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Sample records for network sacramento air

  1. RadNet Air Data From Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Sacramento, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  2. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  3. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  4. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... sources within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that the National Ambient Air Quality...

  5. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  6. Assessing the Performance of a Network of Low Cost Particulate Matter Sensors Deployed in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A. D.; Brown, S. G.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    A new generation of low cost air quality sensors have the potential to provide valuable information on the spatial-temporal variability of air pollution - if the measurements have sufficient quality. This study examined the performance of a particulate matter sensor model, the AirBeam (HabitatMap Inc., Brooklyn, NY), over a three month period in the urban environment of Sacramento, California. Nineteen AirBeam sensors were deployed at a regulatory air monitoring site collocated with meteorology measurements and as a local network over an 80 km2 domain in Sacramento, CA. This study presents the methodology to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and reliability of the sensors over a range of meteorological and aerosol conditions. The sensors demonstrated a robust degree of precision during collocated measurement periods (R2 = 0.98 - 0.99) and a moderate degree of correlation against a Beta Attenuation Monitor PM2.5 monitor (R2 0.6). A normalization correction is applied during the study period so that each AirBeam sensor in the network reports a comparable value. The role of the meteorological environment on the accuracy of the sensor measurements is investigated, along with the possibility of improving the measurements through a meteorology weighted correction. The data quality of the network of sensors is examined, and the spatial variability of particulate matter through the study domain derived from the sensor network is presented.

  7. The Effect of Increasing Surface Albedo on Urban Climate and Air Quality: A Detailed Study for Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jandaghian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing surface reflectivity in urban areas can decrease ambient temperature, resulting in reducing photochemical reaction rates, reducing cooling energy demands and thus improving air quality and human health. The weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is coupled with the multi-layer of the urban canopy model (ML-UCM to investigate the effects of surface modification on urban climate in a two-way nested approach over North America focusing on Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago during the 2011 heat wave period. This approach decreases the uncertainties associated with scale separation and grid resolution and equip us with an integrated simulation setup to capture the full impacts of meteorological and photochemical reactions. WRF-ChemV3.6.1 simulated the diurnal variation of air temperature reasonably well, overpredicted wind speed and dew point temperature, underpredicted relative humidity, overpredicted ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations, and underpredicted fine particular matters (PM2.5. The performance of PM2.5 is a combination of overprediction of particulate sulfate and underprediction of particulate nitrate and organic carbon. Increasing the surface albedo of roofs, walls, and pavements from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.60, and 0.45, respectively, resulted in a decrease in air temperature by 2.3 °C in urban areas and 0.7 °C in suburban areas; a slight increase in wind speed; an increase in relative humidity (3% and dew point temperature (0.3 °C; a decrease of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations by 2.7 µg/m3 and 6.3 ppb in urban areas and 1.4 µg/m3 and 2.5 ppb in suburban areas, respectively; minimal changes in PM2.5 subspecies; and a decrease of nitrogen dioxide (1 ppb in urban areas.

  8. Colônia do Sacramento: a situação na fronteira platina no século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Pereira Prado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colônia do Sacramento, no atual Uruguai, na primeira metade do século XVIII, constituiu uma cidade de pródigo comércio na região platina. Inseridos tanto nas rotas comerciais e sociais portuguesas quanto nas castelhanas, os habitantes de Sacramento materializavam uma fronteira múltipla, onde coexistiam espanhóis, portugueses e diferentes grupos indígenas. O presente estudo analisa os vínculos sociais e comerciais existentes entre os habitantes de Sacramento e os de Buenos Aires. No interior do espaço platino as redes sociais estabelecidas através do rio da Prata, ligando Sacramento e Buenos Aires, eram vias de acúmulo de prestígio, poder e riqueza em uma sociedade de antigo regime.The Sacramento Colony, currently Uruguayan territory, in the first half of the XVIII century, was a city with great commerce on the River Plate Region. Placed in both Portuguese and Spanish social and commercial routes, the Sacramento habitants formed a multiple frontier where Spanish, Portuguese and different indigenous groups coexisted. The present study analyses the social and commercial links that existed between the Sacramento and Buenos Aires inhabitants. In the River Plate region, the social networks developed connecting Sacramento and Buenos Ayers were gateways to social status, power and wealth in an old regime society.

  9. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during... Sacramento River around the Tower Bridge in Sacramento, CA in approximate position 38[deg]34'49.98'' N, 121...

  10. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during... Sacramento River around the Tower Bridge in Sacramento, CA in approximate position 38[deg]34'49.98'' N, 121...

  11. 78 FR 15878 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Operation Regulations; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Tower Drawbridge across Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA... temporary change to the operation of the Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, over Sacramento River, at Sacramento...

  12. 77 FR 52599 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... regulation that governs the Tower Drawbridge across Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The... change to the operation of the Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, over Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The...

  13. 78 FR 23489 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation... operating regulation that governs the Tower Drawbridge across Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, over Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation...

  14. 77 FR 44139 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the Fleet Feet Event, Run... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span...

  15. 76 FR 11960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span...

  16. 77 FR 22216 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... schedule that governs the Tower Drawbridge across the Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The... River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 30 feet...

  17. 76 FR 26181 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the Hope... Drawbridge, mile 59.0, over Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a...

  18. 76 FR 11679 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the... the Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation...

  19. 76 FR 23188 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span...

  20. 76 FR 79067 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow community celebration of New Year's... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span...

  1. 76 FR 20843 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the... the Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation...

  2. 77 FR 10372 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span...

  3. 77 FR 10371 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner to conduct... change to the operation of the Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The...

  4. 75 FR 16006 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., mile 59.4, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner to make bridge... Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The I Street Drawbridge navigation span provides 109 feet vertical...

  5. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... safety zones during the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River on December 31, 2012 and January 1, 2013. The fireworks displays will occur from 9 p.m. to 9...

  6. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  7. 78 FR 42452 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation... Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner to make bridge repairs. This deviation... Sacramento, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides 109 feet vertical clearance above Mean High Water in...

  8. 78 FR 15879 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Operation Regulations; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating regulation that governs the Tower Drawbridge across the Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the community to participate in the First Annual ``Biggest...

  9. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    addition, several Federal candidate species, the California Hibiscus , California tiger salamander, Sacramento Anthicid Beetle, Sacramento Valley tiger...Board, California Waste Management Board, and Department of Health Services contribute to this list. The Yolo County Health Services Agency maintains and...operation and maintenance of the completed recreational facility. Recreation development is limited to project lands unless health and safety

  10. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  11. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River... Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display safety zones in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River near...

  12. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  13. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  14. 77 FR 40800 - Safety Zone: Sacramento River Closure for Aerial Cable Installation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Sacramento River Closure for Aerial Cable Installation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast... zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River near Sherman Island, CA in support of the...; Sacramento River Closure for Aerial Cable Installation, Sacramento, CA. (a) Location. This temporary safety...

  15. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  16. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  17. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  18. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  19. 1997 Sacramento Inland Floodplain Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in October 1997 over the Sacramento, CA, floodplain. Laser mapping uses a pulsed laser ranging system mounted onboard an...

  20. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  1. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  2. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  3. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  4. Bivariate Drought Analysis Using Streamflow Reconstruction with Tree Ring Indices in the Sacramento Basin, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term streamflow data are vital for analysis of hydrological droughts. Using an artificial neural network (ANN model and nine tree-ring indices, this study reconstructed the annual streamflow of the Sacramento River for the period from 1560 to 1871. Using the reconstructed streamflow data, the copula method was used for bivariate drought analysis, deriving a hydrological drought return period plot for the Sacramento River basin. Results showed strong correlation among drought characteristics, and the drought with a 20-year return period (17.2 million acre-feet (MAF per year in the Sacramento River basin could be considered a critical level of drought for water shortages.

  5. OS SACRAMENTAIS, SACRAMENTOS DOS POBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Codina

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Basta ter tido um pouco de experiência pastoral com setores populares, concretamente na América Latina, para constatar a importância dos sacramentais na vida cristã do povo. Além das manifestações de piedade popular que se costuma estudar sob a rubrica de religiosidade popular (peregrinações, festas de padroeiro, procissões..., gostaria de destacar aqui outros elementos mais estreitamente ligados ao mundo dos sacramentos, ainda que não formem parte dos sete sacramentos tridentinos.

  6. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  7. 77 FR 47536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... San Diego Air Pollution Agencies AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final...), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and San Diego County Air Pollution Control...) September 2008, 5. ``Control Techniques Guidelines for Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Parts Coatings,'' EPA...

  8. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  9. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  10. Group Centric Networking: Large Scale Over the Air Testing of Group Centric Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Large Scale Over-the-Air Testing of Group Centric Networking Logan Mercer, Greg Kuperman, Andrew Hunter, Brian Proulx MIT Lincoln Laboratory...performance of Group Centric Networking (GCN), a networking protocol developed for robust and scalable communications in lossy networks where users are...devices, and the ad-hoc nature of the network . Group Centric Networking (GCN) is a proposed networking protocol that addresses challenges specific to

  11. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  12. Outlier Detection in Urban Air Quality Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, V.M.; Stein, A.; Hoek, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly

  13. Exploring SWOT discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M. T.; Yoon, Y.; Rodriguez, E.; Minear, J. T.; Andreadis, K.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Smith, L. C.; Bales, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on several specific research questions affecting algorithm performance: 1) To what extent do lateral inflows confound algorithm performance? We examine the ~100 km stretch of river from Colusa, CA to the Yolo Bypass, and investigate how the

  14. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force's Computer Network in the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courville, Shane P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the Air Force and the Department of Defense (DoD) in general, have numerous safeguards in effect to protect systems and their networks, DoD relies on a system that is "passive" when encountering cyber threats...

  15. Analysis of the Chinese air route network as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai-Quan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-02-01

    The air route network, which supports all the flight activities of the civil aviation, is the most fundamental infrastructure of air traffic management system. In this paper, we study the Chinese air route network (CARN) within the framework of complex networks. We find that CARN is a geographical network possessing exponential degree distribution, low clustering coefficient, large shortest path length and exponential spatial distance distribution that is obviously different from that of the Chinese airport network (CAN). Besides, via investigating the flight data from 2002 to 2010, we demonstrate that the topology structure of CARN is homogeneous, howbeit the distribution of flight flow on CARN is rather heterogeneous. In addition, the traffic on CARN keeps growing in an exponential form and the increasing speed of west China is remarkably larger than that of east China. Our work will be helpful to better understand Chinese air traffic systems.

  16. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  17. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  18. Sacramento District History (1929-2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Willie; Asay, Laura; Davy, Barbara J; Doyle, Brian; Fast, James P; Gonzalez, Jennifer L; Layton, Debra A; Nevins, Michael J; Taylor, James H; Van Dam, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Although the Sacramento District was established in 1929, this document recaptures the legendary history from the mid-1800's and the repercussions the Central Valley endured regarding the navigation...

  19. 78 FR 66058 - Habitat Conservation Plan for South Sacramento County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... scoping meetings in local news media and on the Internet at http://www.fws.gov/sacramento . ADDRESSES... sphere of influence; and land within Galt's adopted sphere of influence. Almost all ground disturbance... resources, transportation, air quality, land use, recreation, water use, local economy, and environmental...

  20. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANCED AIR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Udzhukhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach allowing one to predict the development of air-route network is proposed. It proceeds from the principle of increasing the accessibility of points of destination, that is to make available for passengers non-stop flights or flights with one transit landing in case of the largest number of routes. With comparative analysis of possible variants of extending the structure of air-route network, it is reasonable to take into account a generalized time parameter and a number of alternative routes for passenger delivery from departure point to point of destination.

  1. The GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vömel, H.; Berger, F. H.; Immler, F. J.; Seidel, D.; Thorne, P.

    2009-04-01

    While the global upper-air observing network has provided useful observations for operational weather forecasting for decades, its measurements lack the accuracy and long-term continuity needed for understanding climate change. Consequently, the scientific community faces uncertainty on such key issues as the trends of temperature in the upper troposphere and stratosphere or the variability and trends of stratospheric water vapour. To address these shortcomings, and to ensure that future climate records will be more useful than the records to date, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program initiated the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN). GRUAN will be a network of about 30-40 observatories with a representative sampling of geographic regions and surface types. These stations will provide upper-air reference observations of the essential climate variables, i.e. temperature, geopotential, humidity, wind, radiation and cloud properties using specialized radiosondes and complementary remote sensing profiling instrumentation. Long-term stability, quality assurance / quality control, and a detailed assessment of measurement uncertainties will be the key aspects of GRUAN observations. The network will not be globally complete but will serve to constrain and adjust data from more spatially comprehensive global observing systems including satellites and the current radiosonde networks. This paper outlines the scientific rationale for GRUAN, its role in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, network requirements and likely instrumentation, management structure, current status and future plans.

  2. 76 FR 14052 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California State University, Sacramento, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Sacramento County, CA, during a test excavation project. The Far Western Anthropological Research Group Inc... from ethnohistoric and ethnographic sources indicate that the site was most likely occupied by Nisenan... the Sacramento River and Miwok-speakers resided south of the American River. Ethnographic data and...

  3. WMO background air pollution monitoring network (BAPMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, A

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the network include the establishment of baseline measurements of the global troposphere against which subsequent changes can be measured. The minimum program includes analysis of wet precipitation, observation of the aerosol optical depth, and sampling of suspended particulates. Standardization efforts have resulted in accuracies in rainwater samples to within 10%. Pollutant levels are shown for regional, urban and continental stations. The possibility of establishing median values for different modes of operation at a station (background and nonbackground mode) is examined. The interference of water vapor with CO/sub 2/ measurements is discussed.

  4. Enhanced data validation strategy of air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Mohamed-Faouzi; Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem

    2018-01-01

    Quick validation and detection of faults in measured air quality data is a crucial step towards achieving the objectives of air quality networks. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are threefold: (i) to develop a modeling technique that can be used to predict the normal behavior of air quality variables and help provide accurate reference for monitoring purposes; (ii) to develop fault detection method that can effectively and quickly detect any anomalies in measured air quality data. For this purpose, a new fault detection method that is based on the combination of generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) will be developed. GLRT is a well-known statistical fault detection method that relies on maximizing the detection probability for a given false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose to develop GLRT-based EWMA fault detection method that will be able to detect the changes in the values of certain air quality variables; (iii) to develop fault isolation and identification method that allows defining the fault source(s) in order to properly apply appropriate corrective actions. In this paper, reconstruction approach that is based on Midpoint-Radii Principal Component Analysis (MRPCA) model will be developed to handle the types of data and models associated with air quality monitoring networks. All air quality modeling, fault detection, fault isolation and reconstruction methods developed in this paper will be validated using real air quality data (such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen and carbon oxides measurement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AIR POLLUITON INDEX PREDICTION USING MULTIPLE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring and forecasting tools are necessary for the purpose of taking precautionary measures against air pollution, such as reducing the effect of a predicted air pollution peak on the surrounding population and ecosystem. In this study a single Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (FANN is shown to be able to predict the Air Pollution Index (API with a Mean Squared Error (MSE and coefficient determination, R2, of 0.1856 and 0.7950 respectively. However, due to the non-robust nature of single FANN, a selective combination of Multiple Neural Networks (MNN is introduced using backward elimination and a forward selection method. The results show that both selective combination methods can improve the robustness and performance of the API prediction with the MSE and R2 of 0.1614 and 0.8210 respectively. This clearly shows that it is possible to reduce the number of networks combined in MNN for API prediction, without losses of any information in terms of the performance of the final API prediction model.

  6. Structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN). • We compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. • It is found that small-world property and rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by major airlines. - Abstract: Recently multilayer networks are attracting great attention because the properties of many real-world systems cannot be well understood without considering their different layers. In this paper, we investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN) by progressively merging layers together, where each commercial airline (company) defines a layer. The results show that the high clustering coefficient, short characteristic path length and large collection of reachable destinations of the Chinese ATMN can only emerge when several layers are merged together. Moreover, we compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. It is found that the small-world property and the rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by those layers corresponding to major airlines. Our work will highlight a better understanding of the Chinese air transportation network.

  7. Global thermal analysis of air-air cooled motor based on thermal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Leng, Xue; Shen, Li; Liu, Haidong

    2018-02-01

    The air-air cooled motors with high efficiency, large starting torque, strong overload capacity, low noise, small vibration and other characteristics, are widely used in different department of national industry, but its cooling structure is complex, it requires the motor thermal management technology should be high. The thermal network method is a common method to calculate the temperature field of the motor, it has the advantages of small computation time and short time consuming, it can save a lot of time in the initial design phase of the motor. The domain analysis of air-air cooled motor and its cooler was based on thermal network method, the combined thermal network model was based, the main components of motor internal and external cooler temperature were calculated and analyzed, and the temperature rise test results were compared to verify the correctness of the combined thermal network model, the calculation method can satisfy the need of engineering design, and provide a reference for the initial and optimum design of the motor.

  8. Sensitivity of SWOT discharge algorithm to measurement errors: Testing on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Micheal; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Yoon, Yeosang; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on the sensitivity of the algorithm accuracy to the uncertainty in AirSWOT measurements of height, width, and slope.

  9. Sacramento, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Sacramento, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  10. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  11. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  12. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  13. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-02-05

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  14. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  15. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  16. The control network of air quality in the Lorraine steel industry country: an example of a specific steel industry network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncin, G.

    1991-01-01

    This specific (for steel industry region) network for the air quality control mainly measures the concentrations in sulfur dioxide, airborne dust and fall out particles. The recent automation of this network implied a preliminary optimization study which consisted of a statistical analysis of the numerous data collected by many hand operated sensors. The implementation and working conditions of the new equipment have required the use of air-conditioned monoblock metallic cabins

  17. Final environmental assessment: Sacramento Energy Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Sacramento Area Office (SAO) of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to increase the security of operations, to eliminate overcrowding at the current leased location of the existing facilities, to provide for future growth, to improve efficiency, and to reduce operating costs. The proposed action is to construct an approximate 40,000-square foot building and adjacent parking lot with a Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station installed to promote use of energy efficient transportation. As funding becomes available and technology develops, additional innovative energy-efficient measures will be incorporated into the building. For example the proposed construction of the Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging.

  18. 77 FR 24252 - Notice of Release From Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Sacramento International Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Assurance Obligations for Sacramento International Airport (SMF), Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of land comprising approximately 6.50 acres of airport property at the Sacramento International Airport, California. The County of Sacramento proposes to release the 6.50 acres for sale to the...

  19. Development of multiplexing network for air conditioner systems; Eakon yo LAN system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T; Nakazawa, Y; Nakase, M; Sato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, M; Okasato, Y; Sunaga, H [Calsonic Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Plural air flap actuators of the air conditioner system in a vehicle have been integrated into a single-type actuator using two newly developed technologies: super-low-cost multiplexing network technology and digital motor control technology with a 1-bit A/D converter. The number of harnesses and connectors and the handling load of the air conditioner control microcomputer are reduced, so that we succeeded in sharply reducing the cost of the air conditioner system. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Exploring the roles of temperature and NOx on ozone production in the Sacramento urban plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranchi, B. W.; Cohen, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the role of temperature and NOx (NOx = NO+NO2) on ozone (O3) production in the Sacramento urban plume over a stretch of seven years (2001-2007) using data collected at UC Blodgett Forest Research Station (a forested site in the Sierra Nevadas about 80 km downwind of Sacramento, CA) and at a series of California Air Resources Board (CARB) sites along the Sacramento-Blodgett transect. The consistent daytime wind patterns between the Central Valley of California and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains permits the assumption of plume transport from downtown Sacramento, over the CARB monitoring sites in the eastern suburbs, and past the Blodgett Forest research site. While NOx emissions are limited primarily to the urban and suburban regions of the transect, biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are significant throughout the transect, thus there is a fast transition from VOC-limited to NOx-limited as the plume travels away from the urban center, and we have the opportunity to analyze the differences in ozone production across these two chemical regimes. For this analysis, the Sacramento-Blodgett transect is separated into three segments: urban, suburban, and rural, defined by the locations of selected monitoring sites. Ozone concentrations across each segment are controlled by chemical production (Pchem) and loss (Lchem), deposition to surfaces (Ldep), and mixing with background air (Lmix). At an assumed deposition rate, mixing rate, and background O3 concentration, the net chemical flux of ozone (Pchem - Lchem) can be inferred from differences in ozone concentrations between adjacent monitoring sites. We show that ozone production rates, in general, increase with temperature. We also show that decreases in NOx emissions over the period from 2001-2007 have been effective at reducing ozone production at all points along the transect, but only on days where temperatures are highest. At low temperatures, this decrease is less apparent

  1. Quality assurance and quality control for Hydro-Quebec's ambient air monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.; Varfalvy, L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro Quebec has three ambient air monitoring networks to determine the contribution of some of its thermal plants to ambient air quality. They are located in Becancour (gas turbines), Iles-de-la-Madeleine (diesel), and Tracy (conventional oil-fired). To ensure good quality results and consistency between networks, a quality assurance/quality control program was set up. A description is presented of the ambient air quality monitoring network and the quality assurance/quality control program. A guide has been created for use by the network operators, discussing objectives of the individual network, a complete description of each network, field operation for each model of instrument in use, treatment of data for each data logger in use, global considerations regarding quality assurance and control, and reports. A brief overview is presented of the guide's purpose and contents, focusing on the field operation section and the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide monitors. 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  3. Air radioactivity: to assess risks. Tools answer citizen questions. The Opera-Air network: the journey of a filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Damien; Gariel, Jean-Christophe; Bruno, Valerie; Debayle, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Very highly efficient filters containing a porous glass fibre fabric are used in industrial installations to trap radioactive or toxic particles in order to limit their release, notably in accidental situations. Thus this set of articles discusses various issues related to the use of such filters. A first one describes how air radioactivity is continuously monitored by two coexisting networks: Opera-Air and Teleray. It indicates where air radioactivity comes from, and how the origin of a release can be determined, and outlines the importance of modelling tools. Air monitoring about the Gravelines nuclear power plant is briefly presented with a drawing. A second article comments the existence of numerous tools which are used as information channels about the monitoring of air radioactivity: web sites, mobile application, and so on. The last article briefly describes the journey of a filter from its removal on a Monday to a complete and validated analysis which lasts between two and four weeks

  4. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  5. Radionuclide Site Survey Report Sacramento, California (RN-70)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to validate that the Sacramento, CA, site will fulfill treaty requirements as set forth by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization...

  6. 77 FR 47789 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...-Club Yacht Association, the Recreational Boaters of California, the Capital City Yacht Club, the Sacramento Yacht Club, River View Yacht Club and Hornblower Cruises. D. Discussion of Proposed Rule Under the...

  7. An urban-forest control measure for ozone in the Sacramento, CA federal non-attainment area (SFNA) Sustainable Cities and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider Taha; James Wilkinson; Robert Bornstein; Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson; Jim Simpson; Charles Anderson; Steven Lau; Janice Lam; Cindy Blain

    2015-01-01

    Urban forest strategies of gradually replacing high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) with low-emitting species are being considered as voluntary or emerging control measures for maintenance of the 8-h ozone standard in the Sacramento Federal Non-Attainment Area (SFNA). We describe a regulatory modeling study demonstrating the air-quality impacts...

  8. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In January 1993 within the framework of the LIFE programme a project was financed which aim was to develop a deposition monitoring method for air pollution of Europe. This method should be used to extend existing European monitoring networks of air concentrations to provide deposition inputs on an

  9. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  10. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  11. Army Air and Missile Defense Network Design Facility (AAMDNDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides JTIDS network designs and platform initialization load files for all Joint and Army-only tests, exercises, operations, and contingency events...

  12. Modeling a cold-air drainage event with a wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Brian R. Zutta; Eric A. Graham; Philip W. Rundel

    2005-01-01

    A wireless network of sensors was used to characterize a cold-air drainage event in the canyon surrounding the James Reserve. The flow of cold air at night and the first hours of sunrise have major ecological consequences by limiting the vegetation types to those tolerant of freeze and thaw cycles. A network of wireless sensors provides the opportunity to track this event in real time and fully characterize the cold air flow down the canyon, which may last 1.5 hours, and the pooling of cold a...

  13. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  14. Security for the Mythical Air-Dropped Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamage, C.D.; Bicakci, K.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The research area of very large scale wireless sensor networks made of low-cost sensors is gaining a lot of interest as witnessed by the large number of published papers. The security aspects of such networks are addressed as well, and in particular many security papers investigating the security

  15. Identifying vital edges in Chinese air route network via memetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development in the past decade, air transportation system has attracted considerable research attention from diverse communities. While most of the previous studies focused on airline networks, here we systematically explore the robustness of the Chinese air route network, and identify the vital edges which form the backbone of Chinese air transportation system. Specifically, we employ a memetic algorithm to minimize the network robustness after removing certain edges, and hence the solution of this model is the set of vital edges. Counterintuitively, our results show that the most vital edges are not necessarily the edges of the highest topological importance, for which we provide an extensive explanation from the microscope view. Our findings also offer new insights to understanding and optimizing other real-world network systems.

  16. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  17. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  18. Annual report 1990/91 for the Hamburg air monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemer, D.; Hache, W.; Matzen, D.; Reich, T.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to measured results form the stationary air monitoring network from 1990 (detailed report) and 1991 (brief version), the annual report 1990/91 presents results form special measuring programs of the dynmao car area and from measurements made on the street dating from 1990/91. After a detailed presentation of the meteorological frame conditions in 1990, distinguishing by a relatively good air exchange, a detailed discussion of the air load during this period and a brief survey about the air quality in 1991 follows. (orig.) [de

  19. UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE STABILIZATION BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Andropov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.

  20. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  1. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  2. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen; He, Hong-Di; Dong, Li-yun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  3. 77 FR 45575 - Foreign-Trade Zone 143-West Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Sacramento, CA Application for Extended Production Authority; Subzone 143D, Grafil Inc. (Carbon Fiber Production); Sacramento, California An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the... its facilities located in Sacramento, California. The application conforming to the requirements of...

  4. 75 FR 81642 - Long-Term North to South Water Transfer Program, Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ..., Sacramento County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an...., Chico, CA. Wednesday, January 12, 2011, 2-4 p.m., Sacramento, CA. Thursday, January 13, 2011, 6-8 p.m..., MP-410, Sacramento, CA 95825. Scoping meetings will be held at: Chico at the Chico Masonic Family...

  5. 76 FR 3157 - Joint Operations Center Relocation Project, Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ..., Sacramento County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Reclamation, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, CA 95825 or e-mail [email protected] . The public scoping meetings... construct a new JOC in the Sacramento area to be occupied by June 2015. The new JOC would provide typical...

  6. 77 FR 15801 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from the Morris Mound site (CA-SAC-199) in Sacramento County, CA...

  7. Zenith-100 Microcomputer Network for Air Command and Staff College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34 AD-A182 495 ZENI T-ipo ml CROCOMFUT E NET WOR( FOR AIR COMAND AND h SAFF CoLLG (U) AIl COMMAND ANDCSTAFF COLL MAX(WELL AFS "CAL W L GALWAY El AL...processing of documents by eliminating the time required to physically move the documents from one office to the next. Reproduction Savings. Information

  8. Research on the Topological Properties of Air Quality Index Based on a Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the dynamic characteristics of air quality for enforcing effective measures to prevent and evade air pollution harm, air quality index (AQI time series data was selected and transformed into a symbol sequence consisting of characters (H, M, L through the coarse graining process; then each 6-symbols series was treated as one vertex by time sequence to construct the AQI directed-weighted network; finally the centrality, clusterability, and ranking of the AQI network were analyzed. The results indicated that vertex strength and cumulative strength distribution, vertex strength and strength rank presented power law distributions, and the AQI network is a scale-free network. Only 17 vertices possessed a higher weighted clustering coefficient; meanwhile weighted clustering coefficient and vertex strength didn’t show a strong correlation. The AQI network did not have an obvious central tendency towards intermediaries in general, but 20.55% of vertices accounted for nearly 1/2 of the intermediaries, and the varieties still existed. The mean distance of 68.4932% of vertices was 6.120–9.973, the AQI network did not have obvious small-world phenomena, the conversion of AQI patterns presented the characteristics of periodicity and regularity, and 20.2055% of vertices had high proximity prestige. The vertices fell into six islands, the AQI pattern indicating heavy or serious air pollution lasting six days always lingered for a long time. The number of triads 2-012 was the largest, and the AQI network followed the transitivity model. The study has instructional significance in understanding time change regulation of air quality in Beijing, opening a new way for time series prediction research. Additionally, the factors causing the change of topological properties should be analyzed in the future research.

  9. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  10. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Network-Centric Operations Case Study: Air-to-Air Combat With and Without Link 16

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Daniel; Hollywood, John; Kingston, Gina; Signori, David

    2005-01-01

    ...) Operational Special Project. In this exercise, the capabilities of F-15 air superiority aircraft equipped with voice-only communications were compared with F-15s equipped with voice and JTIDS Link 16 data link communications...

