WorldWideScience

Sample records for network radiometric remote

  1. Radiometric considerations for ocean color remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for determination of the effects of radiometric noise on the performance of ocean color sensors is developed and applied to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer planned for the Earth Observing System.

  2. Virtual and remote experiments for radiometric and photometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, L.-J.; Girwidz, R.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of spectra is fundamental to our modern understanding of wave optics and colour perception. Since spectrometers are expensive, and accurate calibration is necessary to achieve high quality spectra, we developed a remote lab on optical spectrometry. With this tool, students can carry out real experiments over the Internet. In this article the pros and cons of remote labs, the physical background of optical spectrometry, and the development and use of a radiometric remote lab for higher education are discussed. The remote lab is freely accessible to everyone at http://virtualremotelab.net.

  3. Parallel relative radiometric normalisation for remote sensing image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Chen, Zhenjie; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Cheng, Liang; Ren, Yibin

    2014-12-01

    Relative radiometric normalisation (RRN) is a vital step to achieve radiometric consistency among remote sensing images. Geo-analysis over large areas often involves mosaicking massive remote sensing images. Hence RRN becomes a data-intensive and computing-intensive task. This study implements a parallel RNN method based on the iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) transformation and orthogonal regression. To parallelise the method of IR-MAD and orthogonal regression, there are two key problems: the normalisation path determination and the task dependence on normalisation coefficients calculation. In this paper, the reference image and normalisation paths are determined based on the shortest distance algorithm to reduce normalisation error. Formulas of orthogonal regression are acquired considering the effect of the normalisation path to reduce the task dependence on the calculation of coefficients. A master-slave parallel mode is proposed to implement the parallel method, and a task queue and a process queue are used for task scheduling. Experiments show that the parallel RRN method provides good normalisation results and favourable parallel speed-up, efficiency and scalability, which indicate that the parallel method can handle large volumes of remote sensing images efficiently.

  4. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Michael; Laube, Pascal; Schall, Martin; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.

    2017-08-01

    Digital cameras are used in a large variety of scientific and industrial applications. For most applications, the acquired data should represent the real light intensity per pixel as accurately as possible. However, digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optical effects that lead to errors and noise in the raw image. Temperature- dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels are examples of such effects. The purpose of radiometric calibration is to improve the quality of the resulting images by reducing the influence of the various types of errors on the measured data and thus improving the quality of the overall application. In this context, we present a specialized neural network architecture for radiometric calibration of digital cameras. Neural networks are used to learn a temperature- and exposure-dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. In contrast to classical at-fielding, neural networks have the potential to model nonlinear mappings which allows for accurately capturing the temperature dependence of the dark current and for modeling cameras with nonlinear sensitivities. Both scenarios are highly relevant in industrial applications. The experimental comparison of our network approach to classical at-fielding shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality, also for linear cameras. In addition, the calibration is faster than previous machine learning approaches based on Gaussian processes.

  5. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelcey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  6. Influence of Lossy Compressed DEM on Radiometric Correction for Land Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, G.; Pesquer, L.; Blanes, I.; Serra-Sagristà, J.; Pons, X.

    2012-12-01

    World coverage Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have progressively increased their spatial resolution (e.g., ETOPO, SRTM, or Aster GDEM) and, consequently, their storage requirements. On the other hand, lossy data compression facilitates accessing, sharing and transmitting large spatial datasets in environments with limited storage. However, since lossy compression modifies the original information, rigorous studies are needed to understand its effects and consequences. The present work analyzes the influence of DEM quality -modified by lossy compression-, on the radiometric correction of remote sensing imagery, and the eventual propagation of the uncertainty in the resulting land cover classification. Radiometric correction is usually composed of two parts: atmospheric correction and topographical correction. For topographical correction, DEM provides the altimetry information that allows modeling the incidence radiation on terrain surface (cast shadows, self shadows, etc). To quantify the effects of the DEM lossy compression on the radiometric correction, we use radiometrically corrected images for classification purposes, and compare the accuracy of two standard coding techniques for a wide range of compression ratios. The DEM has been obtained by resampling the DEM v.2 of Catalonia (ICC), originally having 15 m resolution, to the Landsat TM resolution. The Aster DEM has been used to fill the gaps beyond the administrative limits of Catalonia. The DEM has been lossy compressed with two coding standards at compression ratios 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 and 200:1. The employed coding standards have been JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC; the former is an international ISO/ITU-T standard for almost any type of images, while the latter is a recommendation of the CCSDS consortium for mono-component remote sensing images. Both techniques are wavelet-based followed by an entropy-coding stage. Also, for large compression ratios, both techniques need a post processing for correctly

  7. METHOD OF RADIOMETRIC DISTORTION CORRECTION OF MULTISPECTRAL DATA FOR THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with technologies of ground secondary processing of heterogeneous multispectral data. The factors of heterogeneous data include uneven illumination of objects on the Earth surface caused by different properties of the relief. A procedure for the image restoration of spectral channels by means of terrain distortion compensation is developed. The object matter of this paper is to improve the quality of the results during image restoration of areas with large and medium landforms. Methods. Researches are based on the elements of the digital image processing theory, statistical processing of the observation results and the theory of multi-dimensional arrays. Main Results. The author has introduced operations on multidimensional arrays: concatenation and elementwise division. Extended model description for input data about the area is given. The model contains all necessary data for image restoration. Correction method for multispectral data radiometric distortions of the Earth remote sensing has been developed. The method consists of two phases: construction of empirical dependences for spectral reflectance on the relief properties and restoration of spectral images according to semiempirical data. Practical Relevance. Research novelty lies in developme nt of the application theory of multidimensional arrays with respect to the processing of multispectral data, together with data on the topography and terrain objects. The results are usable for development of radiometric data correction tools. Processing is performed on the basis of a digital terrain model without carrying out ground works connected with research of the objects reflective properties.

  8. The Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet): a Global Calibration and Validation Test Site Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Bouvet, M.; Wenny, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) Working Group (WG) consists of national and academic groups from various countries who are involved in the radiometric calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors. The current WG is composed of members from France, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, and China. RadCalNet has been on the agenda of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) for years, and in 2014 it was formally assembled. The primary goal is to develop an SI-traceable standardized network of sites and processing protocols for the absolute radiometric calibration, Intercalibration, and validation of Earth-observing sensors. Currently, RadCalNet is composed of four instrumented test sites that are located in the USA, France, Namibia, and China. A two-year prototyping phase was used to define the architecture of RadCalNet, demonstrate the operational concept using current satellite sensors, and to provide recommendations to CEOS WGCV for the transition of RadCalNet to an operational status. The final product is planned to be a daily hyperspectral (400-2500 nm) top-of-atmosphere reflectance in 30-minute intervals for a nadir-viewing sensor at each of the four test sites. The current schedule has RadCalNet becoming operational in late 2016 or early 2017.

  9. remote sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Unold, Georg; Junker, Astrid; Altmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-throughput (HT) plant phenotyping systems enable the quantitative analysis of a variety of plant features in a fully automated fashion. The comprehensive phenomics infrastructure at IPK comprises three LemnaTec conveyor belt-based (plant-to-sensor) systems for the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of individual plants of different sizes. For monitoring of environmental conditions within the plant growth area and soil conditions in individual pots, highly modular and flexible remote sensing devices are required. We present the architecture of a wireless sensor network implemented in the HT plant phenotyping systems at IPK in the frame of the German Plant Phenotyping Network (DPPN). This system comprises 350 soil monitoring modules, each measuring water content, water matrix potential, temperature and electric conductivity. Furthermore small and large sensor platforms enable the continuous monitoring of environmental parameters such as incident photosynthetic active radiation, total radiation balance, relative humidity and CO2 concentration and more. Finally we present an introduction into data management and maintenance."

  10. Multispectral Radiometric Analysis of Façades to Detect Pathologies from Active and Passive Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Del Pozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a radiometric study to recognize pathologies in façades of historical buildings by using two different remote sensing technologies covering part of the visible and very near infrared spectrum (530–905 nm. Building materials deteriorate over the years due to different extrinsic and intrinsic agents, so assessing these affections in a non-invasive way is crucial to help preserve them since in many cases they are valuable and some have been declared monuments of cultural interest. For the investigation, passive and active remote acquisition systems were applied operating at different wavelengths. A 6-band Mini-MCA multispectral camera (530–801 nm and a FARO Focus3D terrestrial laser scanner (905 nm were used with the dual purpose of detecting different materials and damages on building façades as well as determining which acquisition system and spectral range is more suitable for this kind of studies. The laser scan points were used as base to create orthoimages, the input of the two different classification processes performed. The set of all orthoimages from both sensors was classified under supervision. Furthermore, orthoimages from each individual sensor were automatically classified to compare results from each sensor with the reference supervised classification. Higher overall accuracy with the FARO Focus3D, 74.39%, was obtained with respect to the Mini MCA6, 66.04%. Finally, after applying the radiometric calibration, a minimum improvement of 24% in the image classification results was obtained in terms of overall accuracy.

  11. Glacier Remote Sensing Using Sentinel-2. Part I: Radiometric and Geometric Performance, and Application to Ice Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kääb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With its temporal resolution of 10 days (five days with two satellites, and significantly more at high latitudes, its swath width of 290 km, and its 10 m and 20 m spatial resolution bands from the visible to the shortwave infrared, the European Sentinel-2 satellites have significant potential for glacier remote sensing, in particular mapping of glacier outlines and facies, and velocity measurements. Testing Level 1C commissioning and ramp-up phase data for initial sensor quality experiences, we find a high radiometric performance, but with slight striping effects under certain conditions. Through co-registration of repeat Sentinal-2 data we also find lateral offset patterns and noise on the order of a few metres. Neither of these issues will complicate most typical glaciological applications. Absolute geo-location of the data investigated was on the order of one pixel at the time of writing. The most severe geometric problem stems from vertical errors of the DEM used for ortho-rectifying Sentinel-2 data. These errors propagate into locally varying lateral offsets in the images, up to several pixels with respect to other georeferenced data, or between Sentinel-2 data from different orbits. Finally, we characterize the potential and limitations of tracking glacier flow from repeat Sentinel-2 data using a set of typical glaciers in different environments: Aletsch Glacier, Swiss Alps; Fox Glacier, New Zealand; Jakobshavn Isbree, Greenland; Antarctic Peninsula at the Larsen C ice shelf.

  12. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.; AGARWAL,D.; RICE,D.

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  13. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.SATOGATA,TAGARWAL,DRICE,D

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  14. Remote operations in a global accelerator network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggs, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Satogata, Todd [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rice, David [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2003-05-08

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  15. Administration of remote computer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldbo, Stig Jarle

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Today's computer networks have gone from typically being a small local area network, to wide area networks, where users and servers are interconnected with each other from all over the world. This development has gradually expanded as bandwidth has become higher and cheaper. But when dealing with the network traffic, bandwidth is only one of the important properties. Delay, jitter and reliability are also important properties for t...

  16. Secure Remote Network Administration and Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    connectors without the use of a repeater can affect network performance detrimentally. A repeater is essentially an amplifier used in series to boost......assistance, phone lines at both the local and remote locations are required, but the touchtone controller allows other devices to share the Telco line

  17. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Christy, Brian; Dolch, Timothy; Guerreo-Miller, Alma; Quetschke, Volker; Siemens, Xavier; Smith, Tristan L.; Stovall, Kevin; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) network is an education, research, and training program for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs spanning multiple institutions. ARCC members use the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope to remotely conduct pulsar survey and timing observations, and they search the data collected to find new radio pulsars using a custom pulsar candidate viewer. Timing data are used in the ongoing NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. The ARCC program also serves as an effective introduction for students to radio pulsar research. Currently ARCC has seven institutional members and dozens of participants. Our poster provides some general background about the ARCC program at Franklin and Marshall College and serves as a catalyst for in-person conversations and discussions about ARCC, including the benefits of joining the ARCC network and some specifics on how to join.

  18. Medical remote sensors in tactical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Hunter R.; Urquidez, Gabriel R.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The use of vital sign data is a fundamental diagnostic process that is ubiquitous in the delivery of healthcare in military medicine. This process, while providing invaluable information for planning patient treatment, has historically come with administrative challenges in transcription and remote monitoring. New advancements in sensors technologies operating in tactical networks provide a unique opportunity to meet these challenges. ...

