly deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau (United States)

    Leveque, Jean-Jacques; Maggi, Alessia; Souriau, Annie; Wittlinger, Gerard


    The Concordia Seismic Experiment CASE-IPY, set up for the International Polar Year, aims at deploying 5 to 8 autonomous seismic stations on the East Antarctic Plateau between Concordia (Dome C) and Vostok. It is part of the international POLENET initiative, and is coordinated with the GAMSEIS (USA-China-Japan) deployment in the region of Gamburtsev mountains. The general purpose of these projects is both to dramatically improve the coverage of the plateau to get a better knowledge of the underlying crustal and lithospheric structures, and to record waves travelling through the inner core along polar paths, that are rare, though critical for core studies. After a phase of preliminary tests, and delays due to logistical possibilities in the region, several stations have been deployed in January 2010. We will present the first results obtained from signal recorded up to now on these stations and from other signals recorded similarly on seismometers lying over several kilometers of ice.

  19. Seismic sources near Jang Bogo Station, Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica (United States)

    Kong, C.; Kang, T. S.


    The Jang Bogo Research Station is the second Korean Antarctic base which was build in Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, in the southeastern part of Antarctica in 2014. For the purpose of monitoring various natural seismic signals as well as local earthquakes in and around the station, two broadband seismographs were installed within the station compound and were operated during the second overwintering period from December 2014 to November 2015. Seismic data were continuously recorded during the period, and thus they might deliver much of information on the natural and artificial phenomena in the vicinity of the station. From both the temporal and spectral analyses, it was revealed that the continuous data are consisted of various types of event waveforms which are strongly correlated with variety of seismic sources. Event waveforms are classified into major four categories in accordance with their origin: tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, cryogenic events such as icequakes, and atmospheric perturbation. Besides typical waveforms from local and teleseismic earthquakes, local volcano-related signals are expected. A prime source of those signals is Mt. Melbourne which is the only active volcano on the Antarctic mainland and is located in about 30 km northeast of the Jang Bogo station. While no magma eruption occurred during the overwinter period, phreatic eruptions of gases at the summit of Mt. Melbourne were observed sporadically. Seismic sources of the ice-related signal are associated with the Campbell glacier which is originated from the end of Mesa Range in Victoria Land. The Campbell glacier flows into Terra Nova Bay in Ross Sea and forms Campbell ice tongue that is a seaward extension of the glacier. The fast-flowing movement of the glacier appears to generate seismic signals observed at the station. Sometimes katabatic winds, which are downslope winds transiently blowing from Mt. Browning during the Antarctic winter period, massaged the ground and thus

  20. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.


    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  1. An Assessment of the Seismicity of the Bursa Region from a Temporary Seismic Network (United States)

    Gok, Elcin; Polat, Orhan


    A temporary earthquake station network of 11 seismological recorders was operated in the Bursa region, south of the Marmara Sea in the northwest of Turkey, which is located at the southern strand of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). We located 384 earthquakes out of a total of 582 recorded events that span the study area between 28.50-30.00°E longitudes and 39.75-40.75°N latitudes. The depth of most events was found to be less than 29 km, and the magnitude interval ranges were between 0.3 ≤ ML ≤ 5.4, with RMS less than or equal to 0.2. Seismic activities were concentrated southeast of Uludag Mountain (UM), in the Kestel-Igdir area and along the Gemlik Fault (GF). In the study, we computed 10 focal mechanisms from temporary and permanents networks. The predominant feature of the computed focal mechanisms is the relatively widespread near horizontal northwest-southeast (NW-SE) T-axis orientation. These fault planes have been used to obtain the orientation and shape factor (R, magnitude stress ratio) of the principal stress tensors (σ1, σ2, σ3). The resulting stress tensors reveal σ1 closer to the vertical (oriented NE-SW) and σ2, σ3 horizontal with R = 0.5. These results confirm that Bursa and its vicinity could be defined by an extensional regime showing a primarily normal to oblique-slip motion character. It differs from what might be expected from the stress tensor inversion for the NAFZ. Different fault patterns related to structural heterogeneity from the north to the south in the study area caused a change in the stress regime from strike-slip to normal faulting.

  2. ShakeMap at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (United States)

    Hartog, R.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Gustafson, B.; Malone, S.; Palmer, S.; Pratt, T.; Steele, B.; Vidale, J.; Wald, D.; Weaver, C.; Wong, I.


    We summarize efforts to tailor ShakeMap to the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN), and to increase the resolution in the major urban areas. Our initial implementation of ShakeMap employed parameters based on data from mostly larger earthquakes outside the Pacific Northwest. The PNSN automatically generates a 45- arcsec ShakeMap for any earthquake of Md ≥ 3.0 in the Puget Sound region and for Md ≥ 4.0 earthquakes in Washington and Oregon. ShakeMap uses 3-component, real-time data from 91 strong motion, 34 broadband, and 70 Earthscope Transportable Array stations. We also automatically incorporate data from dial- up stations of the National Strong Motion Program. High-resolution (7.2 arcsec) ShakeMaps for the Seattle area have just come on-line thanks to the availability of a new, more detailed geologic map. We use data from the PNSN and other sources to derive new region-specific ground motion attenuation relations and site corrections. Preliminary results suggest that default attenuation relations included with the ShakeMap package over-predict Pacific Northwest ground motions, especially at larger distances and for deep (≥ 20km) earthquakes. We will make similar comparisons with the Next Generation Attenuation relations, to be used in future ShakeMap releases, and modify the relations if warranted. To improve site corrections we compared site amplification measurements and local magnitude residuals (available for most of the PNSN stations) to measured values of Vs30 at co-located and nearby sites. These correlate well and thus provide useful proxies for Vs30 for use in ShakeMap. We also found correlations between Vs30 estimates and the age and rock type of mapped geologic units, providing a geologically constrained means of interpolating between sites with more direct Vs30 estimates. Finally, our ShakeMaps will improve because we continue to add stations to the PNSN, providing additional direct measures of ground motion.

  3. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  4. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michelini


    Full Text Available The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC. RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI. The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of

  5. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio


    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  6. History and operational capability of the Ethiopian Seismic Station ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The earthquake locations estimated using data from our own network are found to be reliable with reasonable accuracy. A total of 15 earthquakes are located in this pilot study of which only four are captured by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) bulletin and all lie along the rift in Afar and the main Ethiopian rift ...

  7. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  8. Engineering for Autonomous Seismic Stations at the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Carpenter, P.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Parker, T.; Hebert, J.; Childs, D.; Chung, P.; Reusch, A. M.


    The NSF funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) through New Mexico Tech operates the PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) in Socorro New Mexico. The engineering effort at the PIC seeks to optimize seismic station operations for all portable experiments, include those in extremely remote and harsh polar environments. Recent advances have resulted in improved station design, allowing improved operational efficiencies, data quality return and reduction in station logistics associated with installation, maintenance and decommissioning of stations. These include: Battery and power system designs. Incorporating primary Lithium Thionyl Chloride (LTC) technology with rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries allows systems to operate in areas with long-term solar autonomy (high latitudes). Development includes charge controller systems to switch between primary and secondary technologies efficiently. Enclosures: Engineered solutions to efficiently manage waste heat, maintain operational environment and provide light-weight and durable housing for seismic instrumentation. Communications: In collaboration with Xeos Technologies Inc., we deliver Iridium-based SOH/Command and Control telemetry as well as full bandwidth seismic data communications in high latitude environments at low power requirements. Smaller-lighter-instrumentation: Through the GEOICE MRI, we are working with Nanometrics on next generation "all-in-one" seismic systems that can be deployed in polar environments - easing logistics, minimizing installation time and improving data quality return for these expensive deployments. All autonomous station designs are openly and freely available at the IRIS PASSCAL webpage ( More information on GEOICE and data quality from various seismometer emplacements will be presented in other posters at this AGU meeting.

  9. Investigation of crystal anisotropy using seismic data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica (United States)

    Diez, Anja; Eisen, Olaf; Weikusat, Ilka; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Hofstede, Coen; Bohlen, Thomas; Miller, Heinrich


    The flow behavior of glaciers and ice sheets is influenced by a preferred orientation of the anisotropic ice crystals. Knowledge about crystal anisotropy is mainly provided by crystal orientation fabric (COF) data from ice cores. To gain a broader understanding about the distribution of crystal anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers we use seismic measurements. Two effects are important: (i) sudden changes in crystal orientation fabric (COF) lead to englacial reflections and (ii) the anisotropic fabric induces an angle dependency on the seismic velocities and, thus, also recorded traveltimes. For comparisons of ice core data and seismic results we connect COF data with the elasticity tensor and, thus, determine seismic velocities and reflection coefficients for cone and girdle fabrics from ice-core data. In the Antarctic field season 2012 we carried out a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) survey within the borehole of the EDML ice core and a seismic wideangle survey close to Kohnen Station, Antarctica. From the VSP survey we derive interval velocities and compare these velocities to the theoretically calculated velocities from COF ice-core data. The overall velocity trend derived from the ice-core data is well reflected in the VSP velocities. It shows, that the choice of the monocrystal elasticity tensor for the calculation of velocities from ice-core data is important for a good fit with the VSP velocities. For comparison of seismic data with radar and ice-core data we use stacked traces of the wideangle survey. Thus, we are able to identify COF induced reflections in both the seismic and radar data sets.

  10. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US). Seismological Observatory


    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  11. A future for drifting seismic networks (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.; Babcock, J.


    One-dimensional, radial Earth models are sufficiently well constrained to accurately locate earthquakes and calculate the paths followed by seismic rays. The differences between observations and theoretical predictions of seismograms in such Earth models can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional wave speed distribution in the regions sampled by the seismic waves, by the technique of seismic tomography. Caused by thermal, compositional, and textural variations, wave speed anomalies remain the premier data source to fully understand the structure and evolution of our planet, from the scale of mantle convection and the mechanisms of heat transfer from core to surface to the international between the deep Earth and surface processes such as plate motion and crustal deformation. Unequal geographical data coverage continues to fundamentally limit the quality of tomographic reconstructions of seismic wave speeds in the interior of the Earth. Only at great cost can geophysicists overcome the difficulties of placing seismographs on the two thirds of the Earth's surface that is covered by oceans. The lack of spatial data coverage strongly hampers the determination of the structure of the Earth in the uncovered regions: all 3-D Earth models are marked by blank spots in areas, distributed throughout the Earth, where little or no information can be obtained. As a possible solution to gaining equal geographic data coverage, we have developed MERMAID, a prototype mobile receiver that could provide an easy, cost-effective way to collect seismic data in the ocean. It is a modification of the robotic floating instruments designed and used by oceanographers. Like them, MERMAID spends its life at depth but is capable of surfacing using a pump and bladder. We have equipped it with a hydrophone to record water pressure variations induced by compressional (P) waves. Untethered and passively drifting, such a floating seismometer will surface upon detection of a "useful" seismic

  12. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network (United States)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.


    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  13. Combining network and array waveform coherence for automatic location: examples from induced seismicity monitoring (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Joswig, Manfred


    Events from induced seismicity suffer from low signal-to-noise ratios and noise spikes due to the industrial setting. Low magnitude thresholds are needed for traffic light warning systems. Conventional automatic location methods rely on independent picking of first arrivals from seismic wave onsets at recordings of single stations. Picking is done separately and without feedback from the actual location algorithm. If the recording network is small or only few phases can be associated, single wrong associations can lead to large errors in hypocentre locations and magnitude. Event location by source scanning which was established in the last two decades can provide more robust results. This study investigates how source-scanning can be extended and improved by integrating information from seismic arrays, that is, waveform stacking and Fisher ratio. These array methods rely on the coherency of the raw filtered waveforms while traditional source scanning uses a characteristic function to obtain coherency from otherwise incoherent waveforms between distant stations. Short-term/long-term average (STA/LTA) serves as the characteristic function and single station vertical-component traces for P-phases and radial and transverse components for S-phases are used. For array stations, the STA/LTA of the stacked vertical seismogram which is furthermore weighted by the STA/LTA of the Fisher ratio, dependent on backazimuth and slowness, is utilized for P-phases. The new method is tested on two diverse data sets from induced seismicity monitoring. In the chosen examples, the extension by array-processing techniques can reduce mean hypocentre errors up to a factor of 2.9, resolve ambiguities and further restrain the location.

  14. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio


    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  15. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars


    . However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  16. Engineering challenges of operating year-round portable seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce; Carpenter, Paul; Hebert, Jason; Childs, Dean; Anderson, Kent


    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. Here, we describe our latest advancements to mitigate the challenges of high-latitude, year-round station operation. The IRIS PASSCAL program has supported high-latitude deployments since the late 1980s. These early deployments were largely controlled source, summer only experiments. In early 2000 PASSCAL users began proposing year-round deployments of broadband stations in some of the harshest environments on the planet. These early year-round deployments were stand-alone (no telemetry) stations largely designed to operate during summer months and then run as long as possible during the winter with hopes the stations would revive come following summer. In 2006 and in collaboration with UNAVCO, we began developing communications, power systems, and enclosures to extend recording to year-round. Since this initial effort, PASSCAL continued refinement to power systems, enclosure design and manufacturability, and real-time data communications. Several sensor and data logger manufacturers have made advances in cold weather performance and delivered newly designed instruments that have furthered our ability to successfully run portable stations at high-latitude with minimal logistics - reducing size and weight of instruments and infrastructure. All PASSCAL polar engineering work is openly shared through our website:

  17. Building an educational seismic network in Romanian schools (United States)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Bican-Brisan, Nicoleta; Neagoe, Cristian


    Understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects is an important step toward the education of population and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this sense, The Romanian Educational Seismic Network project represents an efficient communication tool, allowing teaching and learning about the earthquakes and seismic wave impact through experimental practices and educational activities. The seismic network consist of nine SEP seismometers installed in high-schools from the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Banat, Făgăraş, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zalău) and is coordinated by the National Institute of Earth Physics from Bucharest. Once installed, the seismic network is the starting point of activities for students through an e-learning platform. Some objectives are aimed: - To train students and teachers how to make analysis and interpretation of seismological data; - To make science more interesting for students; - To improve the participation rates in physical sciences for students; - To raise awareness of geoscience as a scientific discipline for pre-university students; - To promote the installation and effective use of educational seismographs and seismic data; - To reinforce and develop relationships between participating schools and research institutes; - To create an earthquake database this will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. Different types of practical activities using educational seismometer, designed by researchers for students, are described in educational materials and in the web platform project. Also we encourage the teachers from the participating schools to share their experiences and produce new didactic tools for the classroom. This collaborative work could illustrate the conjugated efforts of researchers and teachers for a better education and awareness of the risk culture

  18. Small aperture earth station networks and their relationship to ISDN (United States)

    Golding, Leonard S.

    Applications of satellite networks involving the use of small-aperture antennas and low-cost earth stations located at customer-premises sites are considered. Such VSAT (very small-aperture satellite) networks are beginning to be installed in domestic satellite neworks as well as internationally in INTELSAT, IBS, Internet, and VIST offerings. The way in which VSAT networks might be integrated into ISDN (an integrated services digital network) is considered. The integration of mobile satellite networks is also considered.

  19. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN): Infrastructure upgrade to support Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) (United States)

    Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.


    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, aftershock probabilities and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalOES, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and implementation of the demonstration EEW system called CISN ShakeAlert. Initially, the ShakeAlert project was funded through the US Geological Survey (USGS) and in early 2012, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided three years of new funding for EEW research and development for the US west coast. Recently, we have also received some Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) funding to enhance the EEW capabilities for the local UASI region by making our system overall faster, more reliable and redundant than the existing system. The additional and upgraded stations will be capable of decreasing latency and ensuring data delivery by using more reliable and redundant telemetry pathways. Overall, this will enhance the reliability of the earthquake early warnings by providing denser station coverage and more resilient data centers than before. * Seismic Datalogger upgrade: replaces existing dataloggers with modern equipment capable of sending one-second uncompressed packets and utilizing redundant Ethernet telemetry. * GPS upgrade: replaces the existing GPS receivers and antennas, especially at "zipper array" sites near the major faults, with receivers that perform on-board precise point positioning to calculate position and velocity in real time and stream continuous data for use in EEW calculations. * New co-located seismic/GPS stations: increases station density and reduces early warning delays that are incurred by travel

  20. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data (United States)

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban


    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We calculate the conditional probability of the forthcoming occurrences of earthquakes in each region. The conditional probability of each event has been compared with their stationary distribution.

  1. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  2. Seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes detected from data recorded at DONET stations (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Kamiya, S.; Takahashi, N.


    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) installed DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) off the Kii Peninsula, southwest of Japan, to monitor earthquakes and tsunamis. Stations of DONET1, which are distributed in Kumano-nada, and DONET2, which are distributed off Muroto, were installed by August 2011 and April 2016, respectively. After the installation of all of the 51 stations, DONET was transferred to National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED). NIED and JAMSTEC have now corroborated in the operation of DONET since April 2016. To investigate the seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, we detected earthquakes from the records of the broadband seismometers installed to DONET. Because DONET stations are apart from land stations, we can detect smaller earthquakes than by using only land stations. It is important for understanding the stress state and seismogenic mechanism to monitoring the spatial-temporal seismicity change. In this study we purpose to evaluate to the seismicity around the source areas of the Nankai and the Tonankai earthquakes by using our earthquake catalogue. The frequency-magnitude relationships of earthquakes in the areas of DONET1&2 had an almost constant slope of about -1 for earthquakes of ML larger than 1.5 and 2.5, satisfying the Gutenberg-Richter law, and the slope of smaller earthquakes approached 0, reflecting the detection limits. While the most of the earthquakes occurred in the aftershock area of the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes, very limited activity was detected in the source region of the Nankai and Tonankai earthquake except for the large earthquake (MJMA = 6.5) on 1st April 2016 and its aftershocks. We will evaluate the detection limit of the earthquake in more detail and investigate the spatial-temporal seismicity change with waiting the data store.

  3. Seismic risk assessment as applied to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.


    To assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its licensing and evaluation role, the NRC funded the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of developing tools and data bases to evaluate the risk of earthquake caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. This paper describes the SSMRP risk assessment methodology and the results generated by applying this methodology to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station. In addition to describing the failure probabilities and risk values, the effects of assumptions about plant configuration, plant operation, and dependence will be given.

  4. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb


    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  5. The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana) (United States)

    Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.; Arreola-Manzano, J.; Castelan-Pescina, G.; Alonso-Rivera, P.; Saldivar-Rangel, M. A.; Rodriguez-Arteaga, O. O.; Lopez-Lena-Villasana, R.


    The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana) was created to give sufficient information and opportune to make decisions in order to mitigate seismic and tsunami risk. This was a Mexican government initiative headed by CENAPRED (National Disaster Prevention Center) who made an effort to integrated academic institutions and civil agencies to work together through a collaboration agreement. This network is supported by Universidad National Autónoma de México (UNAM) and its seismic networks (Broad Band and Strong Motion), the Centro de Instrumentación y Registro Sismico (CIRES) with its Earthquake Early Warning System that covers the Guerrero Gap and Oaxaca earthquakes, The Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE) with the support of its expertise in tsunami observation and the Secretaria de Marina (SEMAR) to monitor the sea level and operate the Mexican Tsunami Warning Center. The institutions involved in this scope have the compromise to interchange and share the data and advice to the Civil Protection authorities.

  6. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei


    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  7. Sismos a l'Ecole : a Seismic Educational Network (FRANCE) linked with Research (United States)

    Berenguer, J.; Le Puth, J.; Courboulex, F.; Zodmi, B.; Boneff, M.


    Ahead of the quick evolution of our society, in which scientific information has to be accurately understood by a great majority, the promotion of a responsible behaviour coming from educated and trained citizens has become a priority. One of the roles of school is to enable children to understand sciences, these same sciences that were long ago the prerogative of scientific laboratories. The educational network SISMOS à l\\'"Ecole is an example of a project structured on the knowledge of seismic risks through a scientific and technological approach. It develops a teaching method leading to an approach towards the knowledge of natural disasters. The original and innovating feature of this educational network is to enable students to set up a seismograph in their school. The recorded signals - coming from a regional or a worldwide seismic activity - feed an on- line database, which is in fact a real research centre for seismic resources as well as a starting point for educational and scientific activities. The network, that numbers about thirty stations set up in France, in its overseas departments and territories, and in a couple of French schools abroad, is based upon an experience initiated in the French Riviera ten years ago or so. The achievement of the program has from then on gone beyond the simple purpose of conveying seismic data that research and monitoring centres could have recorded. Thanks to the use of scientific measures, students become involved and get into complex notions revolving around geophysics and geosciences. Developing simple tools, setting up concrete experiments combined with an investigate reasoning makes it easier to build up a quality scientific culture as well as an education of citizens to risks.

  8. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian


    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  9. Upgrading the seismic and geodetic network of the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico). (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Iglesias Mendoza, Arturo; Legrand, Denis; Valdés González, Carlos Miguel; Perez Campos, Xyoli


    The Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and is located only 70 km from Mexico City, populated by more than 20 millions of people, and only 35 km from the Puebla municipality with almost 1.5 millions of people living. The recent activity of the volcano is generally marked by explosions emitting ash plumes often reaching the densely populated regions. In the framework of the Mexican Fund for Prevention of Natural Disasters (FOPREDEN) we are renovating and upgrading the existing geodetic and seismic networks monitoring the volcano. In this project we are installing 10 broadband seismic stations (120s-050Hz) in shallow boreholes (3-5m depth) and 4 GPS with real time sampling rate of 1 Hz. All instruments are equipped with continuous recording systems for real time monitoring purposes and research. The Popocatépetl exceeds 5400m, and the altitude of the stations ranges from 2200 m to 4300 m making it difficult their installation and maintenance. Because of ash emissions and the hard working condition, the real-time transmission is split into two systems in order to ensure the monitoring of the volcano also during the highest expected activity. Therefore we set up a network of "first order", consisting of four stations located about 20 km from the crater and equipped with satellite transmission. These stations, being far enough from the crater, ensure the real time monitoring of the major events also during intense periods of activity of the volcano. The remaining six stations are installed near to the crater (less than 10 km) and take part of the "second order" network equipped with a telemetered radio system transmitting the data either directly to the National Center of Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) and National Seismological Service (SSN) or to the first order stations (for the sites that have not direct visible line with the monitoring centers). The four GPS sensors are all installed in the second order sites in order to monitor the largest

  10. Management of the Space Station Freedom onboard local area network (United States)

    Miller, Frank W.; Mitchell, Randy C.


    An operational approach is proposed to managing the Data Management System Local Area Network (LAN) on Space Station Freedom. An overview of the onboard LAN elements is presented first, followed by a proposal of the operational guidelines by which management of the onboard network may be effected. To implement the guidelines, a recommendation is then presented on a set of network management parameters which should be made available in the onboard Network Operating System Computer Software Configuration Item and Fiber Distributed Data Interface firmware. Finally, some implications for the implementation of the various network management elements are discussed.

  11. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad [Study Program of Earth Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics of Indonesia (BMKG) Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut TeknologiBandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Métaxian, Jean-Philippe [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) (France); Valencia, Ayunda Aulia, E-mail: [Study Program of Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)


    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 180{sup 0}. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic network can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  12. Compilation of a recent seismicity data base of the greater Alpine region from several seismological networks and preliminary 3D tomographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Granet


    Full Text Available Local earthquake data collected by seven national and regional seismic networks have been compiled into a travel time catalog of 32341 earthquakes for the period 1980 to 1995 in South-Central Europe. As a prerequisite, a complete and corrected station list (master station list has been prepared according to updated information provided by every network. By simultaneous inversion of some 600 well-locatable events we obtained one-dimensional (1D velocity propagation models for each network. Consequently, these velocity models with appropriate station corrections have been used to obtain high-quality hypocenter locations for events inside and among the station networks. For better control, merging of phase data from several networks was performed as an iterative process where at each iteration two data sets of neighbouring networks or groups of networks were merged. Particular care was taken to detect and correctly identify phase data from events common to data sets from two different networks. In case of reports of the same phase data from more than one network, the phase data from the network owning and servicing the station were used according to the master station list. The merging yielded a data set of 278007 P and 191074 S-wave travel time observations from 32341 events in the greater Alpine region. Restrictive selection (number of P-wave observations >7; gap <160 degrees yielded a data set of about 10000 events with a total of more than 128000 P and 87000 S-wave observations well suited for local earthquake seismic tomography study. Preliminary tomographic results for South-Central Europe clearly show the topography of the crust-mantle boundary in the greater Alpine region and outline the 3D structure of the seismic Ivrea body.

  13. Improvements of Real Time First Motion Focal Mechanism and Noise Characteristics of New Sites at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (United States)

    Williams, D. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Lugo, J.; Cancel, J.


    Seismic networks need quick and efficient ways to obtain information related to seismic events for the purposes of seismic activity monitoring, risk assessment, and scientific knowledge among others. As part of an IRIS summer internship program, two projects were performed to provide a tool for quick faulting mechanism and improve seismic data at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). First, a simple routine to obtain a focal mechanisms, the geometry of the fault, based on first motions was developed and implemented for data analysts routine operations at PRSN. The new tool provides the analyst a quick way to assess the probable faulting mechanism that occurred while performing the interactive earthquake location procedure. The focal mechanism is generated on-the-fly when data analysts pick P wave arrivals onsets and motions. Once first motions have been identified, an in-house PRSN utility is employed to obtain the double couple representation and later plotted using GMT's psmeca utility. Second, we addressed the issue of seismic noise related to thermal fluctuations inside seismic vaults. Seismic sites can be extremely noisy due to proximity to cultural activities and unattended thermal fluctuations inside sensor housings, thus resulting in skewed readings. In the past, seismologists have used different insulation techniques to reduce the amount of unwanted noise that a seismometers experience due to these thermal changes with items such as Styrofoam, and fiber glass among others. PRSN traditionally uses Styrofoam boxes to cover their seismic sensors, however, a proper procedure to test how these method compare to other new techniques has never been approached. The deficiency of properly testing these techniques in the Caribbean and especially Puerto Rico is that these thermal fluctuations still happen because of the intense sun and humidity. We conducted a test based on the methods employed by the IRIS Transportable Array, based on insulation by sand burial of

  14. Aspects regarding the use of the INFREP network for identifying possible seismic precursors (United States)

    Dolea, Paul; Cristea, Octavian; Dascal, Paul Vladut; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Biagi, Pier Francesco

    In the last decades, one of the main research directions in identifying seismic precursors involved monitoring VLF (Very Low Frequency) and LF (Low Frequency) radio waves and analysing their propagation characteristics. Essentially this method consists of monitoring different available VLF and LF transmitters from long distance reception points. The received signal has two major components: the ground wave and the sky wave, where the sky wave propagates by reflection on the lower layers of the ionosphere. It is assumed that before and during major earthquakes, unusual changes may occur in the lower layers of the ionosphere, such as the modification of the charged particles number density and the altitude of the reflection zone. Therefore, these unusual changes in the ionosphere may generate unusual variations in the received signal level. The International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP) was developed starting with 2009 and consists of several dedicated VLF and LF radio receivers used for monitoring various radio transmitters located throughout Europe. The receivers' locations were chosen so that the propagation path from these VLF/LF stations would pass over high seismicity regions while others were chosen to obtain different control paths. The monitoring receivers are capable of continuously measuring the received signal amplitude from the VLF/LF stations of interest. The recorded data is then stored and sent to an INFREP database, which is available on the Internet for scientific researchers. By processing and analysing VLF and LF data samples, collected at different reception points and at different periods of the year, one may be able to identify some distinct patterns in the envelope of the received signal level over time. Significant deviations from these patterns may have local causes such as the electromagnetic pollution at the monitoring point, regional causes like existing electrical storms over the propagation path or

  15. New Technology Changing The Face of Mobile Seismic Networks (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Denton, P.; Seis-Uk

    SEIS-UK, a seismic equipment pool and data management facility run by a consortium of four UK universities (Leicester, Leeds, Cambridge and Royal Holloway, London) completed its second phase in 2001. To compliment the existing broadband equipment pool, which has been deployed to full capacity to date, the consortium undertook a tender evaluation process for low-power, lightweight sensors and recorders, for use on both controlled source and passive seismic experiments. The preferred option, selected by the consortium, was the Guralp CMG-6TD system, with 150 systems ordered. The CMG-6TD system is a new concept in temporary seismic equipment. A 30s- 100Hz force-feedback sensor, integral 24bit digitiser and 3-4Gbyte of solid-state memory are all housed in a single unit. Use of the most recent technologies has kept the power consumption to below 1W and the weight to 3.5Kg per unit. The concept of the disk-swap procedure for obtaining data from the field has been usurped by a fast data download technique using firewire technology. This allows for rapid station servicing, essential when 150 stations are in use, and also ensures the environmental integrity of the system by removing the requirement for a disk access port and envi- ronmentally exposed data disk. The system therefore meets the criteria for controlled source and passive seismic experiments: (1) the single unit concept and low-weight is designed for rapid deployment on short-term projects; (2) the low power consumption reduces the power-supply requirements facilitating deployment; (3) the low self-noise and bandwidth of the sensor make it applicable to passive experiments involving nat- ural sources. Further to this acquisition process, in collaboration with external groups, the SEIS- UK data management procedures have been streamlined with the integration of the Guralp GCF format data into the PASSCAL PDB software. This allows for rapid dissemination of field data and the production of archive-ready datasets

  16. Monitoring of the North Korea's 3rd Nuclear Test using Regional Seismic Network (United States)

    Chi, H.; Kim, G.; Shin, J.; Kim, T.; Che, I.


    Through seismic data exchange with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could precisely monitor for the more recent North Korea nuclear test with full azimuthal coverage from the test site. The high coherence of collocated stations' seismograms to the previous two events allowed us to infer the tiny difference in the source locations. By estimating relative location to the 3 event s with minimizing 1st P wave arrival time differences, the 3rd test's location was determined to be at the latitude of 41.275N, longitude of 129.064E which is 400 meter south from the 2009 test. A network averaged body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) was evaluated as 4.9, which varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.2 to 5.5. A network averaged surface wave magnitude was estimated to be 3.9. Moment tensor inversion with data from the regional stations gives us source analysis results with high fidelity. The result shows the 3rd test had a very large isotropic component, indicative of an explosion source, similar inversion results were also obtained from previous 2 tests KIGAM evaluated the yield of the test to be 6~7kTon(×3 kTon) by combining Magnitude-Yield Relationships.