  12. On the feasibility of measuring urban air pollution by wireless distributed sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltchanov, Sharon; Levy, Ilan; Etzion, Yael; Lerner, Uri; Broday, David M; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of air pollution on human-wellbeing requires high-resolution measurements. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate pollution levels but due to their sparse distribution they cannot capture the highly resolved spatial variations within cities. Similarly, dedicated field campaigns can use tens of measurement devices and obtain highly dense spatial coverage but normally deployment has been limited to short periods of no more than few weeks. Nowadays, advances in communication and sensory technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of wireless distributed air monitoring nodes, yet their sensor ability to capture the spatiotemporal pollutant variability at the sub-neighborhood scale has never been thoroughly tested. This study reports ambient measurements of gaseous air pollutants by a network of six wireless multi-sensor miniature nodes that have been deployed in three urban sites, about 150 m apart. We demonstrate the network's capability to capture spatiotemporal concentration variations at an exceptional fine resolution but highlight the need for a frequent in-situ calibration to maintain the consistency of some sensors. Accordingly, a procedure for a field calibration is proposed and shown to improve the system's performance. Overall, our results support the compatibility of wireless distributed sensor networks for measuring urban air pollution at a sub-neighborhood spatial resolution, which suits the requirement for highly spatiotemporal resolved measurements at the breathing-height when assessing exposure to urban air pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  14. Optimal redistribution of an urban air quality monitoring network using atmospheric dispersion model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong

    2018-03-01

    Air quality monitoring networks play a significant role in identifying the spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution, and they need to be deployed efficiently, with a minimum number of sites. The revision and optimal adjustment of existing monitoring networks is crucial for cities that have undergone rapid urban expansion and experience temporal variations in pollution patterns. The approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting-California PUFF (WRF-CALPUFF) model and genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to design an optimal monitoring network. The maximization of coverage with minimum overlap and the ability to detect violations of standards were developed as the design objectives for redistributed networks. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the network size and site locations simultaneously for Shijiazhuang city, one of the most polluted cities in China. The assessment on the current network identified the insufficient spatial coverage of SO2 and NO2 monitoring for the expanding city. The optimization results showed that significant improvements were achieved in multiple objectives by redistributing the original network. Efficient coverage of the resulting designs improved to 60.99% and 76.06% of the urban area for SO2 and NO2, respectively. The redistributing design for multi-pollutant including 8 sites was also proposed, with the spatial representation covered 52.30% of the urban area and the overlapped areas decreased by 85.87% compared with the original network. The abilities to detect violations of standards were not improved as much as the other two objectives due to the conflicting nature between the multiple objectives. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the algorithm was slightly sensitive to the parameter settings, with the number of generations presented the most significant effect. Overall, our study presents an effective and feasible procedure for air quality network optimization at a city scale.

  15. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  16. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 werd vanuit het LIFE project van de Europese Commissie DG XI het project 'Towards the development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe' gefinancierd. Het doel van dit project was het ontwikkelen en implementeren van een depositiemonitoring-methode voor

  17. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  18. Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.

  19. Analysis of 7Be behaviour in the air by using a multilayer perceptron neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samolov, A.; Dragović, S.; Daković, M.; Bačić, G.

    2014-01-01

    A multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of the 7 Be behaviour in the air as the function of meteorological parameters was developed. The model was optimized and tested using 7 Be activity concentrations obtained by standard gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air samples collected in Belgrade (Serbia) during 2009–2011 and meteorological data for the same period. Good correlation (r = 0.91) between experimental values of 7 Be activity concentrations and those predicted by ANN was obtained. The good performance of the model in prediction of 7 Be activity concentrations could provide basis for construction of models which would forecast behaviour of other airborne radionuclides. - Highlights: • Neural network analysis was used to predict airborne 7 Be activity using meteorological parameters as inputs. • Strong correlation between calculated and measured activities was found. • Obtained results can help in construction of a general model of 7 Be activity variation in air

  20. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  1. Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report provides a comprehensive look at the external environment impacting Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) (California). It summarizes the social, economic, and political changes at the state and national levels, in general, and in the Sacramento-Yolo Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) served by LRCCD, more…

  2. Effects of Bank Revetment on Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Harvey; Chester C. Watson

    1989-01-01

    Twelve low radius of curvature bends, half of which were rivetted, were studied in the Butte Basin reach of Sacramento River, California, to determine whether bank revetment deleteriously affected salmonid habitat. At low discharge (128.6 cubic meters/s) it was demonstrated that revetment does not cause channel narrowing or deepening, nor does it prevent re-entrainment...

  3. 77 FR 3664 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... performed on this proposal to various waterway user organizations including the Pacific Inter-Club Yacht Association, the Recreational Boaters of California, the Capital City Yacht Club, the Sacramento Yacht Club, River View Yacht Club and Hornblower Cruises. The Coast Guard policy regarding the promulgation of...

  4. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  5. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B; Ferraiolo, A; Solisio, C; Ruaro, R

    1996-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  6. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  7. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  8. Architecture for an integrated real-time air combat and sensor network simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Evans A.; Rushing, John; Lin, Hong; Graves, Sara

    2007-04-01

    An architecture for an integrated air combat and sensor network simulation is presented. The architecture integrates two components: a parallel real-time sensor fusion and target tracking simulation, and an air combat simulation. By integrating these two simulations, it becomes possible to experiment with scenarios in which one or both sides in a battle have very large numbers of primitive passive sensors, and to assess the likely effects of those sensors on the outcome of the battle. Modern Air Power is a real-time theater-level air combat simulation that is currently being used as a part of the USAF Air and Space Basic Course (ASBC). The simulation includes a variety of scenarios from the Vietnam war to the present day, and also includes several hypothetical future scenarios. Modern Air Power includes a scenario editor, an order of battle editor, and full AI customization features that make it possible to quickly construct scenarios for any conflict of interest. The scenario editor makes it possible to place a wide variety of sensors including both high fidelity sensors such as radars, and primitive passive sensors that provide only very limited information. The parallel real-time sensor network simulation is capable of handling very large numbers of sensors on a computing cluster of modest size. It can fuse information provided by disparate sensors to detect and track targets, and produce target tracks.

  9. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  10. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  11. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Cambridge Research Laboratories AFCS Air Force Communications Service AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFDL Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory...Sacramento Air Logistics Center SMAMA Sacramento Air Materiel Area SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill SPACERAD Space Radiation Effects SPADATS Space...a unique post-World War II phenomenon that had a lasting effect —addressed here to illustrate some of the subtleties of the earliest Cold War years

  12. Constructing a generalized network design model to study air distribution in ventilation networks in subway with a single-track tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugin, IV

    2018-03-01

    In focus are the features of construction of the generalized design model for the network method to study air distribution in ventilation system in subway with the single-track tunnel. The generalizations, assumptions and simplifications included in the model are specified. The air distribution is calculated with regard to the influence of topology and air resistances of the ventilation network sections. The author studies two variants of the subway line: half-open and closed with dead end on the both sides. It is found that the total air exchange at a subway station depends on the station location within the line. The operating mode of fans remains unaltered in this case. The article shows that elimination of air leakage in the station ventilation room allows an increase in the air flow rate by 7–8% at the same energy consumption by fans. The influence of the stop of a train in the tunnel on the air distribution is illustrated.

  13. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  14. Air fuel ratio detector corrector for combustion engines using adaptive neurofuzzy networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Arora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A perfect mix of the air and fuel in internal combustion engines is desirable for proper combustion of fuel with air. The vehicles running on road emit harmful gases due to improper combustion. This problem is severe in heavy vehicles like locomotive engines. To overcome this problem, generally an operator opens or closes the valve of fuel injection pump of locomotive engines to control amount of air going inside the combustion chamber, which requires constant monitoring. A model is proposed in this paper to alleviate combustion process. The method involves recording the time-varying flow of fuel components in combustion chamber. A Fuzzy Neural Network is trained for around 40 fuels to ascertain the required amount of air to form a standard mix to produce non-harmful gases and about 12 fuels are used for testing the network’s performance. The network then adaptively determines the additional/subtractive amount of air required for proper combustion. Mean square error calculation ensures the effectiveness of the network’s performance.

  15. Atmospheric transport of pesticides in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area, 1996-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michael S.; Baston, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Weekly composite, bulk air was sampled with respect to wind speed and direction from January 1996 through December 1997 in one urban and two agricultural locations in Sacramento County, California. The sampling sites were located along a north-south transect, the dominant directions of the prevailing winds. The samples were analyzed for a variety of current-use pesticides, including dormant orchard spray insecticides and rice herbicides. A variety of pesticides were detected throughout the year, predominantly chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and trifluralin. The data obtained during the winter and spring suggest that some pesticides used in agricultural areas become airborne and may be transported into the urban area. Confirmation of this drift is difficult, however, because these three predominant pesticides, as well as other detected pesticides, also are heavily used in the urban environment. The spring data clearly show that molinate and thiobencarb, two herbicides used only in rice production, do drift into the urban environment.

  16. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  17. INFLUENCE OF APPLYING ADDITIONAL FORCING FANS FOR THE AIR DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem SZLĄZAK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining progress in underground mines cause the ongoing movement of working areas. Consequently, it becomes neces-sary to adapt the ventilation network of a mine to direct airflow into newly-opened districts. For economic reasons, opening new fields is often achieved via underground workings. Length of primary intake and return routes increases and also increases the total resistance of a complex ventilation network. The development of a subsurface structure can make it necessary to change the air distribution in a ventilation network. Increasing airflow into newly-opened districts is necessary. In mines where extraction does not entail gas-related hazards, there is possibility of implementing a push-pull ventilation system in order to supplement airflows to newly developed mining fields. This is achieved by installing sub-surface fan stations with forcing fans at the bottom of downcast shaft. In push-pull systems with multiple main fans, it is vital to select forcing fans with characteristic curves matching those of the existing exhaust fans to prevent undesirable mutual interaction. In complex ventilation networks it is necessary to calculate distribution of airflow (especially in net-works with a large number of installed fans. In the article the influence of applying additional forcing fans for the air distribution in ventilation network for underground mine were considered. There are also analysed the extent of over-pressure caused by the additional forcing fan in branches of the ventilation network (the operating range of additional forcing fan. Possibilities of increasing airflow rate in working areas were conducted.

  18. A metric of influential spreading during contagion dynamics through the air transportation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nicolaides

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious diseases at the global scale is mediated by long-range human travel. Our ability to predict the impact of an outbreak on human health requires understanding the spatiotemporal signature of early-time spreading from a specific location. Here, we show that network topology, geography, traffic structure and individual mobility patterns are all essential for accurate predictions of disease spreading. Specifically, we study contagion dynamics through the air transportation network by means of a stochastic agent-tracking model that accounts for the spatial distribution of airports, detailed air traffic and the correlated nature of mobility patterns and waiting-time distributions of individual agents. From the simulation results and the empirical air-travel data, we formulate a metric of influential spreading--the geographic spreading centrality--which accounts for spatial organization and the hierarchical structure of the network traffic, and provides an accurate measure of the early-time spreading power of individual nodes.

  19. Wireless air monitoring network with new AMIZ-2004G dust monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Machaj, B.; Pienkos, P.; Swistowski, E.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of operation of the dust monitors is based on determination of dust mass deposited on air filters from known volumes of air samples. The dust mass is determined from radiation attenuation of a Pm-147 beta source. MIZA and AMIZ monitors produced in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland) additionally measure relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and temperature of the air. In case the measurements are made in a few different places, direct collection of the results requires that personnel of the environment protection units has to go frequently to the monitors and collect the data. To improve the data transmission, a new version of the AMIZ-2004G monitor was developed which is equipped with a GSM modem enabling communication with a central computer. Thanks to the new construction not only a remote wireless communication with AMIZ is possible, but also a monitoring network containing a higher number of dust monitors can be made. The measuring data from all the monitors in the network can now be collected in one central computer equipped with the GSM modem and a proper acquisition program. In 2005, two such monitoring networks were put into operation

  20. Long short-term memory neural network for air pollutant concentration predictions: Method development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Yao, Xiaojing; Cui, Shaolong; Hu, Yuan; You, Chengzeng; Chi, Tianhe

    2017-01-01

    Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance. Hourly PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) concentration data collected at 12 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing City from Jan/01/2014 to May/28/2016 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed LSTME model. Experiments were performed using the spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL) model, the time delay neural network (TDNN) model, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, the support vector regression (SVR) model, and the traditional LSTM NN model, and a comparison of the results demonstrated that the LSTME model is superior to the other statistics-based models. Additionally, the use of auxiliary data improved model performance. For the one-hour prediction tasks, the proposed model performed well and exhibited a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.93%. In addition, we conducted multiscale predictions over different time spans and achieved satisfactory performance, even for 13–24 h prediction tasks (MAPE = 31.47%). - Highlights: • Regional air pollutant concentration shows an obvious spatiotemporal correlation. • Our prediction model presents superior performance. • Climate data and metadata can significantly

  1. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharil Mad Saad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC, base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  2. Long short-term memory neural network for air pollutant concentration predictions: Method development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Yao, Xiaojing; Cui, Shaolong; Hu, Yuan; You, Chengzeng; Chi, Tianhe

    2017-12-01

    Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance. Hourly PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) concentration data collected at 12 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing City from Jan/01/2014 to May/28/2016 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed LSTME model. Experiments were performed using the spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL) model, the time delay neural network (TDNN) model, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, the support vector regression (SVR) model, and the traditional LSTM NN model, and a comparison of the results demonstrated that the LSTME model is superior to the other statistics-based models. Additionally, the use of auxiliary data improved model performance. For the one-hour prediction tasks, the proposed model performed well and exhibited a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.93%. In addition, we conducted multiscale predictions over different time spans and achieved satisfactory performance, even for 13-24 h prediction tasks (MAPE = 31.47%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  6. MILITARY BASE CLOSURES: Questions Concerning the Proposed Sale of Housing at Mather Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This report responds to your request that we review the proposed negotiated sale of 1,271 surplus family housing units at Mather Air Force Base, California, to the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency (SHRA...

  7. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  8. Seluge++: a secure over-the-air programming scheme in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Farzan; Abdur Razzaque, Mohammad; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2014-03-11

    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  9. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  10. Spatial and temporal trends from an air quality sensor network near a heavily trafficked intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P.; Vo, D.; Giossi, C.; George, L.

    2017-12-01

    With the world-wide increase in urbanization and the increasing usage of combustion vehicles in urban areas, traffic-related air pollution is a growing health hazard. However, there are limited studies that examine the spatial and temporal impacts of traffic-related pollutants within cities. In particular, there are few studies that look at traffic management and its potential for pollution mitigation. In a previous study we examined roadway pollution and traffic parameters with one roadway station instrumented with standard measurement instruments. With the advent of low-cost air pollution sensors, we have expanded our work by observing multiple sites within a neighborhood to understand spatial and temporal exposures. We have deployed a high-density sensor network around urban arterial corridors in SE Portland, Oregon. This network consisted of ten nodes measuring CO, NO, NO2 and O3, and ten nodes measuring CO, CO2, VOC and PM2.5. The co-location of standard measurement instruments provided insight towards the utility of our low-cost sensor network, as the different nodes varied in cost, and potentially in quality. We have identified near-real-time temporal trends and local-scale spatial patterns during the summer of 2017. Meteorological and traffic data were included to further characterize these patterns, exploring the potential for pollution mitigation.

  11. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  12. 77 FR 19690 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Department of Parks and Recreation, 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893... located in San Diego County, CA. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's...

  13. 77 FR 19689 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Department of Parks and Recreation, 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893... located in San Diego County, CA. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's...

  14. 77 FR 19687 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from ten sites located in northeastern San Diego County, CA. This...

  15. 77 FR 76451 - Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas. AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...-Agri West Sacramento, CA(916) 374-9700.. 1/1/2013 12/31/2015 Frankfort Frankfort, IN(765) 258-3624...

  16. 77 FR 15389 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from the Cole Creek site (CA-LAK-425), Lake County, CA. This notice...

  17. 75 FR 20598 - Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 188; 9-I-CA-1674] Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public... General Services Administration transferred 1253 acres of land identified as Prospect Island, Sacramento...

  18. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom and...

  19. Diel and seasonal movements by adult Sacramento pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) in the Eel River, northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - In late summer and fall, radio-tagged adult Sacramento pike-minnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) at three sites in the Eel River of northwestern California moved more at night than during the day. Fish moved up to 535 m at night and returned to their original positions the following morning. Adult Sacramento pikeminnow at all sites occupied only pools during the...

  20. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  1. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  2. Dynamic Sleep Scheduling on Air Pollution Levels Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gezaq Abror; Rusminto Tjatur Widodo; M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2018-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be applied for Air Pollution Level Monitoring System that have been determined by the Environmental Impact Management Agency which is  PM10, SO2, O3, NO2 and CO. In WSN, node system is constrained to a limited power supply, so that the node system has a lifetime. To doing lifetime maximization, power management scheme is required and sensor nodes should use energy efficiently. This paper proposes dynamic sleep scheduling using Time Category-Fuzzy Logic (Time-...

  3. Neural network modeling of air pollution in tunnels according to indirect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaverzneva, T; Lazovskaya, T; Tarkhov, D; Vasilyev, A

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of providing the necessary parameters of air of the working area in dead-end tunnels in the case of ventilation systems powered off. An ill-posed initialboundary problem for the diffusion equation is used as a mathematical model for a description and analysis of mass transfer processes in the tunnel. The neural network approach is applied to construct an approximate solution (regularization) of the identification problem in the case of the approximate measurement data and the set of interval parameters of the modeled system. Two types of model measurements included binary data are considered. The direct problem solution and the inverse problem regularization for the offered neural network approach are constructed uniformly. (paper)

  4. Circularly Polarized Antenna Array Fed by Air-Bridge Free CPW-Slotline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of 1×2 and 2×2 circularly polarized (CP microstrip patch antenna arrays is presented in this paper. The two CP antenna arrays are fed by sequentially rotated coplanar waveguide (CPW to slotline networks and are processed on 1 mm thick single-layer FR4 substrates. Both of the two arrays are low-profile and lightweight. An air-bridge free CPW-slotline power splitter is appropriately designed to form the feeding networks and realize the two CP antenna arrays. The mechanism of circular polarization in this design is explained. The simulated and measured impedance bandwidths as well as the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths and the radiation patterns of the two proposed antenna arrays are presented. This proposed design can be easily extended to form a larger plane array with good performance owing to its simple structure.

  5. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by

  6. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise and the Current Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, David M

    2017-10-02

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented.

  7. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  8. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  9. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.

  10. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m{sup 3}. The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  11. Biology, History, Status and Conservation of Sacramento Perch, Archoplites interruptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K Crain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the biology of Sacramento perch (Archoplites interruptus based mainly on recent studies of their distribution, ecology, physiology, and genetics. The Sacramento perch is the only member of the family Centrarchidae that is endemic to California. It is most closely related to the rock basses (Ambloplites spp. and is thought to have split from its eastern cousins during the Middle Miocene Period (15.5 to 5.2 million years ago, MYA. Their native range includes the Central Valley, Pajaro and Salinas rivers, tributaries to the San Francisco Estuary (e.g., Alameda Creek, and Clear Lake (Lake County. Today, they are most likely extirpated from all of their native range. They are known to persist in 28 waters outside their native range: 17 in California, nine in Nevada, and one each in Utah and Colorado. Disappearance from their native range coincided with massive changes to aquatic habitats in the Central Valley and with the introduction of alien species, including other centrarchids. Unfortunately, many populations established outside their native range have also disappeared and are continuing to do so.

  12. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F.; Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m 3 . The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  13. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  14. Coupling Network Computing Applications in Air-cooled Turbine Blades Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Yan, Peigang; Xie, Ming; Han, Wanjin

    2018-05-01

    Through establishing control parameters from blade outside to inside, the parametric design of air-cooled turbine blade based on airfoil has been implemented. On the basis of fast updating structure features and generating solid model, a complex cooling system has been created. Different flow units are modeled into a complex network topology with parallel and serial connection. Applying one-dimensional flow theory, programs have been composed to get pipeline network physical quantities along flow path, including flow rate, pressure, temperature and other parameters. These inner units parameters set as inner boundary conditions for external flow field calculation program HIT-3D by interpolation, thus to achieve full field thermal coupling simulation. Referring the studies in literatures to verify the effectiveness of pipeline network program and coupling algorithm. After that, on the basis of a modified design, and with the help of iSIGHT-FD, an optimization platform had been established. Through MIGA mechanism, the target of enhancing cooling efficiency has been reached, and the thermal stress has been effectively reduced. Research work in this paper has significance for rapid deploying the cooling structure design.

  15. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  16. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  17. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, P.; Artinano, B.

    2000-01-01

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  18. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  19. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2018-02-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network. (paper)

  1. Forecasting Urban Air Quality via a Back-Propagation Neural Network and a Selection Sample Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on a sample selection rule and a Back Propagation (BP neural network, a new model of forecasting daily SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentration in seven sites of Guangzhou was developed using data from January 2006 to April 2012. A meteorological similarity principle was applied in the development of the sample selection rule. The key meteorological factors influencing SO2, NO2, and PM10 daily concentrations as well as weight matrices and threshold matrices were determined. A basic model was then developed based on the improved BP neural network. Improving the basic model, identification of the factor variation consistency was added in the rule, and seven sets of sensitivity experiments in one of the seven sites were conducted to obtain the selected model. A comparison of the basic model from May 2011 to April 2012 in one site showed that the selected model for PM10 displayed better forecasting performance, with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE values decreasing by 4% and R2 values increasing from 0.53 to 0.68. Evaluations conducted at the six other sites revealed a similar performance. On the whole, the analysis showed that the models presented here could provide local authorities with reliable and precise predictions and alarms about air quality if used at an operational scale.

  2. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann D. Willis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ann D. Willis, Jay R. Lund, Edwin S. Townsley, and Beth A. Faberdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v9iss2art3Climate warming is likely to challenge many current conceptions and regulatory policies, particularly for water management. A warmer climate is likely to hinder flood operations in California’s Sacramento Valley by decreasing snowpack storage and increasing the rain fraction of major storms. This work examines how a warmer climate would change flood peaks and volumes for nine major historical floods entering Shasta, Oroville, and New Bullards Bar reservoirs, using current flood flow forecast models and current flood operating rules. Shasta and Oroville have dynamic flood operation curves that accommodate many climate-warming scenarios. New Bullards Bar’s more static operating rule performs poorly for these conditions. Revisiting flood operating rules is an important adaptation for climate warming.

  3. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... statewide economy. The SRWRS cost-sharing partners had identified their long-term needs for additional water... Sacramento were the cost-sharing partners. Reclamation published a notice of intent to prepare the EIS/EIR on...

  4. DOJ News Release: Local Contractor Pleads Guilty To Defrauding City Of Sacramento Of Stimulus Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    SACRAMENTO, Calif. — US Attorney Benjamin B. Wagner announced today that Peter Scott, President of Advantage Demolition and Engineering (ADE), 47, of Roseville, pleaded guilty today to two counts of submitting false contractor bonds.

  5. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  6. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  7. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  10. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  11. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  12. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (AT is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR. Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  13. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of the integrated water vapour (IWV and water vapour mixing ratio profiles provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS, Global Climate Observing System, Reference Upper-Air Network stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties on the IWV measured with radiosondes, global positioning system, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy with the IWV time series measured by radiosondes and therefore the highest potential to reduce the random uncertainty of the radiosondes time series. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument can be reduced by ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty is achieved by conditioning Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapour measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  14. Dynamic Sleep Scheduling on Air Pollution Levels Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezaq Abror

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN can be applied for Air Pollution Level Monitoring System that have been determined by the Environmental Impact Management Agency which is  PM10, SO2, O3, NO2 and CO. In WSN, node system is constrained to a limited power supply, so that the node system has a lifetime. To doing lifetime maximization, power management scheme is required and sensor nodes should use energy efficiently. This paper proposes dynamic sleep scheduling using Time Category-Fuzzy Logic (Time-Fuzzy Scheduling as a reference for calculating time interval for sleep and activated node system to support power management scheme. This research contributed in power management design to be applied to the WSN system to reduce energy expenditure. From the test result in real hardware node system, it can be seen that Time-Fuzzy Scheduling is better in terms of using the battery and it is better in terms of energy consumption too because it is more efficient 51.85% when it is compared with Fuzzy Scheduling, it is more efficient 68.81% when it is compared with Standard Scheduling and it is more efficient 85.03% when compared with No Scheduling.

  15. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  16. Equal Educational Opportunity in the Sacramento City Unified School District; A Report to the Board of Education, The Sacramento City Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento City Unified School District, CA. Citizens Advisory Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    A 1965 report presents the findings of a citizens committee on racial tension and school segregation in Sacramento, California. Discussed are defacto segregation and its causes and effects, equal educational opportunity, the neighborhood school concept, and intergroup relations. A series of recommendations for improvement are included. (NH)

  17. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  18. An Optimization of the Maintenance Assets Distribution Network in the Argentine Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Air Force (2010). Manual de Conduccion Logistica . Buenos Aires: HQ Argentine Air Force. Argentine Air Force (2012). El vuelo del condor: 1912-2012...recommendation was made to consider organic or private transportation and reduce transportation time in order to improve responsiveness and drive down...determine overall transportation demand and capacity required for a defined level of service, and to evaluate the tradeoffs between costs and service

  19. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Combining Community Engagement and Scientific Approaches in Next-Generation Monitor Siting: The Case of the Imperial County Community Air Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities. By engaging community residents in the project design, monitor siting processes, data dissemination, and other key activities, the resulting air monitoring network data are relevant, trusted, understandable, and used by community residents. Integration of spatial analysis and air monitoring best practices into the network development process ensures that the data are reliable and appropriate for use in research activities. This combined approach results in a community air monitoring network that is better able to inform community residents, support research activities, guide public policy, and improve public health. Here we detail the monitor siting process and outline the advantages and challenges of this approach.

  1. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  2. Indoor-air microbiome in an urban subway network: diversity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Wilkins, David; Li, Ellen K T; Kong, Fred K F; Lee, Patrick K H

    2014-11-01

    Subway systems are indispensable for urban societies, but microbiological characteristics of subway aerosols are relatively unknown. Previous studies investigating microbial compositions in subways employed methodologies that underestimated the diversity of microbial exposure for commuters, with little focus on factors governing subway air microbiology, which may have public health implications. Here, a culture-independent approach unraveling the bacterial diversity within the urban subway network in Hong Kong is presented. Aerosol samples from multiple subway lines and outdoor locations were collected. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V4 region, extensive taxonomic diversity was found, with the most common bacterial genera in the subway environment among those associated with skin. Overall, subway lines harbored different phylogenetic communities based on α- and β-diversity comparisons, and closer inspection suggests that each community within a line is dependent on architectural characteristics, nearby outdoor microbiomes, and connectedness with other lines. Microbial diversities and assemblages also varied depending on the day sampled, as well as the time of day, and changes in microbial communities between peak and nonpeak commuting hours were attributed largely to increases in skin-associated genera in peak samples. Microbial diversities within the subway were influenced by temperature and relative humidity, while carbon dioxide levels showed a positive correlation with abundances of commuter-associated genera. This Hong Kong data set and communities from previous studies conducted in the United States formed distinct community clusters, indicating that additional work is required to unravel the mechanisms that shape subway microbiomes around the globe. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary AGENCY... the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary) in California. EPA is... programs to address recent significant declines in multiple aquatic species in the Bay Delta Estuary. EPA...

  4. Simulation of tree shade impacts on residential energy use for space conditioning in Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. R.; McPherson, E. G.

    Tree shade reduces summer air conditioning demand and increases winter heating load by intercepting solar energy that would otherwise heat the shaded structure. We evaluate the magnitude of these effects here for 254 residential properties participating in a utility sponsored tree planting program in Sacramento, California. Tree and building characteristics and typical weather data are used to model hourly shading and energy used for space conditioning for each building for a period of one year. There were an average of 3.1 program trees per property which reduced annual and peak (8 h average from 1 to 9 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time) cooling energy use 153 kWh (7.1%) and 0.08 kW (2.3%) per tree, respectively. Annual heating load increased 0.85 GJ (0.80 MBtu, 1.9%) per tree. Changes in cooling load were smaller, but percentage changes larger, for newer buildings. Averaged over all homes, annual cooling savings of 15.25 per tree were reduced by a heating penalty of 5.25 per tree, for net savings of 10.00 per tree from shade. We estimate an annual cooling penalty of 2.80 per tree and heating savings of 6.80 per tree from reduced wind speed, for a net savings of 4.00 per tree, and total annual savings of 14.00 per tree (43.00 per property). Results are found to be consistent with previous simulations and the limited measurements available.