  19. Research on optical access network remote management technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wayne; Zou, Chen; Luo, Wenyi

    2008-11-01

    This paper goal is to provide a framework for the remote configuration and management of services for PON (Passive Optical Network) access and fiber access. Also it defines how Auto-Configuration Servers (ACS) in the network can remotely configure, troubleshoot and manage a Passive Optical Network (PON) optical network termination (ONT) with layer 3 capabilities using the CPE WAN management protocol, TR-069.

  20. CSP parabolic trough and power tower performance analysis through the Southern African universities radiometric network (SAURAN) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, A. S.; Dall, E. P.; Hoffmann, J. E.; Dinter, F.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of parabolic trough and power tower technologies by selecting two radiometric stations in different geographic locations, with approximately equal annual direct normal irradiance (DNI) values, but with different monthly DNI distributions. The two stations chosen for this study are situated at the University of Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State Province and in Vanrhynsdorp, Western Cape Province. The annual measured DNI values for both these locations in South Africa are in the range of 2500-2700 kWh/m2. The comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes an assessment of annual hourly data in order to study the performance analysis of the most mature concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies, namely parabolic trough and power tower plants. The weather data has been obtained from the Southern African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN). A comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes the assessment of hourly data. Selection of these radiometric stations has also been done on the basis that they have been operational for at least one year. The first year that most SAURAN stations have been online for at least one year is 2014, thus data from this year has been considered. The annual performance analysis shows that parabolic trough plants have a higher energy yield in Vanrhynsdorp while power tower plants seem to be more suitable for Bloemfontein. Power tower plants in both the locations have a higher annual energy yield when compared with parabolic trough plants. A parabolic trough power plant in Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape Province has very low monthly electricity generation in the winter months of May, June, July and August. This is partly due to the higher cosine losses in the parabolic trough `one-axis' tracking systems and lower DNI values in the winter months. However, a power tower plant in

  1. Controls from remote through Social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ingrao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Author focuses on the recently reformed provisions regulating the employer’s power to control from remote the employees’ activities (art. 4 of the Workers Statute, with particular regard to controls performed by means of Social networks.Such controls are in fact extremely powerful due to the versatile and multi-purpose character of Social networks, which may also be used as a working device. A widespread case law shows indeed that employer’s controls may cost a worker his job.Therefore, after the reform, all employees will have to read carefully the employer’s Privacy policies, before accessing socials during the worktime to express opinions and/or frustrations.

  2. AERONET-OC: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Network for the Validation of Satellite Coastal Radiometric Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; D'Alimonte, Davide; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Schuster, Gregory; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been implemented to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site consistent and accurate measurements collected by autonomous radiometer systems deployed on offshore fixed platforms. The ultimate purpose of AERONET-OC is the production of standardized measurements performed at different sites with identical measuring systems and protocols, calibrated using a single reference source and method, and processed with the same code. The AERONET-OC primary data product is the normalized water leaving radiance determined at center-wavelengths of interest for satellite ocean color applications, with an uncertainty lower than 5% in the blue-green spectral regions and higher than 8% in the red. Measurements collected at 6 sites counting the northern Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, the Persian Gulf, and, the northern and southern margins of the Middle Atlantic Bay, have shown the capability of producing quality assured data over a wide range of bio-optical conditions including Case-2 yellow substance- and sedimentdominated waters. This work briefly introduces network elements like: deployment sites, measurement method, instrument calibration, processing scheme, quality-assurance, uncertainties, data archive and products accessibility. Emphases is given to those elements which underline the network strengths (i.e., mostly standardization of any network element) and its weaknesses (i.e., the use of consolidated, but old-fashioned technology). The work also addresses the application of AERONET-OC data to the validation of primary satellite radiometric products over a variety of complex coastal waters and finally provides elements for the identification of new deployment sites most suitable to support satellite ocean color missions.

  3. SINGLE-IMAGE SUPER RESOLUTION FOR MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING DATA USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liebel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In optical remote sensing, spatial resolution of images is crucial for numerous applications. Space-borne systems are most likely to be affected by a lack of spatial resolution, due to their natural disadvantage of a large distance between the sensor and the sensed object. Thus, methods for single-image super resolution are desirable to exceed the limits of the sensor. Apart from assisting visual inspection of datasets, post-processing operations—e.g., segmentation or feature extraction—can benefit from detailed and distinguishable structures. In this paper, we show that recently introduced state-of-the-art approaches for single-image super resolution of conventional photographs, making use of deep learning techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN, can successfully be applied to remote sensing data. With a huge amount of training data available, end-to-end learning is reasonably easy to apply and can achieve results unattainable using conventional handcrafted algorithms. We trained our CNN on a specifically designed, domain-specific dataset, in order to take into account the special characteristics of multispectral remote sensing data. This dataset consists of publicly available SENTINEL-2 images featuring 13 spectral bands, a ground resolution of up to 10m, and a high radiometric resolution and thus satisfying our requirements in terms of quality and quantity. In experiments, we obtained results superior compared to competing approaches trained on generic image sets, which failed to reasonably scale satellite images with a high radiometric resolution, as well as conventional interpolation methods.

  4. Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, pros and cons. Finally, a synopsis of the main factors to take into consideration in the design of a remote sensor system is gathered.

  5. Integration of wireless sensor network and remote sensing for monitoring and determining irrigation demand in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Papadavid, George; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims to highlight the benefits from the integration of wireless sensor network / meteorological data and remote sensing for monitoring and determine irrigation demand in Cyprus. Estimating evapotranspiration in Cyprus will help, in taking measures for an effective irrigation water management in the future in the island. For this purpose both multi-spectral satellite images (Landsat 7 ETM+ and ASTER) and hydro-meteorological data from wireless sensors and automatic meteorological stations have been used. The wireless sensor network, which consist approximately twenty wireless nodes, was placed in our case study. The wireless sensor network acts as a wide area distributed data collection system deployed to collect and reliably transmit soil and air environmental data to a remote base-station hosted at Cyprus University of Technology. Furthermore auxiliary meteorological field data, from an automatic meteorological station, nearby our case study, where used such as solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. These data were used in conjunction with remote sensing results. Satellite images where used in ERDAS Imagine Software after the necessary processing: geometric rectification, radiometric calibration and atmospheric corrections. The satellite images were atmospheric corrected and calibrated using spectro-radiometers and sun-photometers measurements taken in situ, in an agricultural area, south-west of the island of Cyprus. Evapotranspiration is difficult to determine since it combines various meteorological and field parameters while in literature quite many different models for estimating ET are indicated. For estimating evapotranspiration from satellite images and the hydro-meteorological data different methods have been evaluated such as FAO Penman-Monteith, Carlson-Buffum and Granger methods. These results have been compared with E-pan methods. Finally a water management irrigation schedule has been applied. The final results are

  6. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a rad...

  7. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, N.T.; van Halteren, Aart; Widya, I.A.; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a

  8. Remotely Exploiting AT Command Attacks on ZigBee Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vaccari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things networks represent an emerging phenomenon bringing connectivity to common sensors. Due to the limited capabilities and to the sensitive nature of the devices, security assumes a crucial and primary role. In this paper, we report an innovative and extremely dangerous threat targeting IoT networks. The attack is based on Remote AT Commands exploitation, providing a malicious user with the possibility of reconfiguring or disconnecting IoT sensors from the network. We present the proposed attack and evaluate its efficiency by executing tests on a real IoT network. Results demonstrate how the threat can be successfully executed and how it is able to focus on the targeted nodes, without affecting other nodes of the network.

  9. Network Performance and Quality of Experience of Remote Access Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Kist

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote Access Laboratories (RAL have become important learning and teaching tools. This paper presents a performance study that targets a specific remote access architecture implemented within a universities operational environment. This particular RAL system provides globally authenticated and arbitrated remote access to virtualized computers as well as computer controlled hardware experiments. This paper presents system performance results that have been obtained utilizing both a set of automated and human subject tests. Principle objectives of the study were: To gain a better understanding of the nature of network traffic caused by experimental activity usage; to obtain an indication of user expectations of activity performance; and to develop a measure to predict Quality of Experience, based on easily measurable Quality of Service parameters. The study emulates network layer variation of access-bandwidth and round-trip-time of typical usage scenarios and contrasts against user perception results that allow classifying expected user performance. It demonstrates that failure rate is excellent measure of usability, and that round-trip-time predominantly affects user experience. Thin-client and remote desktop architectures are popular to separate the location of users and the actual data processing and use similar structures, hence results of this study to be applied in these application areas as well.

  10. A Prototype Network for Remote Sensing Validation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguo Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Validation is an essential and important step before the application of remote sensing products. This paper introduces a prototype of the validation network for remote sensing products in China (VRPC. The VRPC aims to improve remote sensing products at a regional scale in China. These improvements will enhance the applicability of the key remote sensing products in understanding and interpretation of typical land surface processes in China. The framework of the VRPC is introduced first, including its four basic components. Then, the basic selection principles of the observation sites are described, and the principles for the validation of the remote sensing products are established. The VRPC will be realized in stages. In the first stage, four stations that have improved remote sensing observation facilities have been incorporated according to the selection principles. Certain core observation sites have been constructed at these stations. Next the Heihe Station is introduced in detail as an example. The three levels of observation (the research base, pixel-scale validation sites, and regional coverage adopted by the Heihe Station are carefully explained. The pixel-scale validation sites with nested multi-scale observation systems in this station are the most unique feature, and these sites aim to solve some key scientific problems associated with remote sensing product validation (e.g., the scale effect and scale transformation. Multi-year of in situ measurements will ensure the high accuracy and inter-annual validity of the land products, which will provide dynamic regional monitoring and simulation capabilities in China. The observation sites of the VRPC are open, with the goal of increasing cooperation and exchange with global programs.

  11. AVAILABILITY RESEARCH OF REMOTE DEVICES FOR WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Bazhayev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the wireless network under attack, aimed at "broadcast storm" initiation, in order to determine the availability of stand-alone units and the ability to carry out their functional tasks under information exposure. We determine a set of conditions for such type of attacks on the part of potential information interloper. The functional analysis of the systems based on wireless technology is made. We examine the remote device of a self-organizing wireless network as a queuing system M/M/1/n. Model dependencies are shown for normal system performance and at information exposure on the part of potential information interloper. Analytical simulation of wireless network functioning is carried out in the normal mode and under the attack aimed at "broadcast storm" initiation. An experiment is described which provides statistical information on operation of network remote devices. We present experiment results on carrying out attack at typical system transferring data by broabcast net scanning package at different noise intensities on the part of information interloper. The proposed model can be used to determine the technical characteristics of wireless ad-hoc network, develop recommendations for node configuration, aimed at countering "broadcast storm".

  12. Statistical Modeling of Radiometric Error Propagation in Support of Hyperspectral Imaging Inversion and Optimized Ground Sensor Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-04

    The invention of the first modern cam- era in 1888 (including flexible rolled film and standardized chemical processing) and powered flight shortly...thereafter enabled the first true aerial photography, em- ployed in World War I and II. The invention of color infrared film not only had applications...editors, Geographic In- formation Systems, Photogrammetry , and Geological/Geophysical Remote Sens- ing, volume 2587, pages 70–95. SPIE, 1995. Douglas C

  13. Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aixia; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2017-01-22

    The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors' radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors' application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data.

  14. An Efficient Remote Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omala, Anyembe Andrew; Kibiwott, Kittur P; Li, Fagen

    2017-02-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) provide a mechanism of transmitting a persons physiological data to application providers e.g. hospital. Given the limited range of connectivity associated with WBAN, an intermediate portable device e.g. smartphone, placed within WBAN's connectivity, forwards the data to a remote server. This data, if not protected from an unauthorized access and modification may be lead to poor diagnosis. In order to ensure security and privacy between WBAN and a server at the application provider, several authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Wang and Zhang proposed an authentication scheme for WBAN using bilinear pairing. However, in their scheme, an application provider could easily impersonate a client. In order to overcome this weakness, we propose an efficient remote authentication scheme for WBAN. In terms of performance, our scheme can not only provide a malicious insider security, but also reduce running time of WBAN (client) by 51 % as compared to Wang and Zhang scheme.