  17. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane


    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  18. Co-Seismic Effect of the 2011 Japan Earthquake on the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Yang


    Full Text Available Great earthquakes introduce measurable co-seismic displacements over regions of hundreds and thousands of kilometers in width, which, if not accounted for, may significantly bias the long-term surface velocity field constrained by GPS observations performed during a period encompassing that event. Here, we first present an estimation of the far-field co-seismic off-sets associated with the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake using GPS measurements from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC in North China. The uncertainties of co-seismic off-set, either at cGPS stations or at campaign sites, are better than 5 - 6 mm on average. We compare three methods to constrain the co-seismic off-sets at the campaign sites in northeastern China 1 interpolating cGPS coseismic offsets, 2 estimating in terms of sparsely sampled time-series, and 3 predicting by using a well-constrained slip model. We show that the interpolation of cGPS co-seismic off-sets onto the campaign sites yield the best co-seismic off-set solution for these sites. The source model gives a consistent prediction based on finite dislocation in a layered spherical Earth, which agrees with the best prediction with discrepancies of 2 - 10 mm for 32 campaign sites. Thus, the co-seismic off-set model prediction is still a reasonable choice if a good coverage cGPS network is not available for a very active region like the Tibetan Plateau in which numerous campaign GPS sites were displaced by the recent large earthquakes.

  19. Quantifying Station Quality from Residual Vertical Motions in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Network (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Herring, T.


    Vertical motions measured by GPS stations in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network are a combination of tectonic motion, hydrologic loading processes, local volcanism, atmospheric loading, errors inherent to a satellite-based navigation system, and other local events. We take all the position time series in the PBO network and apply a linear and sinusoidal fit, and we also correct for offsets from earthquakes and equipment, and for post-seismic decay. The residuals can then be used as a starting point for station quality evaluations. Well-fit residuals for healthy stations should have low RMS values and plot as relatively flat time series, with bumps in the time series attributable to seasonal variations in hydrologic loading (e.g., an unusually wet or dry year). Exceptions for healthy stations without flat time series occur in regions with volcanism (affecting the vertical and horizontal components) and episodic tremor and slip (affecting horizontal components). In such cases healthy and unhealthy stations can be separated by examining various quality (QC) parameters from processing-derived errors to multipath to signal-to-noise ratios. Furthermore, otherwise healthy station may experience episodes of low-quality as equipment fails or the station is overgrown with vegetation or buried in snow or something else unusual occurs. Focusing on the vertical residuals, we calculate short and long-term RMS values for all stations and compare them with other QC parameters to separate healthy and well-behaved stations, healthy and nonlinear stations, and unhealthy, poorly-behaved stations. We also showcase examples of low-QC and other unusual episodes in the network.

  20. Silalirijiit Project: Kangiqtugaapik (Clyde River), Nunavut, Canada, Weather Station Network, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Kangiqtugaapik (Clyde River), Nunavut, Canada, Weather Station Network is a collection of weather station data from the locations of Akuliaqattak,...

  1. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations (United States)

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.


    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  2. Detection and localization capability of an urban seismic sinkhole monitoring network (United States)

    Becker, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten; Schneider, Fabian


    Microseismic events linked to underground processes in sinkhole areas might serve as precursors to larger mass dislocation or rupture events which can cause felt ground shaking or even structural damage. To identify these weak and shallow events, a sensitive local seismic monitoring network is needed. In case of an urban environment the performance of local monitoring networks is severely compromised by the high anthropogenic noise level. We study the detection and localization capability of such a network, which is already partly installed in the urban area of the city of Hamburg, Germany, within the joint project SIMULTAN ( SIMULTAN aims to monitor a known sinkhole structure and gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. The current network consists of six surface stations installed in the basement of private houses and underground structures of a research facility (DESY - Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron). During the started monitoring campaign since 2015, no microseismic events could be unambiguously attributed to the sinkholes. To estimate the detection and location capability of the network, we calculate synthetic waveforms based on the location and mechanism of former events in the area. These waveforms are combined with the recorded urban seismic noise at the station sites. As detection algorithms a simple STA/LTA trigger and a more sophisticated phase detector are used. While the STA/LTA detector delivers stable results and is able to detect events with a moment magnitude as low as 0.35 at a distance of 1.3km from the source even under the present high noise conditions the phase detector is more sensitive but also less stable. It should be stressed that due to the local near surface conditions of the wave propagation the detections are generally performed on S- or surface waves and not on P-waves, which have a significantly lower amplitude. Due to the often

  3. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities. (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto


    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  4. Using Networks to Find Signatures of Causality in Seismicity (United States)

    Paczuski, M.; Davidsen, J.; Grassberger, P.


    Networks to infer causal structure from spatiotemporal data are constructed making minimal a priori assumptions about the underlying dynamics. The elementary concept of recurrence for a point process in time is generalized to recurrent events in space and time. An event is defined to be a recurrence of any previous event if it is closer to it in space than all the intervening events. As such, each sequence of recurrences for a given event is a* record breaking process*. This definition provides a strictly data driven technique to search for structure. Defining events to be nodes, and linking each event to its recurrences, generates a network of recurrent events. Significant deviations in properties of that network compared to networks arising from (acausal) random processes allows one to infer attributes of the causal dynamics that generate observable correlations in the patterns. We derive analytically a number of properties for the network of recurrent events composed by a random process in space and time. We extend the theory of records to treat not only the variable where records happen, but also time as continuous. In this way, we construct a fully symmetric theory of records leading to a number of new results. Those analytic results are compared in detail to the properties of a network synthesized from time series of epicenter locations for earthquakes in Southern California. Significant disparities from the ensemble of acausal networks that can be plausibly attributed to the causal structure of seismicity are: (1) Invariance of network statistics with the time span of the events considered, (2) Appearance of a fundamental length scale for recurrences, independent of the time span of the catalog, which is consistent with observations of the “rupture length”, (3) Hierarchy in the distances and times of subsequent recurrences.

  5. Magnitude analysis of aftershocks of the Mw 9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake recorded at the temporary PSU Seismic Station in Phang nga, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Düerrast


    Full Text Available After the Mw 9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake on 26 December 2004, a temporary broadband seismic station was set up at the Khao Chang Telecommunication Station in Phang nga Province, Southern Thailand, in order to monitor aftershocks in an area bounded by 0o-20o N, and 90o-100o E. Altogether 98 events were identified during the study period from 1st to 12th January 2005; but six of these events are not listed in the catalog of the United States Geological Survey (USGS/ NEIC. Body wave magnitudes (mb and moment magnitudes (Mw of the events were determined and compared with USGS magnitudes. For mb, the PSU values are 0.215 higher than the USGS values, whereas for Mw, the PSU values are 0.268 lower than the USGS values. Differences in mb may result from differences in time windows chosen for the maximum amplitude determination, or from accuracy of the Q-value. Differences in Mw may result from assumptions made on velocity, attenuation and determination of the low-frequency part of the seismic spectrum. However, these differences are comparatively small considering that the USGS data are network values whereas the PSU data are from a single station.

  6. Co-seismic Displacement of the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 Earthquake Effects on the China's Mount Everest Area Derived from GNSS Data Using the PPP Network Solution by UPD Ambiguity Fixed Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu


    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacement of the GNSS stations in areas surrounding the earthquake are accurately obtained using UPD (uncalibrated phase delay ambiguity fixed technology without having to consider the effects of earthquake on the GNSS baseline calculating. During the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 seismological GNSS data from the National Datum Engineering of China, the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Mount Everest GNSS stations are calculated using UPD ambiguity fixed technology, then co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest and surrounding areas are derived and analyzed. Firstly, the UPD of wide-lane and narrow lane are estimated using the uniform distribution National GNSS and the surrounding IGS stability stations away from the seismic zones. Secondly, the float carrier phase ambiguities from each GNSS station in the seismic zones are fixed using the UPD of wide-lane and narrow until all the GNSS station are completed. Then whole network GNSS station coordinates are just only estimated using the accurately phase observations without ambiguity form all the GNSS stations. The GNSS data from IGS stations are used to verify the precision of the above method. Finally, Co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest are derived and particularly analyzed. From 2005 to 2015 year the displacement of China's Mount Everest are showed. Meanwhlile, this paper provides a precise and reliable method to monitor earthquake.

  7. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić


    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  8. A new algorithm to detect earthquakes outside the seismic network: preliminary results (United States)

    Giudicepietro, Flora; Esposito, Antonietta Maria; Ricciolino, Patrizia


    In this text we are going to present a new technique for detecting earthquakes outside the seismic network, which are often the cause of fault of automatic analysis system. Our goal is to develop a robust method that provides the discrimination result as quickly as possible. We discriminate local earthquakes from regional earthquakes, both recorded at SGG station, equipped with short period sensors, operated by Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) in the Southern Apennines (Italy). The technique uses a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with an architecture composed by an input layer, a hidden layer and a single node output layer. We pre-processed the data using the Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) technique to extract the spectral features of the signals in a compact form. We performed several experiments by shortening the signal window length. In particular, we used windows of 4, 2 and 1 seconds containing the onset of the local and the regional earthquakes. We used a dataset of 103 local earthquakes and 79 regional earthquakes, most of which occurred in Greece, Albania and Crete. We split the dataset into a training set, for the network training, and a testing set to evaluate the network's capacity of discrimination. In order to assess the network stability, we repeated this procedure six times, randomly changing the data composition of the training and testing set and the initial weights of the net. We estimated the performance of this method by calculating the average of correct detection percentages obtained for each of the six permutations. The average performances are 99.02%, 98.04% and 98.53%, which concern respectively the experiments carried out on 4, 2 and 1 seconds signal windows. The results show that our method is able to recognize the earthquakes outside the seismic network using only the first second of the seismic records, with a suitable percentage of correct detection. Therefore, this algorithm can be profitably used to make earthquake automatic

  9. Connection with seismic networks and construction of real time earthquake monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Lee, H. I.; Shin, I. C.; Lim, I. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, B. K.; Whee, K. H.; Cho, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is natural to use the nuclear power plant seismic network which have been operated by KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and local seismic network by KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Material). The real time earthquake monitoring system is composed with monitoring module and data base module. Data base module plays role of seismic data storage and classification and the other, monitoring module represents the status of acceleration in the nuclear power plant area. This research placed the target on the first, networking the KIN's seismic monitoring system with KIGAM and KEPRI seismic network and the second, construction the KIN's Independent earthquake monitoring system.

  10. Towards the azimuthal characteristics of ionospheric and seismic effects of "Chelyabinsk" meteorite fall according to the data from coherent radar, GPS and seismic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Berngardt, O I; Kutelev, K A; Zherebtsov, G A; Dobrynina, A A; Shestakov, N V; Zagretdinov, R V; Bakhtiyarov, V F; Kusonsky, O A


    We present the results of a study of the azimuthal characteristics of ionospheric and seismic effects of the meteorite 'Chelyabinsk', based on the data from the network of GPS receivers, coherent decameter radar EKB SuperDARN and network of seismic stations. It is shown, that 6-14 minutes after the bolide explosion, GPS network observed the cone-shaped wavefront of TIDs that is interpreted as a ballistic acoustic wave. The typical TIDs propagation velocity were observed 661+/-256m/s, which corresponds to the expected acoustic wave speed for 240km height. 14 minutes after the bolide explosion, at distances of 200km we observed the emergence and propagation of a TID with spherical wavefront, that is interpreted as gravitational mode of internal acoustic waves. The propagation velocity of this TID was 337+/-89m/s which corresponds to the propagation velocity of these waves in similar situations. At EKB SuperDARN radar, we observed TIDs in the sector of azimuthal angles close to the perpendicular to the meteorite...

  11. Development of a new seismic-data acquisition station based on system-on-a-programmable-chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi-sheng


    Full Text Available There has been considerable development of seismic detectors over the last 80 years. However, there is still a need to further develop new earthquake exploration and data acquisition systems with high precision. In particular, for China to keep up with the latest technology of these systems, it is important to be involved in the research and development, instead of importing systems that soon fall behind the latest technology. In this study, the features of system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC technology are analyzed and used to design a new digital seismic-data acquisition station. The hardware circuit of the station was developed, and the analog board and the main control data-transmission board were designed according to the needs of digital seismic-data acquisition stations. High-definition analog-to-digital converter sequential digital filter technology of the station (cascade integrator comb filter, finite impulse response digital filter were incorporated to provide advantages to the acquisition station, such as high definition, large dynamic scope, and low noise. A specific data-transmission protocol was designed for the station, which ensured a transmission speed of 16 Mbps along a 55-m wire with low power consumption. Synchronic acquisition was researched and developed, so as to achieve accuracy better than 200 ns. The key technologies were integrated into the SoPC of the main control data-transmission board, so as to ensure high-resolution acquisition of the station, while improving the accuracy of the synchronic acquisition and data-transmission speed, lowering the power consumption, and preparing for the follow-up efforts to tape out.

  12. Space station common module network topology and hardware development (United States)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.


    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  13. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.


    ISNet ( is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  14. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.


    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Co-seismic displacements of 2011 Japan Mw9. 0 earthquake recorded by far-field GPS stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shaomin


    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacements of the 2011 Mw9. 0 Japan earthquake recorded by GPS stations in China and surrounding areas showed a movement toward the epicenter. The horizontal displacements were up to 1 – 3 cm in northeastern China, 3 – 8 mm in the North China, and 2 cm in the Korean peninsula. The vertical movements in China were small uplifts.

  16. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter


    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  17. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers


    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  18. Integrating Seismic Reflection and Ground Penetrating Radar Data at the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina (United States)

    Addison, A. D.; Knapp, C. C.; Waddell, M. G.


    Extensive work has been performed at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) in Beaufort South Carolina to characterize the subsurface and generate a groundwater flow model for an assessment of MCAS aquifer vulnerability and contamination potential using various hydrogeological and geophysical techniques such as slug tests, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), borehole geophysics, vertical electrical soundings, and seismic reflection surveys. The goal of the additional research is to integrate the existing seismic reflection data with newly acquired GPR data in order to: (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR as a tool for site characterization and (2) obtain hydrogeophysical parameters in a heterogeneous environment. The primary focus of the MCAS Beaufort groundwater flow model is to understand the interaction between the unconsolidated clastic Pleistocene sediments and the underlying Eocene Ocala Limestone, which is the primary aquifer. GPR data were collected along the transect of seismic reflection line MCAS-2 which is a total length of approximately 1700 m with a recording length of 500 ms. There are several wells along the profile that were utilized for hydrogeological and geophysical calibration. Preliminary GPR data were collected adjacent to ground water monitor well BFT-2368, using the 50 and 100 MHz frequency antennas, and consisted of three reflection profiles that vary in length from approximately 210 to 240 m. Comparison of the GPR and seismic data illustrate that the two applications complement one another with respect to resolution. Where GPR data contain better detail (more continuous reflectors) in the shallow subsurface, the seismic data contain less detail but deeper reflections. We are using the seismic attributes such as acoustic impedance, and the dielectric properties estimated from the GPR data in order to make assessments on hydrogeological parameters such as porosity and further, hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  20. Romanian complex data center for dense seismic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ionescu


    792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> In 2002, the National Institute for Earth Physics started the development of its own real-time digital seismic network. This now consists of 86 seismic stations, of which 32 are broad-band sensors, 52 stations are equipped with short-period sensors, and two seismic arrays, all of which transmit data in real time to the National Data Center (NDC and the Eforie Nord (EFOR seismic observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC, and it is also a monitoring center for Black Sea tsunamis. The seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broad-band seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T and Episensor Kinemetrics acceleration sensors (±2g. SeedLink is a part of Seiscomp2.5 and Antelope, which are the software packages used for data acquisition in real time and data exchange. Communication from the digital seismic stations to the NDC in Bucharest and EFOR is assured by five providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite, radio and internet. AntelopeTM 4.11 is used for acquisition and data processing at these two data centers for the reception and processing of the data, which runs on two

  1. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) (United States)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou


    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  2. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.


    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  3. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) (United States)

    Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chen, S. L.; Andrews, J. R.; Thomas, V. I.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.


    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 9429 data channels from 513 Southern California Seismic Network recorded stations. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through web services, its website and through client application such as STP. This poster will describe the most recent significant developments at the SCEDC. The SCEDC now provides web services to access its holdings. Event Parametric Data (FDSN Compliant): Station Metadata (FDSN Compliant): Waveforms (FDSN Compliant): Event Windowed Waveforms, phases: In an effort to assist researchers accessing catalogs from multiple seismic networks, the SCEDC has entered its earthquake parametric catalog into the ANSS Common Catalog (ComCat). Origin, phase, and magnitude information have been loaded. The SCEDC data holdings now include a double difference catalog (Hauksson et. al 2011) spanning 1981 through 2015 available via STP, and a focal mechanism catalog (Yang et al. 2011). As part of a NASA/AIST project in collaboration with JPL and SIO, the SCEDC now archives and distributes real time 1 Hz streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network. The SCEDC has implemented the Continuous Wave Buffer (CWB) to manage its waveform archive and allow users to access continuous data available within seconds of real time. This software was developed and currently in use at NEIC. SCEDC has moved its website ( to the Cloud. The Recent Earthquake Map and static web pages are now hosted by Amazon Web Services. This enables the web site to serve large number of users without competing for resources needed by SCSN/SCEDC mission critical operations.

  4. A New Standard Installation Method of the Offline Seismic Observation Station in Heavy Snowfall Area of Tohoku Region (United States)

    Hirahara, S.; Nakayama, T.; Hori, S.; Sato, T.; Chiba, Y.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.


    Soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, seismic activity of Tohoku region, NE Japan is induced in the inland area of Akita prefecture and the border area between Fukushima and Yamagata prefectures. We plan to install a total of 80 offline seismic observation stations in these areas for studying the effect of megathrust earthquake on the activities of inland earthquakes. In our project, maintenance will be held twice-a-year for 4 years from 2015 by using 2.0Hz short-period 3-component seismometer, KVS-300 and ultra-low-power data logger, EDR-X7000 (DC12V 0.08W power supply). We installed seismometer on the rock surface or the slope of the natural ground at the possible sites confirmed with low noise level to obtain distinct seismic waveform data. We report an improvement in installation method of the offline seismic observation station in the heavy snowfall area of Tohoku region based on the retrieved data. In the conventional method, seismometer was installed in the hand-dug hole of a slope in case it is not waterproof. Data logger and battery were installed in the box container on the ground surface, and then, GPS antenna was installed on the pole fixed by stepladder. There are risks of the inclination of seismometer and the damage of equipment in heavy snowfall area. In the new method, seismometer is installed in the robust concrete box on the buried basement consists of precast concrete mass to keep its horizontality. Data logger, battery, and GPS antenna are installed on a high place by using a single pole with anchor bolt and a pole mount cabinet to enhance their safety. As a result, total costs of installation are kept down because most of the equipment is reusable. Furthermore, an environmental burden of waste products is reduced.

  5. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.


    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System for the CTBT differ greatly in size and geometry, with apertures ranging from below 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high frequency phases since signals are often incoherent between sensors. Many such phases, typically from events at regional distances, remain undetected since pipeline algorithms often consider only frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing. High frequency phases that are detected are frequently attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates and are consequently not associated with the correct event hypotheses. This can lead to missed events both due to a lack of contributing phase detections and by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. Continuous spectral estimation can be used for phase detection and parameter estimation on the largest aperture arrays, with phase arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity and the ability to estimate backazimuth and slowness requires that the spatial extent of the array is large enough to resolve time-delays between envelopes with a period of approximately 4 or 5 seconds. The NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK arrays have apertures in excess of 20 km and spectrogram beamforming on these stations provides high quality slowness estimates for regional phases without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with aperture between 10 and 20 km (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 second period signal. The MJAR array in Japan recorded high SNR Pn signals for both the 2006 and 2009 North Korea

  6. Computerized system of automated recording and processing of seismic data from the Upper Silesian microseismic network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornowski, J.; Sokolowski, H.


    This paper describes operation of the Upper Silesian microseismic network, developed and directed by the Central Mining Institute. Seismic events are detected by the T-8100 Racal-Thermionic multi-channel system with Willmore MK II seismic detectors, and are transmitted to the computer center, equipped with the PDP 11/45 minicomputer produced by the Digital Equipment Corp, by means of an FM system. The recording and processing system consists of the following stages: seismic event recording, determining time of seismic events, detection of shocks and elimination of disturbances, assessment of seismic energy of rocks, identifying time of shock recording, determining shock epicenter, storage of information on shocks. Basic computer codes of the system are described: shock detection, determination of time, determination of shock epicenters, statistical processing, and storage. The system collects and stores information on earthquakes and shocks caused by rock bursts. (6 refs.) (In Polish)

  7. Teacher Directed Design: Content Knowledge, Pedagogy and Assessment under the Nevada K-12 Real-Time Seismic Network (United States)

    Cantrell, P.; Ewing-Taylor, J.; Crippen, K. J.; Smith, K. D.; Snelson, C. M.


    Education professionals and seismologists under the emerging SUN (Shaking Up Nevada) program are leveraging the existing infrastructure of the real-time Nevada K-12 Seismic Network to provide a unique inquiry based science experience for teachers. The concept and effort are driven by teacher needs and emphasize rigorous content knowledge acquisition coupled with the translation of that knowledge into an integrated seismology based earth sciences curriculum development process. We are developing a pedagogical framework, graduate level coursework, and materials to initiate the SUN model for teacher professional development in an effort to integrate the research benefits of real-time seismic data with science education needs in Nevada. A component of SUN is to evaluate teacher acquisition of qualified seismological and earth science information and pedagogy both in workshops and in the classroom and to assess the impact on student achievement. SUN's mission is to positively impact earth science education practices. With the upcoming EarthScope initiative, the program is timely and will incorporate EarthScope real-time seismic data (USArray) and educational materials in graduate course materials and teacher development programs. A number of schools in Nevada are contributing real-time data from both inexpensive and high-quality seismographs that are integrated with Nevada regional seismic network operations as well as the IRIS DMC. A powerful and unique component of the Nevada technology model is that schools can receive "stable" continuous live data feeds from 100's seismograph stations in Nevada, California and world (including live data from Earthworm systems and the IRIS DMC BUD - Buffer of Uniform Data). Students and teachers see their own networked seismograph station within a global context, as participants in regional and global monitoring. The robust real-time Internet communications protocols invoked in the Nevada network provide for local data acquisition

  8. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G


    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  9. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities (United States)

    Bosco, Fabrizio


    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (, approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  10. Seismic Observations and Interpretation in NE China, Infrasound Observations and Interpretation in Utah (United States)


    from Xu et al., 2005). (b) Map of SMU-IGPCEA Huailai Seismic Network and seismicity (open circles) for the time period of January 01, 2002 through...stations BGU and NOQ have broadband instruments, and EPU is a short- period seismic station. The amplitude scales are different and the seismic signal at...structures including the two bounding E-W orogenic belts and crustal thickening before the late Jurassic . The second phase of deformation is

  11. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  12. Upper mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian swell: Constraints from the ocean seismic network pilot experiment (United States)

    Collins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Orcutt, J. A.; Stephen, R. A.


    Data from two broadband, ocean-bottom seismographic stations deployed ~225 km southwest of Oahu, Hawaii during the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment provide constraints on upper mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian swell. Receiver functions show that the mantle transition zone is thinned by >50 km relative to reference model PA5, which, in the absence of compositional changes, implies excess temperatures of >350 K in the transition zone. The combination of the measurements reported here and the thickness variations reported by Li et al. [2000] imply that the transition zone is thinned by 30 +/- 15 km over an along-swell dimension of at least 700 km. At ~80 km depth, P-to-S converted phases are identified from the Gutenberg discontinuity marking the lid of the oceanic low-velocity zone and the base of the lithosphere. Shear-wave splitting measurements imply that fast-polarization azimuths are intermediate between the absolute plate-motion vector and the fossil spreading direction; multi-event stacked values of ø and δt are -80° and 1.5 s, respectively.

  13. Social Media as Seismic Networks for the Earthquake Damage Assessment (United States)

    Meletti, C.; Cresci, S.; La Polla, M. N.; Marchetti, A.; Tesconi, M.


    The growing popularity of online platforms, based on user-generated content, is gradually creating a digital world that mirrors the physical world. In the paradigm of crowdsensing, the crowd becomes a distributed network of sensors that allows us to understand real life events at a quasi-real-time rate. The SoS-Social Sensing project [] exploits the opportunistic crowdsensing, involving users in the sensing process in a minimal way, for social media emergency management purposes in order to obtain a very fast, but still reliable, detection of emergency dimension to face. First of all we designed and implemented a decision support system for the detection and the damage assessment of earthquakes. Our system exploits the messages shared in real-time on Twitter. In the detection phase, data mining and natural language processing techniques are firstly adopted to select meaningful and comprehensive sets of tweets. Then we applied a burst detection algorithm in order to promptly identify outbreaking seismic events. Using georeferenced tweets and reported locality names, a rough epicentral determination is also possible. The results, compared to Italian INGV official reports, show that the system is able to detect, within seconds, events of a magnitude in the region of 3.5 with a precision of 75% and a recall of 81,82%. We then focused our attention on damage assessment phase. We investigated the possibility to exploit social media data to estimate earthquake intensity. We designed a set of predictive linear models and evaluated their ability to map the intensity of worldwide earthquakes. The models build on a dataset of almost 5 million tweets exploited to compute our earthquake features, and more than 7,000 globally distributed earthquakes data, acquired in a semi-automatic way from USGS, serving as ground truth. We extracted 45 distinct features falling into four categories: profile, tweet, time and linguistic. We run diagnostic tests and

  14. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman


    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  15. The Quake-Catcher Network: A Seismic Network for the World (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.


    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the QCN is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. The QCN now has over 2000 volunteers worldwide, with concentrations in various earthquake-prone metropolitan areas. The sensors have recorded earthquakes with magnitudes between Ml2.5 (Christchurch, New Zealand - 2010) and Mw8.8 (Maule, Chile - 2010). The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) exhibit the same distribution of scatter as traditional seismic sensors (e.g. the Kinemetrics Epicensor) but with poor resolution at the bottom end. Real-time distributed computing allows for rapid earthquake location and characterization, including magnitude estimation and AlertMap generation. The network is installed and maintained by volunteer seismologists around the world. Because the volunteer provides a free computational platform (a personal computer), internet access, and shelter, the costs of the Quake-Catcher Network are minimal. QCN provides free sensors for individuals and organizations in key regions of interest. QCN provides subsidized sensors (5) for K-12 teachers in the US. QCN provides subsidized sensor at 49 for the general public and $5 for K-12 teachers in the United States. International collaborators are expanding the regions of coverage around the world. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes for scientists and the general public. To learn more, visit detected near Los Angeles, California on the

  16. Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo


    Full Text Available We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status (normal, leakage, and breakage, pipe failure modeling in hydraulic simulation, and negative pressure treatment. The network’s seismic reliability is defined as the ratio of the available quantity of water to the required water demand under stochastic earthquakes. The proposed model allows no pipe option in decisions, making it possible to identify seismic-reliability-based optimal layout for a WDS. The model takes into account the physical impact of earthquake events on the WDS, which ultimately affects the network’s boundary conditions (e.g., failure level of pipes. A well-known benchmark network, the Anytown network, is used to demonstrate the proposed model. The network’s optimal topology and pipe layouts are determined from a series of optimizations. The results show that installing large redundant pipes degrades the system’s seismic reliability because the pipes will cause a large rupture opening under failure. Our model is a useful tool to find the optimal pipe layout that maximizes system reliability under earthquakes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Eminov,


    Full Text Available The existing actual material on experimental assessment of positioning error in VRS GPS networks is analyzed where the mobile receiver is provided with virtual reference station. The method of highly informative zone is suggested for removal of initial uncertainty in reference station selection with the aim to develop minimal GPS network consisting of three reference stations. Methodical recommendations and directions are given for the suggested method application.

  18. Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan | El-Khateeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate weather stations distribution in Jordan according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria; using the daily average maximum and minimum temperatures in 35 climatic stations. Signifïcance of this study lies in highlighting the importance of weather stations distribution on areas of ...

  19. Seismicity of the rocky mountains and Rio Grande Rift from the EarthScope Transportable Array and CREST temporary seismic networks, 2008-2010 (United States)

    Nakai, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.


    We developed a catalog of small magnitude (ML -0.1 to 4.7) seismicity across Colorado and New Mexico from the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array and CREST (Colorado Rocky Mountains Experiment and Seismic Transects) seismic networks from 2008 to 2010 to characterize active deformation in the Rio Grande Rift. We recorded over 900 earthquakes in the Rio Grande Rift region, not including induced earthquakes and mine blasts, and find that the rift is actively deforming both broadly and in distinct regions. Seismic events that are likely induced, mostly in the Raton Basin, make up 66% of the catalog (1837 earthquakes). Neogene faults in the northern rift in north central Colorado are seismically active in the North Park Basin and northwestern Colorado. The central rift from the San Luis Basin (southern Colorado) to south of the Socorro Magma Body is the most seismically active rift region, and seismicity delineates the deformation in the Colorado Plateau transition zone, which is spatially correlated with volcanic vents, dikes, and faults within the western Jemez Lineament. The eastern Jemez Lineament is nearly aseismic and surrounded by a halo of seismicity culminating in boundaries defined by recent moderate (Mw 3.9 and Mw 3.3) earthquakes. The southern rift is characterized by diffuse seismicity in Texas and Mexico. This study provides an updated seismic catalog built with uniformity in seismometer coverage and low epicentral uncertainties ( 2 km) that allows for regional evaluation of seismicity. During this time period, clusters of seismicity and moderate magnitude earthquakes characterize deformation in a low-strain rate extensional environment.