  5. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  6. Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the Sacramento River near Keswick Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals from the Iron Mountain Mines (IMM) Superfund site on the upper Sacramento River is examined using data from water and bed sediment samples collected during 1996-97. Relative to surrounding waters, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, thallium, zinc and the rare-earth elements (REE) were all present in high concentrations in effluent from Spring Creek Reservoir (SCR), which enters into the Sacramento River in the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir. SCR was constructed in part to regulate the flow of acidic, metal-rich waters draining the IMM Superfund site. Although virtually all of these metals exist in SCR in the dissolved form, upon entering Keswick Reservoir they at least partially converted via precipitation and/or adsorption to the particulate phase. In spite of this, few of the metals settled out; instead the vast majority was transported colloidally down the Sacramento River at least to Bend Bridge, 67. km from Keswick Dam.The geochemical influence of IMM on the upper Sacramento River was variable, chiefly dependent on the flow of Spring Creek. Although the average flow of the Sacramento River at Keswick Dam is 250m 3/s (cubic meters per second), even flows as low as 0.3m 3/s from Spring Creek were sufficient to account for more than 15% of the metals loading at Bend Bridge, and these proportions increased with increasing Spring Creek flow.The dissolved proportion of the total bioavailable load was dependent on the element but steadily decreased for all metals, from near 100% in Spring Creek to values (for some elements) of less than 1% at Bend Bridge; failure to account for the suspended sediment load in assessments of the effect of metals transport in the Sacramento River can result in estimates which are low by as much as a factor of 100. ?? 2012.

  7. Analysis of the Connectivity and Centralization of Regional Air Freight Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    economic efficiency. Pegrum char- acterized the CAB’s ratemaking policy as thirty years of in- decision. In surveys comparing regulated and unregulated b...cipants in the air freight system are basically the shippers, the surface carriers, and the air carriers. Air freight forwarders are "indirect carriers...aircraft characteristics which I will raise the break-even load factor are its shape and design density. Aircraft fuselages are basically cylindrical

  8. Potential assessment of a neural network model with PCA/RBF approach for forecasting pollutant trends in Mong Kok urban air, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-Z.; Wang, W.-J.; Wang, X.-K.; Yan, S.-H.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    The forecasting of air pollutant trends has received much attention in recent years. It is an important and popular topic in environmental science, as concerns have been raised about the health impacts caused by unacceptable ambient air pollutant levels. Of greatest concern are metropolitan cities like Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, respirable suspended particulates (RSP), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are major air pollutants due to the dominant usage of diesel fuel by commercial vehicles and buses. Hence, the study of the influence and the trends relating to these pollutants is extremely significant to the public health and the image of the city. The use of neural network techniques to predict trends relating to air pollutants is regarded as a reliable and cost-effective method for the task of prediction. The works reported here involve developing an improved neural network model that combines both the principal component analysis technique and the radial basis function network and forecasts pollutant tendencies based on a recorded database. Compared with general neural network models, the proposed model features a more simple network architecture, a faster training speed, and a more satisfactory prediction performance. The improved model was evaluated with hourly time series of RSP, NO x and NO 2 concentrations monitored at the Mong Kok Roadside Gaseous Monitory Station in Hong Kong during the year 2000 and proved to be effective. The model developed is a potential tool for forecasting air quality parameters and is superior to traditional neural network methods

  9. Comparison for air kerma from radiation protection gamma-ray beams with Brazilian network: 2016/2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Silva, C.N.M. da, E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, C.M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silveira, R.R. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Khoury, H.; Saito, V. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernandes, E. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas; Cardoso, W.F.; Oliveira, H.P.S. de [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (Eletronuclear), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, J.C.; Pires, M.A. [MRA Comércio de Instrumentos Eletrônicos Ltda, SP (Brazil); Amorim, A.S. de; Balthar, M. [Centro Tecnológico do Exercito (CTEx), RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for {sup 137}Cs and 0.7% for {sup 60}Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO / IEC 17025. (author)

  10. Comparison for Air Kerma from Radiation Protection Gamma-ray Beams with Brazilian Network - 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, TS; da Silva, CNM; Potiens, MPA; Soares, CMA; Silveira, RR; Khoury, H.; Saito, V.; Fernandes, E.; Cardoso, WF; de Oliveira, HPS; Pires, MA; de Amorim, AS; Balthar, M.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in 137Cs and 60Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for 137Cs and 0.7% for 60Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  11. Prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds using genetic algorithm and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoz, Elahe; Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed and trained for the prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds. The inputs of this neural network are theoretically derived descriptors that were chosen by genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) features selection techniques. These descriptors are: R maximal autocorrelation of lag 1 weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities (R1E+), electron density on the most negative atom in molecule (EDNA), maximum partial charge for C atom (MXPCC), surface weighted charge partial surface area (WNSA1), fractional charge partial surface area (FNSA2) and atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (PPSA3). The standard errors of training, test and validation sets for the ANN model are 0.095, 0.148 and 0.120, respectively. Result obtained showed that nonlinear model can simulate the relationship between structural descriptors and the partition coefficients of the molecules in data set accurately

  12. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of healthy infants 6-18 months of age in Sacramento, CA. Patients and Methods: This was a one-year, cross-sectional study among a convenience sample of healthy infants seen at routine “well child” or follow-up appointments at t...

  13. Revised Environmental Assessment for the Sacramento Area Office Western Area Power Administration, 1994 Power Marketing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This document presents information on power marketing; expiring contracts; economic methods and assumptions; detailed power supply cost data; guidelines and acceptance criteria for conservation and renewable energy projects; hourly flow impacts graphs; difference in hydro dispatch; generation data; flow data; fishery resources of the Sacramento River; and water quality

  14. Determinants of establishment survival for residential trees in Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests can provide ecosystem services that motivate tree planting campaigns, and tree survival is a key element of program success and projected benefits. We studied survival in a shade tree give-away program in Sacramento, CA, monitoring a cohort of young trees for five years on single-family residential properties. We used conditional inference trees to...

  15. Sacramento River, Chico Landing to Red Bluff, California Bank Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    i onwi de X X X X X X X (Turdus migratorius) Ruby-crowned kinglet Common-Nat i onwide X X X X X (Regulus calendula ) Water pipit Common-Nat i...City. In addition, State Point of Historical Interest, Glenn-011, Swifts Point, is located on the Sacramento River near Hamilton City and Glenn- Oil

  16. Local-scale invasion pathways and small founder numbers in introduced Sacramento pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus grandis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew P. Kinziger; Rodney J. Nakamoto; Bret C. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Given the general pattern of invasions with severe ecological consequences commonly resulting from multiple introductions of large numbers of individuals on the intercontinental scale, we explored an example of a highly successful, ecologically significant invader introduced over a short distance, possibly via minimal propagule pressure. The Sacramento pikeminnow (

  17. Dissolved pesticide concentrations entering the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, California, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; McWayne, Megan; Sanders, Corey; Hladik, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers where they enter the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for a suite of 99 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates. Samples were collected twice per month from May 2012 through July 2013 and from May 2012 through April 2013 at the Sacramento River at Freeport, and the San Joaquin River near Vernalis, respectively. Samples were analyzed by two separate laboratory methods by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 to 10.5 nanograms per liter (ng/L). A total of 37 pesticides and degradates were detected in water samples collected during the study (18 herbicides, 11 fungicides, 7 insecticides, and 1 synergist). The most frequently detected pesticides overall were the herbicide hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of the samples); 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), which is a degradate of the herbicides diuron and propanil; the fungicide azoxystrobin (83 percent); and the herbicides diuron (72 percent), simazine (66 percent), and metolachlor (64 percent). Insecticides were rarely detected during the study. Pesticide concentrations varied from below the method detection limits to 984 ng/L (hexazinone). Twenty seven pesticides and (or) degradates were detected in Sacramento River samples, and the average number of pesticides per sample was six. The most frequently detected compounds in these samples were hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of samples), 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), azoxystrobin (88 percent), diuron (56 percent), and simazine (50 percent). Pesticides with the highest detected maximum concentrations in Sacramento River samples included the herbicide clomazone (670 ng/L), azoxystrobin (368 ng/L), 3,4-dichloroaniline (364 ng/L), hexazinone (130 ng/L), and propanil (110 ng/L), and all but hexazinone are primarily associated with

  18. Improving Air Force Active Network Defense Systems through an Analysis of Intrusion Detection Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunklee, David R

    2007-01-01

    .... The research then presents four recommendations to improve DCC operations. These include: Transition or improve the current signature-based IDS systems to include the capability to query and visualize network flows to detect malicious traffic...

  19. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  20. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L

    2011-10-18

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODS: We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. RESULTS: Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. CONCLUSIONS: For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed.

  1. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  2. Calibration of low-cost gas sensors for an urban air quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; He, C.; Ghugare, P.; Lehman, A.; Benish, S.; Stratton, P.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zuidema, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    In a warming world, environmental pollution may be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as climate change and the urban heat island effect, as well as natural phenomena such as heat waves. However, monitoring air pollution at federal reference standards (approximately 1 part per billion or ppb for ambient ozone) is cost-prohibitive in heterogeneous urban areas as many expensive devices are required to fully capture a region's geo-spatial variability. Innovation in low-cost sensors provide a potential solution, yet technical challenges remain to overcome possible imprecision in the data. We present the calibrations of ozone and nitrous dioxide from a low-cost air quality monitoring device designed for the Baltimore Open Air Project. The sensors used in this study are commercially available thin film electrochemical sensors from SPEC Sensor, which are amperometric, meaning they generate current proportional to volumetric fraction of gas. The results of sensor calibrations in the laboratory and field are presented.

  3. Calibration of an air monitor prototype for a radiation surveillance network based on gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Caballero, J.M.; Corbacho, J.Á.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M.Á.; Vasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the improvements that have been made in quasi-real-time air radioactivity concentration monitors which were initially based on overall activity determinations, by incorporating gamma spectrometry into the current prototype. To this end it was necessary to develop a careful efficiency calibration procedure for both the particulate and the gaseous fractions of the air being sampled. The work also reports the values of the minimum detectable activity calculated for different isotopes and acquisition times. - Highlights: • Deficiencies of a commercial air monitoring system are detailed. • Gamma spectrometry introduction is the basis of the new prototype. • Efficiency calibration procedure is described for aerosol and gaseous fractions. • MDA is evaluated for different isotopes and acquisition times

  4. Sistem Pemantauan Kadar pH, Suhu dan Warna pada Air Sungai Melalui Web Berbasis Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sabiq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is a very important natural resource for human life and other living things. Water pollution, especially in river water, should be controlled because of the rapid development. One technology to monitor multiple physical quantities scattered in a region is the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. WSN technology has the ability to transmit data from sensor readings and forward data received from other nodes. In this study, prototype monitoring system of pH level, temperature, and color based on WSN that can be monitored through the developed web. The sensors at each node are connected to Arduino Uno as a processing unit, data read from the sensor is sent to the sync node via XBee wireless device. In the sink, the PC also serves as a database server and a web server is used. Test results with two different dispersion indicate that sensor readings can be read by all nodes and received by the sync node and can be displayed on web pages that have been built. Air merupakan sumber daya alam yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia dan mahluk hidup lainnya. Pencemaran air khususnya air sungai perlu dikendalikan seiring makin cepatnya pembangunan. Salah satu teknologi untuk melakukan pemantauan besaran fisik dalam wilayah yang tersebar adalah Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, yang memiliki kemampuan untuk mengirimkan data hasil pembacaan sensor serta meneruskan data yang diterima dari node lain. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan purwarupa sistem pemantauan kadar pH, suhu dan warna berbasis WSN yang dapat dipantau melalui web. Sensor pada setiap node dihubungkan ke Arduino Uno sebagai unit pemroses, data yang dibaca dari sensor dikirimkan ke node sink melalui perangkat XBee nirkabel. Pada sink digunakan PC yang berfungsi juga sebagai database server dan web server. Hasil dari pengujian dengan dua penyebaran yang berbeda didapatkan hasil bahwa pembacaan sensor dapat dibaca oleh seluruh node dan diterima oleh sink serta dapat ditampilkan melalui laman web yang

  5. IMT-2000 Satellite Standards with Applications to Mobile Air Traffic Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) standard and more specifically the Satellite component of it, is investigated as a potential alternative for communications to aircraft mobile users en-route and in terminal area. Its application to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs is considered. A summary of the specifications of IMT-2000 satellite standards are outlined. It is shown via a system research analysis that it is possible to support most air traffic communication needs via an IMT-2000 infrastructure. This technology can compliment existing, or future digital aeronautical communications technologies such as VDL2, VDL3, Mode S, and UAT.

  6. Optimization of an FPGA Trigger Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Detection of Neutrino-Induced Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz; Pytel, Krzysztof; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. Air showers initiated by protons and muon neutrinos at various altitudes, angles, and energies were simulated in CORSIKA and the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platforms, giving analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) patterns in Auger water Cherenkov detectors on the ground. The proton interaction cross section is high, so proton “old” showers start their development early in the atmosphere. In contrast to this, neutrinos can generate “young” showers deeply in the atmosphere relatively close to the detectors. Differences between “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers are visible in attenuation factors of ADC waveforms. For the separation of “old” proton and “young” neutrino ADC traces, many three-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) were tested. They were trained in MATLAB (in a dedicated way -only “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers as patterns) by simulated ADC traces according to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Unexpectedly, the recognition efficiency is found to be almost independent of the size of the networks. The ANN trigger based on a selected 8-6-1 network was tested in the Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7, the heart of prototype front-end boards developed for testing new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors.

  7. Wireless distributed environmental sensor networks for air pollution measurement-the promise and the current reality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Broday, D. M.; Arpaci, A.; Bartoňová, A.; Castell-Balaguer, N.; Cole-Hunter, T.; Dauge, F.R.; Fishbain, B.; Jones, R.L.; Galea, K.; Jovasevic-Stojanovic, M.; Kocman, D.; Martinez-Iniguez, T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Robinson, J.; Švecová, Vlasta; Thai, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2017), s. 2263 ISSN 1424-8220 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * in situ field calibration * micro sensing units Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  8. First results from the oil sands passive air monitoring network for polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Mihele, Cristian; Eng, Anita

    2015-03-03

    Results are reported from an ongoing passive air monitoring study for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed for consecutive 2-month periods from November 2010 to June 2012 at 17 sites. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, dibenzothiophene and its alkylated derivatives (DBTs). Relative to parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs and DBTs are enriched in bitumen and therefore considered to be petrogenic markers. Concentrations in air were in the range 0.03-210 ng/m(3), 0.15-230 ng/m(3) and 0.01-61 ng/m(3) for ∑PAHs, ∑alkylated PAHs and ΣDBTs, respectively. An exponential decline of the PAC concentrations in air with distance from mining areas and related petrogenic sources was observed. The most significant exponential declines were for the alkylated PAHs and DBTs and attributed to their association with mining-related emissions and near-source deposition, due to their lower volatility and greater association with depositing particles. Seasonal trends in concentrations in air for PACs were not observed for any of the compound classes. However, a forest fire episode during April to July 2011 resulted in greatly elevated PAH levels at all passive sampling locations. Alkylated PAHs and DBTs were not elevated during the forest fire period, supporting their association with petrogenic sources. Based on the results of this study, an "Athabasca PAC profile" is proposed as a potential source marker for the oil sands region. The profile is characterized by ∑PAHs/∑Alkylated PAHs = ∼0.2 and ∑PAHs/∑DBTs = ∼5.

  9. Artificial Neural Networks: A New Approach for Predicting Application Behavior. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Julie M. Byers; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    This paper examines how predictive modeling can be used to study application behavior. A relatively new technique, artificial neural networks (ANNs), was applied to help predict which students were likely to get into a large Research I university. Data were obtained from a university in Iowa. Two cohorts were used, each containing approximately…

  10. Pesticides in surface water measured at select sites in the Sacramento River basin, California, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides were measured in one urban stream, one agricultural stream, one site on the Sacramento River, and one large flood control channel over a period of 18 months during 1996-1998. All sites were located within the Sacramento River Basin of California. Measurements were made on 83 pesticides or pesticide transformation products by either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light spectrometry. Some pesticides were detected frequently at the agricultural stream and downstream in the Sacramento River and at the flood control channel of the Sacramento River. These were pesticides related to rice farming (molinate, carbofuran, thiobencarb, and bentazon); herbicides used both agriculturally or for roadside maintenance (diuron, simazine, and metolachlor); or insecticides used on orchards and row corps (diazinon and chlorpyrifos). No pesticide concen-trations above enforceable water quality criteria were measured at either the agricultural site or the Sacramento River sites. In contrast to the agricul-tural site, insecticides used for household, lawn, or garden maintenance were the most frequently detected pesticides at the urban site. Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, exceeded recom-mended criteria for the protection of aquatic life, and the diazinon levels were frequently above known toxic levels for certain zooplankton species at the urban site. Because of the low discharge of the urban stream, pesticide concentrations were greatly diluted upon mixing with Sacramento River water.

  11. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  12. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI. Summary report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-10

    This report provides a summary of the Air Force CALS Test Network (AFCTN) Test Report Transfer of Air Force Technical Procurement Bid Set Data to Small Businesses, Using CALS and EDI (AFCTN Test Report 94-034, UCRL-ID-118619). It represents a synthesis of the results, conclusions, and recommendations, as well as a more concise presentation of the issues and strategies as viewed from AFCTN`s perspective. This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s {open_quote}Blue Ribbon{close_quote} contractors, located throughout the United States. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote.

  13. Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-1997; Volume 2: Interpretation of metal loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Metals transport in the Sacramento River, northern California, from July 1996 to June 1997 was evaluated in terms of metal loads from samples of water and suspended colloids that were collected on up to six occasions at 13 sites in the Sacramento River Basin. Four of the sampling periods (July, September, and November 1996; and May-June 1997) took place during relatively low-flow conditions and two sampling periods (December 1996 and January 1997) took place during high-flow and flooding conditions, respectively. This study focused primarily on loads of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, with secondary emphasis on loads of aluminum, iron, and mercury.Trace metals in acid mine drainage from abandoned and inactive base-metal mines, in the East and West Shasta mining districts, enter the Sacramento River system in predominantly dissolved form into both Shasta Lake and Keswick Reservoir. The proportion of trace metals that was dissolved (as opposed to colloidal) in samples collected at Shasta and Keswick dams decreased in the order zinc ≈ cadmium > copper > lead. At four sampling sites on the Sacramento River--71, 256, 360, and 412 kilometers downstream of Keswick Dam--trace-metal loads were predominantly colloidal during both high- and low-flow conditions. The proportion of total cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc loads transported to San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta estuary (referred to as the Bay-Delta) that is associated with mineralized areas was estimated by dividing loads at Keswick Dam by loads 412 kilometers downstream at Freeport and the Yolo Bypass. During moderately high flows in December 1996, mineralization-related total (dissolved + colloidal) trace-metal loads to the Bay-Delta (as a percentage of total loads measured downstream) were cadmium, 87 percent; copper, 35 percent; lead, 10 percent; and zinc, 51 percent. During flood conditions in January 1997 loads were cadmium, 22 percent; copper, 11 percent; lead, 2 percent; and zinc, 15

  14. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Satus of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled ZoroufchiBenis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availabil­ity of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids according to their ability to represent the ambient concentra­tion. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network effi­ciency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  15. Assessment of an air pollution monitoring network to generate urban air pollution maps using Shannon information index, fuzzy overlay, and Dempster-Shafer theory, A case study: Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, Parham; Sheikhian, Hossein; Bigdeli, Behnaz

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution assessment is an imperative part of megacities planning and control. Hence, a new comprehensive approach for air pollution monitoring and assessment was introduced in this research. It comprises of three main sections: optimizing the existing air pollutant monitoring network, locating new stations to complete the coverage of the existing network, and finally, generating an air pollution map. In the first section, Shannon information index was used to find less informative stations to be candidate for removal. Then, a methodology was proposed to determine the areas which are not sufficiently covered by the current network. These areas are candidates for establishing new monitoring stations. The current air pollution monitoring network of Tehran was used as a case study, where the air pollution issue has been worsened due to the huge population, considerable commuters' absorption and topographic barriers. In this regard, O3, NO, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 were considered as the main pollutants of Tehran. Optimization step concluded that all the 16 active monitoring stations should be preserved. Analysis showed that about 35% of the Tehran's area is not properly covered by monitoring stations and about 30% of the area needs additional stations. The winter period in Tehran always faces the most severe air pollution in the year. Hence, to produce the air pollution map of Tehran, three-month of winter measurements of the mentioned pollutants, repeated for five years in the same period, were selected and extended to the entire area using the kriging method. Experts specified the contribution of each pollutant in overall air pollution. Experts' rankings aggregated by a fuzzy-overlay process. Resulted maps characterized the study area with crucial air pollution situation. According to the maps, more than 45% of the city area faced high pollution in the study period, while only less than 10% of the area showed low pollution. This situation confirms the need

  16. Thermal behavior studies in building using artificial neural network for non air conditioned terrace house in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainazlan Md Zain; Mohd Nasir Taib; Shahrizam Mohd Shah Baki

    2006-01-01

    Strategies to improve energy efficiency in buildings have continuously being improved and becoming more effective as new knowledge on the building behavior and technology continue to develop. Nevertheless, effort to explore for further improvement must continuously undertake to seek more energy efficient and cost effective systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is currently one of the most popular mechanisms to forecast any form of behavior and phenomena. Building thermal behavior can be studied and potential for energy utilization improvement without compromising thermal comfort can be explored using ANN. This paper explores the possibility of monitoring, predicting and forecasting the thermal behavior inside a building space and the optimization of building design. Typical result of experimental data and simulated data is presented. The sample house used adopted various thermal comfort strategies like cross ventilation and space air flow consideration

  17. Fabricating Ir/C Nanofiber Networks as Free-Standing Air Cathodes for Rechargeable Li-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xin-Gai; Xie, Zhaojun; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-07

    Li-CO 2 batteries are promising energy storage systems by utilizing CO 2 at the same time, though there are still some critical barriers before its practical applications such as high charging overpotential and poor cycling stability. In this work, iridium/carbon nanofibers (Ir/CNFs) are prepared via electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment, and are used as cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-CO 2 batteries. Benefitting from the unique porous network structure and the high activity of ultrasmall Ir nanoparticles, Ir/CNFs exhibit excellent CO 2 reduction and evolution activities. The Li-CO 2 batteries present extremely large discharge capacity, high coulombic efficiency, and long cycling life. Moreover, free-standing Ir/CNF films are used directly as air cathodes to assemble Li-CO 2 batteries, which show high energy density and ultralong operation time, demonstrating great potential for practical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    Full Text Available The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  19. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  20. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: Occurrence and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Roth, David A.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements—including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium—were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  1. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory H. Golet; David L. Brown; Melinda Carlson; Thomas Gardali; Adam Henderson; Karen D. Holl; Christine A. Howell; Marcel Holyoak; John W. Hunt; G. Mathias Kondolf; Eric W. Larsen; Ryan A. Luster; Charles McClain; Charles Nelson; Seth Paine

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to ch...

  2. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  3. A New Data Acquisition Portal for the Sacramento River Settlement Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlesky, P. E., C. A.; Williams, P. E., A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In 1964, the United States Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) executed settlement contracts with the Sacramento River Settlement Contractors (SRSC), entities which hold water rights along the Sacramento River with area of origin protection or that are senior to Reclamation's water rights for Shasta Reservoir. Shasta is the cornerstone of the federal Central Valley Project (CVP), one of the nation's largest multi-purpose water conservation programs. In order to optimize CVP operations for multiple beneficial uses including water supply, fisheries, water quality, and waterfowl habitat, the SRSC voluntarily agreed to adaptively manage diversions throughout the year in close coordination with Reclamation. MBK Engineers assists the SRSC throughout this process by collecting, organizing, compiling, and distributing diversion data to Reclamation and others involved in operational decisions related to Shasta Reservoir and the CVP. To improve and expand participation in diversions reporting, we have developed the SRSC Web Portal, which launches a data-entry dashboard for members of the SRSC to facilitate recording and transmittal of both predicted and observed monthly and daily flow diversion data. This cloud-hosted system leverages a combination of Javascript interactive visualization libraries with a database-backed Python web framework to present streamlined data-entry forms and valuable SRSC program summary illustrations. SRSC program totals, which can now be aggregated through queries to the web-app's database backend, are used by Reclamation, SRSC, fish agencies, and others to inform operational decisions. By submitting diversion schedules and tracking actual diversions through the portal, contractors will also be directly contributing to the development of a richer and more consistently-formatted historical record for demand hydrology in the Sacramento River Watershed; this may be useful in future water supply studies. Adoption of this technology will foster an

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Air Flowfield at Urban Environment: the Case of Road Network at the Historical Centre of Kifissia's Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical analysis of air flowfield at urban environments and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an urban environment (a road network) at Kifissia (a Municipality of north Athens), trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's users. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This simulation procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing urban environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  5. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, David E; Henshaw, Geoff S; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution. (paper)

  6. Strengthening the Network for Monitoring Air Quality in the Valle de Aburra with Passive Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata S, Carmen; Quijano, Ricardo; Vasquez Eliana

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made by the National University of Colombia in agreement with the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. The principal objective was to enforcing the monitoring of the quality of the air of the Aburra valley by means of the passive testers of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (BTX) and the rate of particle sedimentation in main road routes. Testers were settled in 15 Stations of the Metropolitan Area for a year. In gas measurement passive tubes of diffusion were used. Settle able particle measurement uses the principle of the gravity and the samples are analyzed by means of total solids. The results of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen do not exceed the Annual Colombian Norm, but in 12 stations of testing the value is surpassed guides of the WHO for nitrogen dioxide. The ozone levels show formation of this one polluting agent in the zones of slope. In 9 stations the Annual Colombian Norm for benzene is exceeded and all the stations the WHO Norm was not fulfilled. The greater rates of particle sedimentation are obtained in the sites of testing influenced by activities of construction and maintenance of ways. The use of passive measurers allows to identify critic zones and to evaluate of simple way the tendencies of atmospheric contamination. We suggest that in Colombia this technique for the measurement of the quality of the air is approved.

  7. 76 FR 43183 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... governments, or to the private sector, result from this action. E. Executive Order 13132, Federalism Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) revokes and replaces Executive Orders 12612 (Federalism) and 12875... regulatory policies that have federalism implications.'' ``Policies that have federalism implications'' is...

  8. 76 FR 61069 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... from organic chemical manufacturing, soil decontamination, and polyester resin operations. We are... Rule 464 (Organic Chemical Manufacturing Operations), VCAPCD Rule 74.29 (Soil Decontamination), and...

  9. 76 FR 61057 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... compound (VOC) emissions from organic chemical manufacturing, soil decontamination, and polyester resin... 74.29 Soil Decontamination Operations 04/08/08 01/10/10 PCAPCD 243 Polyester Resin Operations..... 04....29 establishes procedures for the treatment of soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel or jet...

  10. 76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from industrial, institutional and commercial boilers, stationary internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  11. 76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coatings and strippers used on wood products, wood paneling, and miscellaneous metal parts and products. We are approving these local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. 76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coatings and strippers used on wood products, wood paneling, and miscellaneous metal parts and products. We are proposing to approve three local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. The BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network: field calibration and evaluation of low-cost air quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsol; Shusterman, Alexis A.; Lieschke, Kaitlyn J.; Newman, Catherine; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2018-04-01

    The newest generation of air quality sensors is small, low cost, and easy to deploy. These sensors are an attractive option for developing dense observation networks in support of regulatory activities and scientific research. They are also of interest for use by individuals to characterize their home environment and for citizen science. However, these sensors are difficult to interpret. Although some have an approximately linear response to the target analyte, that response may vary with time, temperature, and/or humidity, and the cross-sensitivity to non-target analytes can be large enough to be confounding. Standard approaches to calibration that are sufficient to account for these variations require a quantity of equipment and labor that negates the attractiveness of the sensors' low cost. Here we describe a novel calibration strategy for a set of sensors, including CO, NO, NO2, and O3, that makes use of (1) multiple co-located sensors, (2) a priori knowledge about the chemistry of NO, NO2, and O3, (3) an estimate of mean emission factors for CO, and (4) the global background of CO. The strategy requires one or more well calibrated anchor points within the network domain, but it does not require direct calibration of any of the individual low-cost sensors. The procedure nonetheless accounts for temperature and drift, in both the sensitivity and zero offset. We demonstrate this calibration on a subset of the sensors comprising BEACO2N, a distributed network of approximately 50 sensor nodes, each measuring CO2, CO, NO, NO2, O3 and particulate matter at 10 s time resolution and approximately 2 km spacing within the San Francisco Bay Area.