  15. Combining multiple algorithms for road network tracking from multiple source remotely sensed imagery: a practical system and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangguo; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jixian; Shen, Jing

    2009-01-01

    In light of the increasing availability of commercial high-resolution imaging sensors, automatic interpretation tools are needed to extract road features. Currently, many approaches for road extraction are available, but it is acknowledged that there is no single method that would be successful in extracting all types of roads from any remotely sensed imagery. In this paper, a novel classification of roads is proposed, based on both the roads' geometrical, radiometric properties and the characteristics of the sensors. Subsequently, a general road tracking framework is proposed, and one or more suitable road trackers are designed or combined for each type of roads. Extensive experiments are performed to extract roads from aerial/satellite imagery, and the results show that a combination strategy can automatically extract more than 60% of the total roads from very high resolution imagery such as QuickBird and DMC images, with a time-saving of approximately 20%, and acceptable spatial accuracy. It is proven that a combination of multiple algorithms is more reliable, more efficient and more robust for extracting road networks from multiple-source remotely sensed imagery than the individual algorithms.

  16. Based on Narcissus of radiometric calibration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Libing; Tang, Shaofan; Liu, Jianfeng; Peng, Honggang

    2015-08-01

    Thermal radiation is an inherent property of all objects. Generally, it is believed that the body, which temperature is above absolute zero, can keep generating infrared radiation. Infrared remote sensing, using of satellite-borne or airborne sensors, collects infrared information to identify the surface feature and inversion of surface parameters, temperature, etc. In order to get more accurately feature information, quantitative measurement is required. Infrared radiometric calibration is one of the key technologies of quantitative infrared remote sensing. Most high-resolution thermal imaging systems are cooling. For the infrared optical system which is having a cooled detector, there are some special phenomenons. Since the temperature of the detector's photosensitive surface is generally low, which is very different from system temperature, it is a very strong cold radiation source. Narcissus refers to the case that the cooled detector can "see" its own reflecting image, which may affect the image quality of infrared system seriously. But for radiometric calibration of satellite-borne infrared camera, it can sometimes take advantage of the narcissus instead of cold cryogenic radiometric calibration. In this paper, the use of narcissus to carry out radiometric calibration is summarized, and simulation results show the feasibility.

  17. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ihler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remote sensed data using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempt to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from satellite information, such as long wave infrared data. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each hidden layer. SDAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as a denoising auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. The results are compared with satellite precipitation product PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System). Based on the results, we have several valuable conclusions: By properly training the neural network, it is able to extract useful information for precipitation estimation. For example, it can reduce the mean squared error of the precipitation by 58% for the summer season in the central United States of the validation period. The SDAE method captures the shape of the precipitation from the cloud shape better compared to the CCS product. Design of

  18. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  19. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  20. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed. PMID:28649167

  1. Building Extraction from Remote Sensing Data Using Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, K.; Cui, S.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-05-01

    Building detection and footprint extraction are highly demanded for many remote sensing applications. Though most previous works have shown promising results, the automatic extraction of building footprints still remains a nontrivial topic, especially in complex urban areas. Recently developed extensions of the CNN framework made it possible to perform dense pixel-wise classification of input images. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology, which automatically generates a full resolution binary building mask out of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) using a Fully Convolution Network (FCN) architecture. The advantage of using the depth information is that it provides geometrical silhouettes and allows a better separation of buildings from background as well as through its invariance to illumination and color variations. The proposed framework has mainly two steps. Firstly, the FCN is trained on a large set of patches consisting of normalized DSM (nDSM) as inputs and available ground truth building mask as target outputs. Secondly, the generated predictions from FCN are viewed as unary terms for a Fully connected Conditional Random Fields (FCRF), which enables us to create a final binary building mask. A series of experiments demonstrate that our methodology is able to extract accurate building footprints which are close to the buildings original shapes to a high degree. The quantitative and qualitative analysis show the significant improvements of the results in contrast to the multy-layer fully connected network from our previous work.

  2. BUILDING EXTRACTION FROM REMOTE SENSING DATA USING FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bittner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building detection and footprint extraction are highly demanded for many remote sensing applications. Though most previous works have shown promising results, the automatic extraction of building footprints still remains a nontrivial topic, especially in complex urban areas. Recently developed extensions of the CNN framework made it possible to perform dense pixel-wise classification of input images. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology, which automatically generates a full resolution binary building mask out of a Digital Surface Model (DSM using a Fully Convolution Network (FCN architecture. The advantage of using the depth information is that it provides geometrical silhouettes and allows a better separation of buildings from background as well as through its invariance to illumination and color variations. The proposed framework has mainly two steps. Firstly, the FCN is trained on a large set of patches consisting of normalized DSM (nDSM as inputs and available ground truth building mask as target outputs. Secondly, the generated predictions from FCN are viewed as unary terms for a Fully connected Conditional Random Fields (FCRF, which enables us to create a final binary building mask. A series of experiments demonstrate that our methodology is able to extract accurate building footprints which are close to the buildings original shapes to a high degree. The quantitative and qualitative analysis show the significant improvements of the results in contrast to the multy-layer fully connected network from our previous work.

  3. Remote Sensing Image Fusion with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinying; Yang, Bin; Huang, Guoyu; Zhong, Fei; Chen, Zhongze

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing image fusion (RSIF) is referenced as restoring the high-resolution multispectral image from its corresponding low-resolution multispectral (LMS) image aided by the panchromatic (PAN) image. Most RSIF methods assume that the missing spatial details of the LMS image can be obtained from the high resolution PAN image. However, the distortions would be produced due to the much difference between the structural component of LMS image and that of PAN image. Actually, the LMS image can fully utilize its spatial details to improve the resolution. In this paper, a novel two-stage RSIF algorithm is proposed, which makes full use of both spatial details and spectral information of the LMS image itself. In the first stage, the convolutional neural network based super-resolution is used to increase the spatial resolution of the LMS image. In the second stage, Gram-Schmidt transform is employed to fuse the enhanced MS and the PAN images for further improvement the resolution of MS image. Since the spatial resolution enhancement in the first stage, the spectral distortions in the fused image would be decreased in evidence. Moreover, the spatial details can be preserved to construct the fused images. The QuickBird satellite source images are used to test the performances of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better spatial details and spectral information simultaneously compared with other well-known methods.

  4. RADIOMETRIC BLOCK ADJUSMENT AND DIGITAL RADIOMETRIC MODEL GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a radiometric block adjustment method that is related to geometric block adjustment and to the concept of a terrain Digital Radiometric Model (DRM as a complement to the terrain digital elevation and surface models. A DRM, in our concept, is a function that for each ground point returns a reflectance value and a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF. In a similar way to the terrain geometric reconstruction procedure, given an image block of some terrain area, we split the DRM generation in two phases: radiometric block adjustment and DRM generation. In the paper we concentrate on the radiometric block adjustment step, but we also describe a preliminary DRM generator. In the block adjustment step, after a radiometric pre-calibraton step, local atmosphere radiative transfer parameters, and ground reflectances and BRDFs at the radiometric tie points are estimated. This radiometric block adjustment is based on atmospheric radiative transfer (ART models, pre-selected BRDF models and radiometric ground control points. The proposed concept is implemented and applied in an experimental campaign, and the obtained results are presented. The DRM and orthophoto mosaics are generated showing no radiometric differences at the seam lines.

  5. [Evaluation of eco-environmental quality based on artificial neural network and remote sensing techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyi; Shi, Zhou; Sha, Jinming; Cheng, Jieliang

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, vegetation, soil brightness, and moisture indices were extracted from Landsat ETM remote sensing image, heat indices were extracted from MODIS land surface temperature product, and climate index and other auxiliary geographical information were selected as the input of neural network. The remote sensing eco-environmental background value of standard interest region evaluated in situ was selected as the output of neural network, and the back propagation (BP) neural network prediction model containing three layers was designed. The network was trained, and the remote sensing eco-environmental background value of Fuzhou in China was predicted by using software MATLAB. The class mapping of remote sensing eco-environmental background values based on evaluation standard showed that the total classification accuracy was 87. 8%. The method with a scheme of prediction first and classification then could provide acceptable results in accord with the regional eco-environment types.

  6. Combining Observations of a Digital Camera Network, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Micrometeorology for Improved Understanding of Forest Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, B. H.; Richardson, A. D.; Ollinger, S. V.; Friedl, M. A.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The observed phenological behavior of terrestrial ecosystems is a result of the seasonality of climatic forcing superposed with physical and biological responses of the plant-soil system. Biogeochemical models that represent rapid time scale phenomena well tend to simulate interannual variability and trends in productivity more accurately when phenology is prescribed, suggesting a gap in our understanding of the underlying processes or a generic means to represent their emergent behavior. Specifically, questions surround environmental triggers of leaf turnover, the relative importance of internal nutrient cycling, and the potential for generalization across broadly defined biome types. Satellite observations provide a spatially comprehensive record of the seasonality of land vegetation characteristics, but are most valuable when combined with direct measurements of ecosystem state. Time series of meteorology and fluxes (e.g. from eddy covariance tower sites) are one such data source, providing a valuable means to estimate productivity, but not a view of the state of the vegetation canopy. We have begun to assemble a network of digital cameras ('webcams') by deploying camera systems at existing research sites, and by harvesting imagery from collaborating sites and institutions. There are currently 80 cameras in the network, 17 of which are 'core' locations that are located at flux towers or field stations. We process and analyze the camera imagery as remote sensing data, utilizing the red, green, and blue, channels as a means to stratify the scenes and quantify relative vegetation 'greenness'. Our initial analyses have shown that these images do yield hourly-to-daily information about the seasonal cycle of vegetation state as compared both to fluxes and satellite indices. This presentation will summarize the current findings of the project, specifically focusing on (a) insights into controls on interannual variability at sites with long records (2000-present), and

  7. GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  8. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Feihong; Xie, Zhidong; Bian, Dongming

    2015-11-17

    This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN) in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK) engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  9. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  10. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  11. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  12. Use of a Real-Time Remote Monitoring Network (RTRM) to Characterize the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Caballero; Victoria López-Rodas; Javier Ruiz; Laura Prieto; Susana Flecha; Manuel Díez-Minguito; Eduardo Costas; Gabriel Navarro; Isabel Emma Huertas

    2012-01-01

    The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status o...

  13. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  14. Computer networks for remote laboratories in physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Scott; Elizandro, David; Leiner, Barry M.; Wiskerchen, Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses a relatively new approach to scientific research, telescience, which is the conduct of scientific operations in locations remote from the site of central experimental activity. A testbed based on the concepts of telescience is being developed to ultimately enable scientific researchers on earth to conduct experiments onboard the Space Station. This system along with background materials are discussed.

  15. A remote password authentication scheme for multiserver architecture using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Lin, L C; Hwang, M S

    2001-01-01

    Conventional remote password authentication schemes allow a serviceable server to authenticate the legitimacy of a remote login user. However, these schemes are not used for multiserver architecture environments. We present a remote password authentication scheme for multiserver environments. The password authentication system is a pattern classification system based on an artificial neural network. In this scheme, the users only remember user identity and password numbers to log in to various servers. Users can freely choose their password. Furthermore, the system is not required to maintain a verification table and can withstand the replay attack.

  16. Two critical brain networks for generation and combination of remote associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendetowicz, David; Urbanski, Marika; Garcin, Béatrice; Foulon, Chris; Levy, Richard; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Rosso, Charlotte; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Recent functional imaging findings in humans indicate that creativity relies on spontaneous and controlled processes, possibly supported by the default mode and the fronto-parietal control networks, respectively. Here, we examined the ability to generate and combine remote semantic associations, in relation to creative abilities, in patients with focal frontal lesions. Voxel-based lesion-deficit mapping, disconnection-deficit mapping and network-based lesion-deficit approaches revealed critical prefrontal nodes and connections for distinct mechanisms related to creative cognition. Damage to the right medial prefrontal region, or its potential disrupting effect on the default mode network, affected the ability to generate remote ideas, likely by altering the organization of semantic associations. Damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region and its connections, or its potential disrupting effect on the left fronto-parietal control network, spared the ability to generate remote ideas but impaired the ability to appropriately combine remote ideas. Hence, the current findings suggest that damage to specific nodes within the default mode and fronto-parietal control networks led to a critical loss of verbal creative abilities by altering distinct cognitive mechanisms. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Unsupervised Remote Sensing Domain Adaptation Method with Adversarial Network and Auxiliary Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Suhui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important prerequisite when annotating the remote sensing images by machine learning is that there are enough training samples for training, but labeling the samples is very time-consuming. In this paper, we solve the problem of unsupervised learning with small sample size in remote sensing image scene classification by domain adaptation method. A new domain adaptation framework is proposed which combines adversarial network and auxiliary task. Firstly, a novel remote sensing scene classification framework is established based on deep convolution neural networks. Secondly, a domain classifier is added to the network, in order to learn the domain-invariant features. The gradient direction of the domain loss is opposite to the label loss during the back propagation, which makes the domain predictor failed to distinguish the sample's domain. Lastly, we introduce an auxiliary task for the network, which augments the training samples and improves the generalization ability of the network. The experiments demonstrate better results in unsupervised classification with small sample sizes of remote sensing images compared to the baseline unsupervised domain adaptation approaches.