  20. GFZ wireless seismic array (GFZ-WISE), a wireless mesh network of seismic sensors: new perspectives for seismic noise array investigations and site monitoring. (United States)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Milkereit, Claus; Parolai, Stefano; Jaeckel, Karl-Heinz; Veit, Ingo; Fischer, Joachim; Zschau, Jochen


    Over the last few years, the analysis of seismic noise recorded by two dimensional arrays has been confirmed to be capable of deriving the subsoil shear-wave velocity structure down to several hundred meters depth. In fact, using just a few minutes of seismic noise recordings and combining this with the well known horizontal-to-vertical method, it has also been shown that it is possible to investigate the average one dimensional velocity structure below an array of stations in urban areas with a sufficient resolution to depths that would be prohibitive with active source array surveys, while in addition reducing the number of boreholes required to be drilled for site-effect analysis. However, the high cost of standard seismological instrumentation limits the number of sensors generally available for two-dimensional array measurements (i.e., of the order of 10), limiting the resolution in the estimated shear-wave velocity profiles. Therefore, new themes in site-effect estimation research by two-dimensional arrays involve the development and application of low-cost instrumentation, which potentially allows the performance of dense-array measurements, and the development of dedicated signal-analysis procedures for rapid and robust estimation of shear-wave velocity profiles. In this work, we present novel low-cost wireless instrumentation for dense two-dimensional ambient seismic noise array measurements that allows the real-time analysis of the surface-wavefield and the rapid estimation of the local shear-wave velocity structure for site response studies. We first introduce the general philosophy of the new system, as well as the hardware and software that forms the novel instrument, which we have tested in laboratory and field studies.

  1. GFZ Wireless Seismic Array (GFZ-WISE, a Wireless Mesh Network of Seismic Sensors: New Perspectives for Seismic Noise Array Investigations and Site Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Picozzi


    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the analysis of seismic noise recorded by two dimensional arrays has been confirmed to be capable of deriving the subsoil shear-wave velocity structure down to several hundred meters depth. In fact, using just a few minutes of seismic noise recordings and combining this with the well known horizontal-to-vertical method, it has also been shown that it is possible to investigate the average one dimensional velocity structure below an array of stations in urban areas with a sufficient resolution to depths that would be prohibitive with active source array surveys, while in addition reducing the number of boreholes required to be drilled for site-effect analysis. However, the high cost of standard seismological instrumentation limits the number of sensors generally available for two-dimensional array measurements (i.e., of the order of 10, limiting the resolution in the estimated shear-wave velocity profiles. Therefore, new themes in site-effect estimation research by two-dimensional arrays involve the development and application of low-cost instrumentation, which potentially allows the performance of dense-array measurements, and the development of dedicated signal-analysis procedures for rapid and robust estimation of shear-wave velocity profiles. In this work, we present novel low-cost wireless instrumentation for dense two-dimensional ambient seismic noise array measurements that allows the real–time analysis of the surface-wavefield and the rapid estimation of the local shear-wave velocity structure for site response studies. We first introduce the general philosophy of the new system, as well as the hardware and software that forms the novel instrument, which we have tested in laboratory and field studies.

  2. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.


    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  3. USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN): Data and Seismic Metadata (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a telecommunications...

  4. Autonomous telemetry system by using mobile networks for a long-term seismic observation (United States)

    Hirahara, S.; Uchida, N.; Nakajima, J.


    When a large earthquake occurs, it is important to know the detailed distribution of aftershocks immediately after the main shock for the estimation of the fault plane. The large amount of seismic data is also required to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the focal area. We have developed an autonomous telemetry system using mobile networks, which is specialized for aftershock observations. Because the newly developed system enables a quick installation and real-time data transmission by using mobile networks, we can construct a dense online seismic network even in mountain areas where conventional wired networks are not available. This system is equipped with solar panels that charge lead-acid battery, and enables a long-term seismic observation without maintenance. Furthermore, this system enables a continuous observation at low costs with flat-rate or prepaid Internet access. We have tried to expand coverage areas of mobile communication and back up Internet access by configuring plural mobile carriers. A micro server embedded with Linux consists of automatic control programs of the Internet connection and data transmission. A status monitoring and remote maintenance are available via the Internet. In case of a communication failure, an internal storage can back up data for two years. The power consumption of communication device ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 W. With a 50 Ah lead-acid battery, this system continues to record data for four days if the battery charging by solar panels is temporarily unavailable.

  5. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Lifeline Networks Using Vulnerability Factor : In Application to Water Distribution Lines


    能島, 暢呂; Nobuoto, NOJIMA; 岐阜大学工学部社会基盤工学科; Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University


    A simple index is proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment of lifeline network facilities. The proposed index, "V-factor," is evaluated using the correction factors representing relative vulnerability corresponding to a variety of pipe diameters, pipe materials, and joint types in statistical models used widely for estimation of number of pipe breaks in the event of earthquakes. Such correction factors are averaged over the entire networks on the basis of extended length of pipelines cla...

  6. Using synthetic kinematic source inversions with dynamic rupture models to evaluate the effect of seismic network density and geometry in near-field source inversions (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Dalguer, L. A.; Song, S.; Clinton, J. F.


    Detailed source imaging of the spatial and temporal slip distribution of earthquakes is a main research goal for seismology. In this study we investigate how the number and geometrical distribution of seismic stations affect finite kinematic source inversion results by inverting ground motions derived from a known synthetic dynamic earthquake rupture model, which is governed by the slip weakening friction law with heterogeneous stress distribution. Our target dynamic rupture model is a buried strike-slip event (Mw 6.5) in a layered half space (Dalguer & Mai, 2011) with broadband synthetic ground motions created at 168 near-field stations. In the inversion, we modeled low frequency (under 1Hz) waveforms using a genetic algorithm in a Bayesian framework (Moneli et al. 2008) to retrieve peak slip velocity, rupture time, and rise time of the source. The dynamic consistent regularized Yoffe function (Tinti et al. 2005) was applied as a single window slip velocity function. Tikhonov regularization was used to smooth final slip. We tested three station network geometry cases: (a) single station, in which we inverted 3 component waveforms from a single station varying azimuth and epicentral distance; (b) multi-station configurations with similar numbers of stations all at similar distances from, but regularly spaced around the fault; (c) irregular multi-station configurations using different numbers of stations. For analysis, waveform misfits are calculated using all 168 stations. Our results show: 1) single station tests suggest that it may be possible to obtain a relatively good source model even using one station, with a waveform misfit comparable to that obtained with the best source model. The best single station performance occurs with stations in which amplitude ratios between the three components are not large, indicating that P & S waves are all present. We infer that both body wave radiation pattern and distance play an important role in selection of optimal

  7. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  8. A model for a seismic computerized alert network (United States)

    Heaton, T.H.


    In large earthquakes, damaging ground motions may occur at large epicentral distances. Because of the relatively slow speed of seismic waves, it is possible to construct a system to provide short-term warning (as much as several tens of seconds) of imminent strong ground motions from major earthquakes. Automated safety responses could be triggered by users after receiving estimates of the arrival time and strength of shaking expected at an individual site. Although warning times are likely to be short for areas greatly damaged by relatively numerous earthquakes of moderate size, large areas that experience very strong shaking during great earthquakes would receive longer warning times.

  9. Data Delivery Latency Improvements And First Steps Towards The Distributed Computing Of The Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network Earthquake Early Warning System (United States)

    Stubailo, I.; Watkins, M.; Devora, A.; Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, V. I.


    The USGS/Caltech Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) is a modern digital ground motion seismic network. It develops and maintains Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) data collection and delivery systems in southern California as well as real-time EEW algorithms. Recently, Behr et al., SRL, 2016 analyzed data from several regional seismic networks deployed around the globe. They showed that the SCSN was the network with the smallest data communication delays or latency. Since then, we have reduced further the telemetry delays for many of the 330 current sites. The latency has been reduced on average from 2-6 sec to 0.4 seconds by tuning the datalogger parameters and/or deploying software upgrades. Recognizing the latency data as one of the crucial parameters in EEW, we have started archiving the per-packet latencies in mseed format for all the participating sites in a similar way it is traditionally done for the seismic waveform data. The archived latency values enable us to understand and document long-term changes in performance of the telemetry links. We can also retroactively investigate how latent the waveform data were during a specific event or during a specific time period. In addition the near-real time latency values are useful for monitoring and displaying the real-time station latency, in particular to compare different telemetry technologies. A future step to reduce the latency is to deploy the algorithms on the dataloggers at the seismic stations and transmit either the final solutions or intermediate parameters to a central processing center. To implement this approach, we are developing a stand-alone version of the OnSite algorithm to run on the dataloggers in the field. This will increase the resiliency of the SCSN to potential telemetry restrictions in the immediate aftermath of a large earthquake, either by allowing local alarming by the single station, or permitting transmission of lightweight parametric information rather than continuous

  10. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France) (United States)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.


    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  11. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations (United States)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas


    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  12. Teaching hands-on geophysics: examples from the Rū seismic network in New Zealand (United States)

    van Wijk, Kasper; Simpson, Jonathan; Adam, Ludmila


    Education in physics and geosciences can be effectively illustrated by the analysis of earthquakes and the subsequent propagation of seismic waves in the Earth. Educational seismology has matured to a level where both the hard- and software are robust and user friendly. This has resulted in successful implementation of educational networks around the world. Seismic data recorded by students are of such quality that these can be used in classic earthquake location exercises, for example. But even ocean waves weakly coupled into the Earth’s crust can now be recorded on educational seismometers. These signals are not just noise, but form the basis of more recent developments in seismology, such as seismic interferometry, where seismic waves generated by ocean waves—instead of earthquakes—can be used to infer information about the Earth’s interior. Here, we introduce an earthquake location exercise and an analysis of ambient seismic noise, and present examples. Data are provided, and all needed software is freely available.

  13. Looking for underlying features in automatic and reviewed seismic bulletins through a neural network (United States)

    Carluccio, R.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.; Chiappini, S.


    SEL1 bulletins are, among all IDC products, a fundamental tool for NDCs in their task of national assessment of compliance with the CTBT. This is because SEL1s are expected to be disseminated within 2 hours from the occurrence of any detected waveform event, and the National Authorities are supposed to take a political decision in nearly real time, especially in the case when the event could triggers the request for an on site inspection. In this context not only the rapidity, but also the reliability of the SEL1 is a fundamental requirement. Our last years experience gained in the comparison between SEL1 and Italian Seismic Bulletin events has shown that SEL1s usually contain a big fraction of bogus events (sometimes close to 50%). This is due to many factors, all related to the availability of processing data and to the fast automatic algorithms involved. On the other hand, REBs are much more reliable as proved by our experience. Therefore, in spite of their relevant time delay by which they are distributed, which prevents their real-time use, REBs can be still useful in a retrospective way as reference information for comparison with SEL1s. This study tries to set up a sort of logical filter on the SEL1s that, while maintaining the rapidity requirements, improves their reliability. Our idea is based on the assumption that the SEL1s are produced by systematic algorithm of phase association and therefore some patterns among the input and output data could exist and be recognized. Our approach was initially based on a set of rules suggested by human experts on their personal experience, and its application on large datasets on a global scale. Other approaches not involving human interaction (data mining techniques) do exist. This study refers specifically to a semi-automatic approach: fitting of multi-parametric relationships hidden in the data set, through the application of neural networks by an algorithm of supervised learning. Full SEL1 and REB bulletins from

  14. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond. (United States)

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo


    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics.

  15. Automated classification of seismic sources in a large database: a comparison of Random Forests and Deep Neural Networks. (United States)

    Hibert, Clement; Stumpf, André; Provost, Floriane; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    In the past decades, the increasing quality of seismic sensors and capability to transfer remotely large quantity of data led to a fast densification of local, regional and global seismic networks for near real-time monitoring of crustal and surface processes. This technological advance permits the use of seismology to document geological and natural/anthropogenic processes (volcanoes, ice-calving, landslides, snow and rock avalanches, geothermal fields), but also led to an ever-growing quantity of seismic data. This wealth of seismic data makes the construction of complete seismicity catalogs, which include earthquakes but also other sources of seismic waves, more challenging and very time-consuming as this critical pre-processing stage is classically done by human operators and because hundreds of thousands of seismic signals have to be processed. To overcome this issue, the development of automatic methods for the processing of continuous seismic data appears to be a necessity. The classification algorithm should satisfy the need of a method that is robust, precise and versatile enough to be deployed to monitor the seismicity in very different contexts. In this study, we evaluate the ability of machine learning algorithms for the analysis of seismic sources at the Piton de la Fournaise volcano being Random Forest and Deep Neural Network classifiers. We gather a catalog of more than 20,000 events, belonging to 8 classes of seismic sources. We define 60 attributes, based on the waveform, the frequency content and the polarization of the seismic waves, to parameterize the seismic signals recorded. We show that both algorithms provide similar positive classification rates, with values exceeding 90% of the events. When trained with a sufficient number of events, the rate of positive identification can reach 99%. These very high rates of positive identification open the perspective of an operational implementation of these algorithms for near-real time monitoring of

  16. On Seismic Ground Roll Filtering Using the Wavelet Transform and Neural Network (United States)

    Benaissa, Zahia; Benaissa, Abdelkader; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila; Boudella, Amar


    Here, we present an adapted filtering technique for the non-stationary signals. It is based on the wavelet transform and its rebuilding formula. This technique is used generally to detect and extract locally in the time-scale field particular events from seismic data. We show the efficiency of this technique to filter the ground roll from reflection seismic vibroseis recording (shot gather). The results for two different filtering processes are presented, one of these results is based on the annulment of the transform coefficients in the selected zone relating to the ground roll, and the other one is based on their attenuation (roll-off). Obtained results shows the efficiency of the first process especially when the wavelet transform is calculated only on the noisy zone and when the ground roll is made up of two or more pseudo-Rayleigh waves, in this case iterations are mandatory to improve the signal to noise ratio using the second process. The current work shows also the use of the artificial neural network on the prediction of the mute parameters in the F-K domain to be used on the Ground Roll attenuation. The proposed idea is very robust and useful in case of 3D seismic data. A set of 3D seismic Inlines are used for the training of the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network machine. Application to real data shows clearly the robustness of the proposed technique. Keywords: Filtering - Ground roll - Wavelet transform - Seismic - Reflection - Signal to noise ratio - Artificial neuronal network -3D-MLP- Training.

  17. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.


    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records

  18. Optimal Base Station Placement for Wireless Sensor Networks with Successive Interference Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi


    Full Text Available We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  19. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian


    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  20. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond


    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M.; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo


    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are...

  1. Crowd-Sourcing Seismic Data for Education and Research Opportunities with the Quake-Catcher Network (United States)

    Sumy, D. F.; DeGroot, R. M.; Benthien, M. L.; Cochran, E. S.; Taber, J. J.


    The Quake Catcher Network (QCN; uses low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors hosted by volunteers to collect seismic data. Volunteers use accelerometers internal to laptop computers, phones, tablets or small (the size of a matchbox) MEMS sensors plugged into desktop computers using a USB connector to collect scientifically useful data. Data are collected and sent to a central server using the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) distributed computing software. Since 2008, sensors installed in museums, schools, offices, and residences have collected thousands of earthquake records, including the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, and 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquakes. In 2016, the QCN in the United States transitioned to the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Consortium and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), which are facilities funded through the National Science Foundation and the United States Geological Survey, respectively. The transition has allowed for an influx of new ideas and new education related efforts, which include focused installations in several school districts in southern California, on Native American reservations in North Dakota, and in the most seismically active state in the contiguous U.S. - Oklahoma. We present and describe these recent educational opportunities, and highlight how QCN has engaged a wide sector of the public in scientific data collection, particularly through the QCN-EPIcenter Network and NASA Mars InSight teacher programs. QCN provides the public with information and insight into how seismic data are collected, and how researchers use these data to better understand and characterize seismic activity. Lastly, we describe how students use data recorded by QCN sensors installed in their classrooms to explore and investigate felt earthquakes, and look towards the bright future of the network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla STOILOVA


    Full Text Available A methodology for the classification of railway passenger stations was developed in this study. Four groups of factors are defined to study the characteristics of the station: potential of the town, importance of the town, infrastructural factors, and characteristics of passengers. In the research we investigated 18 factors and studied 98 passenger stations of railway network in Bulgaria. The method of principal components has been applied for grouping the factors and cluster analysis has been applied to classify the stations. The factors have been classified into 4 components by the method of principal components. The stations have been classified into 6 groups using hierarchical cluster analysis. The methods, Average linkage between group and Within-groups linkage, and distance-type measures Euclidean distance and Squared Euclidean distance were compared to verify the results of cluster analysis. The grouping of the stations has been used for the determination of the stops for categories intercity passenger trains. The main groups of stations for servicing express trains are the first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups. In the sixth group are stations for servicing fast passenger trains. The methodology can be applied to the study of all stations and stops in the rail network.

  3. Seismic Design Value Evaluation Based on Checking Records and Site Geological Conditions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienfuan Kerh


    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved computational neural network model that uses three seismic parameters (i.e., local magnitude, epicentral distance, and epicenter depth and two geological conditions (i.e., shear wave velocity and standard penetration test value as the inputs for predicting peak ground acceleration—the key element for evaluating earthquake response. Initial comparison results show that a neural network model with three neurons in the hidden layer can achieve relatively better performance based on the evaluation index of correlation coefficient or mean square error. This study further develops a new weight-based neural network model for estimating peak ground acceleration at unchecked sites. Four locations identified to have higher estimated peak ground accelerations than that of the seismic design value in the 24 subdivision zones are investigated in Taiwan. Finally, this study develops a new equation for the relationship of horizontal peak ground acceleration and focal distance by the curve fitting method. This equation represents seismic characteristics in Taiwan region more reliably and reasonably. The results of this study provide an insight into this type of nonlinear problem, and the proposed method may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  4. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe


    Life losses following disastrous earthquake depends mainly by the building vulnerability, intensity of shaking and timeliness of rescue operations. In recent decades, the increase in population and industrial density has significantly increased the exposure to earthquakes of urban areas. The potential impact of a strong earthquake on a town center can be reduced by timely and correct actions of the emergency management centers. A real time urban seismic network can drastically reduce casualties immediately following a strong earthquake, by timely providing information about the distribution of the ground shaking level. Emergency management centers, with functions in the immediate post-earthquake period, could be use this information to allocate and prioritize resources to minimize loss of human life. However, due to the high charges of the seismological instrumentation, the realization of an urban seismic network, which may allow reducing the rate of fatalities, has not been achieved. Recent technological developments in MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology could allow today the realization of a high-density urban seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment, suitable for the earthquake effects mitigation. In the 1990s, MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are today widely used in laptops, games controllers and mobile phones. Due to their great commercial successes, the research into and development of MEMS accelerometers are actively pursued around the world. Nowadays, the sensitivity and dynamics of these sensors are such to allow accurate recording of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude. Due to their low cost and small size, the MEMS accelerometers may be employed for the realization of high-density seismic networks. The MEMS accelerometers could be installed inside sensitive places (high vulnerability and exposure), such as schools, hospitals, public buildings and places of

  5. Earthquakes Sources Parameter Estimation of 20080917 and 20081114 Near Semangko Fault, Sumatra Using Three Components of Local Waveform Recorded by IA Network Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The 17/09/2008 22:04:80 UTC and 14/11/2008 00:27:31.70 earthquakes near Semangko fault were analyzed to identify the fault planes. The two events were relocated to assess physical insight against the hypocenter uncertainty. The datas used to determine source parameters of both earthquakes were three components of local waveform recorded by Geofon broadband IA network stations, (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and RBSI for the event of 17/09/2008 and (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and KSI for the event of 14/11/2008. Distance from the epicenter to all station was less than 5°. Moment tensor solution of two events was simultaneously analyzed by determination of the centroid position. Simultaneous analysis covered hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes of two events indicated Semangko fault planes. Considering that the Semangko fault zone is a high seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is important for the seismic hazard investigation in the region.

  6. Classification of seismic signals at Villarrica volcano (Chile) using neural networks and genetic algorithms (United States)

    Curilem, Gloria; Vergara, Jorge; Fuentealba, Gustavo; Acuña, Gonzalo; Chacón, Max


    Each volcano has its own unique seismic activity. The aim of this work is to construct a system able to classify seismic signals for the Villarrica volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in South America. Since seismic signals are the result of particular processes inside the volcano's structure, they can be used to forecast volcanic activity. This paper describes the different kinds of seismic signals recorded at the Villarrica volcano and their significance. Three kind of signals were considered as most representative of this volcano's activity: the long-period, the tremor, and the energetic tremor signals. A classifier is implemented to read the seismic registers at 30-second intervals, extract the most relevant features of each interval, and classify them into one of the three kinds of signals considered as most representative of this particular volcano. To do so, 1033 different kinds of 30-s signals were extracted and classified by a human expert. A feature extraction process was applied to obtain the main characteristics of each of them. This process was developed using criteria which have been shown by others to effectively classify seismic signals, based on the experience of a human expert. The classifier was implemented with a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network whose architecture and training process were optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. This technique searched for the most adequate MLP configuration to improve the classification performance, optimizing the number of hidden neurons, the transfer functions of the neurons, and the training algorithm. The optimization process also performed a feature selection to reduce the number of signal features, optimizing the number of network inputs. The results show that the optimized classifier reaches more than 93% exactitude. identifying the signals of each kind. The amplitude of the signals is the most important feature for its classification, followed by its frequency content. The

  7. Earth Station Neural Network Control Methodology and Simulation


    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah


    Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible, clean as compared with conventional resources. Also, it is used to supply regions with no grid, no telephone lines, and often with difficult accessibility by common transport. Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are the most important application of renewable energy. Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. This paper presents the mathematic...

  8. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang


    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  9. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  10. Ceboruco Volcano Seismicity Study using a 3D Single Digital Station (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, M. C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.


    The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacític composition lava flows along the southeast side. We use data recorded from March 2003 to July 2008 at the CEBN triaxial short period digital station located at the southwest side of the volcano. Our final data set consist of 139 volcanic earthquakes. We classified them according waveform characteristics of the east-west horizontal component. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, the hypocenters are below the volcanic building within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. The epicenters show similar directions as the tectonic structures of the area (Tepic-Zacoalco Graben and regional faults). Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities.

  11. Forecasting of Energy Expenditure of Induced Seismicity with Use of Artificial Neural Network (United States)

    Cichy, Tomasz; Banka, Piotr


    Coal mining in many Polish mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is accompanied by high levels of induced seismicity. In mining plants, the methods of shock monitoring are improved, allowing for more accurate localization of the occurring phenomena and determining their seismic energy. Equally important is the development of ways of forecasting seismic hazards that may occur while implementing mine design projects. These methods, depending on the length of time for which the forecasts are made, can be divided into: longterm, medium-term, short-term and so-called alarm. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful for the design of seam exploitations. The paper presents a method of predicting changes in energy expenditure of shock using a properly trained artificial neural network. This method allows to make long-term forecasts at the stage of the mine’s exploitation design, thus enabling the mining work plans to be reviewed to minimize the potential for tremors. The information given at the input of the neural network is indicative of the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation occurring in the selected, thick, resistant rock layers (tremor-prone layers). Energy changes, taking place in one or more tremor-prone layers are considered. These indicators describe only the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation accumulating in the rock as a consequence of the mining operation, but does not determine the amount of energy released during the destruction of a given volume of rock. In this process, the potential energy of elastic strain transforms into other, non-measurable energy types, including the seismic energy of recorded tremors. In this way, potential energy changes affect the observed induced seismicity. The parameters used are characterized by increases (declines) of specific energy with separation to occur before the hypothetical destruction of the rock and after it. Additional input information is an index characterizing the rate of

  12. A framework for recovery-oriented, COTS-based ground station networks (United States)

    Cutler, James William

    The complexity of space communication has limited our access to space systems and kept mission operations costs high. Ultimately, this results in reduced mission capabilities and yields. In particular, ground stations, the access point between space and terrestrial networks, suffer from monolithic designs, narrow interfaces, and unreliability that raise significant financial barriers for low-cost, experimental satellite missions. This research reduces these barriers by developing technology for recovery-oriented, flexible access networks built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Based on our extensive small satellite experiences, we decomposed ground station services and captured them in an extensible framework that simplified reuse of ground station services and improved portability across heterogeneous installations. This capability, combined with selective customization through virtual machine technology, allowed us to deliver "just in time" ground stations for QuakeSat-1 at a fraction of the price of current commodity solutions. This decomposition is also informed by principles of robust system design. Thus, our ground station reference implementation called Mercury was a candidate for recursive recovery (RR), a high availability technique whose effectiveness in reducing recovery time has been demonstrated on research prototypes of Internet server systems. Augmenting Mercury to implement RR reduced recovery time of typical ground station software failures by a factor of four, dropping recovery time to within the "window of recovery" and effectively eliminating the adverse effects of these failures. Since the time of failures cannot be predicted, RR allowed us to mitigate the effects of the failures and greatly reduce their potential impact on ground station operations. Our ground station architecture harnessed the benefits of COTS components, including rapid prototyping and deployment, while overcoming the challenges of COTS reliability and mission

  13. Modeling propagation of infrasound signals observed by a dense seismic network. (United States)

    Chunchuzov, I; Kulichkov, S; Popov, O; Hedlin, M


    The long-range propagation of infrasound from a surface explosion with an explosive yield of about 17.6 t TNT that occurred on June 16, 2008 at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) in the western United States is simulated using an atmospheric model that includes fine-scale layered structure of the wind velocity and temperature fields. Synthetic signal parameters (waveforms, amplitudes, and travel times) are calculated using parabolic equation and ray-tracing methods for a number of ranges between 100 and 800 km from the source. The simulation shows the evolution of several branches of stratospheric and thermospheric signals with increasing range from the source. Infrasound signals calculated using a G2S (ground-to-space) atmospheric model perturbed by small-scale layered wind velocity and temperature fluctuations are shown to agree well with recordings made by the dense High Lava Plains seismic network located at an azimuth of 300° from UTTR. The waveforms of calculated infrasound arrivals are compared with those of seismic recordings. This study illustrates the utility of dense seismic networks for mapping an infrasound field with high spatial resolution. The parabolic equation calculations capture both the effect of scattering of infrasound into geometric acoustic shadow zones and significant temporal broadening of the arrivals.

  14. Performance of the INGV National Seismic Network from 1997 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mele


    Full Text Available Seismic monitoring in Italy has strongly improved since the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. This has made the National Seismic Network (RSN a powerful tool both to rapidly locate and quantify thousands of earthquakes occurring in Italy every year, and to study the seismic activity in detail, accumulating an impressive high quality data set that will be exploited in the coming years to understand earthquake processes and to investigate the deep structure. This paper summarizes and compares the basic features of the seismicity recorded in 2000 and 2006, before and after the implementation of the new RSN, showing that the number of well located earthquakes has more than doubled and that the completeness magnitude has dropped from ~2.3 to ~1.7. In addition, we concentrate on the evaluation of the current automatic location and magnitudes versus the revised ones, published routinely in the INGV bulletins. We show that the rapid estimates of locations and magnitudes are robust and reliable for most regions in Italy: more than 75% of the earthquakes are located in real time within 10km from the «true» locations, whereas the rapid magnitudes ML are within ±0.4 from the revised values in 90% of cases. The comparison between real-time and revised locations shows that there are a few regions in Italy where a further network improvement is still desirable. These include all the off-shore regions, Calabria, western Sicily, the Alpine and Po Plain region, and some small areas along the peninsula.

  15. Geologic interpretations of seismic data Route 128 (Northern Circumferential Highway) cut, and Hopkins Street grade separation stations 1-18 in Wakefield, Mass. (United States)

    May, James E.; Lineham, Rev. Daniel


    The completion of a segment of the Northern Circumferential Highway, Route 126, in Wakefield, Mass., requires an underpass bridge at Hopkins Street, Station 5+50. The plan of the project shows approximately 1800 feet if approach cuts between stations 1 and 18. In October 1945 a preliminary seismic study was made of a segment of this cut between stations 6+50 and 13+30. Four profiles were made at this time and a report was submitted by Newton E. Chute and Rev. Daniel Linhan (file report of January 15). This work showed a relatively shallow (in general, 6 to 12 feet in depth) somewhat irregular bedrock surface between stations 6+50 and 13+50. That data indicated that much of this segment of the cut will be in bedrock. In order to obtain more complete data for the preparation of detailed estimates on the amount of bedrock to be excavated for this segment of the cut, and also to obtain sufficient data for the unexplored segment of the cut, 21 additional seismic traverses were made in September 1949. The present report contains only the results obtained from this later work. The work was performed as a part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  16. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system (United States)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.


    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  17. Regional Seismic Event Identification and Improved Locations With Small Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Glenn


    We isolated the effect of structure immediately beneath seismic stations on seismic waveforms by determining the inference of velocity discontinuities beneath a single broadband 3-component seismic...

  18. Automatic classification of sources of volcanic tremors at the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group (Kamchatka) based on the seismic network covariance matrix analysis (United States)

    Soubestre, Jean; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Seydoux, Léonard; de Rosny, Julien; Droznin, Dimitry V.; Droznina, Svetlana Ya.; Senyukov, Sergey L.; Gordeev, Evgeny I.