  14. Pengembangan Wireless Sensor Network Berbasis Internet of Things untuk Sistem Pemantauan Kualitas Air dan Tanah Pertanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Syafiqoh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water and soil quality is very important in agriculture. The level of acidity (pH and soil temperature is one of the things that affect the fertility of plants. Therefore the quality of water and soil on agricultural land is one of the important things that need special attention in its management. One solution to water and soil quality can be monitored and managed efficiently is by utilizing the Wireless Sensor Network based on the Internet of Things (IoT. Use of ESP8266 Module as a WIFI module, widely used by Internet-based applications of Things because the price is cheap, thus reducing many costs and have a pretty good speed of 80 MHz. This research aims to develop the concept of Wireless Sensor Network by utilizing ESP8266 module to monitor pH value using pH Meter Analog Kit sensor and temperature of agricultural land using DS18B20 Waterproof sensor. The result of temperature measurement accuracy using DS18B20 Waterproof sensor of the designed system is 99.09% while the pH measurement using pH Meter Analog Kit sensor is 91.33%.

  15. Depot Maintenance Air Force Faces Challenges in Managing to 50-50 Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    2000-01-01

    ... that is being moved from the closing Sacramento, California, and San Antonio, Texas, depots to other military depots or private sector sources. As you requested, my testimony today focuses on the basis for the waiver and the likelihood that the Air Force will need additional waivers in the future.

  16. Ground-water quality in the southeastern Sacramento Valley aquifer, California, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 29 domestic wells and 2 monitoring wells in the southeastern Sacramento Valley as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This area, designated as the NAWQA Sacramento subunit study area, was chosen because it had the largest amount of ground-water use in the Sacramento River Basin. The Sacramento subunit study area is about 4,400 square kilometers and includes intense agricultural and urban development. The wells sampled ranged from 14.9 to 79.2 meters deep. Ground-water samples from 31 wells were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 14 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, organic carbon, 86 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds, tritium (hydrogen-3), radon-222, deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. Nitrate levels were lower than the 2000 drinking-water standards in all but one well, but many detections were in the range that indicated an effect by human activities on ground-water quality. Radon was detected in all wells, and was measured at levels above the proposed Federal 2000 maximum contaminant level in 90 percent of the wells. Five pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples and concentrations were below 2000 drinking-water standards. All pesticides detected during this study have been used in the Sacramento Valley. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water. One detection of trichloroethene was above Federal 2000 drinking-water standards, and another, tetrachloromethane, was above California 1997 drinking-water standards; both occurred in a well that had eight volatile organic compound detections and is near a known source of ground-water contamination. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected in agricultural and urban areas; both pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected at a higher frequency in urban wells. Ground-water chemistry indicates that natural

  17. Journal Article: Atmospheric Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Rural and Remote Locations of the U.S. for the Years 1998-2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine background air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cp-PCBs in rural and remote areas of the United States. Background is defined as average ambient air concentrations inferred from long-term a...

  18. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  19. Topologically protected one-way edge mode in networks of acoustic resonators with circulating air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Recent explorations of topology in physical systems have led to a new paradigm of condensed matters characterized by topologically protected states and phase transition, for example, topologically protected photonic crystals enabled by magneto-optical effects. However, in other wave systems such as acoustics, topological states cannot be simply reproduced due to the absence of similar magnetics-related sound–matter interactions in naturally available materials. Here, we propose an acoustic topological structure by creating an effective gauge magnetic field for sound using circularly flowing air in the designed acoustic ring resonators. The created gauge magnetic field breaks the time-reversal symmetry, and therefore topological properties can be designed to be nontrivial with non-zero Chern numbers and thus to enable a topological sonic crystal, in which the topologically protected acoustic edge-state transport is observed, featuring robust one-way propagation characteristics against a variety of topological defects and impurities. Our results open a new venue to non-magnetic topological structures and promise a unique approach to effective manipulation of acoustic interfacial transport at will. (paper)

  20. Intraregional links between the trends in air pollutants observed at the EANET network sites for 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent changes in economic development tendencies and environmental protection policies in the East Asian countries raise hopes for improvement of regional air quality in this vast region populated by more than 3 billion people. To recognize anticipated changes in atmospheric pollutants levels, deposition rates and impact on the environment, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) is regularly operating region-wide since 2000 in 13 countries. The network provides continuous monitoring data on the air quality and precipitation (including gas-phase and particulate chemistry) at 55 monitoring sites, including 20 remote and 14 rural sites. Observation of soil and inland water environments are performed at more than 30 monitoring sites [1]. In this study we focus on 1) the data quality assessment and preparation and 2) analysis of temporal trends of compositions observed at selected 26 non-urban EANET stations. Speciation includes gas-phase (SO2, HNO3, HCl, NH3) and particulate matter (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) abundances analysed in samples collected using filterpack technique with sampling duration/frequency of one-two weeks. Data quality assessment (distribution test and manual inspection) allowed us to remove/repair random and operator errors. Wrong sample timing was found for 0.37% (severe) and 34% (mild inconsistency) of the total of 7630 samples regarded. Erroneous data flagging (e.g. missing or below the detection limit) was repaired for 9.3%, respectively. Some 1.8% of severely affected data were corrected (where possible) or removed. Thus refined 15-year dataset is made available for the scientific community. For convenience, we also provide data in netCDF format (per station or in an assembly). Based on this refined dataset, we performed trend analysis using several statistical approaches including quantile regression which provides robust results against outliers and better understanding of trend

  1. A multi-objective assessment of an air quality monitoring network using environmental, economic, and social indicators and GIS-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators was created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMNs' objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the

  2. Commuter exposure to PM2.5, BC, and UFP in six common transport microenvironments in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Walter; Vijayan, Abhilash; Schulte, Nico; Herner, Jorn D.

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to estimate and compare the air pollution exposures experienced by commuters in six common transportation modes utilized by California residents, and to evaluate the impact of practical exposure mitigation strategies in reducing commute exposures. We measured concentrations of fine particle matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFP) for 161 commutes between April 2014 and November 2015 in Sacramento, CA. We collected measurements for six modes including single occupancy vehicles, high occupancy vehicles (multiple occupants), buses, light rail, train, and bicycling. The largest average concentrations for most pollutants were measured during train commutes and the lowest average concentrations were observed during light-rail commutes. Mitigation options were explored for personal vehicles, bicycling, and train commute modes. We found that ventilation settings of personal vehicles can reduce in-vehicle PM2.5, BC, and UFP concentrations by up to 75%. Similarly, bicycle route choice can reduce exposures by 15-75% with the lowest concentrations observed during commutes on dedicated bicycle paths away from traffic sources. Train commuters experienced UFP concentrations an order of magnitude greater when the locomotive engine was pulling the rail cars versus pushing the rail cars. We found that UFP concentrations during bus, bicycling, and train commutes were 1.6-5.3 times greater than personal vehicle commutes, while light rail commutes had 30% lower UFP concentrations than personal vehicle commutes. The largest exposure per mile occurred during bicycle commutes with PM2.5, BC, and UFP exposures of 1.312 μg/mile, 0.097 μg/mile, and 3.0 × 109 particles/mile, respectively. Train commutes experienced the largest exposure per mile of all of the combustion-derived transportation commute modes. BC accounted for 5-20% of total PM mass across all commute modes with an average fraction of ∼7% of PM2.5.

  3. Determining Water Quality Trends in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Watershed in the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynett, K.; Azimi-Gaylon, S.; Doidic, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh (Delta) is the largest estuary on the West Coast of the Americas and is a resource of local, State, and national significance. The Delta is simultaneously the most critical component of California's water supply, a primary focus of the state's ecological conservation measures, and a vital resource deeply imperiled by degraded water quality. Delta waterbodies are identified as impaired by salinity, excess nutrients, low dissolved oxygen, pathogens, pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the impacts of existing stressors in the Delta and magnify the challenges of managing this natural resource. A clear understanding of the current state of the watershed is needed to better inform scientists, decision makers, and the public about potential impacts from climate change. The Delta Watershed Initiative Network (Delta WIN) leverages the ecological benefits of healthy watersheds, and enhances, expands and creates opportunities for greater watershed health by coordinating with agencies, established programs, and local organizations. At this critical junction, Delta WIN is coordinating data integration and analysis to develop better understanding of the existing and emerging water quality concerns. As first steps, Delta WIN is integrating existing water quality data, analyzing trends, and monitoring to fill data gaps and to evaluate indicators of climate change impacts. Available data will be used for trend analysis; Delta WIN will continue to monitor where data is incomplete and new questions arise. Understanding how climate change conditions may affect water quality will be used to inform efforts to build resilience and maintain water quality levels which sustain aquatic life and human needs. Assessments of historical and new data will aid in recognition of potential climate change impacts and in initiating implementation of best management practices in collaboration with

  4. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  5. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  6. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  7. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  8. NORTH SOLDIERS IN SOUTHERN WARS: THE MILITARY RECRUITMENT IN BAHIA AND PERNAMBUCO TO THE COLONY OF THE SACRAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The North of the State of Brazil contributed to the creation and defense of Colonia do Sacramento. This article will address the military conscription in the Northern provinces, especially in Bahia and Pernambuco during the Eighteenth Century. We will give emphasis to the period of the siege from 1735 to 1737, when a large conscription was enforced in Portugal and in many Brazilian provinces in order to avoid the conquest of Sacramento by the Spaniards, as well as to strengthen Rio Grande de São Pedro, from which few men could return home.

  9. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  10. Design and application of air-conditioning suit based on eddy current cooling principle for distribution network working with power uninterrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Lanlan; Niu, Jie; Tang, Li; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Zhanfan; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Qi; Yi, Ziqi; Guo, Hao; Long, Yang; Fu, Yanyi

    2017-05-01

    As social requirement of power supply reliability keeps rising, distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been widely carried out, while the high - temperature operating environment in summer can easily lead to physical discomfort for the operators, and then lead to safety incidents. Aiming at above problem, air-conditioning suit for distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been putted forward in this paper, and the structure composition and cooling principle of which has been explained, and it has been ultimately put to on-site application. The results showed that, cooling effect of air-conditioning suits was remarkable, and improved the working environment for the operators effectively, which is of great significance to improve Chinese level of working with power uninterrupted, reduce the probability of accidents and enhance the reliability of power supply.

  11. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  12. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  13. [Yeast urinary tract infections. Multicentre study in 14 hospitals belonging to the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Relloso, Silvia; Garbasz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a frequent ailment in patients in intensive care units. Candida and other yeasts cause 5-12% of these infections. The value of the finding of any yeast is controversial, and there is no consensus about which parameters are adequate for differentiating urinary infections from colonization or contamination. To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of patients with funguria, to determine potential cut-off points in cultures (to distinguish an infection from other conditions), to identify the prevalent yeast species, and to determine the value of a second urine sample. A multicentre study was conducted in intensive care units of 14 hospitals in the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network. The first and second samples of urine from every patient were cultured. The presence of white cells and yeasts in direct examination, colony counts, and the identification of the isolated species, were evaluated. Yeasts grew in 12.2% of the samples. There was no statistical correlation between the number of white cells and the fungal colony-forming units. Eighty five percent of the patients had indwelling catheters. Funguria was not prevalent in women or in patients over the age of 65. Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis, were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata appeared less frequently. The same species were isolated in 70% of second samples, and in 23% of the cases the second culture was negative. It was not possible to determine a useful cut-off point for colony counts to help in the diagnosis of urinary infections. As in other publications, C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, were the most prevalent species. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silviculture for All Resources; Sacramento, CA; May 11-14, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Malespin Woolever; Mike Smith; Elizabeth McGraw; Mike Lanasa; Arthur C. Zack; Chris Reichert; Robert MacWhorter; Michael R. Lennartz; Richard A. Lancia; Marc G. Rounsaville; James R. Sedell; Fred H. Everest; David R. Gibbons; Stephen R. Shifley; Melinda Moeur; David A. Marquis; Richard O. Fitzgerald; Nelson Loftus; Thomas C. Turpin; William R. Terrill; Glenn L. Crouch; Wayne D. Shepperd; Edith W. Petrick; John J. Petrick; Roger W. Dennington; Allan W. Ashton; Hubertus J. Mittmann; Gary Thompson; Ken Sonksen; David A. Stark; Michael A. Ware; Allan J. West; Patrick D. Jackson; Richard L. Bassett; Jimmie D. Chew; William B. White; Bruce W. Morse; Mike Znerold; Russell T. Graham; Peyton W. Owston; Richard G. Miller; John R. Nesbitt; Gaston Porterie; Ernest Del Rio

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Sacramento, California, and the Eldorado National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss, review, and share information and experiences regarding how silviculture can serve as the tool to help accomplish the objectives of many resources.

  15. Delivering Economic Development in the Context of Financial Crisis: A Workforce Gap Analysis of the Sacramento Regional Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavian, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development represents a central priority in a comprehensive effort to create wealth, industry thickening, and broad-based prosperity. From the onset of the Great Recession in 2007, the Sacramento Region experienced anemic economic growth and remained behind the nation in job creation. Contextualized in the aftermath of the economic…

  16. Popular Music: A Selected Bibliography of Materials in the California State University, Sacramento Library. Bibliographic Series No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna Ridley, Comp.

    The bibliography lists over 400 works in the California State University Library, Sacramento, on pop, rock, country, folk, blues, and soul music from 1950 to the present. Books, periodicals, and non-book materials noted in the bibliography are appropriate for history, communication studies, and popular culture studies as well as for music. Items…

  17. Conflicts in River Management: A Conservationist's Perspective on Sacramento River Riparian Habitats—Impacts, Threats, Remedies, Opportunities, and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Spotts

    1989-01-01

    The Sacramento River's historic riparian habitats have been reduced by over 98 percent due to cumulative, adverse human activities. These activities continue to jeopardize the remaining riparian habitats. The results of these trends is more endangered species conflicts and listings, coupled with less fish, beautiful scenery, and other resource values. This paper...

  18. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  19. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  20. Development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks using regression trees for modeling air quality inside a public transportation bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Akhil; Kaur, Devinder; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The present study developed a novel approach to modeling indoor air quality (IAQ) of a public transportation bus by the development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks (also known as evolutionary neural networks) with input variables optimized from using the regression trees, referred as the GART approach. This study validated the applicability of the GART modeling approach in solving complex nonlinear systems by accurately predicting the monitored contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.3-0.4 microm sized particle numbers, 0.4-0.5 microm sized particle numbers, particulate matter (PM) concentrations less than 1.0 microm (PM10), and PM concentrations less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) inside a public transportation bus operating on 20% grade biodiesel in Toledo, OH. First, the important variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant were determined using regression trees. Second, the analysis of variance was used as a complimentary sensitivity analysis to the regression tree results to determine a subset of statistically significant variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant. Finally, the identified subsets of statistically significant variables were used as inputs to develop three artificial neural network (ANN) models. The models developed were regression tree-based back-propagation network (BPN-RT), regression tree-based radial basis function network (RBFN-RT), and GART models. Performance measures were used to validate the predictive capacity of the developed IAQ models. The results from this approach were compared with the results obtained from using a theoretical approach and a generalized practicable approach to modeling IAQ that included the consideration of additional independent variables when developing the aforementioned ANN models. The hybrid GART models were able to capture majority of the variance in the monitored in-bus contaminants. The genetic

  1. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  2. 2D-HB-Network at the air-water interface: A structural and dynamical characterization by means of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Simone; Serva, Alessandra; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Following our previous work where the existence of a special 2-Dimensional H-Bond (2D-HB)-Network was revealed at the air-water interface [S. Pezzotti et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 3133 (2017)], we provide here a full structural and dynamical characterization of this specific arrangement by means of both Density Functional Theory based and Force Field based molecular dynamics simulations. We show in particular that water at the interface with air reconstructs to maximize H-Bonds formed between interfacial molecules, which leads to the formation of an extended and non-interrupted 2-Dimensional H-Bond structure involving on average ˜90% of water molecules at the interface. We also show that the existence of such an extended structure, composed of H-Bonds all oriented parallel to the surface, constrains the reorientional dynamics of water that is hence slower at the interface than in the bulk. The structure and dynamics of the 2D-HB-Network provide new elements to possibly rationalize several specific properties of the air-water interface, such as water surface tension, anisotropic reorientation of interfacial water under an external field, and proton hopping.

  3. Sacramento Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF-FRAP compiled the 'best available' land cover data into a single data layer, to support the various analyses required for the 2002 Forest and Range Assessment....

  4. Data for four geologic test holes in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, C.F.; French, J.J.; Schaal, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The report provides geological and geophysical data for four of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project, which is part of the Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis. The holes were drilled with a rotary well drilling machine to depths of 900 feet in the southwestern part of the Sacramento Valley in Solano and Yolo Counties. Geologic data for each well include lithology, texture, color, character of the contact, sorting, rounding, and cementation, determined from cuttings, cores, and sidewall covers. Fifty cores, 3 feet long, were obtained from each hole, and from eight to fourteen sidewall cores were collected. Geophysical data include a dual-induction log, spherically focused log (SFL), compensated neutron-formation density log, gamma-ray log, and a caliper log. These data are presented in four tables and on four plates. (USGS)

  5. Audit Report on the Sacramento Army Depot Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office's "Audits of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office (Internal Review) issued an audit report, "Audit of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies," on July 20, 1990...

  6. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  7. Groundwater Pumping and Streamflow in the Yuba Basin, Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D. R.; Fogg, G. E.; Wallender, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water transfers during drought in California's Sacramento Valley can lead to increased groundwater pumping, and as yet unknown effects on stream baseflow. Two existing groundwater models of the greater Sacramento Valley together with localized, monitoring of groundwater level fluctuations adjacent to the Bear, Feather, and Yuba Rivers, indicate cause and effect relations between the pumping and streamflow. The models are the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and C2VSIM developed by Department of Water Resources. Using two models which have similar complexity and data but differing approaches to the agricultural water boundary condition illuminates both the water budget and its uncertainty. Water budget and flux data for localized areas can be obtained from the models allowing for parameters such as precipitation, irrigation recharge, and streamflow to be compared to pumping on different temporal scales. Continuous groundwater level measurements at nested, near-stream piezometers show seasonal variations in streamflow and groundwater levels as well as the timing and magnitude of recharge and pumping. Preliminary results indicate that during years with relatively wet conditions 65 - 70% of the surface recharge for the groundwater system comes from irrigation and precipitation and 30 - 35% comes from streamflow losses. The models further indicate that during years with relatively dry conditions, 55 - 60% of the surface recharge for the groundwater system comes from irrigation and precipitation while 40 - 45% comes from streamflow losses. The models irrigation water demand, surface-water and groundwater supply, and deep percolation are integrated producing values for irrigation pumping. Groundwater extractions during the growing season, approximately between April and October, increase by almost 200%. The effects of increased pumping seasonally are not readily evident in stream stage measurements. However, during dry time

  8. Evaluating the Aquatic Habitat Potential of Flooded Polders in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Durand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss4art4Large tracts of land in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta are subsided due to agricultural practices, creating polders up to 10 m below sea level that are vulnerable to flooding. As protective dikes breach, these become shallow, open water habitats that will not resemble any historical state. I investigated physical and biotic drivers of novel flooded polder habitat, using a Native Species Benefit Index (NSBI to predict the nature of future Delta ecosystems. Results suggest that flooded polders in the north Delta will have the ecology and fish community composition of a tidal river plain, those in the Cache-Lindsey Complex will have that of a tidal backwater, those in the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers a brackish estuary, and those in the south Delta a fresh water lake. Flooded east-side Delta polders will likely be a transitional zone between south Delta lake-like ecosystems and north Delta tidal river plains. I compared each regional zone with the limited available literature and data on local fish assemblies to find support for NSBI predictions. Because flood probabilities and repair prioritization analyses suggest that polders in the south Delta are most likely to flood and be abandoned, without extensive intervention, much of the Delta will become a freshwater lake ecosystem, dominated by alien species. Proactive management of flooded tracts will nearly always hedge risks, save money and offer more functional habitats in the future; however, without proper immediate incentives, it will be difficult to encourage strong management practices.

  9. Recent research on the hydrodynamics of the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and north San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Monismith, S.G.; Stacey, M.T.; Oltmann, R.N.; Lacy, J.R.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of recent findings from hydrodynamic research on circulation and mixing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) (Figure 1) and North San Francisco Bay (North Bay) (Figure 2). For the purposes of this article, North Bay includes San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay. The findings presented are those gained from field studies carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP), and Stanford University beginning about 1993. The premise behind these studies was that a basic understanding of circulation and mixing patterns in the Bay and Delta is an essential part of understanding how biota and water quality are affected by natural hydrologic variability, water appropriation, and development activities. Data collected for the field studies described in this article have significantly improved our understanding of Bay and Delta hydrodynamics. Measured flows ,in the Delta have provided valuable information on how water moves through the Delta's network of channels and how export pumping affects flows. Studies of the shallows and shallow-channel exchange processes conducted in Honker Bay have shown that the water residence time in Honker Bay is much shorter than previously reported (on the order of hours to several tidal cycles instead ofweeks). Suisun Bay studies have provided data on hydrodynamic transport and accumulation mechanisms that operate primarily in the channels. The Suisun Bay studies have caused us to revise our understanding of residual circulation in the channels of North Bay and of "entrapment" mechanisms in the low salinity zone. Finally, detailed tidal and residual (tidally averaged) time-scale studies of the mechanisms that control gravitational circulation in the estuary show that density-driven transport in the channels is governed by turbulence time-scale (seconds) interactions between the mean flow and stratification. The hydrodynamic research

  10. Annual report 1999 of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency; Jahresbericht 1999 aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, S.; Uhse, K. [comps.

    2000-12-01

    In this annual report the results of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) are presented for the year 1999. The network consists of 23 stations (9 stations with personnel and 14 automatically working container stations) which are situated in rural areas. As the data set was thoroughly quality controlled reliable statements on trends can be made. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Jahresbericht werden die Ergebnisse aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes fuer das Jahr 1999 vorgestellt, interpretiert und mit den Messungen aus frueheren Jahren verglichen. Das UBA-Messnetz besteht heute aus insgesamt 23 in laendlichen Regionen gelegenen Stationen, wovon 9 Messstellen personell besetzt und 14 automatisch arbeitende Containerstationen sind. Die Datensaetze sind in sich homogen, d.h. es wurden im Verlauf der Jahre keine gravierenden Veraenderungen an den Messbedingungen vorgenommen, weder bei der Probenahme noch bei der Analytik. Die Daten wurden einer eingehenden Qualitaetspruefung unterzogen, sowohl intern als auch bei internationalen Ringvergleichen der Analysenverfahren. (orig.)

  11. Hourly air pollution concentrations and their important predictors over Houston, Texas using deep neural networks: case study of DISCOVER-AQ time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Choi, Y.; Roy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality forecasting carried out by chemical transport models often show significant error. This study uses a deep-learning approach over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area to overcome this forecasting challenge, for the DISCOVER-AQ period (September 2013). Two approaches, deep neural network (DNN) using a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) were utilized. The proposed approaches analyzed input data by identifying features abstracted from its previous layer using a stepwise method. The approaches predicted hourly ozone and PM in September 2013 using several predictors of prior three days, including wind fields, temperature, relative humidity, cloud fraction, precipitation along with PM, ozone, and NOx concentrations. Model-measurement comparisons for available monitoring sites reported Indexes of Agreement (IOA) of around 0.95 for both DNN and RBM. A standard artificial neural network (ANN) (IOA=0.90) with similar architecture showed poorer performance than the deep networks, clearly demonstrating the superiority of the deep approaches. Additionally, each network (both deep and standard) performed significantly better than a previous CMAQ study, which showed an IOA of less than 0.80. The most influential input variables were identified using their associated weights, which represented the sensitivity of ozone to input parameters. The results indicate deep learning approaches can achieve more accurate ozone forecasting and identify the important input variables for ozone predictions in metropolitan areas.

  12. 76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  14. Spatial trends and impairment assessment of mercury in sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melwani, A.R.; Bezalel, S.N.; Hunt, J.A.; Grenier, J.L.; Ichikawa, G.; Heim, W.; Bonnema, A.; Foe, C.; Slotton, D.G.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted to examine mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. More than 4000 fish from 31 species were collected and analyzed for total mercury in individual muscle filets. Largemouth bass and striped bass were the most contaminated, averaging 0.40 μg/g, while redear sunfish, bluegill and rainbow trout exhibited the lowest (<0.15 μg/g) concentrations. Spatial variation in mercury was evaluated with an analysis of covariance model, which accounted for variability due to fish size and regional hydrology. Significant regional differences in mercury were apparent in size-standardized largemouth bass, with concentrations on the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers significantly higher than the central and western Delta. Significant prey-predator mercury correlations were also apparent, which may explain a significant proportion of the spatial variation in the watershed. - Regional differences in sport fish mercury were found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  15. Spatio-temporal modelling of atmospheric pollution based on observations provided by an air quality monitoring network at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the spatio-temporal modelling of air pollution at a regional scale using a set of statistical methods in order to treat the measurements of pollutant concentrations (NO 2 , O 3 ) provided by an air quality monitoring network (AIRPARIF). The main objective is the improvement of the pollutant fields mapping using either interpolation methods based on the spatial or spatio-temporal structure of the data (spatial or spatio-temporal kriging) or some algorithms taking into account the observations, in order to correct the concentrations simulated by a deterministic model (Ensemble Kalman Filter). The results show that nitrogen dioxide mapping based only on spatial interpolation (kriging) gives the best results, while the spatial repartition of the monitoring sites is good. For the ozone mapping it is the sequential data assimilation that leads us to a better reconstruction of the plume's form and position for the analyzed cases. Complementary to the pollutant mapping, another objective was to perform a local prediction of ozone concentrations on a 24-hour horizon; this task was performed using Artificial Neural Networks. The performance indices obtained using two types of neural architectures indicate a fair accuracy especially for the first 8 hours of prediction horizon. (author)

  16. Katrina's Lessons in California: Social and Political Trajectories of Flood Management in the Sacramento River Watershed since 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comby, E.; Le Lay, Y. F.; Piegay, H.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, major changes have occurred in the way that environments are managed. They can be linked with external or internal events which may shape public perception. An external event can reveal a forgotten risk and create a social problem (Hilgartner et Bosk 1988). Following the Advocacy Coalition Framework (Sabatier 1988), we studied the role of Hurricane Katrina in flood management in California from 2005 to 2013. How do policies intend to increase the city's resilience? We compared different flood policies of the Sacramento River from 2005 to 2013, by combining field observations with a principal dataset of 340 regional newspaper items (Sacramento Bee). Media coverage was analyzed using content, quotation, and textometry as well as GIS. We underlined temporal variability in public perceptions towards floods. Some planning choices (such as levees) became controversial, while journalists praised weirs, bypasses, and dams. However, Katrina does not seem to have a real impact on urban sprawl strategies in three Sacramento neighborhoods (Fig.1). We analyzed also the limits of the comparison between New Orleans and Sacramento. Dialog between stakeholders existed in space and time between here (California) and elsewhere (Louisiana), present (post-2005) and past (Katrina catastrophe), and risk and disaster. Katrina was a national scandal with political announcements. However, flood policy was developed first at a regional and then local scales. After Katrina awareness, conflicts appear: some California residents refuse to have a policy linked to Katrina applied to them. We underlined that different stakeholders became prominent: it may be useless to tackle with only one institution. Some institutions had an integrated river management, while others kept a traditional risk management. We assessed the changes in river management while using discourse to understand the (potential) shift in human-river relationships from risk management to integrated river

  17. Multi-year coupled biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of restoring drained agricultural peatlands to wetlands across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemes, K. S.; Eichelmann, E.; Chamberlain, S.; Knox, S. H.; Oikawa, P.; Sturtevant, C.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, delta ecosystems are critical for human livelihoods, but are at increasingly greater risk of degradation. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (`Delta') has been subsiding dramatically, losing close to 100 Tg of carbon since the mid 19th century due in large part to agriculture-induced oxidation of the peat soils through drainage and cultivation. Efforts to re-wet the peat soils through wetland restoration are attractive as climate mitigation activities. While flooded wetland systems have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon as photosynthesis outpaces aerobic respiration, the highly-reduced conditions can result in significant methane emissions. This study will utilize three years (2014-2016) of continuous, gap-filled, CO2 and CH4 flux data from a mesonetwork of seven eddy covariance towers in the Delta to compute GHG budgets for the restored wetlands and agricultural baseline sites measured. Along with biogeochemical impacts of wetland restoration, biophysical impacts such as changes in reflectance, energy partitioning, and surface roughness, can have significant local to regional impacts on air temperature and heat fluxes. We hypothesize that despite flooded wetlands reducing albedo, wetland land cover will cool the near-surface air temperature due to increased net radiation being preferentially partitioned into latent heat flux and rougher canopy conditions allowing for more turbulent mixing with the atmosphere. This study will investigate the seasonal and diurnal patterns of turbulent energy fluxes and the surface properties that drive them. With nascent policy mechanisms set to compensate landowners and farmers for low emission land use practices beyond reforestation, it is essential that policy mechanisms take into consideration how the biophysical impacts of land use change could drive local to regional-scale climatic perturbations, enhancing or attenuating the biogeochemical impacts.