  18. Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Software-Defined Network Operations Scheme for Remote 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Gil, Joon-Min

    2015-03-01

    The recent wide expansion of applicable three-dimensional (3D) printing and software-defined networking (SDN) technologies has led to a great deal of attention being focused on efficient remote control of manufacturing processes. SDN is a renowned paradigm for network softwarization, which has helped facilitate remote manufacturing in association with high network performance, since SDN is designed to control network paths and traffic flows, guaranteeing improved quality of services by obtaining network requests from end-applications on demand through the separated SDN controller or control plane. However, current SDN approaches are generally focused on the controls and automation of the networks, which indicates that there is a lack of management plane development designed for a reliable and fault-tolerant SDN environment. Therefore, in addition to the inherent advantage of SDN, this paper proposes a new software-defined network operations center (SD-NOC) architecture to strengthen the reliability and fault-tolerance of SDN in terms of network operations and management in particular. The cooperation and orchestration between SDN and SD-NOC are also introduced for the SDN failover processes based on four principal SDN breakdown scenarios derived from the failures of the controller, SDN nodes, and connected links. The abovementioned SDN troubles significantly reduce the network reachability to remote devices (e.g., 3D printers, super high-definition cameras, etc.) and the reliability of relevant control processes. Our performance consideration and analysis results show that the proposed scheme can shrink operations and management overheads of SDN, which leads to the enhancement of responsiveness and reliability of SDN for remote 3D printing and control processes.

  19. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  20. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1 A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2 To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  1. Enabling multimode wireless access networks using remote radio heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of 4G networks is spreading rapidly providing mobile broadband services to the public. 4G technologies are designed to overlay existing 3G networks enabling reusability of several network components. In this way, the coexistence of 3G/4G standards is facilitated. This paper describes...... and management plane. Switching between wireless standards becomes easily feasible through firmware upgrading. Finally, real-time configuration of radio functionalities, such as transmit power, receiver gain, carrier frequency, channel bandwidth and others result in a modular software defined radio platform....... © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering....

  2. New Technologies for Information and Communication, PWM Remote Experimenting and 3G Networks as Teaching Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez B. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote experiments may be an important tool to implement new technologies in the teaching/learning process, since it enables experimenting with real plants, essential to consolidate the concepts acquired in the theoretical classes, especially in technical and scientific disciplines.This article presents the “modulator PWM” remote experiment, its operational architecture and construction. It seeks to demonstrate its integration with theory and the use of the 3G cellular network as a communications channel for remote experimenting. The PWM modulators are often used in disciplines of higher education courses in electrical engineering, telecommunications and electronics. This article shows that it is possible to perform the practical activity completely remotely, via 3G cellular networks or through the internet to access the experiment and perform the experiments needed to fully understand the theories of the PWM modulator.This article is a further initiative for remote experiments in the world of different engineering specialties, involving the cellular networks that are rapidly expanding at this time.

  3. Remote radio heads and the evolution towards 4G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzani, Christian; Kardaras, Georgios; Boppana, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    , and WiMAX standards and advanced software configurability are key features in the deployment of more flexible and energy-efficient radio networks. This white paper describes the key market and technology requirements for RRHs and how Radiocomps state-of-the-art WiMAX/LTE RRH and intellectual property (IP......) core solutions, combined with latest FPGA technology from Altera, helps design compact, green, and full-featured applications for mobile network solutions....

  4. Strong authentication of remote users over insecure networks by using fingerprint-biometric and smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad K.; Zhang, Jiashu

    2006-04-01

    Recently, Lee et al. and Lin-Lai proposed fingerprint-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards. We demonstrate that their schemes are vulnerable and susceptible to the attack and have practical pitfalls. Their schemes perform only unilateral authentication (only client authentication) and there is no mutual authentication between user and remote system, so their schemes suscept from the server spoofing attack. To overcome the flaw, we present a strong remote user authentication scheme by using fingerprint-biometric and smart cards. The proposed scheme is an extended and generalized form of ElGamal's signature scheme whose security is based on discrete logarithm problem, which is not yet forged. Proposed scheme not only overcome drawbacks and problems of previous schemes, but also provide a strong authentication of remote users over insecure network. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are better than other related schemes.

  5. Scene Classification of Remote Sensing Image Based on Multi-scale Feature and Deep Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Suhui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at low precision of remote sensing image scene classification owing to small sample sizes, a new classification approach is proposed based on multi-scale deep convolutional neural network (MS-DCNN, which is composed of nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT, deep convolutional neural network (DCNN, and multiple-kernel support vector machine (MKSVM. Firstly, remote sensing image multi-scale decomposition is conducted via NSCT. Secondly, the decomposing high frequency and low frequency subbands are trained by DCNN to obtain image features in different scales. Finally, MKSVM is adopted to integrate multi-scale image features and implement remote sensing image scene classification. The experiment results in the standard image classification data sets indicate that the proposed approach obtains great classification effect due to combining the recognition superiority to different scenes of low frequency and high frequency subbands.

  6. Remote discovery and management of end-user devices in heterogeneous private networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.; Hillen, B.A.G.; Passchier, I.; Schoonhoven, B.H.A. van; Hartog, F.T.H. den

    2009-01-01

    End-to-end broadband service delivery requires remote management of devices in the home network, beyond the home gateway (HG). The service provider can only put limited requirements to these of-the-shelf devices, and therefore has to make intelligent use of their given control and management

  7. Necessary Conditions to Implement Innovation in Remote Networked Schools: The Stakeholders' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Sandrine; Hamel, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Remote Networked Schools (RNS) is an initiative by the Quebec Ministry of Education, Leisure and Sports (MELS) to investigate solutions that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can offer for the preservation of small rural schools in Quebec, Canada. The implementation of RNS mobilized then--as it still does now--the local…

  8. The NUROV: a Networked Underwater Remote Observation Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognstad, M. R.; Jones, W. H.

    2006-12-01

    NUROV, a small observation class underwater vehicle, is under development at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG) of the University of Hawaii. Connected by tether to a Base100T Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as those presently in use or proposed for cabled ocean observatories, it enables control of the vehicle through a web browser virtual control panel, and delivers live video through the same IP network. The vehicle is simple, with two horizontal thrusters and one vertical thruster, and a motorized tilt function for the video camera. Arrays of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are mounted on either side of the camera so its field of view can be illuminated. Thruster motors and LED arrays are oil filled and pressure tolerant. The video camera, motor controller, and network electronics are enclosed in pressure housings; the initial prototype housings are designed for shallow water, but future housings for water depths to 6000 meters are planned. The LED arrays and camera housing window incorporate ultraviolet LEDs to reduce the effects of biofouling. A pressure sensor allows for automatic depth regulation by the motor controller on command from the vehicle pilot. In addition to applications observing near ocean observatory nodes, NUROV may also be used from a ship, using a standard fiber-optic electromechanical cable connected to a fiber to electrical network converter contained in a pressure housing. In fact, with the addition of a network switch, multiple vehicles could be deployed simultaneously on a single cable. Connection of the NUROV network to the Internet would allow users located around the world to pilot the vehicle and observe the IP video; this would be particularly useful for educational outreach.

  9. Neural networks applied to the classification of remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Nanno; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1991-01-01

    A neural network with topology 2-8-8 is evaluated against the standard of supervised non-parametric maximum likelihood classification. The purpose of the evaluation is to compare the performance in terms of training speed and quality of classification. Classification is done on multispectral data

  10. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  11. Scaling-up camera traps: monitoring the planet's biodiversity with networks of remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge A.; Fisher, Jason T.; Burton, Cole; Townsend, Susan E.; Carbone, Chris; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Whittington, Jesse; Brodie, Jedediah; Royle, Andy; Switalski, Adam; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Heim, Nicole; Rich, Lindsey N.

    2017-01-01

    Countries committed to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2011–2020 strategic plan need effective tools to monitor global trends in biodiversity. Remote cameras are a rapidly growing technology that has great potential to transform global monitoring for terrestrial biodiversity and can be an important contributor to the call for measuring Essential Biodiversity Variables. Recent advances in camera technology and methods enable researchers to estimate changes in abundance and distribution for entire communities of animals and to identify global drivers of biodiversity trends. We suggest that interconnected networks of remote cameras will soon monitor biodiversity at a global scale, help answer pressing ecological questions, and guide conservation policy. This global network will require greater collaboration among remote-camera studies and citizen scientists, including standardized metadata, shared protocols, and security measures to protect records about sensitive species. With modest investment in infrastructure, and continued innovation, synthesis, and collaboration, we envision a global network of remote cameras that not only provides real-time biodiversity data but also serves to connect people with nature.

  12. Path Network Recovery Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial-Temporal Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, William C.,; Brost, Randolph

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing systems produce large volumes of high-resolution images that are difficult to search. The GeoGraphy (pronounced Geo-Graph-y) framework [2, 20] encodes remote sensing imagery into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph representation to enable high level semantic searches to be performed. Typically scene objects such as buildings and trees tend to be shaped like blocks with few holes, but other shapes generated from path networks tend to have a large number of holes and can span a large geographic region due to their connectedness. For example, we have a dataset covering the city of Philadelphia in which there is a single road network node spanning a 6 mile x 8 mile region. Even a simple question such as "find two houses near the same street" might give unexpected results. More generally, nodes arising from networks of paths (roads, sidewalks, trails, etc.) require additional processing to make them useful for searches in GeoGraphy. We have assigned the term Path Network Recovery to this process. Path Network Recovery is a three-step process involving (1) partitioning the network node into segments, (2) repairing broken path segments interrupted by occlusions or sensor noise, and (3) adding path-aware search semantics into GeoQuestions. This report covers the path network recovery process, how it is used, and some example use cases of the current capabilities.

  13. IREXF: Data Exfiltration from Air-gapped Networks by Infrared Remote Control Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Weiming; Yu, Nenghai

    2018-01-01

    he technology on infrared remote control is widely applied in human daily life. It is also applied in the place with a top security level. Infrared remote control signal is regarded as a simple, safe and clean resource that can help us control the electrical appliances nearby. In this paper, we build IREXF, a novel infrared optical covert channel from a well-protected air-gapped network via a malicious infrared module implanted previously into a keyboard. A malware preinstalled in the air-gap...

  14. RADIOMETRIC PROPERTIES OFAGRICULTURAL PERMEABLE COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castellano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nets are commonly used for agricultural applications. However, only little is known about the radiometric properties of net types and how to influence them. In order to investigate the influence of net construction parameters on their radiometric properties, a set of radiometric tests were performed on 45 types of agricultural nets. Laboratory tests on large size net samples was performed using a large and a small integrating sphere. Open field radiometric test were carried out by means of an experimental set up (120x120x50 cm and a full scale shade house. Small differences (less than 5% occurred between laboratory and open field tests. Results highlighted that the porosity and the mesh size, combined with the colour and secondarily, with the fabric and the kind of threads of the net influenced the shading performance of the net. The colour influenced the spectral distribution of the radiation passing through the net absorbing its complementary colours. Since nets are three-dimensional structures the transmissivity of direct light under different angles of incident of solar radiation changes when installed in the warp or weft direction. Transmissivity could be considered one of the main parameters involved in the agronomic performances of the netting system.

  15. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, A. [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    2001-07-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  16. Communication network for decentralized remote tele-science during the Spacelab mission IML-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Uwe; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Incollingo, Marco

    1994-01-01

    The ESA communication network for decentralized remote telescience during the Spacelab mission IML-2, called Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS), provided data, voice conferencing, video distribution/conferencing and high rate data services to 5 remote user centers in Europe. The combination of services allowed the experimenters to interact with their experiments as they would normally do from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at MSFC. In addition, to enhance their science results, they were able to make use of reference facilities and computing resources in their home laboratory, which typically are not available in the POCC. Characteristics of the IML-2 communications implementation were the adaptation to the different user needs based on modular service capabilities of IGS and the cost optimization for the connectivity. This was achieved by using a combination of traditional leased lines, satellite based VSAT connectivity and N-ISDN according to the simulation and mission schedule for each remote site. The central management system of IGS allows minimization of staffing and the involvement of communications personnel at the remote sites. The successful operation of IGS for IML-2 as a precursor network for the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) has proven the concept for communications to support the operation of the COF decentralized scenario.