    Volcanic tremors may be caused by magma moving through narrow fractures, by fragmentation and pulsation of pressurized fluids within the volcano, or by escape of pressurized steam and gases from fumaroles. They present an important attribute of the volcanic unrest and their detection and characterization is used in volcano monitoring systems. The tremors might be generated within different parts of volcanoes and might characterize different types of volcanic activity. The main goal of the present study is to develop a method of automatic classification of different types (sources) of tremors based on analysis of continuous records of a network of seismographs. The proposed method is based on the analysis of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the seismic array covariance matrix. First, we followed an approach developed by Seydoux et al. (2016) and analyzed the width of the covariance matrix eigenvalues distribution to detect time periods with strong volcanic tremors. In a next step, we analyzed the frequency-dependent eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to strongest eigenvalues can be used as fingerprints of dominating seismic sources during the period over which the covariance matrix was calculated. We applied the method to the data recorded by the permanent seismic monitoring network composed of 19 stations operated in the vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes (KVG) located in Kamchatka, Russia. The KVG is composed of 13 stratovolcanoes with 3 of them (Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik) being very active during last decades. In addition, two other active volcanoes, Shiveluch and Kizimen, are located immediately north and south of KVG. This exceptional concentration of active volcanoes provides us with a multiplicity of seismic tremor sources required to validate the method. We used 4.5 years of vertical component records by 19 stations and computed network covariance matrices from day-long windows. We then analyzed

  19. A collaborative network middleware project by Lambda Station, TeraPaths, and Phoebus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A.; /Fermilab; Bradley, S.; /Brookhaven; Crawford, M.; /Fermilab; DeMar, P.; /Fermilab; Katramatos, D.; /Brookhaven; Shroff, K.; /Brookhaven; Swany, M.; /Delaware U.; Yu, D.; /Brookhaven


    The TeraPaths, Lambda Station, and Phoebus projects, funded by the US Department of Energy, have successfully developed network middleware services that establish on-demand and manage true end-to-end, Quality-of-Service (QoS) aware, virtual network paths across multiple administrative network domains, select network paths and gracefully reroute traffic over these dynamic paths, and streamline traffic between packet and circuit networks using transparent gateways. These services improve network QoS and performance for applications, playing a critical role in the effective use of emerging dynamic circuit network services. They provide interfaces to applications, such as dCache SRM, translate network service requests into network device configurations, and coordinate with each other to setup up end-to-end network paths. The End Site Control Plane Subsystem (ESCPS) builds upon the success of the three projects by combining their individual capabilities into the next generation of network middleware. ESCPS addresses challenges such as cross-domain control plane signalling and interoperability, authentication and authorization in a Grid environment, topology discovery, and dynamic status tracking. The new network middleware will take full advantage of the perfSONAR monitoring infrastructure and the Inter-Domain Control plane efforts and will be deployed and fully vetted in the Large Hadron Collider data movement environment.

  20. Physical properties of the crust and upper mantle in Eurasia through the analysis of waveforms from the Soviet analog seismic network (United States)

    Dricker, Ilya G.

    Seismic networks in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consist of more than a hundred broadband analog stations and have been in operation for more than 30 years. The longevity of the network, the number and distribution of stations, and the large number of earthquakes recorded has made the seismic data collected by the networks a valuable source of information about the structure of the Earth. The analog recording format and a lack of access to adequate computing facilities has resulted in most of these data undergoing only rudimentary analysis in the past. For this thesis I have collected and digitized several thousands analog records from the archives of more than 30 stations. I found that the quality of the digitized seismograms from the CIS analog stations is good enough to be useful in such types of analysis as the receiver functions, SKS splitting and SS-S differential travel times analysis. Studies of SKS phases recorded by stations in Eastern Europe suggest the existence of a present or recent large-scale mantle flow in central and eastern Europe, parallel to the Alpine belt, which is consistent with the hypothesis of flow proposed previously for the mantle beneath Western Europe. Application of SKS technique to the data recorded in the Altai and Sayan mountains of Central Asia show strain in the mantle beneath the Altai-Sayan region is similar, both in style and scale, to strain in the crust. The receiver functions technique was used to investigate the uppermost layers in the Khibina plutonic region of northern Russia. The results suggest that short (50 km) wavelength lateral variations in the depth of crust-mantle transition persist in this region, despite the cessation of rifting activity in the Kola peninsula in Devonian times. Finally, mapping the upper mantle velocity structure of the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings with SS-S travel time residuals suggest that while the lithospere beneath southern Tibet is thickened by the India

  1. Green Cellular - Optimizing the Cellular Network for Minimal Emission from Mobile Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Ezri, Doron


    Wireless systems, which include cellular phones, have become an essential part of the modern life. However the mounting evidence that cellular radiation might adversely affect the health of its users, leads to a growing concern among authorities and the general public. Radiating antennas in the proximity of the user, such as antennas of mobile phones are of special interest for this matter. In this paper we suggest a new architecture for wireless networks, aiming at minimal emission from mobile stations, without any additional radiation sources. The new architecture, dubbed Green Cellular, abandons the classical transceiver base station design and suggests the augmentation of transceiver base stations with receive only devices. These devices, dubbed Green Antennas, are not aiming at coverage extension but rather at minimizing the emission from mobile stations. We discuss the implications of the Green Cellular architecture on 3G and 4G cellular technologies. We conclude by showing that employing the Green Cell...

  2. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks. (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria


    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor


    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  5. Serviceability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Water Distribution Network under Seismic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shuang


    Full Text Available The stability of water service is a hot point in industrial production, public safety, and academic research. The paper establishes a service evaluation model for the water distribution network (WDN. The serviceability is measured in three aspects: (1 the functionality of structural components under disaster environment; (2 the recognition of cascading failure process; and (3 the calculation of system reliability. The node and edge failures in WDN are interrelated under seismic excitations. The cascading failure process is provided with the balance of water supply and demand. The matrix-based system reliability (MSR method is used to represent the system events and calculate the nonfailure probability. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method. The cascading failure processes with different node failures are simulated. The serviceability is analyzed. The critical node can be identified. The result shows that the aged network has a greater influence on the system service under seismic scenario. The maintenance could improve the antidisaster ability of WDN. Priority should be given to controlling the time between the initial failure and the first secondary failure, for taking postdisaster emergency measures within this time period can largely cut down the spread of cascade effect in the whole WDN.

  6. An application of artificial neural network models to estimate air temperature data in areas with sparse network of meteorological stations. (United States)

    Chronopoulos, Kostas I; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Dimopoulos, Ioannis F; Alvertos, Nikolaos


    In this work artificial neural network (ANN) models are developed to estimate meteorological data values in areas with sparse meteorological stations. A more traditional interpolation model (multiple regression model, MLR) is also used to compare model results and performance. The application site is a canyon in a National Forest located in southern Greece. Four meteorological stations were established in the canyon; the models were then applied to estimate air temperature values as a function of the corresponding values of one or more reference stations. The evaluation of the ANN model results showed that fair to very good air temperature estimations may be achieved depending on the number of the meteorological stations used as reference stations. In addition, the ANN model was found to have better performance than the MLR model: mean absolute error values were found to be in the range 0.82-1.72 degrees C and 0.90-1.81 degrees C, for the ANN and the MLR models, respectively. These results indicate that ANN models may provide advantages over more traditional models or methods for temperature and other data estimations in areas where meteorological stations are sparse; they may be adopted, therefore, as an important component in various environmental modeling and management studies.

  7. Integrated seismic monitoring in Slovakia (United States)

    Bystrický, E.; Kristeková, M.; Moczo, P.; Cipciar, A.; Fojtíková, L.; Pažák, P.; Gális, M.


    Two seismic networks are operated on the territory of the Slovak republic by two academic institutions. The Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences operates the Slovak National Network of Seismic Stations (SNNSS, established in 2004) and the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava operates the Local Seismic Network Eastern Slovakia (LSNES, established in 2007). SNNSS is focused on the regional seismicity and participates in the international data exchange on a regular basis. LSNES, designed to be compatible and complementary with the existing SNNSS infrastructure, is focused on the seismicity of the eastern Slovakia source zone. The two networks share database and archive. Thus the expenses and workload of the joint data center operation are split between the two institutions. The cooperation enhances the overall reliability of the data center while does not interfere with the original scopes of the two networks. Relational database with thin client based on the standard web browser is implemented. Maintenance requirements of clients are reduced to minimum and it is easier to manage the system integrity. The database manages parametric data, macroseismic data, waveform data, inventory data, and geographic data. The database is not only a central part of the data processing of the two institutions; it also forms a core of the warning system. The warning system functionality requires development of the modules which are additional to the standard seismic database functionality. The modules for editing, publishing and automatic processing of macroseismic questionnaires were implemented for the purpose of the warning system, and the database integrates macroseismic data with other seismic data.

  8. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.


    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  9. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking for the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Schlesinger, Adam; Willman, Brett M.; Pitts, Lee; Davidson, Suzanne R.; Pohlchuck, William A.


    Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an emerging data networking technology designed to abstract the hardware communication layer from the spacecraft/payload computing resources. DTN is specifically designed to operate in environments where link delays and disruptions are common (e.g., space-based networks). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated DTN on several missions, such as the Deep Impact Networking (DINET) experiment, the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD). To further the maturation of DTN, NASA is implementing DTN protocols on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper explains the architecture of the ISS DTN network, the operational support for the system, the results from integrated ground testing, and the future work for DTN expansion.

  10. A Datacenter Backstage: The Knowledge that Supports the Brazilian Seismic Network (United States)

    Calhau, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Collaço, B.; Bianchi, M.; Pirchiner, M.


    Historically, Brazilian seismology never had a clear strategic vision about how its data should be acquired, evaluated, stored and shared. Without a data management plan, data (for any practical purpose) could be lost, resulting in a non-uniform coverage that will reduce any chance of local and international collaboration, i.e., data will never become scientific knowledge. Since 2009, huge efforts from four different institutions are establishing the new permanent Brazilian Seismographic Network (RSBR), mainly with resources from PETROBRAS, the Brazilian Government oil company. Four FDSN sub-networks currently compose RSBR, with a total of 80 permanent stations. BL and BR codes (from BRASIS subnet) with 47 stations maintained by University of Sao Paulo (USP) and University of Brasilia (UnB) respectively; NB code (RSISNE subnet), with 16 stations deployed by University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN); and ON code (RSIS subnet), with 18 stations operated by the National Observatory (ON) in Rio de Janeiro. Most stations transmit data in real-time via satellite or cell-phone links. Each node acquires its own stations locally, and data is real-time shared using SeedLink. Archived data is distributed via ArcLink and/or FDSNWS services. All nodes use the SeisComP3 system for real-time processing and as a levering back-end. Open-source solutions like Seiscomp3 require some homemade tools to be developed, to help solve the most common daily problems of a data management center: local magnitude into the real-time earthquake processor, website plugins, regional earthquake catalog, contribution with ISC catalog, quality-control tools, data request tools, etc. The main data products and community activities include: kml files, data availability plots, request charts, summer school courses, an Open Lab Day and news interviews. Finally, a good effort was made to establish BRASIS sub-network and the whole RSBR as a unified project, that serves as a communication channel between

  11. Knowledge discovery from seismic data using neural networks; Descoberta de conhecimento a partir de dados sismicos utilizando redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Wesley R. de; Costa, Bruno A.D.; Gomes, Herman M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)


    The analysis and interpretation of seismic data is of fundamental importance to the Oil Industry, since it helps discover geologic formations that are conducive to hydrocarbon accumulation. The use of seismic data in reservoir characterization may be performed through localized data inspections and clustering based on features of common seismic responses. This clustering or classification can be performed in two basic ways: visually, with the help of graphical tools; or using automatic classification techniques, such as statistical models and artificial neural networks. Neural network based methods are generally superior to rule- or knowledge-based systems, since they have a better generalization capability and are fault tolerant. Within this context, the main objective of this work is to describe methods that employ the two main neural network based approaches (supervised and unsupervised) in knowledge discovery from seismic data. Initially, the implementation and experiments were focused on the problem of seismic facies recognition using the unsupervised approach, but in future works, the implementation of the supervised approach, an application to fault detection and a parallel implementation of the proposed methods are planned. (author)

  12. Evaluation of infrasound signals from the shuttle Atlantis using a large seismic network. (United States)

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine D; Hedlin, Michael A H; Walker, Kristoffer T; Drob, Douglas P; Zumberge, Mark A


    Inclement weather in Florida forced the space shuttle "Atlantis" to land at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California on June 22, 2007, passing near three infrasound stations and several hundred seismic stations in northern Mexico, southern California, and Nevada. The high signal-to-noise ratio, broad receiver coverage, and Atlantis' positional information allow for the testing of infrasound propagation modeling capabilities through the atmosphere to regional distances. Shadow zones and arrival times are predicted by tracing rays that are launched at right angles to the conical shock front surrounding the shuttle through a standard climatological model as well as a global ground to space model. The predictions and observations compare favorably over much of the study area for both atmospheric specifications. To the east of the shuttle trajectory, there were no detections beyond the primary acoustic carpet. Infrasound energy was detected hundreds of kilometers to the west and northwest (NW) of the shuttle trajectory, consistent with the predictions of ducting due to the westward summer-time stratospheric jet. Both atmospheric models predict alternating regions of high and low ensonifications to the NW. However, infrasound energy was detected tens of kilometers beyond the predicted zones of ensonification, possibly due to uncertainties in stratospheric wind speeds.

  13. Fine Registration of Kilo-Station Networks - a Modern Procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Sets (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.


    We propose a complete methodology for the fine registration and referencing of kilo-station networks of terrestrial laser scanner data currently used for many valuable purposes such as 3D as-built reconstruction of Building Information Models (BIM) or industrial asbuilt mock-ups. This comprehensive target-based process aims to achieve the global tolerance below a few centimetres across a 3D network including more than 1,000 laser stations spread over 10 floors. This procedure is particularly valuable for 3D networks of indoor congested environments. In situ, the use of terrestrial laser scanners, the layout of the targets and the set-up of a topographic control network should comply with the expert methods specific to surveyors. Using parametric and reduced Gauss-Helmert models, the network is expressed as a set of functional constraints with a related stochastic model. During the post-processing phase inspired by geodesy methods, a robust cost function is minimised. At the scale of such a data set, the complexity of the 3D network is beyond comprehension. The surveyor, even an expert, must be supported, in his analysis, by digital and visual indicators. In addition to the standard indicators used for the adjustment methods, including Baarda's reliability, we introduce spectral analysis tools of graph theory for identifying different types of errors or a lack of robustness of the system as well as in fine documenting the quality of the registration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hullo


    Full Text Available We propose a complete methodology for the fine registration and referencing of kilo-station networks of terrestrial laser scanner data currently used for many valuable purposes such as 3D as-built reconstruction of Building Information Models (BIM or industrial asbuilt mock-ups. This comprehensive target-based process aims to achieve the global tolerance below a few centimetres across a 3D network including more than 1,000 laser stations spread over 10 floors. This procedure is particularly valuable for 3D networks of indoor congested environments. In situ, the use of terrestrial laser scanners, the layout of the targets and the set-up of a topographic control network should comply with the expert methods specific to surveyors. Using parametric and reduced Gauss-Helmert models, the network is expressed as a set of functional constraints with a related stochastic model. During the post-processing phase inspired by geodesy methods, a robust cost function is minimised. At the scale of such a data set, the complexity of the 3D network is beyond comprehension. The surveyor, even an expert, must be supported, in his analysis, by digital and visual indicators. In addition to the standard indicators used for the adjustment methods, including Baarda’s reliability, we introduce spectral analysis tools of graph theory for identifying different types of errors or a lack of robustness of the system as well as in fine documenting the quality of the registration.

  15. Improving Station Performance by Building Isolation Walls in the Tunnel (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Horn, Nikolaus; Leohardt, Roman


    Conrad Observatory is situated far away from roads and industrial areas on the Trafelberg in Lower Austria. At the end of the seismic tunnel, the main seismic instrument of the Observatory with a station code CONA is located. This station is one of the most important seismic stations in the Austrian Seismic Network (network code OE). The seismic observatory consists of a 145m long gallery and an underground laboratory building with several working areas. About 25 meters away from the station CONA, six temporary seismic stations were implemented for research purposes. Two of them were installed with the same equipment as CONA, while the remaining four stations were set up with digitizers having lower noise and higher resolution (Q330HR) and sensors with the same type (STS-2). In order to prevent possible disturbances by air pressure and temperature fluctuation, three walls were built inside of the tunnel. The first wall is located ca 63 meters from the tunnel entrance, while a set of double walls with a distance of 1.5 meters is placed about 53 meters from the first isolation wall but between the station CONA and the six temporary stations. To assess impact of the isolation walls on noise reduction and detection performance, investigations are conducted in two steps. The first study is carried out by comparing the noise level and detection performance between the station CONA behind the double walls and the stations in front of the double walls for verifying the noise isolation by the double walls. To evaluate the effect of the single wall, station noise level and detection performance were studied by comparing the results before and after the installation of the wall. Results and discussions will be presented. Additional experiment is conducted by filling insulation material inside of the aluminium boxes of the sensors (above and around the sensors). This should help us to determine an optimal insulation of the sensors with respect to pressure and temperature

  16. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi


    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  17. Base station selection for energy efficient network operation with the majorization-minimization algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pollakis, Emmanuel; Stańczak, Slawomir


    In this paper, we study the problem of reducing the energy consumption in a mobile communication network; we select the smallest set of active base stations that can preserve the quality of service (the minimum data rate) required by the users. In more detail, we start by posing this problem as an integer programming problem, the solution of which shows the optimal assignment (in the sense of minimizing the total energy consumption) between base stations and users. In particular, this solution shows which base stations can then be switched off or put in idle mode to save energy. However, solving this problem optimally is intractable in general, so in this study we develop a suboptimal approach that builds upon recent techniques that have been successfully applied to, among other problems, sparse signal reconstruction, portfolio optimization, statistical estimation, and error correction. More precisely, we relax the original integer programming problem as a minimization problem where the objective function is ...

  18. Evaluation of Integration Degree of the ASG-EUPOS Polish Reference Networks With Ukrainian GeoTerrace Network Stations in the Border Area (United States)

    Siejka, Zbigniew


    GNSS systems are currently the basic tools for determination of the highest precision station coordinates (e.g. basic control network stations or stations used in the networks for geodynamic studies) as well as for land, maritime and air navigation. All of these tasks are carried out using active, large scale, satellite geodetic networks which are complex, intelligent teleinformatic systems offering post processing services along with corrections delivered in real-time for kinematic measurements. Many countries in the world, also in Europe, have built their own multifunctional networks and enhance them with their own GNSS augmentation systems. Nowadays however, in the era of international integration, there is a necessity to consider collective actions in order to build a unified system, covering e.g. the whole Europe or at least some of its regions. Such actions have already been undertaken in many regions of the world. In Europe such an example is the development for EUPOS which consists of active national networks built in central eastern European countries. So far experience and research show, that the critical areas for connecting these networks are border areas, in which the positioning accuracy decreases (Krzeszowski and Bosy, 2011). This study attempts to evaluate the border area compatibility of Polish ASG-EUPOS (European Position Determination System) reference stations and Ukrainian GeoTerrace system reference stations in the context of their future incorporation into the EUPOS. The two networks analyzed in work feature similar hardware parameters. In the ASG-EUPOS reference stations network, during the analyzed period, 2 stations (WLDW and CHEL) used only one system (GPS), while, in the GeoTerrace network, all the stations were equipped with both GPS and GLONASS receivers. The ASG EUPOS reference station network (95.6%) has its average completeness greater by about 6% when compared to the GeoTerrace network (89.8%).

  19. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.


    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  20. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS) (United States)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.


    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  1. A Hierarchical Optimization Model for a Network of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiyu Kong


    Full Text Available Charging station location decisions are a critical element in mainstream adoption of electric vehicles (EVs. The consumer confidence in EVs can be boosted with the deployment of carefully-planned charging infrastructure that can fuel a fair number of trips. The charging station (CS location problem is complex and differs considerably from the classical facility location literature, as the decision parameters are additionally linked to a relatively longer charging period, battery parameters, and available grid resources. In this study, we propose a three-layered system model of fast charging stations (FCSs. In the first layer, we solve the flow capturing location problem to identify the locations of the charging stations. In the second layer, we use a queuing model and introduce a resource allocation framework to optimally provision the limited grid resources. In the third layer, we consider the battery charging dynamics and develop a station policy to maximize the profit by setting maximum charging levels. The model is evaluated on the Arizona state highway system and North Dakota state network with a gravity data model, and on the City of Raleigh, North Carolina, using real traffic data. The results show that the proposed hierarchical model improves the system performance, as well as the quality of service (QoS, provided to the customers. The proposed model can efficiently assist city planners for CS location selection and system design.

  2. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data. (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi


    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Present and Future of Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in Japan (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kano, M.


    Tokyo and its vicinity are most seismically risky areas in the world. To prepare for the seismic disaster we have started a series of integrated Tokyo Metropolitan projects for disaster mitigation since 2002.The current Tokyo Metropolitan Project (Phase III) has started in 2012 with a new project name as "Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega-earthquake Disasters" to use MeSO-net data for constructing 3-D velocity and Q structure beneath the greater Tokyo. We aim to collect data for regional characterization to access seismic hazard produced by subduction of Philippine Sea and Pacific plates. The data from MeSO-net are continuously collected at the data management center in the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), the University of Tokyo, with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. The data are 3-componnent accelerogram with a full scale of +/- 1,500 gal for horizontal and +/-500 gal for vertical component and the effective dynamic range is 135dB at 40Hz. Available frequency range is from 0.05 to 85 Hz, which is good for travel time analysis of body waves to ambient noise analysis for surface waves. We have successfully operated MeSO-net for about 7 years without serious malfunction. We collect more than 150 TB continuous ground motion data with more than 100K earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and all its aftershocks. The data are used many studies (e.g., Nakagawa et al., 2010,2015; Ishibe et al., 2015; Denolle et al., 2014) and currently prepared for disclosing both in continues and event-by-event format. We are developing a fully automatic earthquake detection/location system for local earthquakes beneath MeSO-net. A numerical system to estimate ground motions at an arbitrary location without MeSO-net station is under developing (Kano et al., 2015).We also install a sensor system in a building for monitoring motion and damages by a large earthquake (Nakashima et al., 2015). Those studies are eventually integrated to develop an advanced

  4. A Holistic And Integrative Concept For Strong-Motion Records On Constructions Of The URBAN-INCERC National Seismic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Claudiu-Sorin


    Full Text Available The main objective of the National Seismic Network for Constructions, operated by the National Institute for Research and Development in Constructions, Urban Planning and Spatial Territorial Development “URBAN-INCERC”, is the monitoring of situations generated by earthquakes or other dangerous sources of vibrations induced in constructions on the entire Romanian territory. The NIRD URBAN-INCERC seismic records obtained in-situ and on buildings were and are extremely important for designers, especially in 1977, 1986 and 1990. It is the largest network in Romania, consisting of some 60 digital acceleration recorders distributed in Bucharest and in the country. This network is strategic from the population safety point of view. Due to the specific seismic hazard and vulnerability, our country shall be in preparation for the impact of a possible earthquake, which cannot be predicted in time domain, but it is possible to occur anytime. To prevent and mitigate negative consequences of such an event, urgent actions are required to ensure structural safety. Given the facts, Romania is in a critical time on strategic options regarding the seismic risks.

  5. Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network


    Do Guen Yoo; Donghwi Jung; Doosun Kang; Joong Hoon Kim


    We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS) that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status (normal, leakage, and breakage), pipe failure modeling in hydraulic simulation, and negative pressure treatment. The network’s seismic re...

  6. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungseob Lee

    Full Text Available Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets, in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms

  7. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks. (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk


    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  8. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC. (United States)

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia


    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web

  9. Analysis of lifetime of wireless sensor network with base station moving on different paths (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Purohit, N.; Varma, S.


    Energy saving is the top most requirement of the wireless sensor network (WSN) for making it a cost effective technology. In this direction, minimisation of the distance between the communicating nodes should be an obvious choice, as it consumes the biggest chunk of the node energy. But the stationary nature of nodes (including the base station) in the standard WSN does not allow it; thus, the provision of a moving base station has been recently introduced. A few schemes with moving base station have already been developed but they suffer from several drawbacks, for example, the path over which the base station can move has not been considered which is highly unfeasible. An efficient and implementable moving strategy is needed to be developed, which is the primary goal of the present work. The fuzzy logic inference mechanism has been developed and the performance of the same is illustrated in terms of WSN lifetime. Lifetime of a WSN depends on many factors, for example, residual energy of nodes, distance between communicating nodes and base station, etc. Ability of fuzzy logic theory to address more than one factor simultaneously gives it an upper edge over other alternatives. The present work explores the possibilities of building either a circular shaped or a cross-shaped path in the deployment area. A relative study of the movement of base station on these paths has been presented. Simulation results show that the cross path always give better performance than circular path and the lifetime improves with increase in the length of the predefined path.

  10. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel


    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  11. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou


    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  12. Determination of NEHRP Site Class of Seismic Recording Stations in the Northwest Himalayas and Its Adjoining Area Using HVSR Method (United States)

    Harinarayan, N. H.; Kumar, Abhishek


    Local site characteristics play an important role in controlling the damage pattern during earthquakes (EQs). These site characteristics may vary from simple to complex and can be estimated by various field tests. In addition, extended Nakamura's method, which uses horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) based on available EQ records also available for site class (SC) determination. In this study, SCs for 90 recording stations which are maintained by Program for Excellence in Strong Motion Studies (PESMOS), located in the northwestern Himalayas and the adjoining areas are determined using extended Nakamura's technique. Average HVSR curves obtained at majority of the recording stations are found matching with the existing literature. Predominant frequency ( f peak) from average HVSR curve at each recording station is then used for the determination of SC. Original SC given by PESMOS is purely based on geology and not based on comprehensive soil investigation exercise. In this study, the SC, which is based on the average HVSR curves is found matching with SC given by PESMOS for a majority of recording stations. However, for considerable number of recording stations, a mismatch is also found which is consistent with the existing literature. In addition, SC based on National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) scheme is proposed based on f peak for all the 90 recording stations.

  13. Predicting PM10 concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN). (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark


    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GPS on Every Roof, GPS Sensor Network for Post-Seismic Building-Wise Damage Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Oguni


    Full Text Available Development of wireless sensor network equipped with GPS for post-seismic building-wise damage identification is presented in this paper. This system is called GPS on Every Roof. Sensor node equipped with GPS antenna and receiver is installed on the top of the roof of each and every building. The position of this sensor node is measured before and after earthquake. The final goal of this system is to i identify the displacement of the roof of each house and ii collect the information of displacement of the roof of the houses through wireless communication. Superposing this information on GIS, building-wise damage distribution due to earthquake can be obtained. The system overview, hardware and some of the key components of the system such as on-board GPS relative positioning algorithm to achieve the accuracy in the order of several centimeters are described in detail. Also, the results from a field experiment using a wireless sensor network with 39 sensor nodes are presented.

  15. Italian seismic databank allows on-line access (United States)

    Barba, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Rita Di; Smriglio, Giuseppe

    Users can interactively query, search, and download parametric information, and digital recordings collected by the Italian Telemetered Seismic Network (ITSN) through the Istituto Nazionale Di Geofisica Seismic Network Databank (ISND). The databank is completely menu-driven and easy to use.The ITSN comprises about 80 seismic stations (Figure 1) equipped with several seismometers acting at a critical damping of 70% and characterized by a period of 1 Hz. The seismometers' signals are transmitted over telephone lines or radio relay systems and then demodulated and recorded by an automatic acquisition system developed in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey. Digital data are stored on a magnetic disk and then processed through interactive procedures. The automatic selection of the seismic phases is checked daily and eventually corrected by seismic analysts. New data are available to users within a week.

  16. Tracking fin whales in the northeast Pacific Ocean with a seafloor seismic network. (United States)

    Wilcock, William S D


    Ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) networks represent a tool of opportunity to study fin and blue whales. A small OBS network on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeast Pacific Ocean in ~2.3 km of water recorded an extensive data set of 20-Hz fin whale calls. An automated method has been developed to identify arrival times based on instantaneous frequency and amplitude and to locate calls using a grid search even in the presence of a few bad arrival times. When only one whale is calling near the network, tracks can generally be obtained up to distances of ~15 km from the network. When the calls from multiple whales overlap, user supervision is required to identify tracks. The absolute and relative amplitudes of arrivals and their three-component particle motions provide additional constraints on call location but are not useful for extending the distance to which calls can be located. The double-difference method inverts for changes in relative call locations using differences in residuals for pairs of nearby calls recorded on a common station. The method significantly reduces the unsystematic component of the location error, especially when inconsistencies in arrival time observations are minimized by cross-correlation.

  17. Estimation of seismic quality factor: Artificial neural networks and current approaches (United States)

    Yıldırım, Eray; Saatçılar, Ruhi; Ergintav, Semih


    The aims of this study are to estimate soil attenuation using alternatives to traditional methods, to compare results of using these methods, and to examine soil properties using the estimated results. The performances of all methods, amplitude decay, spectral ratio, Wiener filter, and artificial neural network (ANN) methods, are examined on field and synthetic data with noise and without noise. High-resolution seismic reflection field data from Yeniköy (Arnavutköy, İstanbul) was used as field data, and 424 estimations of Q values were made for each method (1,696 total). While statistical tests on synthetic and field data are quite close to the Q value estimation results of ANN, Wiener filter, and spectral ratio methods, the amplitude decay methods showed a higher estimation error. According to previous geological and geophysical studies in this area, the soil is water-saturated, quite weak, consisting of clay and sandy units, and, because of current and past landslides in the study area and its vicinity, researchers reported heterogeneity in the soil. Under the same physical conditions, Q value calculated on field data can be expected to be 7.9 and 13.6. ANN models with various structures, training algorithm, input, and number of neurons are investigated. A total of 480 ANN models were generated consisting of 60 models for noise-free synthetic data, 360 models for different noise content synthetic data and 60 models to apply to the data collected in the field. The models were tested to determine the most appropriate structure and training algorithm. In the final ANN, the input vectors consisted of the difference of the width, energy, and distance of seismic traces, and the output was Q value. Success rate of both ANN methods with noise-free and noisy synthetic data were higher than the other three methods. Also according to the statistical tests on estimated Q value from field data, the method showed results that are more suitable. The Q value can be estimated

  18. Site classification for National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) stations in China using an empirical H/V spectral ratio method (United States)

    Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi


    Reliable site classification of the stations of the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) has not yet been assigned because of lacking borehole data. This study used an empirical horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio (hereafter, HVSR) site classification method to overcome this problem. First, according to their borehole data, stations selected from KiK-net in Japan were individually assigned a site class (CL-I, CL-II, or CL-III), which is defined in the Chinese seismic code. Then, the mean HVSR curve for each site class was computed using strong motion recordings captured during the period 1996-2012. These curves were compared with those proposed by Zhao et al. (2006a) for four types of site classes (SC-I, SC-II, SC-III, and SC-IV) defined in the Japanese seismic code (JRA, 1980). It was found that an approximate range of the predominant period Tg could be identified by the predominant peak of the HVSR curve for the CL-I and SC-I sites, CL-II and SC-II sites, and CL-III and SC-III + SC-IV sites. Second, an empirical site classification method was proposed based on comprehensive consideration of peak period, amplitude, and shape of the HVSR curve. The selected stations from KiK-net were classified using the proposed method. The results showed that the success rates of the proposed method in identifying CL-I, CL-II, and CL-III sites were 63%, 64%, and 58% respectively. Finally, the HVSRs of 178 NSMONS stations were computed based on recordings from 2007 to 2015 and the sites classified using the proposed method. The mean HVSR curves were re-calculated for three site classes and compared with those from KiK-net data. It was found that both the peak period and the amplitude were similar for the mean HVSR curves derived from NSMONS classification results and KiK-net borehole data, implying the effectiveness of the proposed method in identifying different site classes. The classification results have good agreement with site classes

  19. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham


    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  20. Prediction of gas hydrate saturation throughout the seismic section in Krishna Godavari basin using multivariate linear regression and multi-layer feed forward neural network approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, Y.; Nair, R.R.; Singh, H.; Datta, P.; Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    Stepwise linear regression, multi-layer feed forward neural (MLFN) network method was used to predict the 2D distribution of P-wave velocity, resistivity, porosity, and gas hydrate saturation throughout seismic section NGHP-01 in the Krishna...