  18. Changes in Rice Pesticide Use and Surface Water Concentrations in the Sacramento River Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides applied to rice fields in California are transported into the Sacramento River watershed by the release of rice field water. Despite monitoring and mitigation programs, concentrations of two rice pesticides, molinate and thiobencarb, continue to exceed the surface-water concentration performance goals established by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board. There have been major changes in pesticide use over the past decade, and the total amount of pesticides applied remains high. Molinate use has declined by nearly half, while thiobencarb use has more than doubled; carbofuran has been eliminated and partially replaced by the pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin. A study was conducted in 2002 and 2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine if the changes in pesticide use on rice resulted in corresponding changes in pesticide concentrations in surface waters. During the rice growing season (May-July), water samples, collected weekly at three sites in 2002 and two sites in 2003, were analyzed for pesticides using both solid-phase and liquid-liquid extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytes included lambda-cyhalothrin, molinate, thiobencarb, and two degradation products of molinate: 2-keto-molinate and 4-keto-molinate. Molinate, thiobencarb, and 4-keto-molinate were detected in all samples, 2-keto-molinate was detected in less than half of the samples, and lambda-cyhalothrin was not detected in any samples. At two of the sites sampled in 2002 (Colusa Basin Drain 1 and Sacramento Slough), concentrations of molinate were similar, but thiobencarb concentrations differed by a factor of five. Although concentrations cannot be estimated directly from application amounts in different watersheds, the ratio of molinate to thiobencarb concentrations can be compared with the ratio of molinate to thiobencarb use in the basins. The higher concentration ratio in the Sacramento Slough Basin, compared with the ratio

  19. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  20. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks; Evaluacion de la Contaminacion Atmosferica producida por Particulas en Suspension en las Redes de Calidad del Aire de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, P; Artinano, B

    2000-07-01

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physico-chemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 {mu}m are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the stablishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs.

  1. The contribution of rice agriculture to methylmercury in surface waters: A review of data from the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, K. Christy; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob; Tate, Kenneth W.; McCord, Stephen A.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative pollutant produced in and exported from flooded soils, including those used for rice (Oriza sativa L.) production. Using unfiltered aqueous MeHg data from MeHg monitoring programs in the Sacramento River watershed from 1996 to 2007, we assessed the MeHg contribution from rice systems to the Sacramento River. Using a mixed-effects regression analysis, we compared MeHg concentrations in agricultural drainage water from rice-dominated regions (AgDrain) to MeHg concentrations in the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, both upstream and downstream of AgDrain inputs. We also calculated MeHg loads from AgDrains and the Sacramento and Feather Rivers. Seasonally, MeHg concentrations were higher during November through May than during June through October, but the differences varied by location. Relative to upstream, November through May AgDrain least-squares mean MeHg concentration (0.18 ng L−1, range 0.15–0.23 ng L−1) was 2.3-fold higher, while June through October AgDrain mean concentration (0.097 ng L−1, range 0.6–1.6 ng L−1) was not significantly different from upstream. June through October AgDrain MeHg loads contributed 10.7 to 14.8% of the total Sacramento River MeHg load. Missing flow data prevented calculation of the percent contribution of AgDrains in November through May. At sites where calculation was possible, November through May loads made up 70 to 90% of the total annual load. Elevated flow and MeHg concentration in November through May both contribute to the majority of the AgDrain MeHg load occurring during this period. Methylmercury reduction efforts should target elevated November through May MeHg concentrations in AgDrains. However, our findings suggest that the contribution and environmental impact of rice is an order of magnitude lower than previous studies in the California Yolo Bypass.

  2. Network planning for scheduling operations in air cargo handling : a tool in medium term goods flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, M.A.A.P.; Tilanus, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the hub of a hub-and-spokes network for airfreight transportation, the main part of the incoming and outgoing goodsflow is in special loading units for airfreight. These loading units are metal pallets and containers up to eighteen cubic meters in size. The key part of operations in the hub is

  3. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  4. Sacramento Municipal Utility district's interim onsite storage building for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to meet current and anticipated needs for the low level radwaste management program at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District has a design and construction program underway which will provide an onsite interim storage facility that can be expanded in two and one-half year increments. The design approach utilized allows capital investment to be minimized and still provides radwaste management flexibility in anticipation of delays in resolution of the nationwide long term radwaste disposal situation. The facility provides storage and material accountability for all low level radwastes generated by the plant. Wastes are segregated by radioactivity level and are stored in two separate storage areas located within one facility. Lower activity wastes are stored in a lightly shielded structure and handled by lift trucks, while the higher activity wastes are stored in a highly shielded structure and handled remotely by manual bridge crane. The layout of the structure provides for economy of operation and minimizes personnel radiation exposure. Design philosophy and criteria, building layout and systems, estimated costs and construction schedule are discussed

  5. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  6. Factors influencing the biogeochemistry of sedimentary carbon and phosphorus in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, E.B.; Delaney, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study characterizes organic carbon (Corganic) and phosphorus (P) geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Sediment cores were collected from five sites on a sample transect from the edge of the San Francisco Bay eastward to the freshwater Consumnes River. The top 8 cm of each core were analyzed (in 1-cm intervals) for Corganic, four P fractions, and redox-sensitive trace metals (uranium and manganese). Sedimentary Corganic concentrations and Corganic:P ratios decreased, while reactive P concentrations increased moving inland in the Delta. The fraction of total P represented by organic P increased inland, while that of authigenic P was higher bayward than inland reflecting increased diagenetic alteration of organic matter toward the bayward end of the transect. The redox indicator metals are consistent with decreasing sedimentary suboxia inland. The distribution of P fractions and C:P ratios reflect the presence of relatively labile organic matter in upstream surface sediments. Sediment C and P geochemistry is influenced by site-specific particulate organic matter sources, the sorptive power of the sedimentary material present, physical forcing, and early diagenetic transformations presumably driven by Corganic oxidation. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  7. Characterization of subsurface stratigraphy along the lower American River floodplain using electrical resistivity, Sacramento, California, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, completed a geophysical survey using electrical resistivity along an approximately 6-mile reach of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, to map near-surface lithological variations. This survey is a part of a manifold and comprehensive study of river-flow dynamics and geologic boundary-property knowledge necessary to estimate scour potential and levee erosion risk. Data were acquired on the left (south or west) bank between river mile 5 and 10.7 as well as a short section on the right bank from river mile 5.4 to 6. Thirteen direct-current resistivity profiles and approximately 8.3 miles of capacitively coupled resisistivity data were acquired along accessible areas of the floodplain between the levee and river bank. Capacitively coupled resistivity was used as a reconnaissance tool, because it allowed for greater spatial coverage of data but with lower resolution and depth of investigation than the DC resistivity method. The study area contains Pleistocene-age alluvial deposits, dominated by gravels, sands, silts, and clays, that vary in both lateral extent and depth. Several generations of lithologic logs were used to help interpret resistivity variations observed in the resistivity models.

  8. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Empirical observations on the ground and examination of aerial color IR photographs indicate that in grassland terrain, the vegetation overlying sandstone tends to become less vigorous sooner in the late spring season than does the area overlain by an adjacent shale unit. The reverse relationship obtains in the fall. These relationships are thought to be a reflection of the relative porosity of each of the units and hence of their ability to retain or lose soil moisture. A comparison of the optically enlarged day and nite IR imagery of the Late Mesozoic interbedded sandstone and shale units along the western margin of the Sacramento Valley, California, taken at seasonally critical times of the year (late spring/early summer and late fall/early winter) reveals subtle seasonal variations of graytone which tend to support the empirical observations after consideration of Sun angle and azimuth, and the internal consistency of the data on each set of satellite imagery.

  9. Digital Mapping Techniques '10-Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, May 16-19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Soller, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '10 (DMT'10) workshop was attended by 110 technical experts from 40 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 19 State geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop, hosted by the California Geological Survey, May 16-19, 2010, in Sacramento, California, was similar in nature to the previous 13 meetings (see Appendix B). The meeting was coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Geologic Map Database project. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure that I note that the objective was again successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized (1) methods for creating and publishing map products ("publishing" includes Web-based release); (2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LiDAR; (3) digital cartographic techniques; (4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; (5) analytical GIS techniques; and (6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  10. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  11. Improving Aquatic Plant Management in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Potter, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records going are used to review results from previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Modeling at local and watershed scales provides insight into land-use effects on water quality. Plant growth models informed by remote sensing are being applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments, phenology, environmental regulations, and economics in selection of management practices. Initial utilization of remote sensing tools developed for mapping of aquatic invasive weeds improved operational efficiency by focusing limited chemical use to strategic areas with high plant-control impact and incorporating mechanical harvesting when chemical use is restricted. These assessment methods provide a comprehensive and quantitative view of aquatic invasive plants communities in the California Delta, both spatial and temporal, informed by ecological understanding with the objective of improving management and assessment effectiveness.

  12. Associations between water quality, Pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.

  13. Occurrence and Transport of Diazinon in the Sacramento River and Selected Tributaries, California, during Two Winter Storms, January?February 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Brown, David L.; Knifong, Donna L.; Saleh, Dina

    2003-01-01

    Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, is applied as an orchard dormant spray in the Sacramento Valley during the winter months when the area receives most of its annual rainfall. During winter rainstorms that frequently follow dormant spray applications, some of the applied pesticide is transported in storm runoff to the Sacramento River and its tributaries. Diazinon is also used to control insect pests on residential and commercial properties in urban areas and is frequently detected in urban storm runoff draining into the Sacramento River system. Between January 24 and February 14, 2001, diazinon concentrations and loads were measured in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries during two winter storms that occurred after dormant spray applications were made to orchards in the Sacramento Valley. Water samples were collected at 21 sites that represented agricultural and urban inputs on a variety of scales, from small tributaries and drains representing local land use to main-stem river sites representing regional effects. Concentrations of diazinon ranged from below laboratory reporting levels to 1,380 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with a median of 55 ng/L during the first monitored storm and 26 ng/L during the second. The highest concentrations were observed in small channels draining predominantly agricultural land. About 26,000 pounds of diazinon were reported applied to agricultural land in the study area just before and during the monitoring period. About 0.2 percent of the applied insecticide appeared to be transported to the lower Sacramento River during that period. The source of about one third of the total load measured in the lower Sacramento River appears to be in the portion of the drainage basin upstream of the city of Colusa. About 12 percent of the diazinon load in the lower Sacramento River was transported from the Feather River Basin, which drains much of the mountainous eastern portions of the Sacramento River Basin. Diazinon use in the

  14. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  15. Exploring the potential relationship between indoor air quality and the concentration of airborne culturable fungi: a combined experimental and neural network modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Cheng, Kewei; Li, Hao; Cao, Guoqing; Wu, Di; Shi, Yunjie

    2018-02-01

    Indoor airborne culturable fungi exposure has been closely linked to occupants' health. However, conventional measurement of indoor airborne fungal concentration is complicated and usually requires around one week for fungi incubation in laboratory. To provide an ultra-fast solution, here, for the first time, a knowledge-based machine learning model is developed with the inputs of indoor air quality data for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi. To construct a database for statistical analysis and model training, 249 data groups of air quality indicators (concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi, indoor/outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations, indoor temperature, indoor relative humidity, and indoor CO 2 concentration) were measured from 85 residential buildings of Baoding (China) during the period of 2016.11.15-2017.03.15. Our results show that artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer has good prediction performances, compared to a support vector machine (SVM). With the tolerance of ± 30%, the prediction accuracy of the ANN model with ten hidden nodes can at highest reach 83.33% in the testing set. Most importantly, we here provide a quick method for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne fungi that can be applied to real-time evaluation.

  16. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  17. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  18. A 3D Dynamic Lumped Parameter Thermal Network of Air-Cooled YASA Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Hussein Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To find the temperature rise for high power density yokeless and segmented armature (YASA axial flux permanent magnet synchronous (AFPMSM machines quickly and accurately, a 3D lumped parameter thermal model is developed and validated experimentally and by finite element (FE simulations on a 4 kW YASA machine. Additionally, to get insight in the thermal transient response of the machine, the model accounts for the thermal capacitance of different machine components. The model considers the stator, bearing, and windage losses, as well as eddy current losses in the magnets on the rotors. The new contribution of this work is that the thermal model takes cooling via air channels between the magnets on the rotor discs into account. The model is parametrized with respect to the permanent magnet (PM angle ratio, the PM thickness ratio, the air gap length, and the rotor speed. The effect of the channels is incorporated via convection equations based on many computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations. The model accuracy is validated at different values of parameters by FE simulations in both transient and steady state. The model takes less than 1 s to solve for the temperature distribution.

  19. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air

  20. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each

  1. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Measurements of CDDs, CDFs and Coplanar PCBs at 15 Rural and 6 National Park Areas of the U.S.: June 1998-December 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling st...

  2. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to help characterize the ubiquitous presence of dioxins in the environment. This final report represents the 2013 update to NDAMN.

  3. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs at 18 Rural, 8 National Parks, and 2 Suburban Areas of the U.S.: Results for the Year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United Stat...

  4. Journal Article: Average Method Blank Quantities of Dioxin-Like Congeners and Their Relationship to the Detection Limits of the U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs throughout the United States. Currently operating at 33 stations, NDAMN has, as one of its tasks, the dete...

  5. Observations of the temperature dependent response of ozone to NOx reductions in the Sacramento, CA urban plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranchi, B. W.; Goldstein, A. H.; Cohen, R. C.

    2011-07-01

    Observations of NOx in the Sacramento, CA region show that mixing ratios decreased by 30 % between 2001 and 2008. Here we use an observation-based method to quantify net ozone (O3) production rates in the outflow from the Sacramento metropolitan region and examine the O3 decrease resulting from reductions in NOx emissions. This observational method does not rely on assumptions about detailed chemistry of ozone production, rather it is an independent means to verify and test these assumptions. We use an instantaneous steady-state model as well as a detailed 1-D plume model to aid in interpretation of the ozone production inferred from observations. In agreement with the models, the observations show that early in the plume, the NOx dependence for Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) production is strongly coupled with temperature, suggesting that temperature-dependent biogenic VOC emissions and other temperature-related effects can drive Ox production between NOx-limited and NOx-suppressed regimes. As a result, NOx reductions were found to be most effective at higher temperatures over the 7 year period. We show that violations of the California 1-h O3 standard (90 ppb) in the region have been decreasing linearly with decreases in NOx (at a given temperature) and predict that reductions of NOx concentrations (and presumably emissions) by an additional 30 % (relative to 2007 levels) will eliminate violations of the state 1 h standard in the region. If current trends continue, a 30 % decrease in NOx is expected by 2012, and an end to violations of the 1 h standard in the Sacramento region appears to be imminent.

  6. Quantifying Activated Floodplains on a Lowland Regulated River: Its Application to Floodplain Restoration in the Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Williams

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a process and methodology for quantifying the extent of a type of historically prevalent, but now relatively rare, ecologically-valuable floodplains in the Sacramento lowland river system: frequently-activated floodplains. We define a specific metric the “Floodplain Activation Flow” (FAF, which is the smallest flood pulse event that initiates substantial beneficial ecological processes when associated with floodplain inundation. The “Activated Floodplain” connected to the river is then determined by comparison of FAF stage with floodplain topography. This provides a simple definition of floodplain that can be used as a planning, goal setting, monitoring, and design tool by resource managers since the FAF event is the smallest flood and corresponding floodplain area with ecological functionality—and is necessarily also inundated in larger flood events, providing additional ecological functions. For the Sacramento River we selected a FAF definition to be the river stage that occurs in two out of three years for at least seven days in the mid-March to mid-May period and "Activated Floodplains" to be those lands inundated at that stage. We analyzed Activated Floodplain area for four representative reaches along the lower Sacramento River and the Yolo Bypass using stream gauge data. Three of the most significant conclusions are described: (1 The area of active functional floodplain is likely to be less than commonly assumed based on extent of riparian vegetation; (2 Levee setbacks may not increase the extent of this type of ecologically-productive floodplain without either hydrologic or topographic changes; (3 Within the Yolo Bypass, controlled releases through the Fremont Weir could maximize the benefits associated with Activated Floodplain without major reservoir re-operation or grading. This approach identifies a significant opportunity to integrate floodplain restoration with flood management by establishing a FAF stage

  7. Education, bilingualism, and cognitive trajectories: Sacramento Area Latino Aging Study (SALSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Early, Dawnté R; Glymour, M Maria; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education, country where education occurred, and monolingual-bilingual (English/Spanish) language usage on late life cognitive trajectories in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), an epidemiological study of health and cognition in Hispanics, mostly of Mexican origin, age 60 and over (N = 1,499). SALSA followed a large cohort of older Latinos for up to 7 assessment waves from 1998 to 2007. Global cognition was assessed by using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination, and the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test was used to measure episodic memory. Education, country of origin, and language usage patterns were collected at the baseline assessment and used as predictors of longitudinal trajectories of cognition. Parallel process mixed effects models were used to examine effects of education and language variables on baseline cognition and rate of cognitive decline. Mixed effects longitudinal models showed that education had strong effects on baseline global cognition and verbal memory but was not related to decline over up to 9 years of longitudinal follow-up. Differences in education effects between subgroups educated in Mexico and in the United States were minor. Monolingual-bilingual language usage was not related to cognitive decline, and bilinguals did not significantly differ from monolingual English speakers on baseline cognitive scores. Hypotheses that higher education and bilingualism protect against late life cognitive decline were not supported and education effects on late-life cognitive trajectories did not substantially differ across U.S.- and Mexico-educated groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Historic, Recent, and Future Subsidence, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Deverel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To estimate and understand recent subsidence, we collected elevation and soils data on Bacon and Sherman islands in 2006 at locations of previous elevation measurements. Measured subsidence rates on Sherman Island from 1988 to 2006 averaged 1.23 cm/year (0.5 in/yr and ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 cm/year (0.3 to 0.7 in/year. Subsidence rates on Bacon Island from 1978 to 2006 averaged 2.2 cm/year (0.9 in/yr and ranged from 1.5 to 3.7 cm/year (0.6 to 1.5 in/yr. Changing land-management practices and decreasing soil organic matter content have resulted in decreasing subsidence rates. On Sherman Island, rates from 1988 to 2006 were about 35% of 1910 to 1988 rates. For Bacon Island, rates from 1978 to 2006 were about 40% less than the 1926-1958 rates. To help understand causes and estimate future subsidence, we developed a subsidence model, SUBCALC, that simulates oxidation and carbon losses, consolidation, wind erosion, and burning and changing soil organic matter content. SUBCALC results agreed well with measured land-surface elevation changes. We predicted elevation decreases from 2007 to 2050 will range from a few centimeters to over 1.3 m (4.3 ft. The largest elevation declines will occur in the central Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. From 2007 to 2050, the most probable estimated increase in volume below sea level is 349,956,000 million cubic meters (281,300 acre-feet. Consequences of this continuing subsidence include increased drainage loads of water quality constituents of concern, seepage onto islands, and decreased arability.

  9. Levee Vertical Land Motion Changes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T. L.; Knowles, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is home to numerous islands that provide economically and agriculturally important land. However, the island interiors are sinking and most sit below sea level, making the levee roads that surround the islands vital for their continued health and productivity. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data over the islands was collected in 2007 by the California Department of Water Resources and mobile LiDAR data was collected along the levee roads on Bacon, Bouldin, Jersey, and Brannan-Andrus Islands in 2015 and 2016 by the USGS. These datasets provide high resolution topographic models with 8 year separation that can be used to examine topographic change along the levees. A cross-section of each dataset was output along the approximate centerline of the levee road, so that profiles of the 2007 and 2015/2016 LiDAR observations could be compared. Regions of levee road subsidence and of levee road construction and reinforcement on the order of 0-3 centimeters per year were evident in locations around the islands. There is a high degree of spatial variability of these rates even for individual islands. These results were compared to the levee road maps published by the CA Delta Stewardship Council and it was found that the regions of reinforcement and subsidence did not always align between the published maps and the LiDAR data. Additionally, the levee road heights and rates of change, in regions of road subsidence, were compared to sea level rise projections to evaluate the risk that rising sea level may pose to the islands in the future.

  10. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Golet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to characterize the status of terrestrial and floodplain resources (e.g., flora and fauna, channel dynamics (e.g., planform, geomorphology, and the flow regime. Indicators were also associated with specific goal statements of the CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program. A collective weight of evidence approach was used to assess restoration success. Our synthesis demonstrates good progress in the restoration of riparian habitats, birds and other wildlife, but not in restoration of streamflows and geomorphic processes. For example, from 1999 to 2007, there was a > 600% increase in forest patch core size, and a 43% increase in the area of the river bordered by natural habitat > 500 m wide. Species richness of landbirds and beetles increased at restoration sites, as did detections of bats. However, degraded post-Shasta Dam streamflow conditions continued. Relative to pre-dam conditions, the average number of years that pass between flows that are sufficient to mobilize the bed, and those that are of sufficient magnitude to inundate the floodplain, increased by over 100%. Trends in geomorphic processes were strongly negative, with increases in the amount of bank hardened with riprap, and decreases in the area of floodplain reworked. Overall the channel simplified, becoming less sinuous with reduced overall channel length. Our progress assessment presents a compelling case for what needs to be done to further advance the ecological restoration of the river. The most

  11. Bathymetric survey and digital elevation model of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Alexander G.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Carlson, Emily M.

    2016-06-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey in Little Holland Tract, a flooded agricultural tract, in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the “Delta”) during the summer of 2015. The new bathymetric data were combined with existing data to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) at 1-meter resolution. Little Holland Tract (LHT) was historically diked off for agricultural uses and has been tidally inundated since an accidental levee breach in 1983. Shallow tidal regions such as LHT have the potential to improve habitat quality in the Delta. The DEM of LHT was developed to support ongoing studies of habitat quality in the area and to provide a baseline for evaluating future geomorphic change. The new data comprise 138,407 linear meters of real-time-kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) elevation data, including both bathymetric data collected from personal watercraft and topographic elevations collected on foot at low tide. A benchmark (LHT15_b1) was established for geodetic control of the survey. Data quality was evaluated both by comparing results among surveying platforms, which showed systematic offsets of 1.6 centimeters (cm) or less, and by error propagation, which yielded a mean vertical uncertainty of 6.7 cm. Based on the DEM and time-series measurements of water depth, the mean tidal prism of LHT was determined to be 2,826,000 cubic meters. The bathymetric data and DEM are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7RX9954. 

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  13. Characterizing Flow and Suspended Sediment Trends in the Sacramento River Basin, CA Using Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M. A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Wright, S. A.; Minear, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    A watershed model of the Sacramento River Basin, CA was developed to simulate streamflow and suspended sediment transport to the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for fifty years (1958-2008) using the Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF). To compensate for the large model domain and sparse data, rigorous meteorological development and characterization of hydraulic geometry were employed to spatially distribute climate and hydrologic processes in unmeasured locations. Parameterization techniques sought to include known spatial information for tributaries such as soil information and slope, and then parameters were scaled up or down during calibration to retain the spatial characteristics of the land surface in un-gaged areas. Accuracy was assessed by comparing model calibration to measured streamflow. Calibration and validation of the Sacramento River ranged from "good" to "very good" performance based upon a "goodness-of-fit" statistical guideline. Model calibration to measured sediment loads were underestimated on average by 39% for the Sacramento River, and model calibration to suspended sediment concentrations were underestimated on average by 22% for the Sacramento River. Sediment loads showed a slight decreasing trend from 1958-2008 and was significant (p < 0.0025) in the lower 50% of stream flows. Hypothetical climate change scenarios were developed using the Climate Assessment Tool (CAT). Several wet and dry scenarios coupled with temperature increases were imposed on the historical base conditions to evaluate sensitivity of streamflow and sediment on potential changes in climate. Wet scenarios showed an increase of 9.7 - 17.5% in streamflow, a 7.6 - 17.5% increase in runoff, and a 30 - 93% increase in sediment loads. The dry scenarios showed a roughly 5% decrease in flow and runoff, and a 16 - 18% decrease in sediment loads. The base hydrology was most sensitive to a temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius and an increase in storm intensity and

  14. Violence in social networks: an exploration of the online expressions of teens from marginalized areas of Greater Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las expresiones online de violencia ejercida o padecida por las y los adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indagan cuatro fenómenos específicos: las amenazas, los “bondis”, el cyberbullying y los duelos, para lo cual se realizaron veinte entrevistas en profundidad y 3.000 observaciones virtuales de perfiles de la red social Facebook entre 2013 y 2014. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que la mayoría de las expresiones de violencia se enmarcan en una dinámica offline-online. Asimismo, se ofrece evidencia empírica a partir de la cual es posible afirmar que las expresiones de violencia de estos adolescentes se despliegan en torno a la cultura del “aguante”. El artículo se pregunta si en la plataforma icónica del “me gusta” estas expresiones resultan implícitamente funcionales a la red social o si, por el contrario, permiten desplazamientos y reapropiaciones significativas de los usuarios. En definitiva, se abren nuevos interrogantes acerca de la utilización de estas herramientas por parte de adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados y se propone complejizar los enfoques en torno a estos fenómenos.

  15. Imputation of spatial air quality data using gis-spline and the index of agreement in sparse urban monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Antonio Londoño-Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un procedimiento para abordar la falta de datos espacialesde calidad del aire en zonas urbanas, con base en el uso de Sistemas de InformaciónGeográfi ca (SIG y las técnicas de interpolación espacial como una alternativa a los métodosconvencionales de imputación estadística. Se comparan dos algoritmos de interpolaciónespacial: IDW y spline. El procedimiento considera el proceso de interpolación espacial, lavalidación cruzada con el índice de (IOA, y el análisis de la densidad de muestreo y delcoefi ciente de variación utilizando diferentes estadísticos de error. Los mapas de interpolaciónse complementan con los mapas de gradiente y de gradiente direccional que pueden servircomo complementos en la defi nición de puntos de muestreo críticos. El procedimiento seaplica a la imputación de datos de tres contaminantes: NO2, PM10 (partículas de 10 micrasde diámetro y SST (sólidos suspendidos totales a partir de muestras de datos observadosen la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia.

  16. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  17. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  18. Tuning the light in senior care: Evaluating a trial LED lighting system at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Samla, Connie; Bisbee, Dave

    2016-08-31

    This report summarizes the results from a trial installation of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems in several spaces within the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) coordinated the project and invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to document the performance of the LED lighting systems as part of a GATEWAY evaluation. DOE tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct the investigation. SMUD and ACC staff coordinated and completed the design and installation of the LED systems, while PNNL and SMUD staff evaluated the photometric performance of the systems. ACC staff also track behavioral and health measures of the residents; some of those results are reported here, although PNNL staff were not directly involved in collecting or interpreting those data. The trial installation took place in a double resident room and a single resident room, and the corridor that connects those (and other) rooms to the central nurse station. Other spaces in the trial included the nurse station, a common room called the family room located near the nurse station, and the ACC administrator’s private office.

  19. Erratum dated 2014 June 25: Fate and Transport of Three Pharmaceuticals in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minta M. Schaefer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are found in surface waters worldwide. Wastewater treatment plant effluent is a major source of these contaminants. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta is a unique aquatic ecosystem, a source of drinking water for over 25 million Californians, and a primary source of water for Central Valley agriculture. The sharp decline of four pelagic fish species in the Delta in the last decade is just one of several indicators that the ecosystem is severely impaired. Several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs discharge into the Delta, directly or through tributaries. The presence of PPCPs in the Delta has received very little attention relative to the immense effort underway to rehabilitate the ecosystem. This study determined concentrations of PPCPs in the Sacramento River in the vicinity of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant using passive sampler monitoring. These data were used to estimate loads of three of the detected pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and trimethoprim from nine other WWTPs that discharge to the Delta. The 2-D, finite element, Resource Management Associates (RMA Delta Model was then applied to determine the distribution that might result from these discharges. The model was run for the 2006, 2007, and 2009 water years. Results indicate that it is feasible that WWTP discharges could result in chronic presence of these pharmaceuticals at low ng L-1 levels at all 45 model output locations and, therefore, aquatic organisms within the Delta may be continually exposed to these contaminants.