  17. Next generation infrared sensor instrumentation: remote sensing and sensor networks using the openPHOTONS repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephen; Jeng, Evan; Smith, Clinton; Krueger, David; Wysocki, Gerard

    2010-09-01

    We describe our novel instrumentation architectures for infrared laser spectrometers. Compact, power efficient, low noise modules allow for optimized implementation of cell phone sized sensors using VCSELs, diode, and quantum cascade laser sources. These sensors can consume as little as 0.3W with full laser temperature (adapted to new optical configurations and applications. Such modules allow the development of flexible sensors, whether implementing closed path spectrometers, open path perimeter monitoring, or remote backscatter based sensors. This work is also the enabling technology for wireless sensor networks (WSN) of precision sensors, a desirable sensing paradigm for long term, wide area, precision, temporally and spatially resolved studies. This approach can complement existing remote sensing and mapping technologies including satellite observations and sparse networks of flux towers.

  18. Learning Low Dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks for High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixun Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning powerful feature representations for image retrieval has always been a challenging task in the field of remote sensing. Traditional methods focus on extracting low-level hand-crafted features which are not only time-consuming but also tend to achieve unsatisfactory performance due to the complexity of remote sensing images. In this paper, we investigate how to extract deep feature representations based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs for high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval (HRRSIR. To this end, several effective schemes are proposed to generate powerful feature representations for HRRSIR. In the first scheme, a CNN pre-trained on a different problem is treated as a feature extractor since there are no sufficiently-sized remote sensing datasets to train a CNN from scratch. In the second scheme, we investigate learning features that are specific to our problem by first fine-tuning the pre-trained CNN on a remote sensing dataset and then proposing a novel CNN architecture based on convolutional layers and a three-layer perceptron. The novel CNN has fewer parameters than the pre-trained and fine-tuned CNNs and can learn low dimensional features from limited labelled images. The schemes are evaluated on several challenging, publicly available datasets. The results indicate that the proposed schemes, particularly the novel CNN, achieve state-of-the-art performance.

  19. A radial basis function neural network based on artificial immune systems for remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Zhong, Yanfei

    2008-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is a powerful method for remote sensing image classification. It has a simple architecture and the learning algorithm corresponds to the solution of a linear regression problem, resulting in a fast training process. The main drawback of this strategy is the requirement of an efficient algorithm to determine the number, position, and dispersion of the RBF. Traditional methods to determine the centers are: randomly choose input vectors from the training data set; vectors obtained from unsupervised clustering algorithms, such as k-means, applied to the input data. These conduce that traditional RBF neural network is sensitive to the center initialization. In this paper, the artificial immune network (aiNet) model, a new computational intelligence based on artificial immune networks (AIN), is applied to obtain appropriate centers for remote sensing image classification. In the aiNet-RBF algorihtm, each input pattern corresonds to an antigenic stimulus, while each RBF candidate center is considered to be an element, or cell, of the immune network model. The steps are as follows: A set of candidate centers is initialized at random, where the initial number of candidates and their positions is not crucial to the performance. Then, the clonal selection principle will control which candidates will be selected and how they will be upadated. Note that the clonal selection principle will be responsible for how the centers will represent the training data set. Finally, the immune network will identify and eliminate or suppress self-recognizing individuals to control the number of candidate centers. After the above learning phase, the aiNet network centers represent internal images of the inuput patterns presented to it. The algorithm output is taken to be the matrix of memory cells' coordinates that represent the final centers to be adopted by the RBF network. The stopping criterion of the proposed algorithm is given by a pre

  20. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding for Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    encoding multiple sources. We focus on the case where node measurements are in form of noisy linearly mixed combinations of the sources and the acoustic channel mixing matrices are invertible. For this problem, we derive the rate-distortion function for vector Gaussian sources and under covariance......In this paper, we consider the problem of remote vector Gaussian source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network. Each node receives messages from multiple nodes in the network and decodes these messages using its own measurement of the sound field as side information. The node’s measurement...

  1. A patch-based convolutional neural network for remote sensing image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atharva; Liu, Xiuwen; Yang, Xiaojun; Shi, Di

    2017-11-01

    Availability of accurate land cover information over large areas is essential to the global environment sustainability; digital classification using medium-resolution remote sensing data would provide an effective method to generate the required land cover information. However, low accuracy of existing per-pixel based classification methods for medium-resolution data is a fundamental limiting factor. While convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with deep layers have achieved unprecedented improvements in object recognition applications that rely on fine image structures, they cannot be applied directly to medium-resolution data due to lack of such fine structures. In this paper, considering the spatial relation of a pixel to its neighborhood, we propose a new deep patch-based CNN system tailored for medium-resolution remote sensing data. The system is designed by incorporating distinctive characteristics of medium-resolution data; in particular, the system computes patch-based samples from multidimensional top of atmosphere reflectance data. With a test site from the Florida Everglades area (with a size of 771 square kilometers), the proposed new system has outperformed pixel-based neural network, pixel-based CNN and patch-based neural network by 24.36%, 24.23% and 11.52%, respectively, in overall classification accuracy. By combining the proposed deep CNN and the huge collection of medium-resolution remote sensing data, we believe that much more accurate land cover datasets can be produced over large areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ARACHNE: A neural-neuroglial network builder with remotely controlled parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Savtchenko, Leonid P.

    2017-01-01

    Creating and running realistic models of neural networks has hitherto been a task for computing professionals rather than experimental neuroscientists. This is mainly because such networks usually engage substantial computational resources, the handling of which requires specific programing skills. Here we put forward a newly developed simulation environment ARACHNE: it enables an investigator to build and explore cellular networks of arbitrary biophysical and architectural complexity using the logic of NEURON and a simple interface on a local computer or a mobile device. The interface can control, through the internet, an optimized computational kernel installed on a remote computer cluster. ARACHNE can combine neuronal (wired) and astroglial (extracellular volume-transmission driven) network types and adopt realistic cell models from the NEURON library. The program and documentation (current version) are available at GitHub repository https://github.com/LeonidSavtchenko/Arachne under the MIT License (MIT). PMID:28362877

  3. Simultaneous extraction of roads and buildings in remote sensing imagery with convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Rasha; Marpu, Prashanth Reddy; Woon, Wei Lee; Mura, Mauro Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Extraction of man-made objects (e.g., roads and buildings) from remotely sensed imagery plays an important role in many urban applications (e.g., urban land use and land cover assessment, updating geographical databases, change detection, etc). This task is normally difficult due to complex data in the form of heterogeneous appearance with large intra-class and lower inter-class variations. In this work, we propose a single patch-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture for extraction of roads and buildings from high-resolution remote sensing data. Low-level features of roads and buildings (e.g., asymmetry and compactness) of adjacent regions are integrated with Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) features during the post-processing stage to improve the performance. Experiments are conducted on two challenging datasets of high-resolution images to demonstrate the performance of the proposed network architecture and the results are compared with other patch-based network architectures. The results demonstrate the validity and superior performance of the proposed network architecture for extracting roads and buildings in urban areas.

  4. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  5. TMS to object cortex affects both object and scene remote networks while TMS to scene cortex only affects scene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2015-12-01

    Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geometric Calibration and Radiometric Correction of the Maia Multispectral Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Dubbini, M.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattelli, M.; Covi, D.

    2017-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a widely used remote sensing technique, whose applications range from agriculture to environmental monitoring, from food quality check to cultural heritage diagnostic. A variety of multispectral imaging sensors are available on the market, many of them designed to be mounted on different platform, especially small drones. This work focuses on the geometric and radiometric characterization of a brand-new, lightweight, low-cost multispectral camera, called MAIA. The MAIA camera is equipped with nine sensors, allowing for the acquisition of images in the visible and near infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Two versions are available, characterised by different set of band-pass filters, inspired by the sensors mounted on the WorlView-2 and Sentinel2 satellites, respectively. The camera details and the developed procedures for the geometric calibrations and radiometric correction are presented in the paper.

  7. Initial examination of radar imagery of optical radiometric calibration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillet, Philippe M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Gauthier, D.; D'Iorio, Marie A.; Rivard, B.; Budkewitsch, P.

    1995-12-01

    In-flight absolute radiometric calibration is critical for multi-temporal and multi-sensor data comparisons. In the case of vicarious calibration of optical sensors based on ground-level measurements, the test site must be well characterized in spatial, radiometric, spectral, and temporal domains. Remotely sensed data acquired at other wavelengths can contribute to a baseline understanding of ground targets and provide insight into the usefulness of such targets for in-flight calibration of optical sensors. With these considerations in mind, multi-temporal ERS-1 SAR data have been obtained for White Sands, New Mexico, and Lunar Lake and Railroad Valley playas in Nevada. This paper reports on an initial examination of these SAR image data sets and the significant pattern changes observed in the scenes. It is concluded that surface roughness, soil moisture and run-off are major factors giving rise to the observed scene characteristics.

  8. Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Anderson, N. J.; Thome, K. J.; Biggar, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) of the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of such sensors as Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, ASTER, RapidEye, and others. The reflectance-based approach requires that personnel be present at a test site during the sensor overpass, so the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed in order to capture data during every possible overpass, which assists in the temporal trending of the radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The number of earth-observing sensors is rapidly increasing in recent years, and RadCaTS provides the ability to radiometrically calibrate them without the requirement of frequent field campaigns. The 2013 launch of Landsat 8 provides a unique opportunity for RadCaTS in that it is being used to supplement the in situ measurements by RSG ground personnel, and it will be used throughout the lifetime of the Landsat 8 mission. This allows more data to be collected throughout the year, and it also allows the accuracy and uncertainty of RadCaTS to be analyzed. The current top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance uncertainty of the reflectance-based approach is ~2.6% in the mid-visible region of the spectrum, and current work indicates that the uncertainty of RadCaTS in TOA spectral radiance is ~3-4%. This work presents the radiometric calibration results of RadCaTS for a variety of sensors such as Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, MISR, ASTER, and Suomi NPP VIIRS.

  9. Self-organizing cooperative sensor network for remote surveillance: current results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Richard A.; Buczak, Anna L.; Jin, Yaochu; Jamalabad, Vikram R.; Kadar, Ivan; Eadan, Eitan R.

    1999-07-01

    The capabilities of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) have steadily improved and have been shown to be of value in various military missions. Today's UGS are multi-functional, integrated sensor platforms that can detect and locate a wide variety of ground-based and airborne targets. The rather large size (> 1 cubic foot) and relatively expensive cost of these integrated platforms are two main drawbacks for remote surveillance applications that support rapidly deployable, small unit operations. As an alternative, remote surveillance may be possible with smaller, less costly sensors that work cooperatively together as a network. The objective of this study was to develop algorithms that can optimally organized and adaptively control a network of UGSs in order to achieve a surveillance mission. In the present study, the sensor network, a random distribution of acoustic sensors over a surveillance area, is tasked to detect and track any targets entering into the surveillance area. In addition, the sensor network is required to maximize its tracking accuracy and minimize its power utilization.

  10. A Drone Remote Sensing for Virtual Reality Simulation System for Forest Fires: Semantic Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Rao, Gudikandhula; Jagadeeswara Rao, Peddada; Duvvuru, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Wild fires have significant impact on atmosphere and lives. The demand of predicting exact fire area in forest may help fire management team by using drone as a robot. These are flexible, inexpensive and elevated-motion remote sensing systems that use drones as platforms are important for substantial data gaps and supplementing the capabilities of manned aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems. In addition, powerful computational tools are essential for predicting certain burned area in the duration of a forest fire. The reason of this study is to built up a smart system based on semantic neural networking for the forecast of burned areas. The usage of virtual reality simulator is used to support the instruction process of fire fighters and all users for saving of surrounded wild lives by using a naive method Semantic Neural Network System (SNNS). Semantics are valuable initially to have a enhanced representation of the burned area prediction and better alteration of simulation situation to the users. In meticulous, consequences obtained with geometric semantic neural networking is extensively superior to other methods. This learning suggests that deeper investigation of neural networking in the field of forest fires prediction could be productive.