  1. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan


    Full Text Available In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others.

  2. Relocation and seismotectonic interpretation of the 2015 Ossa de Montiel (Albacete, Spain) seismic series. (United States)

    Cantavella, Juan V.; Gaite, Beatriz; Ruiz, Mario; Romero, Paula; Gómez-García, Clara; Cerdeño, Roberto; Villaseñor, Antonio; Díaz, Jordi; Lozano, Lucía


    A moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw 4.7 occurred on February 23, 2015 to the NE of Ossa de Montiel (SE central Spain), in a region with very low seismic activity and poorly monitored by permanent seismic stations. Two days after the event a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 13 stations was deployed in this area until April 6, 2015, allowing to detect more than 500 events inside the network limits. The data gathered from this network along with the data from more distant seismic stations has allowed us to perform a precise hypocentral location of the Ossa de Montiel seismic series. For this location we have manually read the arrival times for all the stations and used relative location techniques based on waveform cross-correlations and a double-difference algorithm. In addition, we have studied the focal mechanism of the main shock and the largest aftershocks using first motion polarities and full waveform inversion. We have found that the mechanism and aftershock distribution is consistent with a NW-SE normal fault with a dip of 40 degrees to the NE at a depth of about 12 km. With these results we analyze the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and propose a seismotectonic interpretation of a series developed in an area with scarce seismic information to this date.

  3. Joint Base Station Clustering and Beamformer Design for Partial Coordinated Transmission in Heterogenous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi; Baligh, Hadi; Luo, Zhi-Quan


    We consider the interference management problem in a multicell MIMO heterogenous network. Within each cell there are a large number of distributed micro/pico base stations (BSs) that can be potentially coordinated for joint transmission. To reduce coordination overhead, we consider user-centric BS clustering so that each user is served by only a small number of (potentially overlapping) BSs. Thus, given the channel state information, our objective is to jointly design the BS clustering and the linear beamformers for all BSs in the network. In this paper, we formulate this problem from a {sparse optimization} perspective, and propose an efficient algorithm that is based on iteratively solving a sequence of group LASSO problems. A novel feature of the proposed algorithm is that it performs BS clustering and beamformer design jointly rather than separately as is done in the existing approaches for partial coordinated transmission. Moreover, the cluster size can be controlled by adjusting a single penalty paramet...

  4. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.


    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  5. Brief communication: Co-seismic displacement on 26 and 30 October 2016 (Mw = 5.9 and 6.5) - earthquakes in central Italy from the analysis of a local GNSS network (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Vecchio, Alessia; Brighenti, Fabio; Caputo, Riccardo; Carnemolla, Francesco; Di Pietro, Adriano; Lupo, Marco; Maggini, Massimiliano; Marchese, Salvatore; Messina, Danilo; Monaco, Carmelo; Naso, Salvatore


    On 24 August 2016 a strong earthquake (Mw = 6.0) affected central Italy and an intense seismic sequence started. Field observations, DInSAR (Differential INterferometry Synthetic-Aperture Radar) analyses and preliminary focal mechanisms, as well as the distribution of aftershocks, suggested the reactivation of the northern sector of the Laga fault, the southern part of which was already rebooted during the 2009 L'Aquila sequence, and of the southern segment of the Mt Vettore fault system (MVFS). Based on this preliminary information and following the stress-triggering concept (Stein, 1999; Steacy et al., 2005), we tentatively identified a potential fault zone that is very vulnerable to future seismic events just north of the earlier epicentral area. Accordingly, we planned a local geodetic network consisting of five new GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations located a few kilometres away from both sides of the MVFS. This network was devoted to working out, at least partially but in some detail, the possible northward propagation of the crustal network ruptures. The building of the stations and a first set of measurements were carried out during a first campaign (30 September and 2 October 2016). On 26 October 2016, immediately north of the epicentral area of the 24 August event, another earthquake (Mw = 5.9) occurred, followed 4 days later (30 October) by the main shock (Mw = 6.5) of the whole 2016 summer-autumn seismic sequence. Our local geodetic network was fully affected by the new events and therefore we performed a second campaign soon after (11-13 November 2016). In this brief note, we provide the results of our geodetic measurements that registered the co-seismic and immediately post-seismic deformation of the two major October shocks, documenting in some detail the surface deformation close to the fault trace. We also compare our results with the available surface deformation field of the broader area, obtained on the basis of the DIn

  6. Preliminary consideration on the seismic actions recorded during the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico S.; Iacovino, Chiara


    After the Mw 6.0 mainshock of August 24, 2016 at 03.36 a.m. (local time), with the epicenter located between the towns of Accumoli (province of Rieti), Amatrice (province of Rieti) and Arquata del Tronto (province of Ascoli Piceno), several activities were started in order to perform some preliminary evaluations on the characteristics of the recent seismic sequence in the areas affected by the earthquake. Ambient vibration acquisitions have been performed using two three-directional velocimetric synchronized stations, with a natural frequency equal to 0.5Hz and a digitizer resolution of equal to 24bit. The activities are continuing after the events of the seismic sequence of October 26 and October 30, 2016. In this paper, in order to compare recorded and code provision values in terms of peak (PGA, PGV and PGD), spectral and integral (Housner Intensity) seismic parameters, several preliminary analyses have been performed on accelerometric time-histories acquired by three near fault station of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network): Amatrice station (station code AMT), Norcia station (station code NRC) and Castelsantangelo sul Nera station (station code CNE). Several comparisons between the elastic response spectra derived from accelerometric recordings and the elastic demand spectra provided by the Italian seismic code (NTC 2008) have been performed. Preliminary results retrieved from these analyses highlight several apparent difference between experimental data and conventional code provision. Then, the ongoing seismic sequence appears compatible with the historical seismicity in terms of integral parameters, but not in terms of peak and spectral values. It seems appropriate to reconsider the necessity to revise the simplified design approach based on the conventional spectral values. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and

  7. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah


    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  8. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.


    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  9. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian


    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  10. The NARS array : a seismic experiment in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dost, B


    Due to the rapid development of portable, digital seismographs it has recently become possible in global seismology to install and operate a large scale temporary array of seismic stations. This thesis describes the design and operation of the first experiment of this kind: the Network of Autonomous

  11. The NARS array : a seismic experiment in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dost, B.


    Due to the rapid development of portable, digital seismographs it has recently become possible in global seismology to install and operate a large scale temporary array of seismic stations. This thesis describes the design and operation of the first experiment of this kind: the Network of

  12. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons (United States)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  13. Bayesian inference of Earth's radial seismic structure from body-wave traveltimes using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.W.L.; Valentine, A.P.; Trampert, J.


    How do body-wave traveltimes constrain the Earth's radial (1-D) seismic structure? Existing 1-D seismological models underpin 3-D seismic tomography and earthquake location algorithms. It is therefore crucial to assess the quality of such 1-D models, yet quantifying uncertainties in seismological

  14. On the application of Hidden Markov Model and Bayesian Belief Network to seismic noise at Las Canadas Caldera, Tenerife, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Oliveros, Anggi [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias de La Tierra, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy)], E-mail:; Tarraga, Marta [Departamento de Volcanologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Aspinall, Willy [Aspinall and Associates, 5 Woodside Close, Beaconsfield, Bucks (United Kingdom)


    The Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex situated in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has recently shown signs of unrest, long after its last eruptive episode at Chinyero in 1909, and the last explosive episode which happened at Montana Blanca, 2000 years ago. In this paper we study the seismicity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex recorded between May and December 2004, in order to show the applicability of tools such as Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Belief Networks which can be used to build a structure for evaluating the probability of given eruptive or volcano-related scenarios. The results support the existence of a bidirectional relationship between volcano-tectonic events and the background seismic noise - in particular its frequency content. This in turn suggests that the two phenomena can be related to one unique process influencing their generation.

  15. Shallow crustal velocities and volcanism suggested from ambient noise studies using a dense broadband seismic network in the Tatun Volcano Group of Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi


    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is situated adjacent to the Taipei metropolis and was active predominantly around 0.8-0.2 Ma (Pleistocene). Various recent lines of evidence suggest that the TVG is a potentially active volcano and that future volcanic eruptions cannot be ruled out. Geothermal activities are largely constrained to faults, but the relationship between volcanism and detailed velocity structures is not well understood. We analyzed ambient seismic noise of daily vertical components from 2014 using a dense seismic network of 40 broadband stations. We selected a 0.02° grid spacing to construct 2D and 3D shallow crustal phase velocity maps in the 0.5-3 s period band. Two S-wave velocity profiles transect Chishingshan (Mt. CS) in the shallow 3 km crust are further derived. The footwall of the Shanchiao Fault is dominated by low velocity, which may relate to Tertiary bedrock buried under andesitic lava flows dozens to hundreds of meters thick. The hanging wall of the Shanchiao Fault is the location of recent major volcanic activities. Low velocity zones in the southeast of Dayoukeng (DYK) may be interpreted as hydrothermal reservoirs or water-saturated Tertiary bedrock related to Cenozoic structures in the shallow crust. High velocities conspicuously dominate the east of the TVG, where the earliest stages of volcanism in the TVG are located, but where surface hydro-geothermal activities were absent in recent times. Between the Shanchiao Fault and Kanchiao Fault high velocities were detected, which converge below Mt. CS and may be related to early stages of magma conduits that gradually consolidated. These two faults may play a significant role with the TVG. The submarine volcanism adjacent to the Keelung coastline also requires further attention.

  16. Seismic signals at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field, Italy (United States)

    Antunes, Verónica; Lupi, Matteo; Carrier, Aurore; Planès, Thomas; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Ricci, Tullio; Sciarra, Alessandra; Moretti, Milena


    Mud volcanoes are geological phenomena that only recently are beginning to be investigated with passive seismic methods. To shed light on the seismic signals associated with mud volcanic activity we deployed a temporary network composed of 7 seismic stations around Nirano, Italy. We identified the different types of signals generated by this active system. During the three months survey period, the stations repeatedly recorded drumbeat signals beneath the structure. We have identified two types of drumbeat signals: one with durations of about 50 seconds and frequency range of 10-45 Hz; the second has a duration of about 4 seconds and frequency range of 5-45 Hz. These drumbeat signals were captured depending on the position of the seismic station and the distance from the mud vents. We also identified a third signal, present in almost every station in the network, with a duration of about 10 seconds and frequency range of 5-45 Hz. The amplitude of these signals varies across the stations suggesting that the most active part of the system is located in the north eastern-most area of the mud volcanic field where new mud vents recently appeared.

  17. Technical troubles encountered in the seismic observation network of Pacific21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuki, Yoshiki; Ishihara, Yasushi


    Real-time monitoring of broadband seismographs through the Internet enables us to discover various technical troubles of broadband seismic observation system of Pacific21 and to take measures to solve...

  18. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.


    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Extracting Regional Ionospheric TEC Measurements from Dense GPS (GNSS) Networks in Areas of High Seismic Risk (United States)

    Reuveni, Y.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Tong, X.; Moore, A. W.


    The ionosphere structure and peak electron density vary strongly with time, geographic location, and certain solar and geomagnetic disturbances, causing it to be dynamically variable, and hence, one of the main sources of GPS errors. Since ionospheric delays are a key limitation to successful GPS integer-cycle phase ambiguity resolution and point positioning accuracy, it is useful to estimate these delays on regional scales when using dense GPS networks. When estimating the Total Electron Content (TEC), one has to take into account the inner delay differences between the two frequencies, which are also known as the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), and can cause errors of several meters if they are ignored. Although DCB estimates for GNSS satellites and IGS ground receivers are provided on a regular basis by the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (such as CODE, JPL, and ESA), the DCBs for regional and local network receivers are not provided, and some of the IGS ground receiver estimates are not available from all analysis centers. Additionally, the DCB estimates vary between different GNSS satellites and ground receivers, where the majority of the DCBs values are based on the assumption that they are constant over 1 day or 1 month for any given GPS satellite or receiver. However, this assumption is far from being valid, since in fact the DCB values often vary diurnally or semi-diurnally. Developing and implementing regional ionospheric TEC models can be used in real-time to reduce errors in precise point positioning for dense real-time GPS networks. In addition, regional TEC maps extracted from GPS ionospheric path delays can be used, along with tropospheric delays, for mitigating errors in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, especially for the L-band signals. The regional ionospheric TEC maps can also be used for the detection and characterization of ionospheric perturbations, which is valuable for both telluric natural hazards

  20. Comparison of the historic seismicity and strain-rate pattern from a dense GPS-GNSS network solution in the Italian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Casula


    Full Text Available We present a dense crustal velocity field and corresponding strain-rate pattern computed using Global Positioning System (GPS- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data from several hundred permanent stations in the Italian Peninsula. GPS data analysis is based on the GAMIT/GLOBK 10.6 software, which was developed and maintained mainly by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, using tools based on the distributed-sessions approach implemented in this package. The GPS data span the period from January 2008 to December 2012 and come from several different permanent GPS networks in Italy. The GLOBK package implemented in the last version of the GAMIT package is used to compute the position time-series and velocities registered in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF 2008. The resulting high-density intra-plate velocity field provides indications of the tectonics of the Mediterranean region. A computation of the strain-rate pattern from GPS data is performed and compared with the map of the epicentral locations of historical earthquakes that occurred in the last 1000 years in the Italian territory, showing that, in general, higher crustal deformation rates are active in regions affected by seismicity of greater magnitude.

  1. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne


    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The

  2. Contribution of the Surface and Down-Hole Seismic Networks to the Location of Earthquakes at the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Site (France) (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.; Achauer, U.


    Seismicity induced in geo-reservoirs can be a valuable observation to image fractured reservoirs, to characterize hydrological properties, or to mitigate seismic hazard. However, this requires accurate location of the seismicity, which is nowadays an important seismological task in reservoir engineering. The earthquake location (determination of the hypocentres) depends on the model used to represent the medium in which the seismic waves propagate and on the seismic monitoring network. In this work, location uncertainties and location inaccuracies are modeled to investigate the impact of several parameters on the determination of the hypocentres: the picking uncertainty, the numerical precision of picked arrival times, a velocity perturbation and the seismic network configuration. The method is applied to the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, which is located in the Upper Rhine Graben (France) and which was subject to detailed scientific investigations. We focus on a massive water injection performed in the year 2000 to enhance the productivity of the well GPK2 in the granitic basement, at approximately 5 km depth, and which induced more than 7000 earthquakes recorded by down-hole and surface seismic networks. We compare the location errors obtained from the joint or the separate use of the down-hole and surface networks. Besides the quantification of location uncertainties caused by picking uncertainties, the impact of the numerical precision of the picked arrival times as provided in a reference catalogue is investigated. The velocity model is also modified to mimic possible effects of a massive water injection and to evaluate its impact on earthquake hypocentres. It is shown that the use of the down-hole network in addition to the surface network provides smaller location uncertainties but can also lead to larger inaccuracies. Hence, location uncertainties would not be well representative of the location errors and interpretation of the seismicity

  3. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer


    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  4. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.


    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  5. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.


    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  6. Towards a network of Urban Forest Eddy Covariance stations: a unique case study in Naples (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Esposito, Raffaela; Mattioni, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo


    Urban forests are by definition integrated in highly human-made areas, and interact with different components of our cities. Thanks to those interactions, urban forests provide to people and to the urban environment a number of ecosystem services, including the absorption of CO2 and air pollutants thus influencing the local air quality. Moreover, in urban areas a relevant role is played by the photochemical pollution which is strongly influenced by the interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In several cities, a high percentage of VOC is of biogenic origin mainly emitted from the urban trees. Despite their importance, experimental sites monitoring fluxes of trace gases fluxes in urban forest ecosystems are still scarce. Here we show the preliminary results of an innovative experimental site located in the Royal Park of Capodimonte within the city of Naples (40°51'N-14°15'E, 130 m above sea level). The site is mainly characterised by Quercus ilex with some patches of Pinus pinea and equipped with an eddy-covariance tower measuring the exchange of CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, O3, PM, VOCs and NOx using state-of-the art instrumentations; it is running since the end of 2014 and it is part of the large infrastructural I-AMICA project. We suggest that the experience gained with research networks such as Fluxnet and ICOS should be duplicated for urban forests. This is crucial for carbon as there is now the ambition to include urban forests in the carbon stocks accounting system. This is even more important to understand the difficult interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources that often have negative implications for urban air quality. Urban environment can thus become an extraordinary case study and a network of such kind of stations might represent an important strategy both from the scientific and the applicative point of view.

  7. Revisiting Earth's radial seismic structure using a Bayesian neural network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.W.L.


    The gross features of seismic observations can be explained by relatively simple spherically symmetric (1-D) models of wave velocities, density and attenuation, which describe the Earth's average(radial) structure. 1-D earth models are often used as a reference for studies on Earth's thermo-chemical

  8. Verification and Validation of the GNSS Stations at the Prototype Core Site for NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network (United States)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, J.; Haines, B. J.; Stowers, D. A.


    Two operational GNSS stations, GODN and GODS, were established within 100 m of each other at the prototype core site of NASA's next generation Space Geodesy Network. The planned network will co-locate each of the four space geodetic techniques, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of meeting modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. This prototype site is located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two GNSS stations at the prototype site have been producing tracking data from the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations since January 17, 2012. We present results from the verification and validation of these two stations, focusing in particular on GPS-based positioning of these two sites to monitor their relative baseline vector. We compare baseline recovery from independent precise point positioning of each station to a network-based approach. We also show the impact on the baseline as well as station repeatability from various improvements to our processing approach, namely the application of empirical antenna calibrations, elevation-dependent weighting, and site-specific troposphere modeling. Together, these approaches have resulted in a factor of two improvement in the precision of the baseline length. The standard deviation of the baseline vector, when using independent precise positioning of each station, is 0.5, 0.4, 1.6, and 0.4 mm in the east, north, up, and length components. The difference between the GPS-based baseline length and that from an independent local tie survey is < 1 mm.

  9. The INGV seismic monitoring system: activities during the first month of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence. (United States)

    Scognamiglio, L.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Pintore, S.


    At 01:36:32 UTC on August 24, 2016 an earthquake of ML=6.0 occurred in Central Italy, near Amatrice village; 21 s after the origin time, the first automatic location became available while the first magnitude estimate followed 47s after. The INGV seismologists on duty provided the alert to the Italian Civil Protection Department and thereby triggered the seismic emergency protocol In the hours after the earthquake, hundreds of events were recorded by the Italian Seismic Network of the INGV. SISMIKO, the coordinating body of the emergency seismic network, was activated few minutes after the mainshock. The main goal of this emergency group is to install temporary dense seismic network integrated with the existing permanent networks in the epicentral area to better constrain the aftershock hypocenters. From August the 24th to the 30th, SISMIKO deployed 18 seismic stations, generally six components (equipped with both seismometer and accelerometer), 13 of which were transmitting in real-time to the INGV seismic surveillance room in Rome. All data acquired are available at the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). The seismic sequence in the first month generated thousands of earthquakes which were processed and detected by the INGV automated localization system. We analyzed the performance of this system. Hundreds of those events were located by seismologists on shifts, the others were left to be analyzed by the Bollettino Sismico Italiano (BSI). The procedures of the BSI revise and integrate all available data. This allows for a better constrained location and for a more realistic hypocentral depth estimation. The first eight hours of August 24th were the most critical for the INGV surveillance room. Data recorded in these hours were carefully re-analyzed by BSI operators and the number of located events increased from 133 to 408, while the magnitude of completeness dropped significantly from about 3.5 to 2.7.

  10. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li


    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  11. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, Luca [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Cesarini, Daniel [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); Avvenuti, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa (Italy)


    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  12. Operation of International Monitoring System Network (United States)

    Nikolova, Svetlana; Araujo, Fernando; Aktas, Kadircan; Malakhova, Marina; Otsuka, Riyo; Han, Dongmei; Assef, Thierry; Nava, Elisabetta; Mickevicius, Sigitas; Agrebi, Abdelouaheb


    The IMS is a globally distributed network of monitoring facilities using sensors from four technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. It is designed to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by nuclear test explosions and the subsequently released radioactive isotopes. Monitoring stations transmit their data to the IDC in Vienna, Austria, over a global private network known as the GCI. Since 2013, the data availability (DA) requirements for IMS stations account for quality of the data, meaning that in calculation of data availability data should be exclude if: - there is no input from sensor (SHI technology); - the signal consists of constant values (SHI technology); Even more strict are requirements for the DA of the radionuclide (particulate and noble gas) stations - received data have to be analyzed, reviewed and categorized by IDC analysts. In order to satisfy the strict data and network availability requirements of the IMS Network, the operation of the facilities and the GCI are managed by IDC Operations. Operations has following main functions: - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the stations; - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the GCI; - to ensure efficient management of the stations in IDC; - to provide network oversight and incident management. At the core of the IMS Network operations are a series of tools for: monitoring the stations' state of health and data quality, troubleshooting incidents, communicating with internal and external stakeholders, and reporting. The new requirements for data availability increased the importance of the raw data quality monitoring. This task is addressed by development of additional tools for easy and fast identifying problems in data acquisition, regular activities to check compliance of the station parameters with acquired data by scheduled calibration of the seismic network, review of the samples by certified radionuclide laboratories. The DA for the networks of

  13. Water Level Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  14. Reference Climatological Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  15. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.


    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  16. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network Broadcast System: A user friendly GUI to broadcast earthquake messages, to generate shakemaps and to update catalogues (United States)

    Velez, J.; Huerfano, V.; von Hillebrandt, C.


    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) has historically provided locations and magnitudes for earthquakes in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) region. PRSN is the reporting authority for the region bounded by latitudes 17.0N to 20.0N, and longitudes 63.5W to 69.0W. The main objective of the PRSN is to record, process, analyze, provide information and research local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, providing high quality data and information to be able to respond to the needs of the emergency management, academic and research communities, and the general public. The PRSN runs Earthworm software (Johnson et al, 1995) to acquire and write waveforms to disk for permanent archival. Automatic locations and alerts are generated for events in Puerto Rico, the Intra America Seas, and the Atlantic by the EarlyBird system (Whitmore and Sokolowski, 2002), which monitors PRSN stations as well as some 40 additional stations run by networks operating in North, Central and South America and other sites in the Caribbean. PRDANIS (Puerto Rico Data Analysis and Information System) software, developed by PRSN, supports manual locations and analyst review of automatic locations of events within the PRSN area of responsibility (AOR), using all the broadband, strong-motion and short-period waveforms Rapidly available information regarding the geographic distribution of ground shaking in relation to the population and infrastructure at risk can assist emergency response communities in efficient and optimized allocation of resources following a large earthquake. The ShakeMap system developed by the USGS provides near real-time maps of instrumental ground motions and shaking intensity and has proven effective in rapid assessment of the extent of shaking and potential damage after significant earthquakes (Wald, 2004). In Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the states of Utah and Nevada, ShakeMaps are used for emergency planning and response, loss

  17. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...... and decoded. The decoded data is delivered to the MS from the RS, where the RS transmits the decoded data by utilizing another linear combination method. The MS receives data from both the BS and the RS....

  18. Coastal meteorological and water temperature data from National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) stations of the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) is a network of long-term water level stations operated and maintained by CO-OPS. NWLON stations are located on...

  19. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karyono, E-mail: [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia); OSLO University (Norway); Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton [OSLO University (Norway); Lupi, Matteo [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Syafri, Ildrem [Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  20. Regional Core-Mantle-Boundary modeling with PcP-P using high-density seismic networks (United States)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    The spectrum of lateral variations in structure in the D" region at the base of the earth's mantle is not yet precisely known. There is also much controversy on the wavelengths of topography on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Dense high-quality seismic networks in combination with powerful seismic data-processing techniques can potentially provide accurate measurements over large portions of the globe that are currently poorly sampled, and contribute constraints on these questions. Here, we attempt to build high-resolution regional models of the CMB region from PcP-P travel-time differences and amplitude ratios observed at USArray and other nearby networks as well as a data-processing methodology that enhances our ability to accurately measure PcP in a wider distance range than is commonly done. Indeed, accurate measurements of PcP are still a challenge. PcP arrives in the coda of the P phase, there are interferences with pP and sP depth phases for shallow earthquakes, and its relatively low amplitude due to a relatively low reflection coefficient at CMB hinders its detection. We separate P and PcP locally in slowness, without compromising resolution, using dense high-quality seismic networks. Specifically, we employ the local slant-stack transform in the time-scale domain (Ventosa et al. 2011) to decompose each seismogram in slowness in many frequency bands. We then design adaptive filters, driven by coherence measures, to obtain clean measurements of P and PcP travel times and amplitudes. This allows a significant increase in the quantity and the quality of the PcP measurements available for modeling. The main sources of PcP-P travel-time differences, with respect to theoretical values from global 1D models, are due to heterogeneities in the mantle and in D'', or due to topography in CMB. We apply the above approach to study two different regions of CMB, Alaska and the north of Canada, which are far from the LLSVPs and documented ULVZ, and Central America, which

  1. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)


    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  2. Hanford Quarter Seismic Report - 98C Seismicity On and Near the Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, Washington: April 1, 1998 Through June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn, SP Reidel, AC Rohay


    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The staff also locates aud identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the hi~orical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are. compiled archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of zin earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and Ihe Eastern Washington Regional Network (EN/RN) consist-of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the third quarter of FY 1998 for stations in the HSN was 99.99%. The operational rate for the third quarter of FY 1998 for stations of the EWRN was 99.95%. For the third quarter of FY 1998, the acquisition computer triggered 133 times. Of these triggers 11 were local earthquakes: 5 (45Yo) in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2(1 8%) in the pre-basalt sediments, and 4 (36%) in the crystalline basement. The geologic and tectonic environments where these earthquakes occurred are discussed in this report.

  3. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.


    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  4. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.


    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  5. Design of a Seismic Reflection Multi-Attribute Workflow for Delineating Karst Pore Systems Using Neural Networks and Statistical Dimensionality Reduction Techniques (United States)

    Ebuna, D. R.; Kluesner, J.; Cunningham, K. J.; Edwards, J. H.


    An effective method for determining the approximate spatial extent of karst pore systems is critical for hydrological modeling in such environments. When using geophysical techniques, karst features are especially challenging to constrain due to their inherent heterogeneity and complex seismic signatures. We present a method for mapping these systems using three-dimensional seismic reflection data by combining applications of machine learning and modern data science. Supervised neural networks (NN) have been successfully implemented in seismic reflection studies to produce multi-attributes (or meta-attributes) for delineating faults, chimneys, salt domes, and slumps. Using a seismic reflection dataset from southeast Florida, we develop an objective multi-attribute workflow for mapping karst in which potential interpreter bias is minimized by applying linear and non-linear data transformations for dimensionality reduction. This statistical approach yields a reduced set of input seismic attributes to the NN by eliminating irrelevant and overly correlated variables, while still preserving the vast majority of the observed data variance. By initiating the supervised NN from an eigenspace that maximizes the separation between classes, the convergence time and accuracy of the computations are improved since the NN only needs to recognize small perturbations to the provided decision boundaries. We contend that this 3D seismic reflection, data-driven method for defining the spatial bounds of karst pore systems provides great value as a standardized preliminary step for hydrological characterization and modeling in these complex geological environments.

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  7. Time Series Analysis of Soil Radon Data Using Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network in Seismic Precursory Studies (United States)

    Singh, S.; Jaishi, H. P.; Tiwari, R. P.; Tiwari, R. C.


    This paper reports the analysis of soil radon data recorded in the seismic zone-V, located in the northeastern part of India (latitude 23.73N, longitude 92.73E). Continuous measurements of soil-gas emission along Chite fault in Mizoram (India) were carried out with the replacement of solid-state nuclear track detectors at weekly interval. The present study was done for the period from March 2013 to May 2015 using LR-115 Type II detectors, manufactured by Kodak Pathe, France. In order to reduce the influence of meteorological parameters, statistical analysis tools such as multiple linear regression and artificial neural network have been used. Decrease in radon concentration was recorded prior to some earthquakes that occurred during the observation period. Some false anomalies were also recorded which may be attributed to the ongoing crustal deformation which was not major enough to produce an earthquake.

  8. Shallow seismogenic zone detected from an offshore-onshore temporary seismic network in the Esmeraldas area (northern Ecuador) (United States)

    Pontoise, B.; Monfret, T.