  20. Ontogenetic behavior and dispersal of Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, with a note on body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the laboratory to develop a conceptual model of ontogenetic behavior and provide insight into probable behavior of wild sturgeon. After hatching, free embryos initiated a low intensity, brief downstream dispersal during which fish swam near the bottom and were photonegative. The weak, short dispersal style and behavior of white sturgeon free embryos contrasts greatly with the intense, long dispersal style and behavior (photopositive and swimming far above the bottom) of dispersing free embryos of other sturgeon species. If spawned eggs are concentrated within a few kilometers downstream of a spawning site, the adaptive significance of the free embryo dispersal is likely to move fish away from the egg deposition site to avoid predation and reduce fish density prior to feeding. Larvae foraged on the open bottom, swam innate fish dispersal and post-dispersal rearing habitat, which is now highly altered by damming and reservoirs. Sacramento River white sturgeon has a two-step downstream dispersal by the free embryo and juvenile life intervals. Diel activity of all life intervals peaked at night, whether fish were dispersing or foraging. Nocturnal behavior is likely a response to predation, which occurs during both activities. An intense black-tail body color was present on foraging larvae, but was weak or absent on the two life intervals that disperse. Black-tail color may be an adaptation for avoiding predation, signaling among aggregated larvae, or both, but not for dispersal. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  2. Insights into controls on hexavalent chromium in groundwater provided by environmental tracers, Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental tracers are useful for determining groundwater age and recharge source, yet their application in studies of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater has been limited. Environmental tracer data from 166 wells located in the Sacramento Valley, northern California, were interpreted and compared to Cr concentrations to determine the origin and age of groundwater with elevated Cr(VI), and better understand where Cr(VI) becomes mobilized and how it evolves along flowpaths. In addition to major ion and trace element concentrations, the dataset includes δ18O, δ2H, 3H concentration, 14C activity (of dissolved inorganic C), δ13C, 3He/4He ratio, and noble gas concentrations (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) were computed, and age-related tracers were interpreted in combination to constrain the age distribution in samples and sort them into six different age categories spanning from 10,000 yr old. Nearly all measured Cr is in the form of Cr(IV). Concentrations range from 3 mg L−1), and commonly have δ18O values enriched relative to local precipitation. These samples likely contain irrigation water and are elevated due to accelerated mobilization of Cr(VI) in the unsaturated zone (UZ) in irrigated areas. Group 2 samples are from throughout the valley and typically contain water 1000–10,000 yr old, have δ18O values consistent with local precipitation, and have unexpectedly warm NGTs. Chromium(VI) concentrations in Group 2 samples may be elevated for multiple reasons, but the hypothesis most consistent with all available data (notably, the warm NGTs) is a relatively long UZ residence time due to recharge through a deep UZ near the margin of the basin. A possible explanation for why Cr(VI) may be primarily mobilized in the UZ rather than farther along flowpaths in the oxic portion of the saturated zone is more dynamic cycling of Mn in the UZ due to transient moisture and redox conditions.

  3. Levee Seepage Detection in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using Polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's extensive levee system protects over 2,800 km2 of reclaimed lands and serves as the main irrigation and domestic water supply for the state of California. However, ongoing subsidence and disaster threats from floods and earthquakes make the Delta levee system highly vulnerable, endangering water supplies for 23 million California residents and 2.5 million acres of agricultural land. Levee failure in the Delta can cause saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay, reducing water quality and curtailing water exports to residents, commercial users, and farmers. To protect the Delta levee system, it is essential to search for signs of seepage in which water is piping through or beneath levees, which can be associated with deformation of the levees themselves. Until now, in-situ monitoring has largely been applied, however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. We use data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) airborne radar instrument to identify and characterize levee seepages and associated land subsidence through advanced remote sensing technologies. The high spatial resolution of UAVSAR can help to direct surveys to areas that are likely to be experiencing damage. UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and spatial resolution of 7x7 m2 (for multi-looked products) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining polarimetric radar imagery with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating seepage features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential

  4. Proceedings IEEE Visualization Conference and IEEE Information Visualization Conference (VIS'07 and INFOVIS'07, Sacramento CA, USA, October 28-November 1, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.; Hansen, C.; North, C.; Pang, A.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2007-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the IEEE Visualization Conference 2007 (Vis 2007) and the IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2007 (InfoVis 2007) held during October 28 to November 1, 2007 in Sacramento, California. The power of using computing technology to create useful, effective imagery for

  5. High School Graduate Participation Rates: Proportions of Sacramento Area High School Graduates Enrolled in Los Rios Community College District, Fall 1998-Fall 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report profiles the enrollment patterns of recent high school graduates of the Greater Sacramento Metropolitan Area who attend Los Rios colleges (California). This summary and the full data report provide the District and its colleges with research information on rates of participation by students who graduated from Los Rios Community College…

  6. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Tuning the Light in Senior Care: Evaluating a Trial LED Lighting System at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Samla, Connie [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bisbee, Dave [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The GATEWAY program documented the performance of tunable-white LED lighting systems installed in several spaces within the ACC Care Center, a senior-care facility in Sacramento, CA. The project results included energy savings and improved lighting quality, as well as other possible health-related benefits that may have been attributable, at least in part, to the lighting changes.

  7. Modeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2017-12-01

    The static energy content of the atmosphere is increasing on a global scale, but exhibits important subglobal and subregional scales of variability and is a useful parameter for integrating the net effect of changes in the partitioning of energy at the surface and for improving understanding of the causes of so-called warming holes (i.e., locations with decreasing daily maximum air temperatures (T) or increasing trends of lower magnitude than the global mean). Further, measures of the static energy content (herein the equivalent potential temperature, θe) are more strongly linked to excess human mortality and morbidity than air temperature alone, and have great relevance in understanding causes of past heat-related excess mortality and making projections of possible future events that are likely to be associated with negative human health and economic consequences. New nonlinear statistical models for summertime daily maximum and minimum θe are developed and used to advance understanding of drivers of historical change and variability over the eastern USA. The predictor variables are an index of the daily global mean temperature, daily indices of the synoptic-scale meteorology derived from T and specific humidity (Q) at 850 and 500 hPa geopotential heights (Z), and spatiotemporally averaged soil moisture (text">SM). text">SM is particularly important in determining the magnitude of θe over regions that have previously been identified as exhibiting warming holes, confirming the key importance of text">SM in dictating the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat and dictating trends in near-surface T and θe. Consistent with our a priori expectations, models built using artificial neural networks (ANNs) out-perform linear models that do not permit interaction of the predictor variables (global T, synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and text">SM). This is particularly marked in regions with high variability in minimum and maximum θe, where

  8. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  9. Chemical and Physical Properties of Individual Aerosol Particles Characterized in Sacramento, CA during CARES Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Beranek, J.; Vaden, T.; Imre, D. G.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present results of measurements conducted by our Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, SPLAT II, in Sacramento, CA over the month of June 2010. SPLAT II measured the size of 195 million particles, and compositions of 10 million particles. In addition to size and composition, SPLAT II simultaneously measured size, density and composition of 121,000 individual particles. These measurements were conducted 2 - 3 times per day, depending on conditions. The data show that throughout the day particles were relatively small (<200 nm), and the vast majority were composed of oxygenated organics mixed with various amounts of sulfate. In addition, we characterized fresh and processed soot, biomass burning aerosol, organic amines, fresh and processed sea salt, and few dust particles. The data show a reproducible diurnal pattern in aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and compositions. Early in the day, number concentrations were low, particles were very small, and the size distributions peaked at ~70 nm. At this time of the day, 80 nm particles had a density of 1.3 g cm-3; while the density of 200 nm particles was 1.6 g cm-3, consistent with our mass spectra showing that smaller particles were composed of organics mixed with ~10% sulfates, while larger particles were composed mostly of sulfate mixed with a small amount of organics. Later in the day, secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation led to a number of nucleation events that significantly increased the number concentrations of very small particles. By mid-afternoon, as more SOA formed and condensed, particles increased in size the number concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm increased and the densities of particles 80 to 200 nm particles was ~1.3 g cm-3. The vast majority of these particles were composed of oxygenated organics mixed with a ~10% sulfate. In other words they were SOA particles mixed with a small amount of sulfate. The mass spectra of these particles shows that there were two types of

  10. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  11. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  12. A conceptual model for site-level ecology of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Scherer, Rick D.; Patterson, Laura C.

    2015-08-14

    Giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) comprise a species of semi-aquatic snakes precinctive to marshes in the Central Valley of California (Hansen and Brode, 1980; Rossman and others, 1996). Because more than 90 percent of their historical wetland habitat has been converted to other uses (Frayer and others, 1989; Garone, 2007), giant gartersnakes have been listed as threatened by the State of California (California Department of Fish and Game Commission , 1971) and the United States (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). Giant gartersnakes currently occur in a highly modified landscape, with most extant populations occurring in the rice - growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, especially near areas that historically were tule marsh habitat (Halstead and others, 2010, 2014).

  13. Occurrence and transport of diazinon in the Sacramento River, California, and selected tributaries during three winter storms, January-February 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Bennett, Kevin P.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    The organophosphate pesticide diazinon is applied as a dormant orchard spray in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winter when the area receives a majority of its annual rainfall. Dormant spray pesticides, thus, have the potential to wash off the areas of application and migrate with storm runoff to streams in the Sacramento River Basin. Previous monitoring studies have shown that rain and associated runoff from winter storms plays an important role in the transport of diazinon from point of application to the Sacramento River and tributaries. Between January 30 and February 25, 2000, diazinon concentrations in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries were monitored on 5 consecutive days during each of three winter storms that moved through the Sacramento Valley after diazinon had been applied to orchards in the basin. Water samples were collected at 17 sites chosen to represent the effect of upstream land use at local and regional scales. Most samples were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and thermionic specific detector (GC/ECD/TSD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was done on split replicates from over 30 percent of the samples to confirm ELISA results and to provide lower analytical reporting limits at selected sites [30 ng/L (nanogram per liter) for ELISA, 20 ng/L for GC/ECD/TSD, and 2 ng/L for GC/MS]. Concentrations determined from ELISA analyses were consistently higher than concentrations for split samples analyzed by gas chromatography methods. Because of bias between diazinon concentrations using ELISA and gas chromatography methods, results from ELISA analyses were not compared to water-quality criteria. Load calculations using the ELISA analyses are similarly biased. Because the bias was consistent, however, the ELISA data is useful in site-to-site comparisons used to rank the relative levels and contributions of diazinon from

  14. Mercury in the mix: An in situ mesocosm approach to assess relative contributions of mercury sources to methylmercury production and bioaccumulation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Ackerman, J.; Stumpner, E. B.; DeWild, J.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Tate, M.; Ogorek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered one of the greatest threats to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Estuary ecosystems. This threat is driven by the transformation of Hg, deposited in the Delta from erosion of upstream historic mining debris and atmospheric deposition, by native bacteria into the more toxic and biologically available form, methylmercury (MeHg), in the wetlands and sediment of the Delta. To effectively manage this threat, a quantitative understanding of the relative contribution of the different Hg sources to MeHg formation is needed. Mass balance estimates indicate as much as 99% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives via tributary inputs. Of the tributary Hg load, approximately 90% is adsorbed to suspended particles from tributary discharge and 10% is in the dissolved fraction, potentially of atmospheric origin. In comparison, the remaining 1-2% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives through direct atmospheric deposition (wet and dry). The relative importance of these sources to MeHg production within the Delta is not linearly related to the mass inputs because atmospherically-derived Hg is believed to be more reactive than sediment-bound Hg with respect to MeHg formation. We conducted an in situ mesocosm dosing experiment where different Hg sources to the Delta (direct atmospheric, dissolved riverine and suspended sediment) were "labeled" with different stable Hg isotopes and added to mesocosms within four different wetlands. Mercury isotopes added with the streambed sediments were equilibrated in sealed containers for six months; while the Hg isotopes associated with the precipitation and river water were equilibrated for 24 hours prior to use. After adding the isotopes, we sampled the water column, overlying air, bottom sediments and fish (Gambusia) at time intervals up to 30 days. Preliminary results from this experiment suggest that aqueous Hg sources (Hg introduced with precipitation and filtered river water) are 10

  15. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  16. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  17. Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation of juvenile wild and hatchery-born Sacramento splittail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhille, Christine E.; Dabruzzi, Theresa F.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mahardja, Brian; Feyrer, Frederick V.; Foin, Theodore C.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2016-01-01

    The Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) is a minnow endemic to the highly modified San Francisco Estuary of California, USA and its associated rivers and tributaries. This species is composed of two genetically distinct populations, which, according to field observations and otolith strontium signatures, show largely allopatric distribution patterns as recently hatched juveniles. Juvenile Central Valley splittail are found primarily in the nearly fresh waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, whereas San Pablo juveniles are found in the typically higher-salinity waters (i.e. up to 10‰) of the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. As the large salinity differences between young-of-year habitats may indicate population-specific differences in salinity tolerance, we hypothesized that juvenile San Pablo and Central Valley splittail populations differ in their response to salinity. In hatchery-born and wild-caught juvenile San Pablo splittail, we found upper salinity tolerances, where mortalities occurred within 336 h of exposure to 16‰ or higher, which was higher than the upper salinity tolerance of 14‰ for wild-caught juvenile Central Valley splittail. This, in conjunction with slower recovery of plasma osmolality, but not ion levels, muscle moisture or gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, in Central Valley relative to San Pablo splittail during osmoregulatory disturbance provides some support for our hypothesis of inter-population variation in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. The modestly improved salinity tolerance of San Pablo splittail is consistent with its use of higher-salinity habitats. Although confirmation of the putative adaptive difference through further studies is recommended, this may highlight the need for population-specific management considerations.

  18. Suspended sediment transport trough a large fluvial-tidal channel network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Morgan-King, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    The confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, CA, forms a large network of interconnected channels, referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta). The Delta comprises the transition zone from the fluvial influences of the upstream rivers and tidal influences of San Francisco Bay downstream. Formerly an extensive tidal marsh, the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of Delta have been substantially modified by humans to support agriculture, navigation, and water supply. These modifications, including construction of new channels, diking and draining of tidal wetlands, dredging of navigation channels, and the operation of large pumping facilities for distribution of freshwater from the Delta to other parts of the state, have had a dramatic impact on the physical and ecological processes within the Delta. To better understand the current physical processes, and their linkages to ecological processes, the USGS maintains an extensive network of flow, sediment, and water quality gages in the Delta. Flow gaging is accomplished through use of the index-velocity method, and sediment monitoring uses turbidity as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration. Herein, we present analyses of the transport and dispersal of suspended sediment through the complex network of channels in the Delta. The primary source of sediment to the Delta is the Sacramento River, which delivers pulses of sediment primarily during winter and spring runoff events. Upon reaching the Delta, the sediment pulses move through the fluvial-tidal transition while also encountering numerous channel junctions as the Sacramento River branches into several distributary channels. The monitoring network allows us to track these pulses through the network and document the dominant transport pathways for suspended sediment. Further, the flow gaging allows for an assessment of the relative effects of advection (the fluvial signal) and dispersion (from the tides) on the sediment pulses as they

  19. Winning with Green Remediation Practices at the Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    PCE)  Metals (lead, cadmium, chromium)  Fuels (gas and diesel )  Radiological (Radium 226)  Largest cleanup effort in the Air Force  318 sites...Existing pump and treat system replaced with sustainable in-situ bioremediation (passive vegetable oil injection)  Cost to complete reduced by $15,000,000

  20. 77 FR 23130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra and Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    .../08 08/14/08 NSAQMD Large Appliance Coatings 05/19/08 08/14/08 NSAQMD Metal Furniture Coatings 05/19... consistent with Clean Air Act requirements for Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) (see section... requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272...

  1. 77 FR 65346 - Determination of Attainment for the Sacramento Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine Particle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... docket are listed in the index, some information may be publicly available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI...-assured data gathered at established State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment...

  2. O recrutamento militar na América Portuguesa: o esforço conjunto para a defesa da Colônia do Sacramento (1735-1737

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In their effort to defend the Colônia de Sacramento, besieged by the Spanish from October 1735 to September 1737, the Portuguese Crown ordered the mobilization of all human and material resources available in the State of Brazil. This article examines the compulsory recruitment that occurred on this occasion and discusses the living conditions of those men who were taken by force from their homes to be sent to the River Platte area, from where few would return.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  5. The monitoring network for radioactivity in air in Norway. Annual report 2000; Nettverket for overvaaking av radioaktivitet i luft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Thor Chr.

    2002-06-01

    On the instruction of the Radiation Monitoring Authority (SSV), NILU has assumed responsibility for the operation of a monitoring network for radioactivity. This report describes this network. None of the 29 stations of the network detected radiation in 2000 that cannot be attributed to the natural variation of the radiation levels or to normal technical irregularities. However, much of the equipment was acquired in the years following the Chernobyl accident of 1986 and is in need of replacement.

  6. Measurements of erosion potential using Gust chamber in Yolo Bypass near Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Paul A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2018-04-27

    This report describes work performed to quantify the erodibility of surface soils in the Yolo Bypass (Bypass) near Sacramento, California, for use in the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) Yolo Bypass D-MCM mercury model. The Bypass, when not serving as a floodway, is heavily utilized for agriculture. During flood events, surface water flows over the soil, resulting in the application of a shear stress to the soil. The shear stress is a function of flow speed and is often assumed to vary as the square of flow speed. Once the shear stress reaches a critical value, erosion commences, and the erosion rate typically increases with applied shear stress. The goal of the work described here was to quantify this process and how it varies throughout the major land uses found in the Yolo Bypass.Each of the major land uses found in the Bypass was targeted for sediment coring and two side-by-side cores, 10 centimeters in diameter, were extracted at each site for testing in a Gust erosion chamber. This device consists of a cylinder with a piston and cap installed to contain a sediment sample and overlying water. In most instances, coring was done with the cylinder, the piston and cap were installed, and testing commenced immediately. The cap at the top of the cylinder contains vanes to induce rotation of the flow and is driven by an electric motor, simulating the bed shear stress experienced by the soil in a flood event. Ambient water is introduced to the cylinder, passes through the device, and carries eroded sediment out of the chamber. The exiting water is tested for turbidity, and water samples obtained to relate turbidity to suspended sediment concentration are used to compute erosion rates for each of the applied shear stresses.The result for each sediment core is (1) definition of the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment erosion and (2) estimation of coefficients required to relate erosion rate to applied shear

  7. The Social-Cost Calculator (SCC): Documentation of Methods and Data, and Case Study of Sacramento

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Planning agencies, analysts, non-profit organizations, regulatory and legislative bodies, and other organizations develop long-range local, state, regional, and national transportation plans. These plans typically comprise two or more alternatives, or scenarios. These alternatives have different financial costs and different impacts on travel, air quality, noise, safety, and so on. To evaluate and compare these alternatives with their different impacts, planners and analysts often use social ...

  8. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Austin, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  11. RadNet Air Data From Mason City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mason City, IA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. RadNet Air Data From Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Houston, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. RadNet Air Data From Fort Smith, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Smith, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. RadNet Air Data From Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Orlando, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  16. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low

  17. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  18. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  19. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  20. A national-scale review of air pollutant concentrations measured in the U.S. near-road monitoring network during 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWinter, Jennifer L.; Brown, Steven G.; Seagram, Annie F.; Landsberg, Karin; Eisinger, Douglas S.

    2018-06-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for NO2 to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2, and required air quality monitoring next to major roadways in urban areas in the U.S. Requirements for near-road measurements also include carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). We performed a national-scale assessment of air pollutants measured at 81 sites in the near-road environment during the first two years (2014 and 2015) of the new measurement program. We evaluated how concentrations at these locations compared to the NAAQS, to concentrations measured at other sites within the same urban areas, and when considering their site characteristics (distance of monitor to road, traffic volume, and meteorology). We also estimated the contribution of emissions from adjacent roadways at each near-road site to the PM2.5 concentrations above the local urban background concentrations, i.e., the near-road "increment." Hourly values of CO reached a maximum of 4.8 ppm across 31 sites in 2014 and 9.6 ppm across 47 sites in 2015, and were well below the NAAQS levels for both the 1-hr (35 ppm) and 8-hr (9 ppm) standards. Hourly concentrations of near-road NO2 reached 258 ppb across 40 sites in 2014; however, there were only two occurrences of a daily 1-hr maximum NO2 concentration above 100 ppb (the level of the hourly NO2 standard). In 2015, hourly concentrations of near-road NO2, monitored at 61 sites in 55 urban areas, reached 154 ppb. Only 0.0015% (n = 5) of hourly NO2 observations in 2015 exceeded 100 ppb. The highest annual NO2 average recorded in 2015 (29.9 ppb) occurred at the Ontario site located along I-10 in the Los Angeles, California, area and was below the level of the NO2 annual standard (53 ppb); in 2014, the highest annual mean NO2 was also observed in Los Angeles at the Anaheim site (27.1 ppb). In 2014, sites in Cincinnati

  1. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations.

  2. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 3. Characteristics Summaries and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    DB DC DCT DDB DET DF DFS DML DMS DMSP DOD DS DSARC DT EDB EDS EG ESSA ETAC EWO Control and Reporting Post Cathode Ray Tube...National and Aviation Meteorological Facsimile Network NC - Network Control NCA - National Command Authority NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric

  3. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  5. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  6. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and cognitive decline among older Mexican Americans: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N; Osypuk, Theresa; Abdou, Cleopatra; Hinton, Ladson; Aiello, Allison E

    2011-08-15

    In 1 previous study, it was shown that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with cognitive decline among Latinos. No studies have explored whether and to what extent individual-level socioeconomic factors account for the relation between neighborhood disadvantage and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on cognitive decline and examine how individual-level SEP factors (educational level, annual income, and occupation) influenced neighborhood associations over the course of 10 years. Participants (n = 1,789) were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Neighborhood SEP was derived by linking the participant's individual data to the 2000 decennial census. The authors assessed cognitive function with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Analyses used 3-level hierarchical linear mixed models of time within individuals within neighborhoods. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, higher neighborhood SEP was significantly associated with cognitive function (β = -0.033; P cognition but not with rates of decline. Differences in individual educational levels explained most of the intra- and interneighborhood variance. These results suggest that the effect of neighborhood SEP on cognitive decline among Latinos is primarily accounted for by education.

  7. The effect of submerged aquatic vegetation expansion on a declining turbidity trend in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E.L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jonathan Greenberg,; Morgan-King, Tara L.; Ustin, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) has well-documented effects on water clarity. SAV beds can slow water movement and reduce bed shear stress, promoting sedimentation and reducing suspension. However, estuaries have multiple controls on turbidity that make it difficult to determine the effect of SAV on water clarity. In this study, we investigated the effect of primarily invasive SAV expansion on a concomitant decline in turbidity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The objective of this study was to separate the effects of decreasing sediment supply from the watershed from increasing SAV cover to determine the effect of SAV on the declining turbidity trend. SAV cover was determined by airborne hyperspectral remote sensing and turbidity data from long-term monitoring records. The turbidity trends were corrected for the declining sediment supply using suspended-sediment concentration data from a station immediately upstream of the Delta. We found a significant negative trend in turbidity from 1975 to 2008, and when we removed the sediment supply signal from the trend it was still significant and negative, indicating that a factor other than sediment supply was responsible for part of the turbidity decline. Turbidity monitoring stations with high rates of SAV expansion had steeper and more significant turbidity trends than those with low SAV cover. Our findings suggest that SAV is an important (but not sole) factor in the turbidity decline, and we estimate that 21–70 % of the total declining turbidity trend is due to SAV expansion.

  8. Abundance and sexual size dimorphism of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Gregory, C.J.; Halstead, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is restricted to wetlands of the Central Valley of California. Because of wetland loss in this region, the Giant Gartersnake is both federally and state listed as threatened. We conducted markrecapture studies of four populations of the Giant Gartersnake in the Sacramento Valley (northern Central Valley), California, to obtain baseline data on abundance and density to assist in recovery planning for this species. We sampled habitats that ranged from natural, unmanaged marsh to constructed managed marshes and habitats associated with rice agriculture. Giant Gartersnake density in a natural wetland (1.90 individuals/ha) was an order of magnitude greater than in a managed wetland subject to active season drying (0.17 individuals/ha). Sex ratios at all sites were not different from 1 1, and females were longer and heavier than males. Females had greater body condition than males, and individuals at the least disturbed sites had significantly greater body condition than individuals at the managed wetland. The few remaining natural wetlands in the Central Valley are important, productive habitat for the Giant Gartersnake, and should be conserved and protected. Wetlands constructed and restored for the Giant Gartersnake should be modeled after the permanent, shallow wetlands representative of historic Giant Gartersnake habitat. ?? 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  10. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  11. Adaptive Management Using Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling in Response to Climate Variability and Invasive Aquatic Plants for the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua; Madsen, John

    2017-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply and supports important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in Northern to Southern California. Expansion of invasive aquatic plants in the Delta coupled with impacts of changing climate and long-term drought is detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific mapping tools developed utilizing satellite and airborne platforms provide regular assessments of population dynamics on a landscape scale and support both strategic planning and operational decision making for resource managers. San Joaquin and Sacramento River watersheds water quality input to the Delta is modeled using the Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a modified SWAT tool has been customized to account for unique landscape and management of agricultural water supply and drainage within the Delta. Environmental response models for growth of invasive aquatic weeds are being parameterized and coupled with spatial distribution/biomass density mapping and water quality to study ecosystem response to climate and aquatic plant management practices. On the water validation and operational utilization of these tools by management agencies and how they are improving decision making, management effectiveness and efficiency will be discussed. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and water resource managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes.

  12. Losses of Sacramento River Chinook Salmon and Delta Smelt to Entrainment in Water Diversions in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J. Kimmerer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumping at the water export facilities in the southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta kills fish at and near the associated fish-salvage facilities. Correlative analyses of salvage counts with population indices have failed to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of this mortality. I estimated the proportional losses of Sacramento River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus to place these losses in a population context. The estimate for salmon was based on recoveries of tagged smolts released in the upper Sacramento River basin, and recovered at the fish-salvage facilities in the south Delta and in a trawling program in the western Delta. The proportion of fish salvaged increased with export flow, with a mean value around 10% at the highest export flows recorded. Mortality was around 10% if pre-salvage losses were about 80%, but this value is nearly unconstrained. Losses of adult delta smelt in winter and young delta smelt in spring were estimated from salvage data (adults corrected for estimated pre-salvage survival, or from trawl data in the southern Delta (young. These losses were divided by population size and accumulated over the respective seasons. Losses of adult delta smelt were 1–50% (median 15% although the highest value may have been biased upward. Daily losses of larvae and juveniles were 0–8%, and seasonal losses accumulated were 0–25% (median 13%. The effect of these losses on population abundance was obscured by subsequent 50-fold variability in survival from summer to fall.