  11. A Design of Sensor Network for Remote Communication Based on GPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubao; Ma, Chong; Wu, Changqi

    2012-09-01

    A new scheme is proposed to realize the remote communication and monitor the sensor network, which is based on GPON. It is suited to carry data collected from optical sensor networks and to monitor environment on a public network. It is a cost-effective system architecture, which not only avoids re-laying of additional sensor fiber channel for sensor data communication, but also increases the flexibility of sensor network. In order to facilitate sensor monitoring center to receive and analyze sensor data, a novel frame format of sensor signal is designed to carry the low-rate sensor data. Here, TDMA techniques have been employed to upload data of various sensor networks to one port of ONU, which makes full use of time domain resources. The delay effect, identification method of the sensor data, and various interference factors which influence the sensor data to be correctly received are analyzed. The uplink simulation indicates that the accurate judgement can be obtained in the condition of time synchronization. The integration of the sensor network and communication network is feasible in reality. However, the time synchronization error, the laser response time delay and the received signal power difference will degrade the system performance to some extent.

  12. Conjugate-Gradient Neural Networks in Classification of Multisource and Very-High-Dimensional Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benediktsson, J. A.; Swain, P. H.; Ersoy, O. K.

    1993-01-01

    Application of neural networks to classification of remote sensing data is discussed. Conventional two-layer backpropagation is found to give good results in classification of remote sensing data but is not efficient in training. A more efficient variant, based on conjugate-gradient optimization, is used for classification of multisource remote sensing and geographic data and very-high-dimensional data. The conjugate-gradient neural networks give excellent performance in classification of multisource data, but do not compare as well with statistical methods in classification of very-high-dimentional data.

  13. Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Classification of High Resolution Agricultural Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA) promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN). For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  14. APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION AGRICULTURAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN. For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  15. Learning Low Dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks for High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weixun; Newsam, Shawn; Li, Congmin; Shao, Zhenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Learning powerful feature representations for image retrieval has always been a challenging task in the field of remote sensing. Traditional methods focus on extracting low-level hand-crafted features which are not only time-consuming but also tend to achieve unsatisfactory performance due to the content complexity of remote sensing images. In this paper, we investigate how to extract deep feature representations based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) for high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval (HRRSIR). To this end, two effective schemes are proposed to generate powerful feature representations for HRRSIR. In the first scheme, the deep features are extracted from the fully-connected and convolutional layers of the pre-trained CNN models, respectively; in the second scheme, we propose a novel CNN architecture based on conventional convolution layers and a three-layer perceptron. The novel CNN model is then trained on a large remote sensing dataset to learn low dimensional features. The two schemes are evaluated on several public and challenging datasets, and the results indicate that the proposed schemes and in particular the novel CNN are able to achieve state-of-the-art performance.

  16. Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network for Real Time Remote Monitoring of Sand Dynamics on Coastal Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alessandro; Bove, Carmine; Cappelli, Irene; Alquini, Fernanda; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the architecture of a heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to be deployed on coastal sand dunes is described, the aim of which is to provide real time measurements of physical parameters to better define the sediment transport in connection with Aeolian processes. The WSN integrates different typologies of sensors and is provided with both local and remote connection. In particular, three different typologies of sensors are integrated in the network: a multilayer anemometric station, a sensor developed ad-hoc to measure the sand dune level and a sand collector capable of measuring the weight of trapped sand and its quantity. Each sensor node is made up at least of a ZigBee radio module that is able to transmit the data collected by the sensor at a distance of about 100 meters. While the sand level sensor and the sand collector are provided only with this transmission module, the anemometric station also integrates a microprocessor board in charge of data processing. A Gateway node provided with a GSM connection for remote data transmission and a Zigbee radio module for Local Area communication has also been developed. This node is in charge of collecting all the data packets sent by the Sensor Nodes and transmit them to a remote server through GPRS connection. A Web server has been set up to collect these packets and store them in a database. The proposed WSN can provide both a static and a dynamic framework of sand transport processes acting on coastal dunes.

  17. The role of remote engagement in supporting boundary chain networks across Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary organizations serve multiple roles in linking science and decision making, including brokering knowledge, supporting local- and cross-level networks, facilitating the co-production of knowledge, and negotiating conflict. Yet they face several challenges in providing services for an ever-increasing number of actors and institutions interested in climate information and adaptation. This study evaluates how the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP innovated its boundary spanning role to improve outcomes by partnering with other boundary organizations through its ongoing climate webinar series. We utilize the concept of boundary chains to investigate outcomes associated with different extended network connections. Our evaluation is based on the analysis three datasets, including interviews (2013 and two web-based questionnaires (2010 and 2013–2015. Findings from the evaluation reveal several ways that remote engagement via the ACCAP webinar series facilitates learning, decision application, and cross-level network building, and overcomes barriers associated with large geographic distances between communities. In an organic evolution and innovation of the climate webinar series, ACCAP partnered with other boundary organizations to establish satellite hub sites to facilitate in-person gatherings at remote locations, thereby increasing the number and diversity of participants served and supporting local networking within organizations, agencies, and communities. Leveraging complementary resources through the satellite hub sites provided mutual benefits for ACCAP and partnering boundary organizations. These findings advance our understanding of the value of remote engagement in supporting boundary spanning processes and how boundary organizations innovate their roles to build capacity and increase the usability of climate information.

  18. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  19. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  20. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  1. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  2. REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports.

  3. Characterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strandgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds remain one of the key uncertainties in atmospheric research. To better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, accurate large-scale observations from satellites are required. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have proved to be a useful tool for cirrus cloud remote sensing. Since physics is not modelled explicitly in ANNs, a thorough characterisation of the networks is necessary. In this paper the CiPS (Cirrus Properties from SEVIRI algorithm is characterised using the space-borne lidar CALIOP. CiPS is composed of a set of ANNs for the cirrus cloud detection, opacity identification and the corresponding cloud top height, ice optical thickness and ice water path retrieval from the imager SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. First, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to different land surface types. The retrieval works best over water and vegetated surfaces, whereas a surface covered by permanent snow and ice or barren reduces the cirrus detection ability and increases the retrieval errors for the ice optical thickness and ice water path if the cirrus cloud is thin (optical thickness less than approx. 0.3. Second, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to the vertical arrangement of liquid, ice clouds and aerosol layers as derived from CALIOP lidar data. The CiPS retrievals show little interference from liquid water clouds and aerosol layers below an observed cirrus cloud. A liquid water cloud vertically close or adjacent to the cirrus clearly increases the average retrieval errors for the optical thickness and ice water path, respectively, only for thin cirrus clouds with an optical thickness below 0.3 or ice water path below 5.0 g m−2. For the cloud top height retrieval, only aerosol layers affect the retrieval error, with an increased positive bias when the cirrus is at low altitudes. Third, the CiPS retrieval error is

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for remote environmental observatories: a model homogeneous sensor network in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty; Slater, David; Fritzinger, Eric; Lyles, Bradley; Kent, Graham; Smith, Kenneth; Dascalu, Sergiu; Harris, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Sensor-based data collection has changed the potential scale and resolution of in-situ environmental studies by orders of magnitude, increasing expertise and management requirements accordingly. Cost-effective management of these observing systems is possible by leveraging cyberinfrastructure resources. Presented is a case study environmental observation network in the Great Basin region, USA, the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). NevCAN stretches hundreds of kilometers across several mountain ranges and monitors climate and ecohydrological conditions from low desert (900 m ASL) to high subalpine treeline (3360 m ASL) down to 1-minute timescales. The network has been operating continuously since 2010, collecting billions of sensor data points and millions of camera images that record hourly conditions at each site, despite requiring relatively low annual maintenance expenditure. These data have provided unique insight into fine-scale processes across mountain gradients, which is crucial scientific information for a water-scarce region. The key to maintaining data continuity for these remotely-located study sites has been use of uniform data transport and management systems, coupled with high-reliability power system designs. Enabling non-proprietary digital communication paths to all study sites and sensors allows the research team to acquire data in near-real-time, troubleshoot problems, and diversify sensor hardware. A wide-area network design based on common Internet Protocols (IP) has been extended into each study site, providing production bandwidth of between 2 Mbps and 60 Mbps, depending on local conditions. The network architecture and site-level support systems (such as power generation) have been implemented with the core objectives of capacity, redundancy, and modularity. NevCAN demonstrates that by following simple but uniform "best practices", the next generation of regionally-specific environmental observatories can evolve to

  5. Remote controlled gate controller using a GSM network and Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most remote controllers for entrance gates operate on free frequencies 433 or 868 MHz. However, this technology limits the user comfort, as it is usually not common that bi-directional communication is established. A higher comfort of controlling the entrance gates can be achieved by employing the GSM network for transmission of commands and messages between the gate controller and the user. In this case, only a conventional GSM cellular phone is needed to control the gate. A description of such a controller based on the GSM module and Arduino controller is provided in this paper.

  6. Use of a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM) to characterize the Guadalquivir estuary (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Huertas, Isabel Emma; Costas, Eduardo; Flecha, Susana; Díez-Minguito, Manuel; Caballero, Isabel; López-Rodas, Victoria; Prieto, Laura; Ruiz, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status of the aquatic environment. The results showed that several sources of physical forcing, such as wind, tide-associated currents and river discharge were responsible for the spatio-temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, salinity and turbidity in the estuary. The analysis was conducted under tidal and flood regime, which allowed us to identify river discharge as the main forcing agent of the hydrology inside the estuary. In particular, episodes of elevated turbidity detected by the network, together with episodes of low salinity and dissolved oxygen were closely related to the increase in water supply from a dam located upstream. The network installed provided accurate data that can be rapidly used for research or educational applications and by policy-makers or agencies in charge of the management of the coastal area.

  7. Use of a Real-Time Remote Monitoring Network (RTRM to Characterize the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caballero

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM. The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status of the aquatic environment. The results showed that several sources of physical forcing, such as wind, tide-associated currents and river discharge were responsible for the spatio-temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, salinity and turbidity in the estuary. The analysis was conducted under tidal and flood regime, which allowed us to identify river discharge as the main forcing agent of the hydrology inside the estuary. In particular, episodes of elevated turbidity detected by the network, together with episodes of low salinity and dissolved oxygen were closely related to the increase in water supply from a dam located upstream. The network installed provided accurate data that can be rapidly used for research or educational applications and by policy-makers or agencies in charge of the management of the coastal area.

  8. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-03-24

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes.

  9. Bluetooth-based sensor networks for remotely monitoring the physiological signals of a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Hannan

    2009-11-01

    Integrating intelligent medical microsensors into a wireless communication network makes it possible to remotely collect physiological signals of a patient, release the patient from being tethered to monitoring medical instrumentations, and facilitate the patient's early hospital discharge. This can further improve life quality by providing continuous observation without the need of disrupting the patient's normal life, thus reducing the risk of infection significantly, and decreasing the cost of the hospital and the patient. This paper discusses the implementation issues, and describes the overall system architecture of our developed Bluetooth sensor network for patient monitoring and the corresponding heart activity sensors. It also presents our approach to developing the intelligent physiological sensor nodes involving integration of Bluetooth radio technology, hardware and software organization, and our solutions for onboard signal processing.

  10. The Data Transport Network: A Usenet-Based Approach For Data Retrieval From Remote Field Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentic, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Data Transport Network coordinates the collection of scientific data, instrument telemetry and post-processing for the delivery of real-time results over the Internet from instruments located at remote field sites with limited or unreliable network connections. The system was originally developed in 1999 for the distribution of large data sets collected by the radar, lidars and imagers at the NSF upper atmosphere research facility in Sondrestrom, Greenland. The system helped to mitigate disruptions in network connectivity and optimized transfers over the site's low-bandwidth satellite link. The core idea behind the system is to transfer data files as attachments in Usenet messages. The messages collected by a local news server are periodically transmitted to other servers on the Internet when link conditions permit. If the network goes down, data files continue to be stored locally and the server will periodically attempt to deliver the files for upwards of two weeks. Using this simple approach, the Data Transport Network is able to handle a large number of independent data streams from multiple instruments. Each data stream is posted into a separate news group. There are no limitations to the types of data files that can be sent and the system uses standard Internet protocols for encoding, accessing and transmitting files. A common framework allows for new data collection or processing programs to be easily integrated. The two-way nature of the communications also allows for data to be delivered to the site as well, a feature used for the remote control of instruments. In recent years, the Data Transport Network has been applied to small, low-power embedded systems. Coupled with satellite-based communications systems such as Iridium, these miniature Data Transport servers have found application in a number of remote instrument deployments in the Arctic. SRI's involvement as a team member in Veco Polar Resources, the NSF Office of Polar Programs Arctic

  11. Quantitative analysis of access strategies to remote information in network services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2006-01-01

    Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach...... initiated by the requesting entity, and two versions of proactive approaches in which the entity that contains the information element actively propagates its changes to potential requesters, either (2) periodically or triggered by changes of the information element (3). This paper first develops a set...... of analytic models to compute different performance metrics for these approaches, with special focus on the so-called mismatch probability. The results of the analytic models allow for design decisions on which strategy to implement for specific input parameters (change rate of the information element...