    For a given site, many factors control the seismic risk. Earthquake magnitude, hypocentral distance, rupture mechanism, site effects and site vulnerability are among the most important. This article deals with one of these factors: the depth of the seismogenic zone, in the northern Ecuadorian subduction system, beneath a highly vulnerable site, the city of Esmeraldas and its industrial complex, the Ecuadorian oil refinery and shipping terminal. To address this problem, we analyzed data from a three weeks passive seismological experiment, conducted in the spring of 1998, using 13 Ocean Bottom Seismometers and 10 portable land-stations. A preliminary interpretation of wide-angle data obtained in the fall of 2000, in the Manta area, 100 km South of the study area, unambiguously indicates the presence of a velocity inversion in the Ecuadorian margin velocity structure. This velocity inversion is characterized by a shadow-zone of ˜1 s on the record-sections, and is interpreted as the result of a velocity contrast between the upper plate structure and the sedimentary and basaltic layer II of the subducted oceanic Nazca plate. One-dimensional velocity models are deduced from these wide-angle data and are used for earthquake location in the Esmeraldas area. This highly improved the hypocentral parameter determinations. The updip limit of the seismogenic zone is found at a depth of ˜12 km, 35 km eastward of the trench, and the depth of the seismogenic zone below the Esmeraldas city is found at ˜20 km. This shallow depth of the seismogenic zone dramatically increases the seismic hazard of the area.

  9. Data quality control and tools in passive seismic experiments exemplified on the Czech broadband seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project (United States)

    Vecsey, Luděk; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Jedlička, Petr; Munzarová, Helena; Babuška, Vladislav; AlpArray Working Group


    This paper focuses on major issues related to the data reliability and network performance of 20 broadband (BB) stations of the Czech (CZ) MOBNET (MOBile NETwork) seismic pool within the AlpArray seismic experiments. Currently used high-resolution seismological applications require high-quality data recorded for a sufficiently long time interval at seismological observatories and during the entire time of operation of the temporary stations. In this paper we present new hardware and software tools we have been developing during the last two decades while analysing data from several international passive experiments. The new tools help to assure the high-quality standard of broadband seismic data and eliminate potential errors before supplying data to seismological centres. Special attention is paid to crucial issues like the detection of sensor misorientation, timing problems, interchange of record components and/or their polarity reversal, sensor mass centring, or anomalous channel amplitudes due to, for example, imperfect gain. Thorough data quality control should represent an integral constituent of seismic data recording, preprocessing, and archiving, especially for data from temporary stations in passive seismic experiments. Large international seismic experiments require enormous efforts from scientists from different countries and institutions to gather hundreds of stations to be deployed in the field during a limited time period. In this paper, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of the procedures we have developed for acquiring a reliable large set of high-quality data from each group participating in field experiments. The presented tools can be applied manually or automatically on data from any seismic network.

  10. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vose, R.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schmoyer, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Eischeid, J.K. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences


    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the ``best`` data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  11. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vose, R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Schmoyer, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. (National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Eischeid, J.K. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences)


    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the best'' data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  12. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Wang, W. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Networks of recurrent events, a theory of records, and an application to finding causal signatures in seismicity (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya


    We propose a method to search for signs of causal structure in spatiotemporal data making minimal a priori assumptions about the underlying dynamics. To this end, we generalize the elementary concept of recurrence for a point process in time to recurrent events in space and time. An event is defined to be a recurrence of any previous event if it is closer to it in space than all the intervening events. As such, each sequence of recurrences for a given event is a record breaking process. This definition provides a strictly data driven technique to search for structure. Defining events to be nodes, and linking each event to its recurrences, generates a network of recurrent events. Significant deviations in statistical properties of that network compared to networks arising from (acausal) random processes allows one to infer attributes of the causal dynamics that generate observable correlations in the patterns. We derive analytically a number of properties for the network of recurrent events composed by a random process in space and time. We extend the theory of records to treat not only the variable where records happen, but also time as continuous. In this way, we construct a fully symmetric theory of records leading to a number of results. Those analytic results are compared in detail to the properties of a network synthesized from time series of epicenter locations for earthquakes in Southern California. Significant disparities from the ensemble of acausal networks that can be plausibly attributed to the causal structure of seismicity are as follows. (1) Invariance of network statistics with the time span of the events considered. (2) The appearance of a fundamental length scale for recurrences, independent of the time span of the catalog, which is consistent with observations of the “rupture length.” (3) Hierarchy in the distances and times of subsequent recurrences. As expected, almost all of the statistical properties of a network constructed from a

  14. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.


    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  15. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System


    Hassen T. Dorrah; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Faten H. Fahmy; Hanaa T. El-Madany


    Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point a...

  16. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004 (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.


    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  17. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.


    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  18. Retrieval of the P wave reflectivity response from autocorrelation of seismic noise: Jakarta Basin, Indonesia (United States)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil R.; Lumley, David


    We autocorrelate the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across a dense network of seismometers to map the P wave reflectivity response of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia. The proximity of this mega city to known active faults and the subduction of the Australian plate, especially when the predominance of masonry construction and thick sedimentary basin fill are considered, suggests that it is a hot spot for seismic risk. In order to understand the type of ground motion that earthquakes might cause in the basin, it is essential to obtain reliable information on its seismic velocity structure. The body wave reflections are sensitive to the sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with reflected-wave travel time variations, which reflect the variation in basement depth across the thick sedimentary basin. We also confirm the validity of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting a 2-D full waveform modeling.

  19. Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua


    This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

  20. Neotectonics along the Turkana Rift (North Kenya) from river network analysis, remote sensing and reflection seismic data (United States)

    Vetel, W.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J.-J.


    The NS-trending Turkana Rift (North Kenya) cuts through a N140^oE transverse depressed zone between the Kenyan and Ethiopian domes. It forms a 200 km-long rift segment of the East African Rift System, centered on the Turkana Lake. In this region, widespread rifting occurred during the Oligocene to Mio-Pliocene and opened large NS-trending hemigrabens imaged by seismics to the West of the Turkana Lake. Because the Turkana rifted zone is a low and poorly contrasted topographic area, it is difficult to draw the trace of the active rift, in contrast with 1) the narrow (20 km-wide) N10^o-trending axial trough forming the Suguta valley to the South, and 2) the Chew Bahir faulted basin to the North. Despite a semi-arid climate, the Turkana area shows a dense and widely-distributed river drainage network dominated by the Turkwell, Kerio and Omo first-order rivers. The entire stream pattern has been extracted from Landsat satellite images and then analyzed in terms of drainage anomalies. Major anomalies have been recognized at various scales and assigned to active tectonics. The direct correlation between surface data and the deep structures imaged on seismics allows to precise the inherited (Oligo-Miocene) or newly-formed origin of the active deformation. Evidence for neotectonics are observed along 1) a large-scale transverse (EW) fault rooting at depth along a steep basement discontinuity (Turkwell), 2) a rift-parallel (NS) fault zone probably emplaced during Plio-Pleistocene and actually bounding the Napedet volcanic plateau to the West, and 3) over a round-shaped uplifted zone caused by inversion tectonics (Kalabata). Structural interpretation of offshore high-resolution seismics from Lake Turkana illustrates the existence of recent deformation and also helps complete the overall neotectonic framework of the Turkana rift zone. Finally, this study leads us to regard the Turkana area as a broad (ca. 100 km wide) zone of diffuse extension where active deformation is

  1. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network. (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon


    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  2. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  3. SCaN Network Ground Station Receiver Performance for Future Service Support (United States)

    Estabrook, Polly; Lee, Dennis; Cheng, Michael; Lau, Chi-Wung


    Objectives: Examine the impact of providing the newly standardized CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to the SCaN return data service on the SCaN SN and DSN ground stations receivers: SN Current Receiver: Integrated Receiver (IR). DSN Current Receiver: Downlink Telemetry and Tracking (DTT) Receiver. Early Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) prototype of the SN User Service Subsystem Component Replacement (USS CR) Narrow Band Receiver. Motivate discussion of general issues of ground station hardware design to enable simple and cheap modifications for support of future services.

  4. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar


    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  5. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  6. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.


    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  7. Leveraging Educational, Research and Facility Expertise to Improve Global Seismic Monitoring: Preparing a Guide on Sustainable Networks (United States)

    Nybade, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Fischer, K.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Meltzer, A.; Sandvol, E.; Willemann, R. J.


    information on the value of standards), installing and servicing stations, building a data processing and management center (including information on evaluating bids), using results from earthquake monitoring, and sustaining an earthquake monitoring system. Appendices might include profiles of well-configured and well- run networks and sample RFPs. Establishing permanent networks could provide a foundation for international research and educational collaborations and critical new data for imaging Earth structure while supporting scientific capacity building and strengthening hazard monitoring around the globe.

  8. Retrieval of P wave Basin Response from Autocorrelation of Seismic Noise-Jakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Lumley, D. E.


    Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is home to a very large (over 10 million), vulnerable population and is proximate to known active faults, as well as to the subduction of Australian plate, which has a megathrust at abut 300 km distance, as well as intraslab seismicity extending to directly beneath the city. It is also located in a basin filled with a thick layer of unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediment, which increases the seismic hazard the city is facing. Therefore, the information on the seismic velocity structure of the basin is crucial for increasing our knowledge of the seismic risk. We undertook a passive deployment of broadband seismographs throughout the city over a 3-month interval in 2013-2014, recording ambient seismic noise at over 90 sites for intervals of 1 month or more. Here we consider autocorrelations of the vertical component of the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across this dense network to image the shallow P wave velocity structure of Jakarta, Indonesia. Unlike the surface wave Green's functions used in ambient noise tomography, the vertical-component autocorrelograms are dominated by body wave energy that is potentially sensitive to sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with travel time variations that largely reflect changes in sediment thickness across the basin. We also confirm the validity our interpretation of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting 2D finite difference full waveform numerical modeling for randomly distributed seismic sources to retrieve the reflection response through autocorrelation.

  9. Venus Interior Structure Mission (VISM): Establishing a Seismic Network on Venus (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Saunders, R. S.; Senske, D.; Nock, K.; Tralli, D.; Lundgren, P.; Smrekar, S.; Banerdt, B.; Kaiser, W.; Dudenhoefer, J.


    Magellan radar data show the surface of Venus to contain a wide range of geologic features (large volcanoes, extensive rift valleys, etc.). Although networks of interconnecting zones of deformation are identified, a system of spreading ridges and subduction zones like those that dominate the tectonic style of the Earth do not appear to be present. In addition, the absence of a mantle low-viscosity zone suggests a strong link between mantle dynamics and the surface. As a natural follow-on to the Magellan mission, establishing a network of seismometers on Venus will provide detailed quantitative information on the large scale interior structure of the planet. When analyzed in conjunction with image, gravity, and topography information, these data will aid in constraining mechanisms that drive surface deformation.

  10. Crop evapotranspiration estimation using remote sensing and the existing network of meteorological stations in Cyprus (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Michaelides, S.; Nisantzi, A.


    Cyprus is frequently confronted with severe droughts and the need for accurate and systematic data on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for decision making, regarding water irrigation management and scheduling. The aim of this paper is to highlight how data from meteorological stations in Cyprus can be used for monitoring and determining the country's irrigation demands. This paper shows how daily ETc can be estimated using FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted to satellite data and auxiliary meteorological parameters. This method is widely used in many countries for estimating crop evapotranspiration using auxiliary meteorological data (maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed) as inputs. Two case studies were selected in order to determine evapotranspiration using meteorological and low resolution satellite data (MODIS - TERRA) and to compare it with the results of the reference method (FAO-56) which estimates the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by using only meteorological data. The first approach corresponds to the FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted for using both meteorological and remotely sensed data. Furthermore, main automatic meteorological stations in Cyprus were mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS). All the agricultural areas of the island were categorized according to the nearest meteorological station which is considered as "representative" of the area. Thiessen polygons methodology was used for this purpose. The intended goal was to illustrate what can happen to a crop, in terms of water requirements, if meteorological data are retrieved from other than the representative stations. The use of inaccurate data can result in low yields or excessive irrigation which both lead to profit reduction. The results have shown that if inappropriate meteorological data are utilized, then deviations from correct ETc might be obtained, leading to water losses or crop water stress.

  11. SMEX02 Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) Station 2031, Ames, Iowa (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work is part of the Soil Moisture Experiment (SMEX) project. This data set provides data from various sensors on the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN)...

  12. Seismic verification of the converter stations for New Zealand's upgraded DC hybrid link; Equipment design optimized for local conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coad, N. (Trans Power New Zeland Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)); Berggren, S. (ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteraas (Sweden)); Enblom, R. (ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteraas (Sweden))


    The two electrical transmission and distribution systems of the principal islands of New Zealand have been connected by a 600-MW high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link since 1965. A major project has recently doubled the capacity of the link and allowed low-cost South Island hydropower to be transmitted to the major load centers in the North Island. The link owner required seismic verification for the key electrical equipment. (orig.)

  13. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath southwest Africa from finite-frequency P- and S-wave tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik


    We present a 3D high-resolution seismic model of the southwestern Africa region from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S- wave data recorded by the amphibious WALPASS network. We used 40 temporary stations in southwestern Africa with records for a period of 2 years (the OBS operated...... inferred from teleseismic shear waves indicate a predominant NE-SW ori- entation for most of the land stations. Current results indicate no evidence for a consistent signature of fossil plume....

  14. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, J.A.


    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151

  15. Is the seismicity swarm at long-dormant Jailolo volcano (Indonesia) a signature of a magmatic unrest? (United States)

    Passarelli, Luigi; Cesca, Simone; Heryandoko, Nova; Lopez Comino, Jose Angel; Strollo, Angelo; Rivalta, Eleonora; Rohadi, Supryianto; Dahm, Torsten; Milkereit, Claus


    Magmatic unrest is challenging to detect when monitoring is sparse and there is little knowledge about the volcano. This is especially true for long-dormant volcanoes. Geophysical observables like seismicity, deformation, temperature and gas emission are reliable indicators of ongoing volcanic unrest caused by magma movements. Jailolo volcano is a Holocene volcano belonging to the Halmahera volcanic arc in the Northern Moluccas Islands, Indonesia. Global databases of volcanic eruptions have no records of its eruptive activity and no geological investigation has been carried out to better assess the past eruptive activity at Jailolo. It probably sits on the northern rim of an older caldera which now forms the Jailolo bay. Hydrothermal activity is intense with several hot-springs and steaming ground spots around the Jailolo volcano. In November 2015 an energetic seismic swarm started and lasted until late February 2016 with four earthquakes with M>5 recorded by global seismic networks. At the time of the swarm no close geophysical monitoring network was available around Jailolo volcano except for a broadband station at 30km distant. We installed last summer a local dense multi-parametric monitoring network with 36 seismic stations, 6 GPS and 2 gas monitoring stations around Jailolo volcano. We revised the focal mechanisms of the larger events and used single station location methods in order to exploit the little information available at the time of the swarm activity. We also combined the old sparse data with our local dense network. Migration of hypocenters and inversion of the local stress field derived by focal mechanisms analysis indicate that the Nov-Feb seismicity swarm may be related to a magmatic intrusion at shallow depth. Data from our dense network confirms ongoing micro-seismic activity underneath Jailolo volcano but there are no indications of new magma intrusion. Our findings indicate that magmatic unrest occurred at Jailolo volcano and call for a

  16. The FLOWS (FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Studies) Automatic Weather Station Network in Operation. (United States)


    south side of the tripod and are set at a favorable angle for receiving the sun’s rays. Two Arco model 16-1200 panels are used per station. These...or stolen during the summer of 1983 were replaced with the new, more powerful version from Arco . The new solar panels are 12" x 48" with roughly 75...34last-in, first-out" (LIFO) parameter at which the word may be used. For exam- stack. The parameters are entered post-fix pIe , the usage for the word

  17. Discriminating Induced-Microearthquakes Using New Seismic Features (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Horton, S.


    We studied characteristics of induced-microearthquakes on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers using machine-learning techniques. Forty features in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains were measured on each waveform, and several techniques such as correlation-based feature selection, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Logistic Regression (LR) and X-mean were used as research tools to explore the relationship between these seismic features and source parameters. The results show that spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Two new measurements developed as seismic features for this study, spectral centroids and 2D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain, performed better than the common seismic measurements. These features can be used by machine learning techniques for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes-1.7Reference: Mousavi, S.M., S.P. Horton, C. A. Langston, B. Samei, (2016) Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression, Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw258.

  18. Evaluation of sixteen years of INGV seismic Bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Maro


    Full Text Available In this work we analyze earthquake parameters published in the Seismic Bulletin of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV The analysis and the interpretation of the digital signals, done by specialized employees daily, produce most of the seismological information that comprises INGV’s earthquake bulletins. After a brief introduction on the criteria we use to obtain seismic parameters, this paper will review the processing procedures employed over a period of sixteen years from 1988 to September 2003. This study also addresses the issue of the comparison between Magnitude calculated on signal duration (Md and on amplitude (ML and the lack of a correct calibration between them . A completeness analysis of the whole bulletin performed using both the Stepp and the Habermann techniques shows the importance of considering changes in the seismicity rate and in the geometry of the seismological network. To conclude this excursus, we calculated the errors of hypocentral locations and the detection capacity of individual seismic stations. This final step stresses the increasing improvement of the INGV seismic network over the past 16 years.

  19. Surface wave tomography of Europe from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Stehly, Laurent; Paul, Anne


    We present a European scale high-resolution 3-D shear wave velocity model derived from ambient seismic noise tomography. In this study, we collect 4 years of continuous seismic recordings from 1293 stations across much of the European region (10˚W-35˚E, 30˚N-75˚N), which yields more than 0.8 million virtual station pairs. This data set compiles records from 67 seismic networks, both permanent and temporary from the EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive). Rayleigh wave group velocity are measured at each station pair using the multiple-filter analysis technique. Group velocity maps are estimated through a linearized tomographic inversion algorithm at period from 5s to 100s. Adaptive parameterization is used to accommodate heterogeneity in data coverage. We then apply a two-step data-driven inversion method to obtain the shear wave velocity model. The two steps refer to a Monte Carlo inversion to build the starting model, followed by a linearized inversion for further improvement. Finally, Moho depth (and its uncertainty) are determined over most of our study region by identifying and analysing sharp velocity discontinuities (and sharpness). The resulting velocity model shows good agreement with main geological features and previous geophyical studies. Moho depth coincides well with that obtained from active seismic experiments. A focus on the Greater Alpine region (covered by the AlpArray seismic network) displays a clear crustal thinning that follows the arcuate shape of the Alps from the southern French Massif Central to southern Germany.

  20. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS) (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.


    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  1. Seismicity study of Javakhety highland (Southrn Georgia) (United States)

    Godladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Dorbath, L.


    The Caucasus is a region of active tectonics and complex crustal structure located between the Caspian Sea to the East and the Black Sea to the west. To the North is the aseismic Eurasian shield and to the South-West and the South are the active tectonic regions of East Anatolia and the Zagros thrust and fault belt of Northwestern Iran. Main interest of our study is Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the Lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. While the region is seismically active, most of the crustal models and earthquake locations are based on field work and seismic studies of the soviet era until 2003, when recent technical advances has continued in the former USSR republics of the Southern Caucasus. Before 2003 the only broadband digital instrumentation in the region was an IRIS station in Garni, Armenia. Now there are new regional networks in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. There is considerable interest in examining the tectonics and fault structure of the region in more detail and in obtaining seismic data to develop crustal models and improve our ability to accurately locate events as the inputs for the seismic hazard assessment of the Caucasus. Several field works have been conducted in the Javakheti highland from 2009 to 2011. The goal of the intensive field investigations was multidisciplinary study of the fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. We relocated hypocenters of the earthquakes in the region and improved local 3D velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analog data of the soviet time have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversions were performed for the recent moderate size earthquakes of the Javakheti highland associated with the fault

  2. Stress distribution and seismicity patterns of the 2011 seismic swarm in the Messinia basin, (South-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras


    Full Text Available In this investigation we examine the local stress field and the seismicity patterns associated with the 2011–2012 seismicity swarm in the Messinia basin, south-western Peloponnesus, Greece, using the seismological data of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. During this swarm more than 2000 events were recorded in a 12 month period by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN and also by the additional local installation of four portable broadband seismographic stations by NOA.

    The results indicate a Gaussian distribution of swarm activity and the development of a seismicity cluster in a pre-existing seismic gap within the Messinia basin. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions demonstrate a normal fault trending northwest–southeast and dipping to the southwest primarily due to an extensional stress field. During this seismicity swarm an epicentre migration of the three largest shocks is observed, from one end of the rupture zone in the north-western part of the cluster, towards the other edge of the rupture in the south-eastern part of the cluster. This migration is found to follow the Coulomb failure criterion that predicts the advancement and retardation of the stress field and the patterns of increases and decreases of the seismicity rate (b-value of the frequency–magnitude relation.

  3. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim


    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  4. Multi-Party Energy Management for Networks of PV-Assisted Charging Stations: A Game Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu


    Full Text Available Motivated by the development of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper addresses the energy management problem for the PV-assisted charging station (PVCS network. An hour-ahead optimization model for the operation of PVCS is proposed, considering the profit of the PVCS, the local consumption of the photovoltaic (PV energy and the impacts on the grid. Moreover, a two-level feasible charging region (FCR model is built to guarantee the service quality for EVs and learning-based decision-making is designed to assist the optimization of the PVCS in various scenarios. The multi-party energy management problem, including several kinds of energy flows of the PVCS network, is formulated as a non-cooperative game. Then, the strategies of the PVCSs are modeled as the demand response (DR activities to achieve their own optimization goals and a two-level distributed heuristic algorithm is introduced to solve the problem. The simulation results show that the economic profit of the network is increased by 6.34% compared with the common time of use (TOU prices approach. Besides, the percentage of the PV energy in total charging load (PPTCL and load rate are promoted by 28.93% and 0.3125, respectively, which demonstrates the validity and practicability of the proposed method.

  5. Quantifying the spatio-temporal correlation during a substorm using dynamical networks formed from the SuperMAG database of ground based magnetometer stations. (United States)

    Dods, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.


    The overall morphology and dynamics of magnetospheric substorms is well established in terms of observed qualitative auroral features and signatures seen in ground based magnetometers. The detailed evolution of a given substorm is captured by typically ~100 ground based magnetometer observations and this work seeks to synthesise all these observations in a quantitative manner. We present the first analysis of the full available set of ground based magnetometer observations of substorms using dynamical networks. SuperMAG offers a database containing ground station magnetometer data at a cadence of 1min from 100s stations situated across the globe. We use this data to form dynamic networks which capture spatial dynamics on timescales from the fast reconfiguration seen in the aurora, to that of the substorm cycle. Windowed linear cross-correlation between pairs of magnetometer time series along with a threshold is used to determine which stations are correlated and hence connected in the network. Variations in ground conductivity and differences in the response functions of magnetometers at individual stations are overcome by normalizing to long term averages of the cross-correlation. These results are tested against surrogate data in which phases have been randomised. The network is then a collection of connected points (ground stations); the structure of the network and its variation as a function of time quantify the detailed dynamical processes of the substorm. The network properties can be captured quantitatively in time dependent dimensionless network parameters and we will discuss their behaviour for examples of 'typical' substorms and storms. The network parameters provide a detailed benchmark to compare data with models of substorm dynamics, and can provide new insights on the similarities and differences between substorms and how they correlate with external driving and the internal state of the magnetosphere.

  6. Analyzing the impact of relay station characteristics on uplink performance in cellular network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Heijenk, Geert


    Uplink users in cellular networks, such as UMTS/ HSPA, located at the edge of the cell generally suffer from poor channel conditions. Deploying intermediate relay nodes is seen as a promising approach towards extending cell coverage. This paper focuses on the role of packet scheduling in cellular

  7. Significance of data-quality control in passive seismic experiments exemplified on CZ broad-band seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project (United States)

    Vecsey, Ludek; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Jedlicka, Petr; Babuska, Vladislav


    We focus on major issues related to data reliability and the MOBNET network performance in the AlpArray seismic experiment. Twenty temporary broad-band stations of the Czech MOBNET pool of mobile stations are currently involved in the AlpArray Seismological Network and previously were deployed in the AlpArray EASI complementary experiment. Currently-used high-resolution seismological methods require high-quality data (1) during a long-time period from observatories as well as (2) during full-time operation of temporary stations. We present both hardware and software tools we have developed to reach the high standard of quality of broad-band seismic data. Special attention is paid to issues like a detection of sensor mis-orientation, timing problems, exchange of components and/or their polarity reversal, as well as sensor mass centring, or anomalous channel amplitudes due to, e.g., imperfectly set gain. Thorough data-quality control should represent an integral constituent of seismic data recordings, pre-processing and archiving, especially for the data from temporary stations in passive seismic experiments. Large international experiments require enormous efforts of scientists from different countries and institutions to gather hundreds of stations to be deployed in the field simultaneously for a limited time period. Each participating group is required to contribute to the experiment with high-quality and reliable seismic data. We demonstrate beneficial effects of the suggested procedures for having a large set of high-quality and reliable data to be shared among researchers.

  8. Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) quality control of solar radiation data on the Gangneung-Wonju National University radiation station (United States)

    Zo, Il-Sung; Jee, Joon-Bum; Kim, Bu-Yo; Lee, Kyu-Tae


    Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU) radiation station has been collecting data on global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation since 2011. We conducted a quality control (QC) assessment of GWNU data collected between 2012 and 2014, using procedures outlined by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The QC process involved the comparison of observations, the correction of observational equipment, the examination of physically possible limits, and the comparative testing of observations and model calculations. Furthermore, we performed a shading check of the observational environment around the GWNU solar station. For each solar radiation element (observed every minute), we performed a QC check and investigated any flagged problems. 98.31% of the data were classified as good quality, while the remaining 1.69% were flagged as bad quality based on the shading check and comparison tests. We then compared the good-quality data to the global solar radiation data observed at the Gangwon Regional Office of Meteorology (GROM). After performing this comparison, the determination coefficient (R2; 0.98) and standard deviation (SD; 0.92 MJ m-2) increased compared to those computed before the QC check (0.97 and 1.09 MJ m-2). Even considering the geographical differences and weather effects between the two stations, these results are statistically significant. However, we also confirmed that the quality of the GROM data deteriorated in relation to weather conditions because of poor maintenance. Hence, we conclude that good-quality observational data rely on the maintenance of both observational equipment and the surrounding environment under optimal conditions.

  9. Global manifestations of a substorm onset observed by a multi-satellite and ground station network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang


    Full Text Available With a favorable constellation of spacecraft and ground stations, a study is made on the global manifestations of a substorm onset. The onset occurred simultaneously and conjugately in both hemispheres, confirmed by observations of the auroral breakup from IMAGE FUV-WIC and a sudden intensification of a westward electrojet from ground-based magnetometers. Concurrently with the onset, field-aligned and Hall currents in the auroral ionosphere are observed by CHAMP, which are consistent with the signature of a Harang discontinuity. Immediately after the onset a magnetic field dipolarization is clearly observed by Double Star TC-1, located near the central magnetotail and subsequently, by the Cluster quartet. The observations can be explained by a dawnward propagation of the substorm current wedge at a speed of about 300 km/s.

  10. The Channel Estimation and Modeling in High Altitude Platform Station Wireless Communication Dynamic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Liu


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the channel estimation performance of near space high altitude platform station (HAPS in wireless communication system, the structure and formation of HAPS are studied in this paper. The traditional Least Squares (LS channel estimation method and Singular Value Decomposition-Linear Minimum Mean-Squared (SVD-LMMS channel estimation method are compared and investigated. A novel channel estimation method and model are proposed. The channel estimation performance of HAPS is studied deeply. The simulation and theoretical analysis results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than the traditional methods. The lower Bit Error Rate (BER and higher Signal Noise Ratio (SNR can be obtained by the proposed method compared with the LS and SVD-LMMS methods.

  11. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  12. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)


    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Definition of a unique model for the improvement of the monitoring network and seismic risk reduction of the school buildings in Italy (United States)

    Greco, M.; Console, R.; Colangelo, A.; Cioè, A.; Trivigno, L.


    In the latest decade the safety of the Italian schools against seismic risk is a crucial subject for the Italian legislation as well as to the UN Convention on the DRR and the more specific priorities adopted even within the OECD. Recently, the Italian Parliament approved a law (L98/2013) which launched the Commissioning Safety of School Buildings Plan and the Definition of a Unique Model, to be developed by the CGIAM, in order to improve monitoring network and seismic risk reduction (SRR). The objectives of such a law deals with increasing in the knowledge of public actions aimed to improve the effectiveness of the SRR policy on school buildings. The actions of the CGIAM will consist in the identification of a significant number of school buildings in Italy, mainly in terms of type of construction and material, on which calibrate specific synthetic parameters and test models. Furthermore, the activities are addressed to quantitatively evaluation of intervention efficacy, to set up simple systems of instrumental monitoring, even able to test the possibility of periodical checks of the state of general preservation. The main issues carried on by the CGIAM mainly concern the completion and enrichment of the existing data base of school buildings, even through the collaboration of the Ministries and other relevant Italian research institutions, the evaluation of seismic hazard and site condition analysis as well as the definition of other seismic risk factors. Nevertheless a cost-benefit analysis as well as application and dissemination of such tools are proposed too. At the same time, the CGIAM contributes to the definition of experimental installation and use of a Simplified Accelerometric Monitoring Network for school buildings comprehensive of testing phase on a limited number of structures. The work proposes a synthetic overview of the employed methodologies as well as the first results arising from the research and implementation activities.

  14. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie


    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  15. Seismic and experimental insights into relative velocity changes at Volcán de Colima in 1998 (United States)

    Lamb, O. D.; De Angelis, S.; Wall, R.; Varley, N. R.; Reyes Dávila, G. A.; Arámbula-Mendoza, R.; Hornby, A. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.