  13. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  14. Adaptive Management Using Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling in Response to Climate Variability and Invasive Aquatic Plants for the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D.; Potter, C. S.; Zhang, M.; Madsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply and supports important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in Northern and Southern California. Expansion of invasive aquatic plants in the Delta coupled with impacts of changing climate and long-term drought is detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plant management in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific mapping tools developed utilizing satellite and airborne platforms provide regular assessments of population dynamics on a landscape scale and support both strategic planning and operational decision making for resource managers. San Joaquin and Sacramento River watersheds water quality input to the Delta is modeled using the Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a modified SWAT tool has been customized to account for unique landscape and management of agricultural water supply and drainage within the Delta. Environmental response models for growth of invasive aquatic weeds are being parameterized and coupled with spatial distribution/biomass density mapping and water quality to study ecosystem response to climate and aquatic plant management practices. On the water validation and operational utilization of these tools by management agencies and how they improve decision making, management effectiveness and efficiency will be discussed. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and water resource managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  17. In Situ Stoichiometry in a Large River: Continuous Measurement of Doc, NO3 and PO4 in the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, B. D.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Saraceno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Studying controls on geochemical processes in rivers and streams is difficult because concentration and composition often changes rapidly in response to physical and biological forcings. Understanding biogeochemical dynamics in rivers will improve current understanding of the role of watershed sources to carbon cycling, river and stream ecology, and loads to estuaries and oceans. Continuous measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3-) and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) concentrations are now possible, along with some information about DOC composition. In situ sensors designed to measure these constituents provide high frequency, real-time data that can elucidate hydrologic and biogeochemical controls which are difficult to detect using more traditional sampling approaches. Here we present a coupled approach, using in situ optical instrumentation with discharge measurements to provide quantitative estimates of constituent loads to investigate C, NO3- and SRP sources and processing in the Sacramento River, CA, USA. Continuous measurement of DOC concentration was conducted by use of a miniature in situ fluorometer (Turner Designs Cyclops) designed to measure chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) over the course of an entire year. Nitrate was measured concurrently using a Satlantic SUNA and phosphate was measured using a WETLabs model Cycle-P instrument for a two week period in July 2011. Continuous measurement from these instruments paired with continuous measurement of physical water quality variables such as temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, were used to investigate physical and chemical dynamics of DOC, NO3-, SRP over varying time scales. Deploying these instruments at pre-existing USGS discharge gages allowed for calculation of instantaneous and integrated constituent fluxes, as well as filling in gaps in our understanding biogeochemical processes and transport. Results from the study

  18. Resource intensification and osteoarthritis patterns: changes in activity in the prehistoric Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverko, Colleen M; Bartelink, Eric J

    2017-10-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500-200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California. Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs. The results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200-200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints. The temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Modeling pesticide loadings from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is an ecologically rich, hydrologically complex area that serves as the hub of California's water supply. However, pesticides have been routinely detected in the Delta waterways, with concentrations exceeding the benchmark for the protection of aquatic life. Pesticide loadings into the Delta are partially attributed to the San Joaquin watershed, a highly productive agricultural watershed located upstream. Therefore, this study aims to simulate pesticide loadings to the Delta by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to the San Joaquin watershed, under the support of the USDA-ARS Delta Area-Wide Pest Management Program. Pesticide use patterns in the San Joaquin watershed were characterized by combining the California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) database and GIS analysis. Sensitivity/uncertainty analyses and multi-site calibration were performed in the simulation of stream flow, sediment, and pesticide loads along the San Joaquin River. Model performance was evaluated using a combination of graphic and quantitative measures. Preliminary results indicated that stream flow was satisfactorily simulated along the San Joaquin River and the major eastern tributaries, whereas stream flow was less accurately simulated in the western tributaries, which are ephemeral small streams that peak during winter storm events and are mainly fed by irrigation return flow during the growing season. The most sensitive parameters to stream flow were CN2, SOL_AWC, HRU_SLP, SLSUBBSN, SLSOIL, GWQMN and GW_REVAP. Regionalization of parameters is important as the sensitivity of parameters vary significantly spatially. In terms of evaluation metric, NSE tended to overrate model performance when compared to PBIAS. Anticipated results will include (1) pesticide use pattern analysis, (2) calibration and validation of stream flow, sediment, and pesticide loads, and (3) characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends of pesticide yield.

  20. Modeling pesticide diuron loading from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajin; Luo, Yuzhou; Potter, Christopher; Moran, Patrick J; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-09-15

    Quantifying pesticide loading into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California is critical for water quality management in the region, and potentially useful for biological weed control planning. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to model streamflow, sediment, and pesticide diuron loading in the San Joaquin watershed, a major contributing area to the elevated pesticide levels in the downstream Delta. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting version 2 (SUFI-2) algorithm was employed to perform calibration and uncertainty analysis. A combination of performance measures (PMs) and standardized performance evaluation criteria (PEC) was applied to evaluate model performance, while prediction uncertainty was quantified by 95% prediction uncertainty band (95PPU). Results showed that streamflow simulation was at least "satisfactory" at most stations, with more than 50% of the observed data bracketed by the 95PPU. Sediment simulation was rated as at least "satisfactory" based on two PMs, and diuron simulation was judged as "good" by all PMs. The 95PPU of sediment and diuron bracketed about 40% and 30% of the observed data, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the diuron loads, and precipitation, streamflow, and the current and antecedent pesticide use. Results also showed that the majority (>70%) of agricultural diuron was transported during winter months, when direct exposure of biocontrol agents to diuron runoff is limited. However, exposure in the dry season could be a concern because diuron is relatively persistent in aquatic system. This study not only provides valuable information for the development of biological weed control plan in the Delta, but also serves as a foundation for the continued research on calibration, evaluation, and uncertainty analysis of spatially distributed, physically based hydrologic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping Evapotranspiration in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta using simulated ECOSTRESS Thermal Data: Validation and Inter-comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A.; Jin, Y.; He, R.; Hulley, G.; Fisher, J.; Lee, C. M.; Rivera, G.; Hook, S. J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Kent, E. R.; Paw U, K. T.; Gao, F.; Lund, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation accounts for 80% of human freshwater consumption, and most of it return to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). In California, where our water resources are limited and heavily utilized, the need for a cost-effective, timely, and consistent spatial estimate of crop ET, from the farm to watershed level, is becoming increasingly important. The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS), to be launched in mid-2018, will provide the most detailed and accurate temperature measurements ever acquired from space and thus unique opportunities for estimating ET at the farm scale. We simulated the ECOSTRESS thermal data at a 70 m resolution using VIIRS thermal observations and ASTER emissivity data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region for the 2016 water year. Three remote sensing based ET methods were then applied to estimate ET using simulated ECOSTRESS data and optical data from Landsat and VIIRS, including Priestley-Taylor approaches developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) and by UC Davis (PT-UCD), and the Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model. We compared these three sets of ET estimates with field measurements at sixteen sites over five crop types (Alfalfa, Corn, Pasture, Tomato, and Beardless Wheat). Good agreement was found between satellite-based estimates and field measurements. Our results demonstrate that thermal data from the upcoming ECOSTRESS mission will reduce the uncertainty in ET estimates. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of consumptive water use at a field scale will help prepare and inform to adaptively manage water, canopy, and planting density to maximize yield with least amount of water.

  2. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Flexible Tube-Based Network Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc. builds a control system which controls the topology of an air traffic flow network and the network flow properties which enables Air...

  4. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  5. Geology, geochemistry and petrology of basalts from Paraná Continental Magmatic Province in the Araguari, Uberlândia, Uberaba and Sacramento regions, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Castanheira de Moraes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study covers the region between the cities of Sacramento and Araguari/Uberlândia (Minas Gerais State, Brazil, where basalt flows from the Paraná Continental Magmatic Province outcrop. The investigated rocks present tholeiitic signature, with high titanium content, and are classified as Pitanga magma-type. The preserved basalt thickness is between 10 and 200 meters and individual flows do not exceed 15 meters thick. Flows were identified as sheet lobes, smaller and thinner flows units - stacked laterally and vertically forming compound lavas -, or frontal, centimetric lobes. The basalt flows show decimetric to metric intercalations of clastic sedimentary rock, with depositional characteristics that can vary from aeolian to lacustrine, and are important markers on prevailing environmental conditions. The plagioclases are dominantly labradorite and pyroxene is augite, whereas olivine can be hyalosiderite or hortonolite/ferrohortonolite. The behavior of the major, minor and trace elements is compatible with the presence of at least two parental magmas, which were subjected to fractional crystallization mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, ilmenite and magnetite. There is a chemistry distinction between basalts from Sacramento to those from Araguari/Uberlândia region, the former one showing more evolved than the last one. The high (La/LuN values are indicative of partial melting of a garnet peridotite, while the Rare Earth Elements (REE values are indicative of fractional crystallization.

  6. Magnetic Field-Vector Measurements in Quiescent Prominences via the Hanle Effect: Analysis of Prominences Observed at Pic-Du-Midi and at Sacramento Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Hanle effect method for magnetic field vector diagnostics has now provided results on the magnetic field strength and direction in quiescent prominences, from linear polarization measurements in the He I E sub 3 line, performed at the Pic-du-Midi and at Sacramento Peak. However, there is an inescapable ambiguity in the field vector determination: each polarization measurement provides two field vector solutions symmetrical with respect to the line-of-sight. A statistical analysis capable of solving this ambiguity was applied to the large sample of prominences observed at the Pic-du-Midi (Leroy, et al., 1984); the same method of analysis applied to the prominences observed at Sacramento Peak (Athay, et al., 1983) provides results in agreement on the most probable magnetic structure of prominences; these results are detailed. The statistical results were confirmed on favorable individual cases: for 15 prominences observed at Pic-du-Midi, the two-field vectors are pointing on the same side of the prominence, and the alpha angles are large enough with respect to the measurements and interpretation inaccuracies, so that the field polarity is derived without any ambiguity.

  7. Changes in sediment and organic carbon accumulation in a highly-disturbed ecosystem: The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Lerberg, Elizabeth J.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2009-01-01

    We used the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta CA (Delta, hereafter) as a model system for understanding how human activities influence the delivery of sediment and total organic carbon (TOC) over the past 50-60 years. Sediment cores were collected from sites within the Delta representing the Sacramento River (SAC), the San Joaquin River (SJR), and Franks Tract (FT), a flooded agricultural tract. A variety of anthropogenic tracers including 137 Cs, total DDE (ΣDDE) and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners were used to quantify sediment accumulation rates. This information was combined with total organic carbon (TOC) profiles to quantify rates of TOC accumulation. Across the three sites, sediment and TOC accumulation rates were four to eight-fold higher prior to 1972. Changes in sediment and TOC accumulation were coincident with completion of several large reservoirs and increased agriculture and urbanization in the Delta watershed. Radiocarbon content of TOC indicated that much of the carbon delivered to the Delta is 'pre-aged' reflecting processing in the Delta watershed or during transport to the sites rather than an input of predominantly contemporary carbon (e.g., 900-1400 years BP in surface sediments and 2200 yrs BP and 3610 yrs BP at the base of the SJR and FT cores, respectively). Together, these data suggest that human activities have altered the amount and age of TOC accumulating in the Delta since the 1940s.

  8. Estimation of reservoir inflow in data scarce region by using Sacramento rainfall runoff model - A case study for Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myo Lin, Nay; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    The Sittaung River is one of four major rivers in Myanmar. This river basin is developing fast and facing problems with flood, sedimentation, river bank erosion and salt intrusion. At present, more than 20 numbers of reservoirs have already been constructed for multiple purposes such as irrigation, domestic water supply, hydro-power generation, and flood control. The rainfall runoff models are required for the operational management of this reservoir system. In this study, the river basin is divided into (64) sub-catchments and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) models are developed by using satellite rainfall and Geographic Information System (GIS) data. The SAC-SMA model has sixteen calibration parameters, and also uses a unit hydrograph for surface flow routing. The Sobek software package is used for SAC-SMA modelling and simulation of river system. The models are calibrated and tested by using observed discharge and water level data. The statistical results show that the model is applicable to use for data scarce region. Keywords: Sacramento, Sobek, rainfall runoff, reservoir

  9. La historia sacra del Santísimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos"An iconographic study of the engravings illustrating the work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Portela, Juan Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio iconográfico de las dos estampas que ilustran el libro del dominico fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, editado por Luis Sánchez en Madrid en 1626. En dichas estampas se plasman dos aspectos que van a ser fundamentales de la religiosidad contrarreformista española del siglo XVII, la defensa a ultranza de la Eucaristía y la lucha contra la herejía. In this article is made an iconographic study of the two prints that illustrate the book of the Dominican Fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, edited by Luis Sanchez in Madrid in 1626. In these prints are reflected two aspects that are going to be essential on the religiosity Spanish Counterreform of the seventeenth century, the stubborn defense of the Eucharist and the fight against heresy.

  10. Reactor control system upgrade for the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center Sacramento, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    information to either keep the reactor operating or to shut the reactor down. In addition to new developments in the signal processing realm, the new control system will be migrating from a PC-based computer platform to a Sun Solaris-based computer platform. The proven history of stability and performance of the Sun Sohuis operating system are the main advantages to this change. The I/O system will also be migrating from a PC-based data collection system, which communicates plant data to the control computer using RS-232 connections, to an Ethernet-based I/O system. The Ethernet Data Acquisition System (EDAS) modules from Intelligent Instrumentation, Inc. provide an excellent solution for embedded control of a system using the more universally-accepted data transmission standard of TCP/IP. The modules contain a PROM, which operates all of the functionality of the I/O module, including the TCP/IP network access. Thus the module does not have an internal, sophisticated operating system to provide functionality but rather a small set hard-coded of instructions, which almost eliminates the possibility of the module failing due to software problems. An internal EEPROM can be modified over the Internet to change module configurations. Once configured, the module is contacted just like any other Internet host using TCP/IP socket calls. The main advantage to this architecture is its flexibility, expandability, and high throughput

  11. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration potential in restored freshwater marshes in the Sacramento San-Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Dronova, I.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands can be effective carbon sinks due to limited decomposition rates in anaerobic soil. As such there is a growing interest in the use of restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs. However, using wetlands to offset emissions requires accurate accounting of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange since wetlands are also sources of CH4. To date few studies have quantified CO2 and CH4 exchange from restored wetlands or assessed how these fluxes vary during ecosystem development. In this study, we report on multiple years of eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two restored freshwater marshes of differing ages (one restored in 1997 and the other in 2010) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA. Measurements at the younger restored wetland started in October 2010 and began in April 2011 at the older site. The younger restored wetland showed considerable year-to-year variability in the first 4 years following restoration, with CO2 uptake ranging from 12 to 420 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1. Net CO2 uptake at the older wetland was overall greater than at the younger site, ranging from 292 to 585 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions were on average higher at the younger wetland (46 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1) relative to the older one (33 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1). In terms of the GHG budgets (assuming a global warming potential of 34), the younger wetland was consistently a GHG source, emitting on average 1439 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1, while the older wetland was a GHG sink in two of the years of measurement (sequestering 651 and 780 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2012 and 2013, respectively) and a source of 750 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2014. This study highlights how dynamic CO2 and CH4 fluxes are in the first years following wetland restoration and suggests that restored wetlands have the potential to act as GHG sinks but this may depend on time since restoration.

  13. Implications for sustainability of a changing agricultural mosaic in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, C. E.; Deverel, S. J.; Jacobs, P.; Kelsey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Transformed from the largest wetland system on the west coast of the United States to agriculture, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is an extreme teaching example of anthropogenic threats to sustainability. For over 6,000 years, over 280,000 ha of intertidal freshwater marsh accreted due to seal level rise and sediment deposition. Farming of organic soils since 1850 resulted in land subsidence caused primarily by oxidation. Over 2 billion cubic meters of soil were lost resulting in elevations on Delta islands ranging from -1 to -8 m and increased risk of levee failures and water supply disruption. Alteration of water flows and habitat caused dramatic declines in aquatic species. A cycle in which oxidation of organic soils leads to deepening of drainage ditches to maintain an aerated root zone which in turn results in sustained oxidation and subsidence is perpetuated by the momentum of the status quo despite evidence that agricultural practices are increasingly unsustainable. Flooding of the soils breaks the oxidation/subsidence cycle. We assessed alternate land uses and the carbon market as a potential impetus for change. Using the peer-reviewed and locally calibrated SUBCALC model, we estimated net global warming potential for a range of scenarios for a representative island, from status quo to incorporating significant proportions of subsidence-mitigating land use. We analyzed economic implications by determining profit losses or gains when a simulated GHG offset market is available for wetlands using a regional agricultural production and economic optimization model, We estimated baseline GHG emissions at about 60,000 tons CO2-e per year. In contrast, modeled implementation of rice and wetlands resulted in substantial emissions reductions to the island being a net GHG sink. Subsidence would be arrested or reversed where these land uses are implemented. Results of economic modeling reveal that conversion to wetlands can have significant negative farm financial

  14. Civilizing the Conversation? Using Surveys to Inform Water Management and Science in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.; Phillips Chappelle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Improving ecosystem outcomes in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a complex, high-stakes water resource management challenge. The Delta is a major hub for water supply conveyance and a valued ecological resource. Yet long-term declines in native fish populations have resulted in severe legal constraints on water exports and fueled growing public debates about the roles and responsibilities of flow modification and other sources of ecosystem stress. Meanwhile, scientific uncertainty, and the inability of the scientific community to effectively communicate what *is* known, has frustrated policymakers and encouraged 'combat science' - the commissioning and use of competing scientific opinions in the courtroom. This paper summarizes results from a study designed to inform the policy process through the use of confidential surveys of scientific researchers (those publishing in peer-reviewed journals, n=122) and engaged stakeholders and policymakers (n=240). The surveys, conducted in mid-2012, sought respondents' views on the sources of ecosystem stress and priority ecosystem management actions. The scientist survey is an example of the growing use of expert elicitation to address gaps in the scientific literature, particularly where there is uncertainty about priorities for decisionmaking (e.g., Cvitanovic et al. 2013, J. of Env. Mgmt; McDaniels et al. 2012, Risk Analysis). The stakeholder survey is a useful complement, enabling the identification of areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholder groups and between these groups and scientific experts. The results suggest such surveys are a promising tool for addressing complex water management problems. We found surprisingly high agreement among scientists on the relative roles of stressors and the most promising management actions; they emphasized restoring more natural processes through habitat and flow actions within the watershed, consistent with 'reconciliation ecology' approaches (Rosenzweig 2003

  15. The effectiveness of courses developed to recruit and retain minority students in the geology major at California State University, Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of diversity in the geosciences has long been recognized as a problem. While improvements have been made, the proportion of Bachelor's degrees in the earth sciences awarded to Hispanic students in 2012 was only 5.6%, a huge disparity with the 17% of the U.S. population that is Hispanic. At California State University, Sacramento, 19% of the student population is Hispanic but, of the 61 students that earned an undergraduate degree in geology between 2005 and 2010, only four were Hispanic. In response to the lack of diversity in the geology major, we developed a new Geology of Mexico course with the goal of recruiting Hispanic students to the major. We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of this course in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. Data was collected in the Geology of Mexico course and in the equivalent Physical Geology course. During the period evaluated, 93% of enrollment in Geology of Mexico was Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We found that Hispanic students in Physical Geology earned lower grades than did nonminority students, while Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico earned grades comparable with nonminority students in Physical Geology. Overall, Geology of Mexico students also showed more positive attitude changes to the geosciences and were more likely to take another geology course. The recruitment rate into the major for Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico was comparable to the recruitment rate for nonminority students in Physical Geology. Since 2008, the proportion of Hispanic geology majors has risen from 4.5% to 14.1% and, notably, the proportion of underrepresented minorities has increased from 4.5% to 22.2%, reflecting a significant overall increase in diversity of the major. In order to increase retention of minority students, we developed a field course for new majors who were not yet ready for upper division courses

  16. Subsidence Reversal in a Re-established Wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Miller

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The stability of levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is threatened by continued subsidence of Delta peat islands. Up to 6 meters of land-surface elevation has been lost in the 150 years since Delta marshes were leveed and drained, primarily from oxidation of peat soils. Flooding subsided peat islands halts peat oxidation by creating anoxic soils, but net accumulation of new material in restored wetlands is required to recover land-surface elevations. We investigated the subsidence reversal potential of two 3 hectare, permanently flooded, impounded wetlands re-established on a deeply subsided field on Twitchell Island. The shallower wetland (design water depth 25 cm was almost completely colonized by dense emergent marsh vegetation within two years; whereas, the deeper wetland (design water depth 55 cm which developed spatially variable depths as a result of heterogeneous colonization by emergent vegetation, still had some areas remaining as open water after nine years. Changes in land-surface elevation were quantified using repeated sedimentation-erosion table measurements. New material accumulating in the wetlands was sampled by coring. Land-surface elevations increased by an average of 4 cm/yr in both wetlands from 1997 to 2006; however, the rates at different sites in the wetlands ranged from -0.5 to +9.2 cm/yr. Open water areas of the deeper wetland without emergent vegetation had the lowest rates of land-surface elevation gain. The greatest rates occurred in areas of the deeper wetland most isolated from the river water inlets, with dense stands of emergent marsh vegetation (tules and cattails. Vegetated areas of the deeper wetland in the transition zones between open water and mature emergent stands had intermediate rates of land-surface gain, as did the entire shallower wetland. These results suggest that the dominant component contributing to land-surface elevation gain in these wetlands was accumulation of organic matter, rather

  17. Riverine Nutrient Trends in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins, California: A Comparison to State and Regional Water Quality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/1015447/sfews.2015v13iss4art2Non-point source (NPS contaminant control strategies were initiated in California in the late 1980s under the authority of the State Porter–Cologne Act and eventually for the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL plans, under the federal Clean Water Act. Most of the NPS TMDLs developed for California’s Central Valley (CV region were related to pesticides, but not nutrients. Efforts to reduce pesticide loads and concentrations began in earnest around 1990. The NPS control strategies either encouraged or mandated the use of management practices (MPs. Although TMDLs were largely developed for pesticides, the resultant MPs might have affected the runoff of other potential contaminants (such as nutrients. This study evaluates the effect of agricultural NPS control strategies implemented in California’s CV before and between 1990 and 2013, on nutrients, by comparing trends in surface-water concentrations and loads. In general, use of MPs was encouraged during a “voluntary” period (1990 to 2004 and mandated during an “enforcement” period (2004 to 2013. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using a recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS model. Sufficient total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and nitrate (NO3 data were available to compare the voluntary and enforcement periods for twelve sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Ammonia concentrations and fluxes were evaluated at a subset of these sites. For six of these sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of TP or NO3 decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that MPs designed for pesticides may also have reduced nutrient loads. Results show that enforceable NPS policies, and accelerated MP implementation

  18. Erosion characteristics and horizontal variability for small erosion depths in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Manning, Andrew J.; Work, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Erodibility of cohesive sediment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) was investigated with an erosion microcosm. Erosion depths in the Delta and in the microcosm were estimated to be about one floc diameter over a range of shear stresses and times comparable to half of a typical tidal cycle. Using the conventional assumption of horizontally homogeneous bed sediment, data from 27 of 34 microcosm experiments indicate that the erosion rate coefficient increased as eroded mass increased, contrary to theory. We believe that small erosion depths, erosion rate coefficient deviation from theory, and visual observation of horizontally varying biota and texture at the sediment surface indicate that erosion cannot solely be a function of depth but must also vary horizontally. We test this hypothesis by developing a simple numerical model that includes horizontal heterogeneity, use it to develop an artificial time series of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in an erosion microcosm, then analyze that time series assuming horizontal homogeneity. A shear vane was used to estimate that the horizontal standard deviation of critical shear stress was about 30% of the mean value at a site in the Delta. The numerical model of the erosion microcosm included a normal distribution of initial critical shear stress, a linear increase in critical shear stress with eroded mass, an exponential decrease of erosion rate coefficient with eroded mass, and a stepped increase in applied shear stress. The maximum SSC for each step increased gradually, thus confounding identification of a single well-defined critical shear stress as encountered with the empirical data. Analysis of the artificial SSC time series with the assumption of a homogeneous bed reproduced the original profile of critical shear stress, but the erosion rate coefficient increased with eroded mass, similar to the empirical data. Thus, the numerical experiment confirms the small-depth erosion hypothesis. A linear

  19. Development and deployment of a low-cost, mobile-ready, air quality sensor system: progress toward distributed networks and autonomous aerial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; DiVerdi, R.; Gadtaula, P.; Sheneman, T.; Flores, K.; Chen, Y. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Cross, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the 2016-2017 academic year, a new partnership between Olin College of Engineering and Aerodyne Research, Inc. developed an affordable, self-contained air quality monitoring instrument called Modulair. The Modulair instrument is based on the same operating principles as Aerodyne's newly-developed ARISense integrated sensor system, employing electrochemical sensors for gas-phase measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 and an off-the-shelf optical particle counter for particle concentration, number, and size distribution information (0.4 backend with a mobile, cloud-based data management system for real-time data posting and analysis. Open source tools and software were utilized in the development of the instrument. All initial work was completed by a team of undergraduate students as part of the Senior Capstone Program in Engineering (SCOPE) at Olin College. Deployment strategies for Modulair include distributed, mobile measurements and drone-based aerial sampling. Design goals for the drone integration include maximizing airborne sampling time and laying the foundation for software integration with the drone's autopilot system to allow for autonomous plume sampling across concentration gradients. Modulair and its flexible deployments enable real-time mapping of air quality data at exposure-relevant spatial scales, as well as regular, autonomous characterization of sources and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. We will present an overview of the Modulair instrument and results from benchtop and field validation, including mobile and drone-based plume sampling in the Boston area.

  20. [Community mental health networks and doors at a Health and Community Center (CeSAC No 24) in the south of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corin, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Health and Community Center (CeSAC) No 24 began 21 years ago in the Ramón Carrillo district, in Villa Soldati neighborhood. This is a marginal urban area in the south of the CABA with a population with urgent needs. The work started with a group of professionals dealing with primary care practices, and it continues up to the present. The goal of our community mental health project is the creation of spaces for prevention and well-being including art in all its expressions, with the active participation of neighbors in the coordination of many activities. Through the symbolic opening of doors and making networks visible, we opened the CeSAC to universities, scientific societies, foundations, NGOs, neighbor committees, neighborhood boards, human rights organizations, formal and informal education centers, cultural centers, churches, community radios, in order to show the vital movements of the community, as we -as a team- are an integral part of it. Our spaces, workshops and programs are a collective socio-historical construction that achieves milestones such as thinking, thinking of us, getting together and achieving the participation from the community and the continuous training for everybody working and living in Soldati. The decentralization and democratization trend, and the heterarchical management of our organization favors the possibility of catalyzing the wishes, motivations and efforts of the healthcare team, neighbors and network nodes, thus benefiting the creative work that turns a dream into a hopeful reality.

  1. 234U/238U and δ87Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, J.Z.; Paces, J.B.; Alpers, C.N.; Windham-Myers, L.; Neymark, L.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Taylor, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrations and isotopic values of Sr and U in peat were used to trace paleosalinity. • A three-end-member mixing model was constructed using values from water sources. • Paleosalinity of peat samples was determined relative to that of end members. • δ 87 Sr values were altered during and after the California Gold Rush period. • Oligohaline and freshwater marshes have long existed in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the history of paleosalinity over the past 6000+ years in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta), which is the innermost part of the San Francisco Estuary. We used a combination of Sr and U concentrations, δ 87 Sr values, and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios (AR) in peat as proxies for tracking paleosalinity. Peat cores were collected in marshes on Browns Island, Franks Wetland, and Bacon Channel Island in the Delta. Cores were dated using 137 Cs, the onset of Pb and Hg contamination from hydraulic gold mining, and 14 C. A proof of concept study showed that the dominant emergent macrophyte and major component of peat in the Delta, Schoenoplectus spp., incorporates Sr and U and that the isotopic composition of these elements tracks the ambient water salinity across the Estuary. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Sr and U in the three main water sources contributing to the Delta (seawater, Sacramento River water, and San Joaquin River water) were used to construct a three-end-member mixing model. Delta paleosalinity was determined by examining variations in the distribution of peat samples through time within the area delineated by the mixing model. The Delta has long been considered a tidal freshwater marsh region, but only peat samples from Franks Wetland and Bacon Channel Island have shown a consistently fresh signal (<0.5 ppt) through time. Therefore, the eastern Delta, which occurs upstream from Bacon Channel Island along the San Joaquin River and its

  2. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Ling; Brown, Nancy J.; Harley, Robert A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Michelson, Sara A; Wilczak, James M

    2010-04-16

    This study presents detailed evaluation of the seasonal and episodic performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system applied to simulate air quality at a fine grid spacing (4 km horizontal resolution) in central California, where ozone air pollution problems are severe. A rich aerometric database collected during the summer 2000 Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) is used to prepare model inputs and to evaluate meteorological simulations and chemical outputs. We examine both temporal and spatial behaviors of ozone predictions. We highlight synoptically driven high-ozone events (exemplified by the four intensive operating periods (IOPs)) for evaluating both meteorological inputs and chemical outputs (ozone and its precursors) and compare them to the summer average. For most of the summer days, cross-domain normalized gross errors are less than 25% for modeled hourly ozone, and normalized biases are between {+-}15% for both hourly and peak (1 h and 8 h) ozone. The domain-wide aggregated metrics indicate similar performance between the IOPs and the whole summer with respect to predicted ozone and its precursors. Episode-to-episode differences in ozone predictions are more pronounced at a subregional level. The model performs consistently better in the San Joaquin Valley than other air basins, and episodic ozone predictions there are similar to the summer average. Poorer model performance (normalized peak ozone biases <-15% or >15%) is found in the Sacramento Valley and the Bay Area and is most noticeable in episodes that are subject to the largest uncertainties in meteorological fields (wind directions in the Sacramento Valley and timing and strength of onshore flow in the Bay Area) within the boundary layer.

  3. Deployment Considerations for Low-cost Air Quality Sensor Networks; Examining Spatial Variability of Gas-Phase Pollutants Around a Building in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Oxandale, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Casey, J. G.; Johnston, J.; Coffey, E.; Thorson, J.