  12. Radiometric Correction of Simultaneously Acquired Landsat-7/Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Imagery Using Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA): Contributing to the Landsat Time Series Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Joan-Cristian Padró; Xavier Pons; David Aragonés; Ricardo Díaz-Delgado; Diego García; Javier Bustamante; Lluís Pesquer; Cristina Domingo-Marimon; Òscar González-Guerrero; Jordi Cristóbal; Daniel Doktor; Maximilian Lange

    2017-01-01

    The use of Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA) makes it possible to carry out a reasonably robust and automatic radiometric correction for long time series of remote sensing imagery, as shown in previous studies for large data sets of Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery. In addition, they can be employed to obtain more coherence among remote sensing data from different sensors. The present work validates the use of PIA for the radiometric correction of pairs of images acquired almost simultaneously (La...

  13. Radiometric Correction of Simultaneously Acquired Landsat-7/Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Imagery Using Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA): Contributing to the Landsat Time Series Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Padró, Joan-Cristian; Pons, Xavier; Aragonés, David; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; García, Diego; Bustamante, Javier; Pesquer, Lluís; Domingo-Marimon, Cristina; González-Guerrero, Óscar; Cristóbal, Jordi; Doktor, Daniel; Lange, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    The use of Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA) makes it possible to carry out a reasonably robust and automatic radiometric correction for long time series of remote sensing imagery, as shown in previous studies for large data sets of Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery. In addition, they can be employed to obtain more coherence among remote sensing data from different sensors. The present work validates the use of PIA for the radiometric correction of pairs of images acquired almost sim...

  14. GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) IFloodS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS)...

  15. Planning Tripoli Metro Network by the Use of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusain, O.; Engedy, Gy.; Milady, A.; Paulini, L.; Soos, G.

    2012-08-01

    Tripoli, the capital city of Libya is going through significant and integrated development process, this development is expected to continue in the next few decades. The Libyan authorities have put it as their goal to develop Tripoli to an important metropolis in North Africa. To achieve this goal, they identified goals for the city's future development in all human, economic, cultural, touristic, and nonetheless infrastructure levels. On the infrastructure development level, among other things, they have identified the development of public transportation as one of the important development priorities. At present, public transportation in Tripoli is carried out by a limited capacity bus network alongside of individual transportation. However, movement in the city is characterized mainly by individual transportation with all its disadvantages such as traffic jams, significant air pollution with both carbon monoxide and dust, and lack of parking space. The Libyan authorities wisely opted for an efficient, modern, and environment friendly solution for public transportation, this was to plan a complex Metro Network as the backbone of public transportation in the city, and to develop and integrate the bus network and other means of transportation to be in harmony with the planned Metro network. The Metro network is planned to provide convenient connections to Tripoli International Airport and to the planned Railway station. They plan to build a system of Park and Ride (P+R) facilities at suitable locations along the Metro lines. This paper will present in details the planned Metro Network, some of the applied technological solutions, the importance of applying remote sensing and GIS technologies in different planning phases, and problems and benefits associated with the use of multi-temporal-, multi-format spatial data in the whole network planning phase.

  16. Maritime Semantic Labeling of Optical Remote Sensing Images with Multi-Scale Fully Convolutional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoning Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In current remote sensing literature, the problems of sea-land segmentation and ship detection (including in-dock ships are investigated separately despite the high correlation between them. This inhibits joint optimization and makes the implementation of the methods highly complicated. In this paper, we propose a novel fully convolutional network to accomplish the two tasks simultaneously, in a semantic labeling fashion, i.e., to label every pixel of the image into 3 classes, sea, land and ships. A multi-scale structure for the network is proposed to address the huge scale gap between different classes of targets, i.e., sea/land and ships. Conventional multi-scale structure utilizes shortcuts to connect low level, fine scale feature maps to high level ones to increase the network’s ability to produce finer results. In contrast, our proposed multi-scale structure focuses on increasing the receptive field of the network while maintaining the ability towards fine scale details. The multi-scale convolution network accommodates the huge scale difference between sea-land and ships and provides comprehensive features, and is able to accomplish the tasks in an end-to-end manner that is easy for implementation and feasible for joint optimization. In the network, the input forks into fine-scale and coarse-scale paths, which share the same convolution layers to minimize network parameter increase, and then are joined together to produce the final result. The experiments show that the network tackles the semantic labeling problem with improved performance.

  17. Neural networks for learning and prediction with applications to remote sensing and speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjaja, Marin N.

    1997-11-01

    Neural networks for supervised and unsupervised learning are developed and applied to problems in remote sensing, continuous map learning, and speech perception. Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models are real-time neural networks for category learning, pattern recognition, and prediction. Unsupervised fuzzy ART networks synthesize fuzzy logic and neural networks, and supervised ARTMAP networks incorporate ART modules for prediction and classification. New ART and ARTMAP methods resulting from analyses of data structure, parameter specification, and category selection are developed. Architectural modifications providing flexibility for a variety of applications are also introduced and explored. A new methodology for automatic mapping from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and terrain data, based on fuzzy ARTMAP, is developed. System capabilities are tested on a challenging remote sensing problem, prediction of vegetation classes in the Cleveland National Forest from spectral and terrain features. After training at the pixel level, performance is tested at the stand level, using sites not seen during training. Results are compared to those of maximum likelihood classifiers, back propagation neural networks, and K-nearest neighbor algorithms. Best performance is obtained using a hybrid system based on a convex combination of fuzzy ARTMAP and maximum likelihood predictions. This work forms the foundation for additional studies exploring fuzzy ARTMAP's capability to estimate class mixture composition for non-homogeneous sites. Exploratory simulations apply ARTMAP to the problem of learning continuous multidimensional mappings. A novel system architecture retains basic ARTMAP properties of incremental and fast learning in an on-line setting while adding components to solve this class of problems. The perceptual magnet effect is a language-specific phenomenon arising early in infant speech development that is characterized by a warping of speech sound perception. An

  18. Meteorological, environmental remote sensing and neural network analysis of the epidemiology of malaria transmission in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kiang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In many malarious regions malaria transmission roughly coincides with rainy seasons, which provide for more abundant larval habitats. In addition to precipitation, other meteorological and environmental factors may also influence malaria transmission. These factors can be remotely sensed using earth observing environmental satellites and estimated with seasonal climate forecasts. The use of remote sensing usage as an early warning tool for malaria epidemics have been broadly studied in recent years, especially for Africa, where the majority of the world’s malaria occurs. Although the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which includes Thailand and the surrounding countries, is an epicenter of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria, the meteorological and environmental factors affecting malaria transmissions in the GMS have not been examined in detail. In this study, the parasitological data used consisted of the monthly malaria epidemiology data at the provincial level compiled by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation index obtained from both climate time series and satellite measurements were used as independent variables to model malaria. We used neural network methods, an artificial-intelligence technique, to model the dependency of malaria transmission on these variables. The average training accuracy of the neural network analysis for three provinces (Kanchanaburi, Mae Hong Son, and Tak which are among the provinces most endemic for malaria, is 72.8% and the average testing accuracy is 62.9% based on the 1994-1999 data. A more complex neural network architecture resulted in higher training accuracy but also lower testing accuracy. Taking into account of the uncertainty regarding reported malaria cases, we divided the malaria cases into bands (classes to compute training accuracy. Using the same neural network architecture on the 19 most endemic provinces for years 1994 to 2000, the

  19. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  20. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented. PMID:27809229

  1. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  2. The photoelectric effect and study of the diffraction of light: Two new experiments in UNILabs virtual and remote laboratories network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro Sánchez, Juan; Sáenz, Jacobo; de la Torre, Luis; Carreras, Carmen; Yuste, Manuel; Heradio, Rubén; Dormido, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This work describes two experiments: "study of the diffraction of light: Fraunhofer approximation" and "the photoelectric effect". Both of them count with a virtual, simulated, version of the experiment as well as with a real one which can be operated remotely. The two previous virtual and remote labs (built using Easy Java(script) Simulations) are integrated in UNILabs, a network of online interactive laboratories based on the free Learning Management System Moodle. In this web environment, students can find not only the virtual and remote labs but also manuals with related theory, the user interface description for each application, and so on.

  3. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica)); Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK))

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author).

  4. Radiometric studies of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwaldo E. Camargo

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro assay system that included automated radiometric quantification of 14CO2 released as a result of oxidation of 14C- substrates was applied for studying the metabolic activity of M. tuberculosis under various experimental conditions. These experiments included the study of a mtabolic pathways, b detection times for various inoculum sizes, c effect of filtration on reproducibility of results, d influence of stress environment e minimal inhibitory concentrations for isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol and rifampin, and f generation times of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. These organisms were found to metabolize 14C-for-mate, (U-14C acetate, (U-14C glycerol, (1-14C palmitic acid, 1-14C lauric acid, (U-14C L-malic acid, (U-14C D-glucose, and (U-14C D-glucose, but not (1-14C L-glucose, (U-14C glycine, or (U-14C pyruvate to 14CO2. By using either 14C-for-mate, (1-14C palmitic acid, or (1-14C lauric acid, 10(7 organisms/vial could be detected within 24 48 hours and as few as 10 organisms/vial within 16-20 days. Reproducible results could be obtained without filtering the bacterial suspension, provided that the organisms were grown in liquid 7H9 medium with 0.05% polysorbate 80 and homogenized prior to the study. Drugs that block protein synthesis were found to have lower minimal inhibitory concentrations with the radiometric method when compared to the conventional agar dilution method. The mean generation time obtained for M. bovis and different strains of M. tuberculosis with various substrates was 9 ± 1 hours.

  5. A COMPARISON OF LIDAR REFLECTANCE AND RADIOMETRICALLY CALIBRATED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roncat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a “single-wavelength reflectometer” to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  6. The probabilistic neural network architecture for high speed classification of remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Samir R.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a neural network architecture (the Probabilistic Neural Net or the PNN) that, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been applied to remotely sensed data. The PNN is a supervised non-parametric classification algorithm as opposed to the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (GMLC). The PNN works by fitting a Gaussian kernel to each training point. The width of the Gaussian is controlled by a tuning parameter called the window width. If very small widths are used, the method is equivalent to the nearest neighbor method. For large windows, the PNN behaves like the GMLC. The basic implementation of the PNN requires no training time at all. In this respect it is far better than the commonly used backpropagation neural network which can be shown to take O(N6) time for training where N is the dimensionality of the input vector. In addition the PNN can be implemented in a feed forward mode in hardware. The disadvantage of the PNN is that it requires all the training data to be stored. Some solutions to this problem are discussed in the paper. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of the PNN with respect to the GMLC and the backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The PNN is shown to be better than GMLC and not as good as the BPNN with regards to classification accuracy.

  7. Combined Saliency with Multi-Convolutional Neural Network for High Resolution Remote Sensing Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Xiaofei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scene information existing in high resolution remote sensing images is important for image interpretation and understanding of the real world. Traditional scene classification methods often use middle and low-level artificial features, but high resolution images have rich information and complex scene configuration, which need high-level feature to express. A joint saliency and multi-convolutional neural network method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we obtain meaningful patches that include dominant image information by saliency sampling. Secondly, these patches will be set as a sample input to the convolutional neural network for training, obtain feature expression on different levels. Finally, we embed the multi-layer features into the support vector machine (SVM for image classification. Experiments using two high resolution image scene data show that saliency sampling can effectively get the main target, weaken the impact of other unrelated targets, and reduce data redundancy; convolutional neural network can automatically learn the high-level feature, compared to existing methods, the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy.

  8. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems.

  9. Single-chip multimedia network access using installed in-home cable and that can be remotely managed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Marc; Mlynek, Daniel; Osseiran, Adam

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a solution to multimedia networking using presently installed home cable. To reach this goal a concept based on a high performance single chip has been achieved. This concept has been validated in several applications and is now available in an open VHDL or silicon format. The flexibility of this network allows high-speed data and power multiplexing on the same wire. The MediaFlow solution, described in this paper, proposed a remote management tool for distributed device interconnection such as phone, hi-fi, video control and computers in the home. This management could either be locally or remotely controlled through ATM or ISDN networks. The concept allows a service provider to take over the installation, management and maintenance of the whole network.