    Temporal changes in seismic velocity before eruptions have been measured in a few volcanoes around the world, raising its potential as a forecasting tool. Here we use seismic data from Volcán de Colima, Mexico, to investigate the effect of ascending magma on seismic wave propagation in the edifice. In addition, we use acoustic emissions from laboratory experiments to test the mechanism inferred from the seismic data. Volcán de Colima entered a new phase of eruptive activity in late 1998 with the extrusion of a new lava dome and flow. A multi-station detection algorithm was used to build a catalogue of 17,893 earthquakes from continuous data recorded by the local seismic network between 1 October 1998 and 1 January 1999. Coda wave interferometry was employed to assess relative seismic velocity change between pairs of repeating earthquakes at each station in the seismic network. First, 1,313 repeating events were identified using waveform correlation, before a stretching technique calculated the relative velocity change of each pair. Linear inversion of these measurements allowed us to retrieve the time history of seismic velocity change within the observation period. We infer that the variation in seismic velocity resulted from changes in the local stress regime caused by dyke formation during magma ascent. Using acoustic emissions recorded during Brazilian tensile tests on andesite from Volcán de Colima, we demonstrate that a decrease in seismic velocity can be attributed to crack dilation due to tensile stress. This study highlights how a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding geophysical signals can help future interpretations of pre-eruptive activity at volcanoes.

  16. Seismic Monitoring Developments In The North-eastern Italy (United States)

    Michelini, A.; Crs Team

    NE Italy is an area affected by moderate seismicity with large events (ML>5.0) occur- ring with return period shorter than 50 years. Recently, two main events occurred in Friuli (May6, 1976, ML=6.4) and western Slovenia (April 12, 1998, ML=5,6). There- fore, the seismological monitoring of the area is of extreme importance from the sci- entific and the social point of view. At present, the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) is monitoring the area with a short period seismic network including 17 stations covering the Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the north-east of the Veneto region. Furthermore, in cooperation with the University of Trieste, it operates two broad-band stations sited in Trieste and Villanova Grotte (central Friuli). OGS has now planned to extend its sensing capabilities by implementing a new inte- grated network including both short period and broad-band seismic stations as well as GPS stations for measures of deformation. The network will include new and existing instrumentation and will cover the area from the Garda lake to the slovenian border. Three main guidelines have inspired the design of such network: - on-line acquisition: data acquisition should occur in nearly real-time at the cen- tral stations in Udine. To this purpose, various transmission technologies will be considered (e.g. radio, telephone lines, GSM and satellite). - data integration: all data should be merged in the same database and made avail- able to the users through a uniform interface, independently from their type and modality of acquisition. - open access: data should be made available in near real-time to the entire sci- entific community, accessing the central data base and, when possible, directly the remote stations. The implementation of such goals will guarantee the full integration with the other networks covering the area, in particular the Slovenia and Austria networks. To this purpose, an experimental transfrontier broad-band network

  17. Receiver function analysis using AlpArray stations in Hungary (United States)

    Dániel, Kalmár; Bálint, Süle; István, Bondár


    The AlpArray temporary seismic network, together with the permanent stations of the Hungarian National Seismological Network provid an unprecedented density and resolution to study the Eastern Alps - Pannonian basin transition zone. Previous receiver functions studies .(Hetényi et al., 2007, 2015) in the region used a much smaller station density and shorter time period than the present paper. In the analysis we used data from 48 permanent and temporary AlpArray stations in Hungary and neighbouring countries. We present our methodology (P-wave receiver function analysis, H-K grid search and cross-correlation matrix methods), the pitfalls in processing, and finally our result, the detailed Moho map of the region.

  18. Valles Caldera, New Mexico Microearthquakes: Improved Detection and Location with Expanded Caldera Station Coverage (United States)

    House, L. S.; Roberts, P. M.; Ten Cate, J. A.


    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 44 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station (PER, installed in 1998) was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using arrival times at multiple stations. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus, improvements can be made to the

  19. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.


    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  20. An Experimental Seismic Data and Parameter Exchange System for Interim NEAMTWS (United States)

    Hanka, W.; Hoffmann, T.; Weber, B.; Heinloo, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Müller-Wrana, T.; Saul, J.


    In 2008 GFZ Potsdam has started to operate its global earthquake monitoring system as an experimental seismic background data centre for the interim NEAMTWS (NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System). The SeisComP3 (SC3) software, developed within the GITEWS (German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System) project was extended to test the export and import of individual processing results within a cluster of SC3 systems. The initiated NEAMTWS SC3 cluster consists presently of the 24/7 seismic services at IMP, IGN, LDG/EMSC and KOERI, whereas INGV and NOA are still pending. The GFZ virtual real-time seismic network (GEOFON Extended Virtual Network - GEVN) was substantially extended by many stations from Western European countries optimizing the station distribution for NEAMTWS purposes. To amend the public seismic network (VEBSN - Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network) some attached centres provided additional private stations for NEAMTWS usage. In parallel to the data collection by Internet the GFZ VSAT hub for the secured data collection of the EuroMED GEOFON and NEAMTWS backbone network stations became operational and the first data links were established. In 2008 the experimental system could already prove its performance since a number of relevant earthquakes have happened in NEAMTWS area. The results are very promising in terms of speed as the automatic alerts (reliable solutions based on a minimum of 25 stations and disseminated by emails and SMS) were issued between 2 1/2 and 4 minutes for Greece and 5 minutes for Iceland. They are also promising in terms of accuracy since epicenter coordinates, depth and magnitude estimates were sufficiently accurate from the very beginning, usually don't differ substantially from the final solutions and provide a good starting point for the operations of the interim NEAMTWS. However, although an automatic seismic system is a good first step, 24/7 manned RTWCs are mandatory for regular manual verification

  1. Joint Resource Allocation in Secure OFDMA-Based Networks Taking a Base Station as a Two-Way Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Du


    Full Text Available Due to the broadcast nature of wireless media, all nodes in the coverage of a transmitter are capable of capturing its signals, thus wireless transmission is sensitive to wiretapping. Several existing schemes place an emphasis on secrecy rate improvement, under the protocols of amplify-and-forward or decode-and-forward, when there are only relay users in the network. We set up a novel communication model in which normal and two-way relay users coexist in the same cell, taking the base station as a relay. Our objective is to maximize the total secrecy rate, taking subcarrier pairing, subcarrier assignment and power allocation into account, when there is one eavesdropper in one cell of the cellular network. Although this problem is very intricate, we reformulate it as a convex optimization problem by means of Lagrange duality. In order to reduce the computational complexity, equal power allocation is proposed. Lastly, the experimental results show the proposed resource allocation scheme can obtain a higher secrecy rate than traditional schemes.

  2. Modelling of the Annual Mean Urban Heat Island Pattern for Planning of Representative Urban Climate Station Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Unger


    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of the annual mean urban heat island (UHI intensity pattern was analysed for the medium-sized city Novi Sad, Serbia, located on the low and flat Great Hungarian Plain. The UHI pattern was determined by an empirical modelling method developed by (Balázs et al. 2009. This method was based on datasets from urban areas of Szeged and Debrecen (Hungary. The urban study area in Novi Sad (60 km2 was established as a grid network of 240 cells (0.5 km ×0.5 km. A Landsat satellite image (from June 2006 was used in order to evaluate normalized difference vegetation index and built-up ratio by cells. The pattern of the obtained UHI intensity values show concentric-like shapes when drawn as isotherms, mostly increase from the suburbs towards the inner urban areas. Results of this thermal pattern and determination of one of the local climate classification systems were used for recommending 10 locations for representative stations of an urban climate network in Novi Sad.

  3. Analysis of volcano-related seismicity to constrain the magmatic plumbing system beneath Fogo, Cape Verde, by (multi-)array techniques (United States)

    Dietrich, Carola; Wölbern, Ingo; Faria, Bruno; Rümpker, Georg


    Fogo is the only island of the Cape Verde archipelago with regular occurring volcanic eruptions since its discovery in the 15th century. The volcanism of the archipelago originates from a mantle plume beneath an almost stationary tectonic plate. With an eruption interval of approximately 20 years, Fogo belongs to the most active oceanic volcanoes. The latest eruption started in November 2014 and ceased in February 2015. This study aims to characterize and investigate the seismic activity and the magmatic plumbing system of Fogo, which is believed to be related to a magmatic source close to the neighboring island of Brava. According to previous studies, using conventional seismic network configurations, most of the seismic activity occurs offshore. Therefore, seismological array techniques represent powerful tools in investigating earthquakes and other volcano-related events located outside of the networks. Another advantage in the use of seismic arrays is their possibility to detect events of relatively small magnitude and to locate seismic signals without a clear onset of phases, such as volcanic tremors. Since October 2015 we have been operating a test array on Fogo as part of a pilot study. This array consists of 10 seismic stations, distributed in a circular shape with an aperture of 700 m. The stations are equipped with Omnirecs CUBE dataloggers, and either 4.5 Hz geophones (7 stations) or Trillium-Compact broad-band seismometers (3 stations). In January 2016 we installed three additional broad-band stations distributed across the island of Fogo to improve the capabilities for event localization. The data of the pilot study is dominated by seismic activity around Brava, but also exhibit tremors and hybrid events of unknown origin within the caldera of Fogo volcano. The preliminary analysis of these events includes the characterization and localization of the different event types using seismic array processing in combination with conventional localization

  4. A Novel Approach to Constrain Near-Surface Seismic Wave Speed Based on Polarization Analysis (United States)

    Park, S.; Ishii, M.


    Understanding the seismic responses of cities around the world is essential for the risk assessment of earthquake hazards. One of the important parameters is the elastic structure of the sites, in particular, near-surface seismic wave speed, that influences the level of ground shaking. Many methods have been developed to constrain the elastic structure of the populated sites or urban basins, and here, we introduce a new technique based on analyzing the polarization content or the three-dimensional particle motion of seismic phases arriving at the sites. Polarization analysis of three-component seismic data was widely used up to about two decades ago, to detect signals and identify different types of seismic arrivals. Today, we have good understanding of the expected polarization direction and ray parameter for seismic wave arrivals that are calculated based on a reference seismic model. The polarization of a given phase is also strongly sensitive to the elastic wave speed immediately beneath the station. This allows us to compare the observed and predicted polarization directions of incoming body waves and infer the near-surface wave speed. This approach is applied to High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, where we benchmark the results against the well-log data that are available at most stations. There is a good agreement between our estimates of seismic wave speeds and those from well logs, confirming the efficacy of the new method. In most urban environments, where well logging is not a practical option for measuring the seismic wave speeds, this method can provide a reliable, non-invasive, and computationally inexpensive estimate of near-surface elastic properties.

  5. MOMANIC Project - Temporary seismic installation to study the unrest at MOmotombo and MAsaya volcanoes in NICaragua (United States)

    Obermann, Anne; Graf, Pascal; Garcia, Fernando; Grillo, Ulbert; Mendoza, Francisco; Herrera, Martha; Argüello, Greyving; Massin, Frédérick; John, Clinton; Strauch, Wilfried


    In the past three years, the region around the volcanoes Masaya and Momotombo, which includes Nicaraguans capital Managua, has shown an unusually high seismic and volcanic activity. On April 10, 2014, a M6.3 earthquake occurred near Momotombo volcano followed by intense aftershock activity and a migration of seismicity towards Managua. In the following 2 years, the seismic activity remained considerably higher than in the previous network operation time (1975-2013). In December 2015 and January 2016, Momotombo volcano erupted after 110 years of quiescence. Since Mid December 2015, Masaya volcano has a lava lake in its main crater with gradually increasing activity. With 30 broadband stations, we temporarily (Dec16-March17) densified the seismic network from the seismological department of INETER around these volcanoes. With this network, we expect to be able to image the magma chambers and feeding channels of the volcanoes using both, ambient noise tomography and earthquake tomography. A detailed analysis of the present seismicity shall provide us with a better understanding of the underlying tectonic processes and possible interactions between seismic and volcanic activity. In this contribution, we will present the project as well as first results from the field campaign. Acknowledgements This work is supported by the government of Nicaragua on behalf of the Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). GeoForschungsZentrum/Potsdam (GFZ-Potsdam) provided the 30 mobile seismic broad band stations from its geophysical instruments pool. The cooperation between SED/ETHZ and INETER is promoted and supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation DEZA.

  6. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico (United States)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime


    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  7. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.


    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  8. A neural network-based foF2 model for a single station in the polar cap (United States)

    Athieno, R.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Themens, D. R.


    A neural network (NN) model has been developed for the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) at Resolute (74.70°N, 265.10°E) using data obtained from the Space Physics Interactive Data Resource (no longer available) for the period between 1975 and 1995. This model is a first step toward addressing the discrepancies of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) foF2 or peak electron density (NmF2) at high latitudes recently presented by Themens et al. (2014). The performance of the NN model has been evaluated using foF2 data obtained from the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde at Resolute (74.75°N, 265.00°E) for the period between 2009 and 2013, in comparison with the IRI predictions. The 2012 version and the International Union of Radio Science option of IRI have been used. The NN nighttime monthly median foF2 variation demonstrates good agreement with observations compared to the IRI. The NN model is able to reproduce the enhancements in foF2 during the equinoxes and also shows an improvement during disturbed days. Root mean square errors were computed between hourly and monthly median model predictions and observations, and on the whole, the NN model seems to perform better during low solar activity and the equinoxes. The NN model shows an improvement in performance on average by 26.638% for hourly foF2 and 32.636% for monthly median foF2, compared to 7.877% obtained for the same station by the most recent NN model that attempted to predict foF2 at a polar cap station (Oyeyemi and Poole, 2005).

  9. Seismic assessment of a temporary deployment in the Kingdom of Bhutan using double-­difference tomography (United States)

    Perez, C. A.; Velasco, A. A.; Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.


    The Kingdom of Bhutan is located on the eastern edge of the Himalaya range. As an area of a major continental-continental collision, Bhutan Himalaya has been subject to a considerable amount of deformation and transpression, and it contains features of the five major shear zones of the Himalayas. Extensive seismic analysis of the region, however, is lacking due to sparse coverage and complexity of its crustal structure. We examine seismic event data from a temporary seismic network deployed in the Kingdom of Bhutan (2002-2003) using the double difference tomographic inversion technique TomoFDD, which allows for the joint inversion of event relocations and seismic velocity structure. Our primary focus is on ~200 regional events surrounding the five-station network. The events are located between 86° and 100°E longitude, and 18° and 31°N latitude, and with depths between 10 and 400 km. To extend our model area, we also incorporate GSN stations LSA, KMI, and CHTO. Prior analysis of this dataset consisted of event location, relocation, and 1D velocity modeling. We leverage on previous studies and build a new 3D seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle underneath the Bhutan region to gain further insight on the seismicity and crustal assessment.

  10. Toward an Earthquake Early Warning System in Israel - Implementing ElarmS for the Israeli Seismic Network (United States)

    Nof, R. N.; Allen, R. M.


    Israel is located adjacent to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) capable of producing earthquakes with maximal magnitudes of M7.5-M7.8 and a recurrence time for a M6 and M7 earthquake on the order of 100 and 1000 years, respectively. The most recent destructive earthquake along the DST was the 1927 ML 6.2 earthquake near Jericho, leading to 285 deaths and ~1000 injured across the area. The Israeli government is now building an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS). The prime objective of this research is to implement and validate the ElarmS EEWS for the Israeli Seismological Network (ISN). Based on seismic rates along the DST, earthquakes with M>4.5 and M>5.0 are expected to occur every 5yr and 15yr, respectively. Thus, it is essential to use historical data to evaluate ElarmS in addition to analyzing the real-time performance of the system in Israel with smaller magnitude earthquakes. We analyze the system in real-time between April 2015 and July 2015, and analyze the results of replaying historical data from 39 events (Md>3.0) between January 2012 and May 2015. Historical playback results show near complete detection of all events. However, ElarmS has a mean underestimation of magnitudes by 1 magnitude order using the magnitude scaling relation developed for California. We find that using a previously determined independent magnitude estimation equation developed for Israel (Sadeh et al., 2014) remove this magnitude offset. Using the adjusted magnitude estimation equation, the real time performance of the system shows a good agreement with catalog magnitudes. The real-time implementation of ElarmS in Israel is performing well. It issued a warning for the June 27, 2015 M5.5 Nueba earthquake. However, the alert was on 0.6 sec before the arrival of the S-wave at the nearest city of Eilat ~100 km from the epicenter. This was due to the significant latencies (2-4 sec) and long data packets (up to 10 sec) that exist for the ISN which has still to be optimized for EEWS.

  11. Unusual behavior detection in the entry gate scenes of subway station using Bayesian networks and inference (United States)

    Kwak, Sooyeong; Bae, Guntae; Kim, Manbae; Byun, Hyeran


    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting unusual human behavior using monocular camera which is not moving. Our system composed of three modules which are moving object detection, tracking, and event recognition. The key part is event recognition module. We define unusual events which are composed of two simple events (drop off luggage, unattended luggage) and two complex events (abandoned luggage and steal luggage). In order to detect the simple event, we construct Bayesian network in each unusual event. We extract evidences using bounding box properties which are the location of moving objects, speed, distance between the person and the other moving object (such as bag), existing time. And then, we use finite state automaton which shows the temporal relation of two simple events to detect complex events. To evaluate the performance, we compare the frame number when an even is triggered with our results and the ground truth. The proposed algorithm showed good results on the real world environment and also worked at real time speed.

  12. Application of Statistical, Fuzzy and Perceptron Neural Networks in Drought Forecasting (Case Study: Gonbad-e Kavous Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hosseini-Moghari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to economic, social, and environmental perplexities associated with drought, it is considered as one of the most complex natural hazards. To investigate the beginning along with analyzing the direct impacts of drought; the significance of drought monitoring must be highlighted. Regarding drought management and its consequences alleviation, drought forecasting must be taken into account (11. The current research employed multi-layer perceptron (MLP, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, radial basis function (RBF and general regression neural network (GRNN. It is interesting to note that, there has not been any record of applying GRNN in drought forecasting. Materials and Methods: Throughout this paper, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI was the basis of drought forecasting. To do so, the precipitation data of Gonbad Kavous station during the period of 1972-73 to 2006-07 were used. To provide short-term, mid-term, and long-term drought analysis; SPI for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months was evaluated. SPI evaluation benefited from four statistical distributions, namely, Gamma, Normal, Log-normal, and Weibull along with Kolmogrov-Smirnov (K-S test. Later, to compare the capabilities of four utilized neural networks for drought forecasting; MLP, ANFIS, RBF, and GRNN were applied. MLP as a multi-layer network, which has a sigmoid activation function in hidden layer plus linear function in output layer, can be considered as a powerful regressive tool. ANFIS besides adaptive neuro networks, employed fuzzy logic. RBF, the foundation of radial basis networks, is a three-layer network with Gaussian function in its hidden layer, and a linear function in the output layer. GRNN is another type of RBF which is used for radial basis regressive problems. The performance criteria of the research were as follows: Correlation (R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE. Results Discussion: According to statistical distribution

  13. Seismic monitoring of the bedload transport in La Réunion Island rivers during tropical cyclones (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alicia; Fontaine, Fabrice. R.; Burtin, Arnaud; Barruol, Guilhem; Recking, Alain; Join, Jean-Lambert; Delcher, Eric


    La Réunion Island, located in the western Indian Ocean, undergoes heavy annual precipitations during the rainy season (Dec to Apr) and particularly during tropical depressions and cyclones. Large rainfalls that affect this volcanic island modify the stream dynamic and control the sediment transport and the very active erosion. However, in situ characterization of sediment transport is difficult during high water stage, requiring indirect observation such as seismic noise. In order to monitor spatial and temporal variations of the river's bed-load during tropical cyclones from the high-frequency seismic noise in La Réunion, we deployed a temporary seismic network of 9 three-component broadband seismometers along two rivers: Rivière des Pluies and Rivière du Mât, both located on the northern side of the island. Seismic data are supplemented by meteorological and hydrological stations installed in these experimental watersheds. They provide valuable data such as precipitations, water discharge and water level. We also characterized the stream morphology and the bed surface grain size distribution to set the current characteristics and we aim to repeat this analyze after each flood event in order to quantify the effect of the flood episode on the sediment transport. We present the results of the signature of the cyclone Bejisa which passed close to the island in January 2014 recorded at three broadband seismic stations, among which two are located near instrumented streams: station SALA installed close to the Rivière du Mât and the permanent GEOSCOPE seismic station RER installed in a 4.7 km long tunnel close to the Rivière de l'Est. The third station MAID is used as a reference station since it is located on a summit (2.190 km altitude) and far from any active river. We observe a significant increase of the precipitation as the cyclone eye was at 300 km to the island and the associated increase of the water discharge clearly generates a sudden increase of the

  14. Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring (United States)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin


    The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating

  15. Correction of clock errors in seismic data using noise cross-correlations (United States)

    Hable, Sarah; Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem; Hadziioannou, Céline


    Correct and verifiable timing of seismic records is crucial for most seismological applications. For seismic land stations, frequent synchronization of the internal station clock with a GPS signal should ensure accurate timing, but loss of GPS synchronization is a common occurrence, especially for remote, temporary stations. In such cases, retrieval of clock timing has been a long-standing problem. The same timing problem applies to Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), where no GPS signal can be received during deployment and only two GPS synchronizations can be attempted upon deployment and recovery. If successful, a skew correction is usually applied, where the final timing deviation is interpolated linearly across the entire operation period. If GPS synchronization upon recovery fails, then even this simple and unverified, first-order correction is not possible. In recent years, the usage of cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of ambient seismic noise has been demonstrated as a clock-correction method for certain network geometries. We demonstrate the great potential of this technique for island stations and OBS that were installed in the course of the Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel (RHUM-RUM) project in the western Indian Ocean. Four stations on the island La Réunion were affected by clock errors of up to several minutes due to a missing GPS signal. CCFs are calculated for each day and compared with a reference cross-correlation function (RCF), which is usually the average of all CCFs. The clock error of each day is then determined from the measured shift between the daily CCFs and the RCF. To improve the accuracy of the method, CCFs are computed for several land stations and all three seismic components. Averaging over these station pairs and their 9 component pairs reduces the standard deviation of the clock errors by a factor of 4 (from 80 ms to 20 ms). This procedure permits a continuous monitoring of clock errors where small clock

  16. A preliminary seismic study of Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines (United States)

    You, S.-H.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Chang, T.-M.; Chang, E. T. Y.; Solidum, R.


    The very active Taal Volcano lies in the southern part of Luzon Island only 60 km from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. In March 2008 we deployed a temporary seismic network around Taal that consisted of 8 three-component short period seismometers. This network recorded during the period from March to November 2008 about 1050 local events. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified for a number of stations. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. Initial location of each event was derived by manually picked P-/S-phases arrival times using HYPO71 and a general velocity model based on AK135. Since the velocity structure beneath Taal is essentially unknown, we used travel times of 338 well-located events in order to derive a minimum 1D velocity model using VELEST. The resulting locations show that most events occurred at the shallow depth beneath the Taal Volcano, and two major earthquake groups were noticed, with one lying underneath the western shore of Taal lake and the other one spread around the eastern flank of the Taal Volcano. Since there is no reported volcano activities during the operation period of our seismic array, we are still not confident to interpret these findings in terms of other natures of volcano at the current stage. However, our work represents an important pioneer step towards other more advanced seismic studies in Taal Volcano.

  17. Monitoring temporal seismic velocity fluctuations in the interiors of volcanoes on Saba and St. Eustatius using ambient seismic noise analysis (United States)

    Sleeman, Reinoud; Vossen, Caron


    The volcanoes on Saba (Mt. Scenery) and St. Eustatius (The Quill) in the Caribbean Netherlands are stratovolcanoes with moderate to high volcanic hazard. Neither volcano has had a recent eruption (1640 AD Saba, 400 AD St. Eustatius) but their structure and composition resemble other dormant and active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles. Both The Quill and Mt. Scenery show clear evidence of past pyroclastic flow activity. The time interval between eruptions of Lesser Antilles volcanoes is estimated between tens and several thousands of years. Since 2006 the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) is building up a seismic broadband network on both volcanoes, comprising one seismometer per island in 2006 and four since 2015, to monitor in real time the (a) seismic activity and (b) temporal seismic velocity fluctuations in the interiors of the volcanoes by the application of passive interferometry on the continuous seismic recordings. We present recent results of measurements of these temporal changes within the volcanoes on Saba and St. Eustatius based on cross-station correlations and cross-component correlations (using MSNoise), using up to 10 years of data. We also conducted synthetic experiments to investigate the sensitivity of the technique to verify our results. The objective is to apply this technique to real-time data recorded at the volcanoes and to build a system to provide the earliest possible warning of significant seismic velocity changes to decision makers. Saba counts about 1900 inhabitants, St. Eustatius about 3800.

  18. SeisRockHT - Seismic Rockfall Monitoring in the Hohe Tauern region (A) (United States)

    Binder, Daniel; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Mertl, Stefan; Lenhardt, Wolfgang


    SeisRockHT focuses on open hardware and free software applied for scientific long-term monitoring strategies in harsh enviroments. In detail, SeisRockHT aims at the establishment of two seismic networks to quantitatively observe seismicity and rockfall events at high alpine north faces. Due to the rare character of rockfall events, a continuous and long-term observation strategy is targeted. Two study sites were selected for monitoring: the Kitzsteinhorn and the Hohe Sonnblick exhibiting two different scales of monitoring networks. The smaller scaled Kitzsteinhorn investigation site is closely related to bedrock permafrost processes, whereas the larger-scaled Sonnblick investigation site aims a classic alpine north face. Last field season the two monitoring networks were set up. We are presenting data of the two networks and quantitatively evaluate and discuss the data quality of the individual stations.

  19. Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C


    Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude

  20. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  1. The 2014 Kefalonia seismic sequence and continuous microseismicity monitoring (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Chouliaras, Gerasimos; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Drakatos, Georgios; Mesimeri, Maria


    On January 26, 2014 a strong (Mw6.1) strike slip earthquake ruptured the western part of Kefalonia Island, the area with the highest moment rate in the entire Mediterranean, at the southern part of Palliki peninsula. The sequence continued with numerous aftershocks that in the first few hours covered an area extended over 35 km, much longer than expected from the causative fault segment. Intense seismicity encompassing a major aftershock (Mw 5.5) in less than 6 hours after and several M>4.0 earthquakes mostly during the first three days, continued along the entire activated area, evidencing a less densely covered part where the second main shock (Mw6.0) on 3 February occurred, associated with the adjacent fault segment, located to the north of the firstly failed segment and evidently encouraged by stress transfer of the first main shock. The aftershock distribution evidenced two adjacent fault segments striking almost N-S and dipping to the east, in full agreement with the centroid moment tensor solutions, constituting segments of the Kefalonia Transform Fault (KTF). Intense aftershock activity lasted for several weeks whereas continued seismicity afterwards is mainly located off fault with minor and fewer on fault aftershocks. The seismic network was intensified in the area (Institute of Geodynamics portable network, seismic stations installed in the frame of OTRIONS project, CEN-ION network) after the main ruptures, providing improvement both in detectability and accurate locations. Since network coverage was not previously adequate for revealing detailed features of the activated area, the improved monitoring and location is of paramount importance for this scope. More recent seismicity, forming distinctive clusters, occurred along the edges of the double rupture indicating activation of adjacent fault segments. To the north several aftershocks forming an east-northeast striking seismicity band suggest a transfer zone linking KTF with its northward continuation

  2. The Seismic component of the IBERARRAY: Placing constraints on the Lithosphere and Mantle. (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Diaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Gallart, J.; Morales, J.; Pazos, A.; Cordoba, D.; Pulgar, J.; Garcia-Lobon, J.; Harnafi, M.


    TOPOIBERIA, is a multidisciplinary large scale research project which aims to study the links between the deep and superficial processes within the Iberian Peninsula.One of its main experimental components is the deployment of the IBERARRAY seismic network. This is a dense array (60x60 km) of new generation dataloggers equipped with broad-band seismometers which will cover Iberia and North Morocco in three successive deployments, each lasting for about 18 months. The first leg, deployed since late 2007, covers the southern part of Iberia (35 stations) and northern Morocco (20 stations). Two data centers have been established one at the CSIC-Institute of Earth Sciences (CSIC-Barcelona) and a second at the Geologic and Mining Insititute (IGME-Madrid) the data follows a standard-conventional flow from recovery to archival. The field teams collect the recorded hard disk on the field and send data and metadata to a processing center, where raw data is collected and stored and a quality control checking is performed. This include a systematic inspection of the experimental parameters (batteries charge, thermal insulation, time adjustments, geophone leveling etc), the visual verification of the seismic waveforms and the analysis, using power density spectra (PSD), of the noise level of each station. All this information is disseminated between the research teams involved in the project using a dedicated website and the continuous seismic data is made accessible through FTP and CWQ servers. Some of the nodes of the theoretical network are covered by permanent stations of the national broad-band network (IGN) or other networks operating in the region (IAG-UGR, ROA). Data from those stations will also be integrated to the Iberarray database. This Iberarray network will provide a large database of both waveform and catalogued events, with an unprecedented resolution. Earthquake data at local, regional and teleseismic scales will be analyzed using different methodologies. The

  3. The first Long Period earthquake detected in the background seismicity at Mt. Vesuvius


    Paola Cusano; Simona Petrosino; Francesca Bianco; Edoardo Del Pezzo


    The typical earthquakes occurring at Mt. Vesuvius are Volcano-Tectonic. On July 20, 2003, an unusual earthquake with low and narrow frequency content was detected. The seismograms presented an emergent onset and a nearly monochromatic spectrum at all stations of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) seismic network. The event was located at about 4 km b.s.l. close to the crater axis and an equivalent duration magnitude of 0.6 was estimated. The nature of ...

  4. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki


    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  5. Effects on Chilean Vertical Reference Frame due to the Maule Earthquake co-seismic and post-seismic effects (United States)

    Montecino, Henry D.; de Freitas, Silvio R. C.; Báez, Juan C.; Ferreira, Vagner G.