    2017-12-01

    The field of low-cost air quality sensing technologies is growing rapidly through the continual development of new sensors, increased research into sensor performance, and more and more community groups utilizing sensors to investigate local issues. However, as this technology is still in an exploratory phase, there are few `best-practices' available to serve as guidelines for these projects and the standardization of some procedures could benefit the research community as a whole. For example, deployment considerations such as where and how to place a monitor at a given location are often determined by accessibility and safety, power-requirements, and what is an ideal for sampling the target pollutant. Using data from multiple gas-phase sensors, we will examine the importance of siting considerations for low-cost monitoring systems. During a sampling campaign in Los Angeles, a subset of monitors was deployed at one field site to explore the variability in air quality sensor data around a single building. The site is a three story, multi-family housing unit in a primarily residential neighborhood that is near two major roadways and other potential sources of pollution. Five low-cost monitors were co-located prior to and following the field deployment. During the approximately 2.5-month deployment, these monitors were placed at various heights above street level, on different sides of the building, and on the roof. In our analysis, we will examine how monitor placement affects a sensor's ability to detect local verses more regional trends and how this building-scale spatial variability changes over time. Additionally, examining data from VOC sensors (quantified for methane and total non-methane hydrocarbon signals) and O3 sensors will allow us to compare the variability of primary and secondary pollutants. An outcome of this analysis may include guidelines or `best practices' for siting sensors that could aid in ensuring the collection of high quality field data

  4. Final report of the study on heat networks in Ile-de-France, contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional scheme + Judicial aspect + Economic aspect + Assessment of development potential of urban heating in Ile-de-France - Analysis document based on the study on heat networks contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    A first report is a contribution to the elaboration of a plan aiming at the substitution of fossil energies, at the development of heat deliveries, while maintaining network economic profitability. Such a plan is based on the connection of buildings, the renovation, extension and interconnection of existing networks, and the creation of new heat networks. The study addressed technical, urban, financial, judicial and cartographic aspects. Public statistical data have been used and interviews of actors (network funders, representatives of delegating authorities, social landlords, administrations, and technical professions) have been performed. A guide of good practices is proposed regarding contract reviewing conditions, possibilities of revision of subscribed power. Prospective issues are discussed: strategic stakes and deposits, actions paths and tools, strategy and action plan. Appendices address methodologies, organisation of the geographical information system, judicial aspect with the circular of 1982, financial data and aspects. Then, a set of reports more precisely presents various aspects addressed as a contribution for the study of heat networks in Ile-de-France: the judicial aspect (present status, guide of good judicial practices), the economic aspect (present status of sale prices and costs, analysis of financing, of revision formula), and an assessment of urban heating development (context, technical aspect, analysis of the geographical information system)

  5. Risk Management in Air Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, according to the Air Protection Act, air pollution assessment is obligatory on the whole State territory. For individual regions and populated areas in the State a network has been established for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network consists of stations for measuring background pollution, regional and cross-border remote transfer and measurements as part of international government liabilities, then stations for measuring air quality in areas of cul...

  6. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  7. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  8. Sacramento County, CA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  10. The Diurnal Cycle of Particle Sizes, Compositions, and Densities observed in Sacramento, CA during CARES Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránek, J.; Vaden, T.; Imre, D. G.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2010-12-01

    A central objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was to characterize unequivocally all aspects related to organics in aerosols. To this end, a range of instruments measured loadings, size distributions, compositions, densities, CCN activities, and optical properties of aerosol sampled in Sacramento, CA over the month of June 2010. We present the results of measurements conducted by our single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT. SPLAT was used to measure the size, composition, and density of individual particles with diameters between 50 to 2000 nm. SPLAT measured the vacuum aerodynamic diameters (dva) of more than 2 million particles and the compositions of ~350,000 particles, each day. In addition, SPLAT was used in combination with a differential mobility analyzer to measure the density, or effective density of individual particles. These measurements were typically conducted twice per day: in the morning, and mid-afternoon. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that under most conditions, the particles were relatively small (below 200 nm), and the vast majority of them were composed of oxygenated organics mixed with various amounts of sulfates. Analysis of the mass spectra shows that the oxygenated organics in these particles are the oxidized products of biogenic volatile organic precursors. In addition to particles composed of SOA mixed with sulfates, we detected and characterized fresh and processed soot particles, biomass burning aerosol, organic amines, sea salt - fresh and processed - and a small number of dust and other inorganic particles, commonly found in urban environment. SOA mixed with sulfates were the vast majority of particles at all times, while the other particle types exhibited episodic behavior. The data shows a reproducible diurnal pattern in SOA size distributions, number concentrations, and compositions. Early in the morning the particle number concentrations are relatively low, and the particle size

  11. What do correlations tell us about anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and SOA formation in the Sacramento plume during CARES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kleinman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES the US Department of Energy (DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample aerosol and gas phase compounds in the Sacramento, CA, plume and surrounding region. We present data from 66 plume transects obtained during 13 flights in which southwesterly winds transported the plume towards the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Plume transport occurred partly over land with high isoprene emission rates. Our objective is to empirically determine whether organic aerosol (OA can be attributed to anthropogenic or biogenic sources, and to determine whether there is a synergistic effect whereby OA concentrations are enhanced by the simultaneous presence of high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO and either isoprene, MVK + MACR (sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, or methanol, which are taken as tracers of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, respectively. Linear and bilinear correlations between OA, CO, and each of three biogenic tracers, “Bio”, for individual plume transects indicate that most of the variance in OA over short timescales and distance scales can be explained by CO. For each transect and species a plume perturbation, (i.e., ΔOA, defined as the difference between 90th and 10th percentiles was defined and regressions done amongst Δ values in order to probe day-to-day and location-dependent variability. Species that predicted the largest fraction of the variance in ΔOA were ΔO3 and ΔCO. Background OA was highly correlated with background methanol and poorly correlated with other tracers. Because background OA was  ∼  60 % of peak OA in the urban plume, peak OA should be primarily biogenic and therefore non-fossil, even though the day-to-day and spatial variability of plume OA is best described by an anthropogenic tracer, CO. Transects were split into subsets according to the percentile rankings of ΔCO and ΔBio, similar to an approach used by Setyan

  12. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  13. Yolo Bypass Juvenile Salmon Utilization Study 2016—Summary of acoustically tagged juvenile salmon and study fish release, Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.

    2017-09-12

    The Yolo Bypass is a flood control bypass in Sacramento Valley, California. Flood plain habitats may be used for juvenile salmon rearing, however, the potential value of such habitats can be difficult to evaluate because of the intermittent nature of inundation events. The Yolo Bypass Juvenile Salmon Utilization Study (YBUS) used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the movements and survival of juvenile salmon adjacent to and within the Yolo Bypass during the winter of 2016. This report presents numbers, size data, and release data (times, dates, and locations) for the 1,197 acoustically tagged juvenile salmon released for the YBUS from February 21 to March 18, 2016. Detailed descriptions of the surgical implantation of transmitters are also presented. These data are presented to support the collaborative, interagency analysis and reporting of the study findings.

  14. Optical Neural Network Classifier Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Getbehead, Mark

    1998-01-01

    We present an adaptive opto-electronic neural network hardware architecture capable of exploiting parallel optics to realize real-time processing and classification of high-dimensional data for Air...

  15. Is it restoration or reconciliation? California's experience restoring the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta provides lessons learned and pathways forward to sustain critical ecosystem functions and services in a highly managed riverine delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.; Kelsey, R.

    2014-12-01

    Reconciling the needs of nature and people in California's Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta represents one of the most critical ecosystem management imperatives in western North America. Over 150 years the Delta has been managed for near-term human benefits and in the process 95% of riverine and deltaic wetlands have been lost throughout the region. Despite extensive land conversion and alteration of hydrological and physical processes, the Delta remains important habitat for migratory birds and is home to over 60% of California's native fish species. It is also the waterwheel for the state's vast water distribution network and is maintained by a system of constructed levees that are at risk from catastrophic failure due to sea level rise, floods, and/or seismic activity. Such a collapse would have dire consequences for > 25M humans and world's 10th largest economy that depend on its freshwater. Thus, the ultimate cost of this ecosystem alteration and simplification is a riverscape that is no longer reliable for nature or people. For 30 years, attempts to 'restore' Delta ecosystems and improve reliability have met with mixed results. For example, reconnection of floodplains to floodwaters has resulted in improved ecological health for native fishes and recharge to localized aquifers. Uncoordinated releases of discharges below dams, however, have resulted in diminished water quality and populations of indicator species. Attempts to create wildlife friendly farms have been countered by an increase in perennial agriculture and commensurate increases in irrigation water demand. From these lessons learned, we demonstrate three key components of a reconciled Delta that will be necessary in the future: 1) full restoration of critical habitats, reconnecting land and water to rebuild ecosystem function; 2) landscape redesign, incorporating natural and engineered infrastructure to create a biologically diverse, resilient landscape to support both agriculture and natural

  16. Some results of turbidity networks

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity networks to obtain daily values of haze attenuation from measurements of solar radiation, mostly by means of sun photometers, were established in 1961 in the USA by the National Center for Air Pollution Control, Cincinnati, Ohio, and in Western Europe from 1963 to 1967 by the author. The course of turbidity in the two networks during interesting periods is presented. Discussion of synoptic variations of turbidity is rather difficult, when referring to periods of rapid change of air ...

  17. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  18. Vertical propagation of waves in the solar atmosphere. II. Phase delays in the quiet chromosphere and cell-network distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lites, B.W.; Chipman, E.G.; White, O.R.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the phase of the velocity oscillations between a pair of chromospheric Ca II lines was measured using the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory. The observed phase differences indicate that the acoustic modes are trapped or envanescent, rather than propagating in the chromosphere. We find systematic distinctions in the phase delays between quiet network and cell interior regions for both intensity and velocity oscillations in photospheric and chromospheric lines. The theory of linear perturbations in a isothermal atmosphere is invoked to interpret these differences. From this analysis we find that one or more of the following explanations is possible. (1) the radiative damping is more effective in the network than in the cell interior; (2) the network features exclude oscillations of large horizontal wavenumber; or (3) the scale height of the chromosphere is larger in the network than in the cell interior

  19. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  20. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic and triadic configurations; as well...new metrics and ways to formulate team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic ...sensing, communication , information, and decision networks - Darryl Ahner (AFIT: Air Force Inst Tech) Panel Session: Mathematical Models of

  1. Airport Network Flow Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    The Airport Network Flow Simulator is a FORTRAN IV simulation of the flow of air traffic in the nation's 600 commercial airports. It calculates for any group of selected airports: (a) the landing and take-off (Type A) delays; and (b) the gate departu...

  2. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  3. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  4. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  5. Effects of the proposed California WaterFix North Delta Diversion on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Pope, Adam C.

    2018-05-11

    The California Department of Water Resources and Bureau of Reclamation propose new water intake facilities on the Sacramento River in northern California that would convey some of the water for export to areas south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereinafter referred to as the Delta) through tunnels rather than through the Delta. The collection of water intakes, tunnels, pumping facilities, associated structures, and proposed operations are collectively referred to as California WaterFix. The water intake facilities, hereinafter referred to as the North Delta Diversion (NDD), are proposed to be located on the Sacramento River downstream of the city of Sacramento and upstream of the first major river junction where Sutter Slough branches from the Sacramento River. The NDD can divert a maximum discharge of 9,000 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) from the Sacramento River, which reduces the amount of Sacramento River inflow into the Delta. In this report, we conduct four analyses to investigate the effect of the NDD and its proposed operation on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). All analyses used the results of a Bayesian survival model that allowed us to simulate travel time, migration routing, and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through the Delta in response to NDD operations, which affected both inflows to the Delta and operation of the Delta Cross Channel (DCC). For the first analysis, we evaluated the effect of the NDD bypass rules on salmon survival. The NDD bypass rules are a set of operational rule curves designed to provide adaptive levels of fish protection by defining allowable diversion rates as a function of (1) Sacramento River discharge as measured at Freeport, and (2) time of year when endangered runs requiring the most protection are present. We determined that all bypass rule curves except constant low-level pumping (maximum diversion of 900 ft3 /s) could cause a sizeable decrease in survival by as

  6. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Southern Sacramento Valley soil and sediment has abundant naturally-occurring Cr(III). → Cr(III) resides mainly in chromite but some is associated with clays and Fe oxides. → Cr(VI) is mostly absent in surface soil but ubiquitous in deeper soil and sediment. → Cr(VI) increased linearly with time during lab soil incubations with no additions. → Cation exchange processes resulted in greater Cr(VI) generation rates. - Abstract: Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization's maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L -1 ) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L -1 . To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ∼1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42

  7. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Christopher T., E-mail: cmills@usgs.gov [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Southern Sacramento Valley soil and sediment has abundant naturally-occurring Cr(III). > Cr(III) resides mainly in chromite but some is associated with clays and Fe oxides. > Cr(VI) is mostly absent in surface soil but ubiquitous in deeper soil and sediment. > Cr(VI) increased linearly with time during lab soil incubations with no additions. > Cation exchange processes resulted in greater Cr(VI) generation rates. - Abstract: Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization's maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 {mu}g L{sup -1}) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to {approx}1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged

  8. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodes, C.; Sheldon, L.; Whitaker, D.; Clayton, A.; Fitzgerald, K.

    1999-01-01

    This project measured 2-hour integrated concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, metals and a number of organic chemicals including benzene and MTBE inside vehicles on California roadways. Using continuous samplers, particle counts, black carbon, and CO were also measured. In addition to measuring in-vehicle levels, the investigators measured pollutant levels just outside the vehicle, at roadside stations, and ambient air monitoring stations. Different driving scenarios were designed to assess the effects of a number of factors on in-vehicle pollutant levels. These factors included roadway type, carpool lanes, traffic conditions, geographical locations, vehicle type, and vehicle ventilation conditions. The statewide average in-vehicle concentrations of benzene, MTBE, and formaldehyde ranged from 3--22 microg/m 3 , 3--90 microg/m 3 , and 0---22 microg/m 3 , respectively. The ranges of mean PM10 and PM2.5 in-vehicle levels in Sacramento were 20--40 microg/m 3 and 6--22 microg/m 3 , respectively. In general, pollutant levels inside or just outside the vehicles were higher than those measured at the roadside stations or the ambient air stations. In-vehicle pollutant levels were consistently higher in Los Angeles than Sacramento. Pollutant levels measured inside vehicles traveling in a carpool lane were much lower than those in the right-hand, slower lanes. Under the study conditions, factors such as vehicle type and ventilation and little effect on in-vehicle pollutant levels. Other factors, such as roadway type, freeway congestion level, and time-of-day had some influence on in-vehicle pollution levels

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  12. Air quality modelling using chemometric techniques | Azid | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents that the chemometric techniques and modelling become an excellent tool in API assessment, air pollution source identification, apportionment and can be setbacks in designing an API monitoring network for effective air pollution resources management. Keywords: air pollutant index; chemometric; ANN; ...

  13. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  14. Air condition sensor on KNX network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecova, Katerina; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Walendziuk, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    One of the main goals of modern buildings in addition to the management environment is also attempt to save energy. For this reason, increased demands on the prevention of energy loss, which can be expressed for example as an inefficient use of the available functions as a building or heat leakage. Reducing heat loss as a perfect tightness of doors and windows in the building, however, restricts the natural ventilation, which leads to a gradual deterioration of the quality of the internal environment. This state then has a very significant impact on human health. In the closed, poorly ventilated area, the person staying at increasing the carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and humidity, which impacts the human thermoregulation system, increases fatigue and causes restlessness. It is therefore necessary to monitor these parameters and then control so as to ensure stable and optimal human values. The aim is to design and implementation Module sensors that will be able to measure different parameters, allowing the subsequent regulation of indoor environmental quality.

  15. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  16. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  17. Atmospheric effects of chemical rocket propulsion - Report of an AIAA Workshop, Sacramento, CA, June 28, 29, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A careful evaluation of relevant studies conducted in the U.S., Europe, and the Soviet Union has established that the effects of chemical rocket propulsion on stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain, toxicity, air quality, and global warming were negligibly small by comparison with other anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. It is nevertheless acknowledged that environmental concern should remain on a level of importance comparable to rocket cost, performance, and reliability criteria, and that efforts should be made to reduce environmental effects. The International Astronautical Federation has been identified as the appropriate organization for regulatory efforts

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  19. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  20. El entorno local como objeto de estudio y de aplicación del saber geoambiental. Una experiencia práctica en Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ethel Benítez Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta la importancia de los métodos de aprendizaje, tanto para la enseñanza de la geografía, como para la prevención y atención de problemas socioambientales concretos. Para este propósito, se expondrá el análisis de una experiencia pedagógica llevada a cabo con estudiantes de secundaria, en torno al impacto de las acciones humanas avaladas, en forma directa e indirecta, por las autoridades gubernamentales locales y nacionales sobre el sistema de humedales que forman parte de la franja costera de la ciudad de Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay. Se espera demostrar cómo la enseñanza de la geografía en la secundaria, desde una postura reflexiva, crítica y activa, favorece el desarrollo de capacidades cognitivas en los educandos que redundan en la formación de individuos responsables, autónomos y con capacidad crítica, capaces de dar soluciones y tomar decisiones con respecto a problemas concretos como el arriba enunciado.

  1. Strategies to prevent and reduce diabetes and obesity in Sacramento, California: the African American Leadership Coalition and University of California, Davis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegahn, Linda; Styne, Dennis; Askia, Joyce; Roberts, Tina; Lewis, Edward T; Edwards, Whitney

    2013-11-14

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of illness and death for African Americans and people of African descent throughout the United States and in the city and county of Sacramento, California. The involvement of families and communities in developing prevention strategies can increase the likelihood that behavioral changes will be sustained. Three member organizations of the African American Leadership Coalition (AALC) entered into a partnership with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) to engage families in developing a process to identify barriers to diabetes and obesity prevention and reduction, exchange strategies, and create action plans for prevention. The intervention comprised 3 phases: 1) coalition formation and training; 2) data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results; and 3) development of family and community action plans. Academic and community partners planned and implemented all project phases together. Sources of information about diabetes and obesity were primarily doctors and the Internet; barriers were related to lack of time needed to prepare healthy meals, high food costs, transportation to fresh markets, motivation around healthy habits, and unsafe environments. Action plans addressed behavioral change and family cohesion. The group discussion format encouraged mutual support and suggestions for better eating and physical exercise habits. This collaborative partnership model can strengthen existing group relationships or promote new affiliations that form the basis for future action coalitions. Participants worked both within and across groups to exchange information, stories of success and challenges, and specific health improvement strategies.

  2. Effect of Climate Extremes, Seasonal Change, and Agronomic Practices on Measured Evapotranspiration and CO2 Exchange in Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta Alfalfa Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Paw U, K. T.; Little, C.; Lambert, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration and CO2 exchange was measured in five alfalfa fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta region from 2016 to 2017 using eddy covariance and surface renewal methods. Seasonal changes of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes were compared between 2016, a drought year, and 2017, a high rainfall year. Additionally, changes in evapotranspiration and CO2 flux were investigated across various agronomic considerations, such as irrigation methods (border-check flood and sub-surface), stand life, and herbicide programs. Components of the energy balance, including net radiation, latent heat, ground heat flux, and sensible heat, were evaluated considering correlations to wind speed measured by three sonic anemometers, irrigation frequency, and crop cutting cycle. Comparisons between two different types of radiometers were also carried out. Under drought conditions, we observed higher amounts of evapotranspiration in a field having a stand life of less than two years of age compared to older stands, and in a sub-surface irrigated field compared to flood irrigated fields.

  3. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  4. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  5. Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden D; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2006-01-01

    .... This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles...

  6. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  7. EU-regulation for PM2.5. Consequences for the National Air Quality Monitoring network; EU-regeling voor PM2,5 bekend. Gevolgen voor het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Arkel, F.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Van der Meulen, T. [Laboratorium voor Milieumetingen, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    In the European Union an agreement has been reached on revision of the directive for air quality and cleaner air for Europe (Clean Air for Europe, CAFE). For the sake of clarity, simplicity and efficiency the current framework directive from 1996, including the first four subsidiary directives, have been combined in one single directive. (mk) [Dutch] In de Europese Unie is een akkoord bereikt over herziening van de richtlijn betreffende de luchtkwaliteit en schonere lucht voor Europa (Clean Air for Europe, CAFE). Ten behoeve van de duidelijkheid, eenvoud en efficientie zijn in het voorstel de huidige kaderrichtlijn uit 1996 en de daarbij behorende eerste vier dochterrichtlijnen samengevoegd in een enkele richtlijn.

  8. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  9. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  11. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  12. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  13. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  14. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  15. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  16. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  17. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  18. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  19. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  20. Use of dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes to track photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrification along a 56 mile transect in the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Peek, S.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    A decline in phytoplankton stocks in the San Francisco Bay and Delta is thought to contribute to the pelagic organism decline observed over the past two decades. One factor controlling phytoplankton growth rate is the availability of nutrients. Although there is an excess of nutrients in the Bay and Delta, the type and relative abundance of nutrients is critical to phytoplankton growth. To evaluate the response of phytoplankton to nutrient sources and to better understand phytoplankton dynamics downstream, we tested the hypothesis that the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along with conventional water chemistry analyses will record events such as increased nitrification (related to the Sacramento River Wastewater Treatment Plant ammonium input) and algal blooms, and reflect the balance between photosynthesis and bacterial respiration. Multiple parameters affect [DIC] and its δ13C, including DIC sources, pH, and biological processes. Consumption of CO2 by phytoplankton during photosynthesis and by autotrophic bacteria during nitrification both result in increases in δ13C-DIC. However, photosynthesis and nitrification have very different relationships to chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations. The balance between heterotrophic bacterial respiration and photosynthesis should be reflected in trends in DIC, nutrient, and chlorophyll concentration, and δ13C-DIC. The δ13C of DIC should also be reflected in the δ13C of phytoplankton with approximately a 20 per mil fractionation. Significant deviation in the fractionation factor may indicate local variations in growth rate, nutrient availability, or speciation. Combined, these parameters should provide a gauge of the relative importance of the above mentioned processes. To test this hypothesis, we collected 19 water samples per cruise between July 2012 and July 2013 along a 56 mile transect between Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay near Angel Island during 8 cruises on the USGS RV

  1. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  2. Using remote sensing to monitor past changes and assess future scenarios for the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta waterways, California USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria J.; Hestir, Erin; Khanna, Shruti; Ustin, Susan L.

    2017-04-01

    Historically, deltas have been extensively affected both by natural processes and human intervention. Thus, understanding drivers, predicting impacts and optimizing solutions to delta problems requires a holistic approach spanning many sectors, disciplines and fields of expertise. Deltas are ideal model systems to understand the effects of the interaction between social and ecological domains, as they face unprecedented disturbances and threats to their biological and ecological sustainability. The challenge for deltas is to meet the goals of supporting biodiversity and ecosystem processes while also provisioning fresh water resources for human use. We provide an overview of the last 150 years of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta, where we illustrate the parallel process of an increase in disturbances, by particularly zooming in on the current cascading effects of invasive species on geophysical and biological processes. Using remote sensing data coupled with in situ measurements of water quality, turbidity, and species presence we show how the spread and persistence of aquatic invasive species affects sedimentation processes and ecosystem functioning. Our results show that the interactions between the biological and physical conditions in the Delta affect the trajectory of dominance by native and invasive aquatic plant species. Trends in growth and community characteristics associated with predicted impacts of climate change (sea level rise, warmer temperatures, changes in the hydrograph with high winter and low summer outflows) do not provide simple predictions. Individually, the impact of specific environmental changes on the biological components can be predicted, however it is the complex interactions of biological communities with the suite of physical changes that make predictions uncertain. Systematic monitoring is critical to provide the data needed to document and understand change of these delta systems, and to identify successful adaptation

  3. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z; Alpers, Charles N; Neymark, Leonid A; Paces, James B; Taylor, Howard E; Fuller, Christopher C

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon and (210)Pb. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0μgg(-1)and from 6.9 to 71ngg(-1), respectively. For much of the past 6000+ years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~1425CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~1850CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74μgg(-1) Pb, 990ngg(-1) Hg; PbEF=12 and HgEF=28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in changes in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and subsequent fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~6700-year existence; however, since ~1425CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Influência da queima controlada no pH do solo em povoamentos de Pinus spp, na região de Sacramento, MG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gomes Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a influência da queima na variação do pH em solo com povoamento de Pinus caribaea Morolet var. hondurensis e Pinus oocarpa Schiedler. A pesquisa desenvolveu-se na região de Sacramento, Minas Gerais, em latossolo vermelho-amarelo, fase argilosa. Foram selecionados 2 talhões (250 x 600 m para cada espécie, demarcados por aceiros e queimados em dois períodos, às 10 e 16 horas, segundo a técnica de queima contra o vento. As áreas experimentais foram divididas em 8 parcelas, por espécie, em um delineamento completamente ao acaso. A coleta dos dados foi feita antes, imediatamente após, 7 meses e 14 meses após a queima em perfis de solo de 0-50 cm, abertos na interseção entre linhas e filas das árvores. Foram coletadas amostras da serrapilheira e de solo a várias profundidades. Verificou-se que após a queima, o pH em cloreto de potássio teve uma ligeira elevação, estabilizando-se até o final do período, em ambas as espécies estudadas. Para o pH em água, houve também uma ligeira elevação após a queima no Pinus oocarpa e um aumento significativo no final do período, para ambas espécies estudadas.

  5. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith; Alpers, Charles N.; Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.; Taylor, Howard E.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0 µg g-1and from 6.9 to 71 ng g-1, respectively. For much of the past 6000+ years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~1425 CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~1850 CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74 µg g-1 Pb, 990 ng g-1 Hg; PbEF = 12 and HgEF = 28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963 CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~6700-year existence; however, since ~1425 CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources.

  6. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  7. Networked ATM for Efficient Routing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed a EFB Data Communication Network (EDCN) concept that offers a more capable air-ground communications architecture. The solution takes full advantage of...

  8. 76 FR 53853 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Action Network (LEAN) v. EPA, No. 02-60991). The issues raised concerned EPA's decision to approve... Ambient Air Quality Standard,'' Memorandum from John S. Seitz, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning...

  9. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  10. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  11. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Nicholas, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the potential air quality impacts of hydrogen transportation fuel from a lifecycle analysis perspective, including impacts from fuel production, delivery, and vehicle use. We assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are introduced in a specific region, Sacramento County, California. We consider two levels of market penetration where 9% or 20% of the light duty fleet are hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The following three natural gas to hydrogen supply pathways are assessed in detail and compared in terms of emissions and the resulting changes in ambient air quality: (1) onsite hydrogen production; (2) centralized hydrogen production with gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery systems; and (3) centralized hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery systems. All the pathways examined use steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas to produce hydrogen. The source contributions to incremental air pollution are estimated and compared among hydrogen pathways. All of the hydrogen pathways result in extremely low contributions to ambient air concentrations of NO x , CO, particulates, and SO x , typically less than 0.1% of the current ambient pollution for both levels of market penetration. Among the hydrogen supply options, it is found that the central SMR with pipeline delivery systems is the lowest pollution option available provided the plant is located to avoid transport of pollutants into the city via prevailing winds. The onsite hydrogen pathway is comparable to the central hydrogen pathway with pipeline systems in terms of the resulting air pollution. The pathway with liquid hydrogen trucks has a greater impact on air quality relative to the other pathways due to emissions associated with diesel trucks and electricity consumption to liquefy hydrogen. However, all three hydrogen pathways result in negligible air pollution in the region. (author)

  12. Kids Making Sense of Air Quality Around Them Through a Hands-On, STEM-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in many parts of the world is harming millions of people, shortening lives, and taking a toll on our ecosystem. Cities in India, China, and even the United States frequently exceed air quality standards. The use of localized data is a powerful enhancement to regulatory monitoring site data. Learning about air quality at a local level is a powerful driver for change. The Kids Making Sense program unites Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education with a complete measurement and environmental education system that teaches youth about air pollution and empowers them to drive positive change in their communities. With this program, youth learn about particle pollution, its sources, and health effects. A half-day lecture is followed by hands-on activity using handheld air sensors paired with an app on smartphones. Students make measurements around schools to discover pollution sources and cleaner areas. Next, the data they collect are crowdsourced on a website for guided discussion and data interpretation. This program meets Next Generation Science Standards, encourages project-based learning and deep understanding of applied science, and allows students to practice science like real scientists. The program has been successfully implemented in several schools in the United States and Asia, including New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento in the United States, and Taipei and Taichung in Taiwan. During this talk, we'll provide an overview of the program, discuss some of the challenges, and lay out the next steps for Kids Making Sense.

  13. Interference-robust Air Interface for 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    the existing wireless network infrastructure to the limit. Mobile network operators must invest in network expansion to deal with this problem, but the predicted network requirements show that a new Radio Access Technology (RAT) standard will be fundamental to reach the future target performance. This new 5th...... to the fundamental role of inter-cell interference in this type of networks, the inter-cell interference problem must be addressed since the beginning of the design of the new standard. This Ph.D. thesis deals with the design of an interference-robust air interface for 5G small cell networks. The interference...

  14. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  15. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  16. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  17. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  19. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  20. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)