    The Maule Earthquake (Mw = 8.8) of February 27, 2010 is among the strongest earthquakes that occurred in recent years throughout the world. The crustal deformation caused by this earthquake has been widely studied using GNSS, InSAR and gravity observations. However, there is currently no estimation of the possible vertical deformations produced by co-seismic and post-seismic effects in segments of the Chilean Vertical Reference Frame (CHVRF). In this paper, we present an estimation of co-seismic and post-seismic deformations on the CHVRF using an indirect approach based on GNSS and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data as well as by applying a trajectory model. GNSS time series were used from 10 continuous GNSS stations in the period from 2007 to 2015, as well as 28 GNSS temporary stations realized before and after the earthquake, and 34 vertical deformation vectors in the region most affected by the earthquake. We considered a set of 147 monthly solutions of spherical harmonic gravity field that were expanded up to degree, as well as order 96 of the GRACE mission provided by Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin (UT-CSR) process center. The magnitude of vertical deformation was estimated in part of the Chilean vertical network due to the co-seismic and post-seismic effects. Once we evaluated the hydrological effect, natural and artificial jumps, and the effect of glacial isostatic adjustment in GNSS and GRACE time series, the maximum values associated to co- and post-seismic deformations on orthometric height were found to be ∼-34 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Overall, the deformation caused by the Maule earthquake in orthometric heights is almost entirely explained by the variation in the ellipsoidal heights (over 85% in co-seismic jump); however, coseismic jump in the geoid reached -3.3 mm, and could influence the maintenance of a modern vertical reference network in a medium to long term. We evaluated the consistency for a

  6. Support Vector Machine Model for Automatic Detection and Classification of Seismic Events (United States)

    Barros, Vesna; Barros, Lucas


    The automated processing of multiple seismic signals to detect, localize and classify seismic events is a central tool in both natural hazards monitoring and nuclear treaty verification. However, false detections and missed detections caused by station noise and incorrect classification of arrivals are still an issue and the events are often unclassified or poorly classified. Thus, machine learning techniques can be used in automatic processing for classifying the huge database of seismic recordings and provide more confidence in the final output. Applied in the context of the International Monitoring System (IMS) - a global sensor network developed for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) - we propose a fully automatic method for seismic event detection and classification based on a supervised pattern recognition technique called the Support Vector Machine (SVM). According to Kortström et al., 2015, the advantages of using SVM are handleability of large number of features and effectiveness in high dimensional spaces. Our objective is to detect seismic events from one IMS seismic station located in an area of high seismicity and mining activity and classify them as earthquakes or quarry blasts. It is expected to create a flexible and easily adjustable SVM method that can be applied in different regions and datasets. Taken a step further, accurate results for seismic stations could lead to a modification of the model and its parameters to make it applicable to other waveform technologies used to monitor nuclear explosions such as infrasound and hydroacoustic waveforms. As an authorized user, we have direct access to all IMS data and bulletins through a secure signatory account. A set of significant seismic waveforms containing different types of events (e.g. earthquake, quarry blasts) and noise is being analysed to train the model and learn the typical pattern of the signal from these events. Moreover, comparing the performance of the support

  7. Automatic detection of alpine rockslides in continuous seismic data using hidden Markov models (United States)

    Dammeier, Franziska; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Hammer, Conny; Haslinger, Florian; Loew, Simon


    Data from continuously recording permanent seismic networks can contain information about rockslide occurrence and timing complementary to eyewitness observations and thus aid in construction of robust event catalogs. However, detecting infrequent rockslide signals within large volumes of continuous seismic waveform data remains challenging and often requires demanding manual intervention. We adapted an automatic classification method using hidden Markov models to detect rockslide signals in seismic data from two stations in central Switzerland. We first processed 21 known rockslides, with event volumes spanning 3 orders of magnitude and station event distances varying by 1 order of magnitude, which resulted in 13 and 19 successfully classified events at the two stations. Retraining the models to incorporate seismic noise from the day of the event improved the respective results to 16 and 19 successful classifications. The missed events generally had low signal-to-noise ratio and small to medium volumes. We then processed nearly 14 years of continuous seismic data from the same two stations to detect previously unknown events. After postprocessing, we classified 30 new events as rockslides, of which we could verify three through independent observation. In particular, the largest new event, with estimated volume of 500,000 m3, was not generally known within the Swiss landslide community, highlighting the importance of regional seismic data analysis even in densely populated mountainous regions. Our method can be easily implemented as part of existing earthquake monitoring systems, and with an average event detection rate of about two per month, manual verification would not significantly increase operational workload.

  8. Seismic Software Evaluation at the Swiss Seismological Service (United States)

    Clinton, John; Olivieri, Marco; Kaestli, Philipp


    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismic monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with a low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations and station spacing of ~25km, the SED operate one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by a similar number of real time strong motion stations. An existing in-house processing software has been operational for the last 15 years, and though well suited for the Swiss setting, including the ability to 1. automatically locate and alert local events and 2. manually relocate events with a nonlinear location algorithm using a 3-D velocity model, the software does not satisfactorily accommodate integration of standard community software tools, nor provide a modern database interface for either station metadata or event parameters. To take advantage of major improvements in software architecture and community tools, we wish to migrate to a community standard solution for data acquisition, automatic and manual processing, and archival. We have been evaluating in detail SeisComp3, a state-of-the-art monitoring system developed by GFZ, as well as Nanometrics Apollo Suite (which uses USGS Hydra at it core for event processing). We present our analysis of the capabilities of each software we have been evaluating. In particular, we focus on the capability of each software to detect and identify small local (>Ml1) as well as large regional events. We discuss our results in terms or location and magnitude accuracy, with particular attention to the specific improvements needed from monitoring systems for improved monitoring of small regions with high quality seismic networks.

  9. Use of Double Difference techniques to reveal seismicity and crustal structure patterns in the Galati region (SE part of Romania) (United States)

    Borleanu, Felix; Rogozea, Maria; Liviu, Manea; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea


    A large seismic swarm occurred between 15 August and 5 November 2013 in the outer side of the SE Carpathians at about 30 km north-west of Galati city. The National Institute for Earth Physics installed in the epicentral area 4 temporary stations to enhance the seismic monitoring and location capability. Although the magnitude of the events did not exceed 4.0 (according to seismic bulletins computed by the Romanian National Data Centre), their effects were unusually high, being felt by the population and creating panic throughout the duration of the swarm. Taking into account the large number of seismic events occurred during the swarm and the events sporadically produced in the same region after the swarm cessation until the present time, as well as the relatively dense seismic network monitoring the area, we applied Double Difference techniques to reveal the regional seismicity and crustal structure patterns. The results show alignments of the seismic events along the crustal faults orientated between Sf. Gheorghe and Peceneaga-Camena Faults and significant seismic velocity inhomogeneity from east to west for the upper part of the crust.

  10. Along-strike Variations in the Himalayas Illuminated by the Aftershock Sequence of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake Using the NAMASTE Local Seismic Network (United States)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Karplus, M. S.; Nabelek, J.; Sapkota, S. N.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.; Velasco, A. A.


    As a result of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake, more than 8,000 people were killed from a combination of infrastructure failure and triggered landslides. This earthquake produced 4 m of peak co-seismic slip as the fault ruptured 130 km east under densely populated cities, such as Kathmandu. To understand earthquake dynamics in this part of the Himalayas and help mitigate similar future calamities by the next destructive event, it is imperative to study earthquake activities in detail and improve our understanding of the source and structural complexities. In response to the Gorkha event, multiple institutions developed and deployed a 10-month long dense seismic network called NAMASTE. It blanketed a 27,650 km2 area, mainly covering the rupture area of the Gorkha earthquake, in order to capture the dynamic sequence of aftershock behavior. The network consisted of a mix of 45 broadband, short-period, and strong motion sensors, with an average spacing of 20 km. From the first 6 months of data, starting approximately 1.5 after the mainshock, we develop a robust catalog containing over 3,000 precise earthquake locations, and local magnitudes that range between 0.3 and 4.9. The catalog has a magnitude of completeness of 1.5, and an overall low b-value of 0.78. Using the HypoDD algorithm, we relocate earthquake hypocenters with high precision, and thus illustrate the fault geometry down to depths of 25 km where we infer the location of the gently-dipping Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Above the MFT, the aftershocks illuminate complex structure produced by relatively steeply dipping faults. Interestingly, we observe sharp along-strike change in the seismicity pattern. The eastern part of the aftershock area is significantly more active than the western part. The change in seismicity may reflect structural and/or frictional lateral heterogeneity in this part of the Himalayan fault system. Such along-strike variations play an important role in rupture complexities and

  11. Constructing a Hidden Markov Model based earthquake detector: application to induced seismicity (United States)

    Beyreuther, Moritz; Hammer, Conny; Wassermann, Joachim; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Megies, Tobias


    The triggering or detection of seismic events out of a continuous seismic data stream is one of the key issues of an automatic or semi-automatic seismic monitoring system. In the case of dense networks, either local or global, most of the implemented trigger algorithms are based on a large number of active stations. However, in the case of only few available stations or small events, for example, like in monitoring volcanoes or hydrothermal power plants, common triggers often show high false alarms. In such cases detection algorithms are of interest, which show reasonable performance when operating even on a single station. In this context, we apply Hidden Markov Models (HMM) which are algorithms borrowed from speech recognition. However, many pitfalls need to be avoided to apply speech recognition technology directly to earthquake detection. We show the fit of the model parameters in an innovative way. State clustering is introduced to refine the intrinsically assumed time dependency of the HMMs and we explain the effect coda has on the recognition results. The methodology is then used for the detection of anthropogenicly induced earthquakes for which we demonstrate for a period of 3.9 months of continuous data that the single station HMM earthquake detector can achieve similar detection rates as a common trigger in combination with coincidence sums over two stations. To show the general applicability of state clustering we apply the proposed method also to earthquake classification at Mt. Merapi volcano, Indonesia.

  12. Characterization of the seismicity prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen; Gomis Moreno, Almudena; Hernández Yanes, Paula; Meletlidis, Stavros; López, Carmen


    The last eruption of the Canary Islands started on 10 October 2011, 2 km south of El Hierro. This submarine eruption was the first fully monitored volcanic eruption in this archipelago and was preceded by various precursory signals, the most evident of which was the seismicity that started in July 2011. This seismicity includes almost 10,000 low-magnitude earthquakes located during 81 days before the eruption which revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the north of the island to the south at depths of between 10 and 17 km, the deeper events occurring further south. In this work we try to improve the quality of the seismic catalogue. We applied a relative location algorithm (hypoDD) to improve hypocentral locations. Tests performed to check the reliability of the results gave maximum uncertainties of 400 m in the relocations. Furthermore, new features were found, including the origin of the seismicity in the center of the island and the presence of two alternating seismogenic zones in the north of the island during the first month of activity. The first days of the unrest the seismic network was composed by only 2 seismic stations and almost no location was possible. We obtained information about location and magnitude of these events at the beginning of the seismic crisis by comparison of the waveforms by correlation with located earthquakes. We have also analyzed the baselevel seismicity of El Hierro from 1996 using digital data of a short period station. Manual revision of these data showed a considerably low number of earthquakes in the region before the unrest (less than one event per day).

  13. Technical note: The US Dobson station network data record prior to 2015, re-evaluation of NDACC and WOUDC archived records with WinDobson processing software (United States)

    Evans, Robert D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; McClure-Begley, Audra; McConville, Glen; Quincy, Dorothy; Miyagawa, Koji


    The United States government has operated Dobson ozone spectrophotometers at various sites, starting during the International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958). A network of stations for long-term monitoring of the total column content (thickness of the ozone layer) of the atmosphere was established in the early 1960s and eventually grew to 16 stations, 14 of which are still operational and submit data to the United States of America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Seven of these sites are also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), an organization that maintains its own data archive. Due to recent changes in data processing software the entire dataset was re-evaluated for possible changes. To evaluate and minimize potential changes caused by the new processing software, the reprocessed data record was compared to the original data record archived in the World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC) in Toronto, Canada. The history of the observations at the individual stations, the instruments used for the NOAA network monitoring at the station, the method for reducing zenith-sky observations to total ozone, and calibration procedures were re-evaluated using data quality control tools built into the new software. At the completion of the evaluation, the new datasets are to be published as an update to the WOUDC and NDACC archives, and the entire dataset is to be made available to the scientific community. The procedure for reprocessing Dobson data and the results of the reanalysis on the archived record are presented in this paper. A summary of historical changes to 14 station records is also provided.

  14. The Maupin, Oregon, Earthquakes Observed With A Portable Broadband Seismic Array (United States)

    Connolly, J.; Thelen, W.; Hartog, J. R.; Wright, A.; Crosson, B.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.


    We report preliminary analyses from a 5-station portable broadband seismic array deployed around a site of persistent swarm-like earthquakes near the town of Maupin in north central Oregon. Swarm behavior is common amongst crustal earthquakes in Cascadia, particularly east of the Cascades where seismic instrumentation is sparse and seismicity may be relatively poorly characterized. This challenges our understanding of the generative mechanisms of swarms and their roles in the seismotectonics of the Pacific Northwest. The Maupin earthquakes provide a high quality case study for Oregon swarms. From November 2006 to August 2008, 315 earthquakes from M0.8 to M4.2 have been catalogued by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, complete down to M1.5, and with a magnitude-occurrence b-value of 0.8. During the 67 days of the temporary deployment, 300 earthquakes were recorded with magnitudes as small as M-0.5, complete down to M0.3, also with a b-value of 0.8. PNSN network catalog locations were determined to be quite accurate for the recent swarm. The additional close-in temporary stations reduced the epicentral scatter to 1km and the depth range to between 16 and 18 km. A similar swarm took place in 1976, with 17 earthquakes catalogued between M2.6 and M4.6. Although the seismic network has changed significantly in 30 years, it is likely that the structures responsible for the 1976 earthquakes are also active in the recent sequence. Seismicity rates fluctuate greatly, with both larger and smaller earthquake productivity waxing and waning together. There is no obvious periodicity in this fluctuation. Waveform similarity amongst the earthquakes suggests only 2-3 highly productive source zones, which appear to be active at different times. High precision relative relocations using waveform cross correlation techniques will be presented to better characterize these source zones.

  15. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network - First examples for long-term records and station trends


    Sussmann, R.; T. Borsdorff; M. Rettinger; Camy-Peyret, C.; Demoulin, P.; Duchatelet, P.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.


    We present a method for harmonized retrieval of integrated water vapor (IWV) from existing, long-term, measurement records at the ground-based mid-infrared solar FTIR spectrometry stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Correlation of IWV from FTIR with radiosondes shows an ideal slope of 1.00(3). This optimum matching is achieved via tuning one FTIR retrieval parameter, i.e., the strength of a Tikhonov regularization constraining...

  16. Modeling of the spatial state of the ionosphere using regular definitions of the VTEC identifier at the network of continuously operating GNSS stations of Ukraine (United States)

    Yankiv-Vitkovska, Liubov; Dzhuman, Bogdan


    Due to the wide application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the development of the modern GNSS infrastructure moved the monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere to a new methodological and technological level. The peculiarity of such monitoring is that it allows conducting different experimental studies including the study of the ionosphere directly while using the existing networks of reference GNSS stations intended for solving other problems. The application of the modern GNSS infrastructure is another innovative step in the ionospheric studies as such networks allow to conduct measurements continuously over time in any place. This is used during the monitoring of the ionosphere and allows studying the global and regional phenomena in the ionosphere in real time. Application of a network of continuously operating reference stations to determine numerical characteristics of the Earth's ionosphere allows creating an effective technology to monitor the ionosphere regionally. This technology is intended to solve both scientific problems concerning the space weather, and practical tasks such as providing coordinates of the geodetic level accuracy. For continuously operating reference GNSS stations, the results of the determined ionization identifier TEC (Total Electron Content). On the one hand, this data reflects the state of the ionosphere during the observation; on the other hand, it is a substantial tool for accuracy improvement and reliable determination of coordinates of the observation place. Thus, it was decided to solve a problem of restoring the spatial position of the ionospheric state or its ionization field according to the regular definitions of the TEC identifier, i.e. VTEC (Vertical TEC). The description below shows one of the possible solutions that is based on the spherical cap harmonic analysis method for modeling VTEC parameter. This method involves transformation of the initial data to a spherical cap and construction of model using

  17. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; Lasocki, S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.


    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is an international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of seismic stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the sparse Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contributing to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The 2010 summer field season saw the installation or upgrade of 9 stations in the GLISN network. Sites visited under the GLISN project include Station Nord (NOR

  18. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults (United States)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît


    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  19. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems for semi-automatic discrimination between seismic events: a study in Tehran region (United States)

    Vasheghani Farahani, Jamileh; Zare, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro


    Thisarticle presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for classification of low magnitude seismic events reported in Iran by the network of Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO). ANFIS classifiers were used to detect seismic events using six inputs that defined the seismic events. Neuro-fuzzy coding was applied using the six extracted features as ANFIS inputs. Two types of events were defined: weak earthquakes and mining blasts. The data comprised 748 events (6289 signals) ranging from magnitude 1.1 to 4.6 recorded at 13 seismic stations between 2004 and 2009. We surveyed that there are almost 223 earthquakes with M ≤ 2.2 included in this database. Data sets from the south, east, and southeast of the city of Tehran were used to evaluate the best short period seismic discriminants, and features as inputs such as origin time of event, distance (source to station), latitude of epicenter, longitude of epicenter, magnitude, and spectral analysis (fc of the Pg wave) were used, increasing the rate of correct classification and decreasing the confusion rate between weak earthquakes and quarry blasts. The performance of the ANFIS model was evaluated for training and classification accuracy. The results confirmed that the proposed ANFIS model has good potential for determining seismic events.

  20. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Two Volcanoes in Alaska Following the Mw7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake (United States)

    McNutt, S. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Moran, S. C.; Power, J. A.


    The Mw7.9 Denali Fault earthquake provided an opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors 24 volcanoes with seismic networks. We examined one station for each volcano, generally the closest (typically 5 km from the vent) unless noise, site response, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally bandpass filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to reduce noise from microseisms and wind. Data for the period three days before to three days after the Mw7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Shishaldin volcano, which has a background rate of several hundred seismic events per day on station SSLS, showed no change from before to after the earthquake. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of several dozen seismic events per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity at the time of the earthquake by a factor of 2.5; this lasted for 15 days. We tested this result using a different station, VNSS, and a different method of counting (non-filtered data on helicorder records) and found the same result. We infer that Veniaminof's activity was modified by the Mw7.9 earthquake. Wrangell, the closest volcano, had a background rate of about 10 events per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 8 days after the Mw7.9 earthquake because the large number of aftershocks precluded identification of local seismicity. For the following eight days, however, its seismicity rate was 30 percent lower than before. While subtle, we infer that this may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms7.1 St. Elias earthquake of 1979. The other 21 volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity from 3 days before to 3 days after the Mw7.9 event. We conclude that intermediate

  1. The Colombia Seismological Network (United States)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.


    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  2. New seismic images of the crust across the Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block (Mexico) (United States)

    Cordoba, Diego; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco Javier; Bartolomé, Rafael; José Dañobeitia, Juan; Bandy, William Lee; Núñez, Diana; Prada, Manel; Escudero-Ayala, Christian; Espíndola, Juan Manuel; Zamora, Araceli; Gómez, Adán; Ortiz, Modesto; Tsujal Working Group


    During the spring and summer of 2014, we achieved an extensive offshore geophysical experiment at West Coast of México entitled "Crustal characterization of the Rivera Plate-Jalisco Block boundary and its implications for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment (TSUJAL)". The project is the result of continuous scientific collaboration between institutions in Mexico and Spain, whose main objective is to study the lithospheric structure at the collision zone between Rivera, North America Plates and the Jalisco Block, and identifying submarine structures which can potentially be tsunamigenic sources The active phase of this project carried out in February and March of 2014, we acquired around 5200 km of Multichannel Seismic Reflection (MCS) together with multibeam bathymetry and potential fields (gravity and magnetism) data. Moreover, a wide angle experiment was performed, deploying 16 OBS in 32 locations in Jalisco and Nayarit offshore regions, also recorded on a terrestrial network of 100 portable seismic stations in 240 locations across 5 seismic profiles of 200-300 km in length combined with the Seismological Network of the State of Jalisco (SisVOc). In addition, 8 land seismic stations were installed in Marías Islands and Isabel Island. These instruments registered, in continuous mode, the airgun shots generated by airgun array of 5800 ci, shooting every 120 s. The UK vessel RRS James Cook participated in this project as a part of the exchange program between Spanish and English scientific vessels, she was responsible of marine seismic experiment (MCS & WA) using a 6 km length streamer and a high capacity airgun array. Furthermore, the ARM Holzinger and RV El Puma participated in this project and were provided by the Mexican Navy and UNAM, respectively. The second phase of this project was achieved in June 2014, where 100 short period seismic stations were installed along a 200 km seismic profile from La Caldera de la Primavera (Guadalajara) to Barra de Navidad

  3. Investigation of ambient seismic noise using seismic interferometry in western Montana (United States)

    Krzywosz, Natalia

    Passive seismic interferometry is a process by which ambient noise data recorded at different seismic stations can be cross-correlated to estimate Green's functions. In the past, both surface waves and body waves have successfully been extracted by cross-correlation of ambient noise data on both regional and global scales. In this study, I have generated Matlab code to simulate an application of seismic interferometry on a synthetic model with pre-defined layers and p-wave velocities. For areas with known velocity models, the Matlab code produced in this study can be used to generate synthetic seismograms, and model the effects of cross-correlation on receiver responses. In order to develop a general understanding of the ambient noise wavefield in western Montana, a spectral analysis program was developed in Matlab. This program is used to process ambient noise data from the Transportable Array (TA) Seismographic Network, and to generate its power spectral density plots and probability density functions. The detailed spectral analysis provides some insight to the ambient noise sources, and their energy distribution throughout western Montana. In addition, an attempt was made to preprocess ambient noise data from the TA array in Matlab for later use. Although preprocessing of the data was successful, limitations in computing power and time, allowed for temporal stacking of only one month of data. The one month period was not long enough to produce Green's functions which contain coherent body waves.

  4. Seismic and Tectonic Monitoring of the Endeavour Ridge Segment—Recent and Future Expansion of Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE Observatory on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.; Scherwath, M.; Kao, H.; Coogan, L. A.; Rogers, G. C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.


    Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) NEPTUNE observatory provides real-time access to sensors on the Endeavour Ridge Segment (Endeavour)—a focus site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge System that is complementary to one on Axial Volcano that is connected through the Ocean Observatories Initiative's (OOI) Cabled Array. While first instruments (including cameras, a short-period seismometer, and vent monitoring instruments) installed at the Main Endeavour vent field have been sending data since summer 2010, unreliable extension cables precluded continuous time-series from other nearby locations. With the successful installation of four extension cables, the summer of 2016 represents an important milestone in the instrumentation of the Endeavour Ridge Segment. We will present an overview of the data that are available in near real-time from Endeavour and new instrumentation that is scheduled for installation in 2017, and highlight first results derived from the new seismo-tectonic network now in operation. This network consists of three short-period seismometers (Mothra Field, Main Endeavour Field, Regional Circulation North), one broadband seismometer (western Ridge Flank), and four bottom pressure recorders (Mothra Field, Regional Circulation South, Main Endeavour Field, western Ridge Flank). The pressure recorders will provide both seismic and oceanographic data, and allow to measure differential vertical motion among the sites. We will also highlight a new technique to determine long period seafloor deformation from broadband seismometer mass-position measurements, using data from the Ridge Flank instrument as an example.

  5. The new WegenerNet climate station network web portal - A gateway to over 10 years of high-resolution precipitation data (United States)

    Fuchsberger, Jürgen; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Bichler, Christoph; Kabas, Thomas; Lenz, Gunther; Leuprecht, Armin


    The Feldbach region in southeast Austria, characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns, has been selected as the focus area for a pioneering weather and climate observation network at very high resolution: The WegenerNet comprises 153 meteorological stations measuring temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other parameters, in a tightly spaced grid within an area of about 20 km × 15 km centered near the city of Feldbach (46.93°N, 15.90°E). With its stations about every 2 km2, each with 5-min time sampling, the network provides regular measurements since January 2007. Detailed information is available in the recent description by Kirchengast et al. (2014) and via As a smaller "sister network" of the WegenerNet Feldbach region, the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal consists of eleven meteorological stations (complemented by one hydrographic station at the Johnsbach creek), measuring temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, wind, and other parameters in an alpine setting at altitudes ranging from below 700 m to over 2100 m. Data are available partly since 2007, partly since more recent dates and have a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The networks are set to serve as a long-term monitoring and validation facility for weather and climate research and applications. Uses include validation of nonhydrostatic models operated at 1-km-scale resolution and of statistical downscaling techniques (in particular for precipitation), validation of radar and satellite data, study of orography-climate relationships, and many others. Quality-controlled station time series and gridded field data (spacing 200 m × 200 m) are available in near-real time (data latency less than 1-2 h) for visualization and download via a data portal ( This data portal has been undergoing a complete renewal over the last year, and now serves as a modern gateway to the WegenerNet's more than 10 years of high

  6. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  7. Optimum arrangement of seismic intensity monitoring points for immediate estimation system of wide-area distribution of seismic intensity (United States)

    Furumoto, Yoshinori; Wada, Ayaka; Machida, Tetsu; Watanabe, Taichi; Bong, Michelle


    In this paper, the immediate estimation system for wide-area distribution of seismic intensity by using seismic intensity information network system is discussed. In general, although seismic intensity on each seismic intensity monitoring points can be obtained by using seismic intensity information network system within a few minutes after earthquake occurs, wide area distribution of seismic intensity is not obtained. This is because the number of seismic intensity monitoring points on the network system are very few and limited to estimate distribution of seismic intensity. However, by using other information, such as soil profiles on the ground of local areas and attenuation characteristics of seismic intensity, distribution of seismic intensity can be estimated with computer simulation considering seismic wave amplification on the ground immediately after seismic intensity information form the network system is obtained. Especially, array density and optimum arrangement of seismic intensity monitoring points are discussed to estimate efficiently the distribution of seismic intensity in local municipality. Then, the concluded result is that it is effective to place seismic monitoring points in high density populated areas.

  8. ASOS Station Photos (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  9. Active Marine Station Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  10. USRCRN Station Information (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  11. Seismic Passive Prospecting techniques as a useful tool during destructive earthquakes (United States)

    Albarello, D.; Bianca, M.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Giocoli, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Piscitelli, S.


    After the 2009 Abruzzo earthquake (Italy) several surface geophysical surveys were performed to support emergency microzonation studies. The most used technique was the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio applied to seismic ambient noise. More than 200 ambient vibration recordings were performed by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio approach. This survey was performed using the same kind of equipment, acquisition, processing, data analysis and reliability test. To verify the site response obtained by seismic ambient noise in Navelli, Castelnuovo and San Gregorio we installed a temporary accelerometric network. The stations were continuously operating for a period from few days to more than a month after the mainshock, allowing the recording of hundreds of seismic events with magnitudes from about 1 to more than 5. In order to reconstruct the geological settlement of the study areas, the passive/active seismic prospections were integrated by electric and gravimetric surveys, detailed geology surveys and down-hole seismic measurements. The availability of such a large and homogeneous data-base, allowed us to carry out some 1-D geological models which corroborate the capability of seismic ambient noise to assess soil response and to detect the shallow subsurface geological and structural setting, the geometry of the lithological units, their mechanical and dynamical properties and the soil-structure interaction.

  12. Characteristics of the Seismicity in the San Martin Tuxtla volcano area, Veracruz, Mexico (United States)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M.


    San Martin Tuxtla volcano (18.572N, 95.169W, 1650 masl) is a large volcano rising in the midst of the Tuxtla volcanic field in the State of Veracruz, eastern México. The last eruption of this volcano occurred in 1793 and produced thick ash fall deposits in its vicinity. Due to increasing population in the area, the volcano poses a significant risk. To determine the seismic characteristics of the area and evaluate their possible relationship with the volcano we installed a network of three seismic stations in its surroundings. The array has recorded the seismic activity from 2007 to 2011. We present the results of the analysis of the records of this period, which in general show that the seismicity in the area is relatively low both in frequency and magnitude: only 51 events of magnitude (Mc) less than 2.5 were observed and located. Most of the earthquakes are typical volcano tectonic events occurring at shallow depths (<< 12 km) around the volcano. This low level of seismicity is probably a characteristic of the area and not of the particular period studied, as has been observed in other areas of basaltic volcanism, and could be used to establish any unusual seismicity that could be related to impending volcanic activity.

  13. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.


    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  14. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard assessment in Albania (United States)

    Muco, B.; Kiratzi, A.; Sulstarova, E.; Kociu, S.; Peci, V.; Scordilis, E.


    Albania is one of the coutries with highest sesimicity in Europe.The history of instrumental monitoring of seismicity in this country started since 1968 with the setting up of the first seismographic station of Tirana and more effectively after the beginning of the operation of the Albanian Seismological Network in 1976. There is a rich evidence that during two thousands years Albania has been hit by many disastrous earthquakes. The highest magnitude estimated is 7.2. After the end of Communist era and opening of the country, a boom of constructions started in Albania continuing even now. It makes more indispensabile the producing of accurate seismic hazard maps for preventing the damages of future probable earthquakes. Some efforts have already been done in seismic hazard assessment(Sulstarova et al., 1980; Kociu, 2000; Muco et al., 2002). In this approach, the probabilistic technique has been used in one joint work between Seismological Institute of Tirana, Albania and Department of Geophysics of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, into the framework of NATO SfP project "SeisAlbania". The earthquake catalogue adopted was specifically conceived for this seismic hazard analysis and contains 530 events with magnitude M>4.5 from the year 58 up to 2000. We divided the country in 8 seismotectonic zones giving for them the most representative fault characteristics. The computer code used for hazard calculation was OHAZ, developed from the Geophysical Survey of Slovenia and the attenuation models used were Ambraseys et al., 1996; Sabetta and Pugliese, 1996 and Margaris et al., 2001. The hazard maps are obtained for 100, 475, 2375 and 4746 return periods, for rock soil condition. Analyzing the map of PGA values for a return period of 475 years, there are separated 5 zones with different escalation of PGA values: 1)the zone with PGA (0.20 - 0.24 g) 1.8 percent of Albanian territory, 2)the zone with PGA (0.16 - 0.20 g) 22.6 percent of Albanian territory, 3)the

  15. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...... and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015...

  16. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...