  10. Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S W; Rice, J P; Neira, J E; Johnson, B C; Jackson, J D

    2006-01-01

    A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared regions for radiometric, photometric and colorimetric applications. In essence, the programmable spectral source is a radiometric platform for advanced instrument characterization and calibration that can also serve as a basis for algorithm testing and instrument comparison.

  11. Transferring Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning efficient image representations is at the core of the scene classification task of remote sensing imagery. The existing methods for solving the scene classification task, based on either feature coding approaches with low-level hand-engineered features or unsupervised feature learning, can only generate mid-level image features with limited representative ability, which essentially prevents them from achieving better performance. Recently, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs, which are hierarchical architectures trained on large-scale datasets, have shown astounding performance in object recognition and detection. However, it is still not clear how to use these deep convolutional neural networks for high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS scene classification. In this paper, we investigate how to transfer features from these successfully pre-trained CNNs for HRRS scene classification. We propose two scenarios for generating image features via extracting CNN features from different layers. In the first scenario, the activation vectors extracted from fully-connected layers are regarded as the final image features; in the second scenario, we extract dense features from the last convolutional layer at multiple scales and then encode the dense features into global image features through commonly used feature coding approaches. Extensive experiments on two public scene classification datasets demonstrate that the image features obtained by the two proposed scenarios, even with a simple linear classifier, can result in remarkable performance and improve the state-of-the-art by a significant margin. The results reveal that the features from pre-trained CNNs generalize well to HRRS datasets and are more expressive than the low- and mid-level features. Moreover, we tentatively combine features extracted from different CNN models for better performance.

  12. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  13. Remote management of non-TR-069 UPnP end-user devices in a private network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, B.A.G.; Passchier, I.; Schoonhoven, B.H.A. van; Hartog, F.T.H. den

    2009-01-01

    End-to - end broadband service delivery requires remote management of devices in the home network, beyond the home gateway (HG). The service provider can only put limited requirements to these of-the-shelf devices, and therefore has to make intelligent use of their given control and management

  14. Deep Salient Feature Based Anti-Noise Transfer Network for Scene Classification of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Gong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS scene classification is important for RS imagery semantic interpretation. Although tremendous strides have been made in RS scene classification, one of the remaining open challenges is recognizing RS scenes in low quality variance (e.g., various scales and noises. This paper proposes a deep salient feature based anti-noise transfer network (DSFATN method that effectively enhances and explores the high-level features for RS scene classification in different scales and noise conditions. In DSFATN, a novel discriminative deep salient feature (DSF is introduced by saliency-guided DSF extraction, which conducts a patch-based visual saliency (PBVS algorithm using “visual attention” mechanisms to guide pre-trained CNNs for producing the discriminative high-level features. Then, an anti-noise network is proposed to learn and enhance the robust and anti-noise structure information of RS scene by directly propagating the label information to fully-connected layers. A joint loss is used to minimize the anti-noise network by integrating anti-noise constraint and a softmax classification loss. The proposed network architecture can be easily trained with a limited amount of training data. The experiments conducted on three different scale RS scene datasets show that the DSFATN method has achieved excellent performance and great robustness in different scales and noise conditions. It obtains classification accuracy of 98.25%, 98.46%, and 98.80%, respectively, on the UC Merced Land Use Dataset (UCM, the Google image dataset of SIRI-WHU, and the SAT-6 dataset, advancing the state-of-the-art substantially.

  15. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  16. MISR Ancillary Radiometric Product V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Ancillary Radiometric Product is composed of 4 files covering instrument characterization data, pre-flight calibration data, in-flight calibration data, and...

  17. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schmidt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The linear scale invariance of the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation is used to obtain invariant pixels for automatic relative radiometric normalization of time series of multispectral data. Normalization by means of ordinary least squares regression method is compared...

  18. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine McKibbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p=0.024 and mental health status (p<0.001 significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p=0.004 and friend (p=0.021 networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  19. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Remote Patient Monitoring in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of non-invasivesensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This set-up is cumbersome, forcing thepatient to be confined to his hospital bed thereby not allowing him to move around freelywithin the hospital premises. This paper addresses the use of wireless sensor networks formonitoring patient vital sign data in a hospital setting. Crossbow MICAz motes have beenused to design a robust mesh network that routes patient data to a remote base station withinthe hospital premises. A hospital care giver can have access to this data at any point in timeand doesn’t have to be physically present in the patient’s room to review the readings. Thenetwork infrastructure nodes are self-powered and draw energy from overhead 34Wfluorescent lights via solar panels. The sensor nodes can be interfaced to a variety of vitalsign sensors such as electrocardiograms (ECGs, pulse-oximeters and blood pressure (BPsensors. In order to verify a completely functioning system, a commercial BP/heart-ratemonitor (BPM was interfaced to a wireless sensor node. The sensor node controls the BPMto initiate a reading, then collects the data and forwards it to the base station. An attractivegraphical user interface (GUI was designed to store and display patient data on the basestation PC. The set-up was found to be extremely robust with low power consumption.

  20. Urban Land Use and Land Cover Classification Using Remotely Sensed SAR Data through Deep Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC mapping in urban areas is one of the core applications in remote sensing, and it plays an important role in modern urban planning and management. Deep learning is springing up in the field of machine learning recently. By mimicking the hierarchical structure of the human brain, deep learning can gradually extract features from lower level to higher level. The Deep Belief Networks (DBN model is a widely investigated and deployed deep learning architecture. It combines the advantages of unsupervised and supervised learning and can archive good classification performance. This study proposes a classification approach based on the DBN model for detailed urban mapping using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data. Through the DBN model, effective contextual mapping features can be automatically extracted from the PolSAR data to improve the classification performance. Two-date high-resolution RADARSAT-2 PolSAR data over the Great Toronto Area were used for evaluation. Comparisons with the support vector machine (SVM, conventional neural networks (NN, and stochastic Expectation-Maximization (SEM were conducted to assess the potential of the DBN-based classification approach. Experimental results show that the DBN-based method outperforms three other approaches and produces homogenous mapping results with preserved shape details.

  1. Optimal positioning of protection and remote control equipment in medium voltage networks; Optimale Positionierung von Schutz- und Fernwirktechnik in Mittelspannungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeders, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IAEW; Lewtschenko, Daniel [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Since 2012 the introduced German quality regulation provides an economic incentive for network operators to realize cost-efficient measures that improve supply reliability. The use of protection and remote control devices in medium-voltage stations has rarely been considered as a measure to increase supply reliability. Falling prices for digital control and protection devices enhance the economic competitiveness of these measures against conventional network structure expansion. While many existing computer-based methods approach the optimization of network structure in the medium-voltage level, equipping medium-voltage stations with additional protection and remote control devices is rarely considered. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new computer-based method that optimizes the use of protection and remote control devices in medium-voltage stations considering the quality regulation. The developed method performs an optimization based on a genetic algorithm and is applicable to all typical medium-voltage network structures. A case study illustrates the operational capability of the developed method with an urban medium-voltage network. (orig.)

  2. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-Compliant Ocular Telehealth Network for the Remote Diagnosis and Management of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Fox, Karen [Delta Health Alliance; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the design and implementation of a regional ocular telehealth network for remote assessment and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR), including the design requirements, network topology, protocol design, system work flow, graphics user interfaces, and performance evaluation. The Telemedical Retinal Image Analysis and Diagnosis Network is a computer-aided, image analysis telehealth paradigm for the diagnosis of DR and other retinal diseases using fundus images acquired from primary care end users delivering care to underserved patient populations in the mid-South and southeastern United States.

  3. Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Strawbridge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operated continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd : YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an Internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network. In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced

  4. Pansharpening by Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Masi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pansharpening method is proposed, based on convolutional neural networks. We adapt a simple and effective three-layer architecture recently proposed for super-resolution to the pansharpening problem. Moreover, to improve performance without increasing complexity, we augment the input by including several maps of nonlinear radiometric indices typical of remote sensing. Experiments on three representative datasets show the proposed method to provide very promising results, largely competitive with the current state of the art in terms of both full-reference and no-reference metrics, and also at a visual inspection.

  5. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  6. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  7. Cascade Convolutional Neural Network Based on Transfer-Learning for Aircraft Detection on High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft detection from high-resolution remote sensing images is important for civil and military applications. Recently, detection methods based on deep learning have rapidly advanced. However, they require numerous samples to train the detection model and cannot be directly used to efficiently handle large-area remote sensing images. A weakly supervised learning method (WSLM can detect a target with few samples. However, it cannot extract an adequate number of features, and the detection accuracy requires improvement. We propose a cascade convolutional neural network (CCNN framework based on transfer-learning and geometric feature constraints (GFC for aircraft detection. It achieves high accuracy and efficient detection with relatively few samples. A high-accuracy detection model is first obtained using transfer-learning to fine-tune pretrained models with few samples. Then, a GFC region proposal filtering method improves detection efficiency. The CCNN framework completes the aircraft detection for large-area remote sensing images. The framework first-level network is an image classifier, which filters the entire image, excluding most areas with no aircraft. The second-level network is an object detector, which rapidly detects aircraft from the first-level network output. Compared with WSLM, detection accuracy increased by 3.66%, false detection decreased by 64%, and missed detection decreased by 23.1%.

  8. Remote monitoring of soldier safety through body posture identification using wearable sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subir; Quwaider, Muhannad

    2008-04-01

    The physical safety and well being of the soldiers in a battlefield is the highest priority of Incident Commanders. Currently, the ability to track and monitor soldiers rely on visual and verbal communication which can be somewhat limited in scenarios where the soldiers are deployed inside buildings and enclosed areas that are out of visual range of the commanders. Also, the need for being stealth can often prevent a battling soldier to send verbal clues to a commander about his or her physical well being. Sensor technologies can remotely provide various data about the soldiers including physiological monitoring and personal alert safety system functionality. This paper presents a networked sensing solution in which a body area wireless network of multi-modal sensors can monitor the body movement and other physiological parameters for statistical identification of a soldier's body posture, which can then be indicative of the physical conditions and safety alerts of the soldier in question. The specific concept is to leverage on-body proximity sensing and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based mechanism that can be applied for stochastic identification of human body postures using a wearable sensor network. The key idea is to collect relative proximity information between wireless sensors that are strategically placed over a subject's body to monitor the relative movements of the body segments, and then to process that using HMM in order to identify the subject's body postures. The key novelty of this approach is a departure from the traditional accelerometry based approaches in which the individual body segment movements, rather than their relative proximity, is used for activity monitoring and posture detection. Through experiments with body mounted sensors we demonstrate that while the accelerometry based approaches can be used for differentiating activity intensive postures such as walking and running, they are not very effective for identification and

  9. Remote System Update for System on Programmable Chip Based on Controller Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In some application domains, using a download cable to update the system on a programmable chip (SoPC is infeasible, which reduces the maintainability and flexibility of the system. Hence the remote system update (RSU scheme is being studied. In this scheme, the serial configuration (EPCS device involves a factory mode configuration image, which acts as the baseline, and an application mode configuration image, which is used for some specific functions. Specifically, a new application mode image is delivered through the controller area network (CAN with the improved application layer protocol. Besides, the data flow and data check for transmitting a new image are constructed to combine the transmission reliability with efficiency. The boot sequence copying hardware configuration code and software configuration code is analyzed, and the advanced boot loader is carried out to specify boot address of the application mode image manually. Experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of updating and running a new application mode image, as well as rolling back into the factory mode image when no application mode image is available. This scheme applies a single CAN bus, which makes the system easy to construct and suitable for the field distributed control system.

  10. Learning Oriented Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks for Building Detection in Satellite Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The automated building detection in aerial images is a fundamental problem encountered in aerial and satellite images analysis. Recently, thanks to the advances in feature descriptions, Region-based CNN model (R-CNN for object detection is receiving an increasing attention. Despite the excellent performance in object detection, it is problematic to directly leverage the features of R-CNN model for building detection in single aerial image. As we know, the single aerial image is in vertical view and the buildings possess significant directional feature. However, in R-CNN model, direction of the building is ignored and the detection results are represented by horizontal rectangles. For this reason, the detection results with horizontal rectangle cannot describe the building precisely. To address this problem, in this paper, we proposed a novel model with a key feature related to orientation, namely, Oriented R-CNN (OR-CNN. Our contributions are mainly in the following two aspects: 1 Introducing a new oriented layer network for detecting the rotation angle of building on the basis of the successful VGG-net R-CNN model; 2 the oriented rectangle is proposed to leverage the powerful R-CNN for remote-sensing building detection. In experiments, we establish a complete and bran-new data set for training our oriented R-CNN model and comprehensively evaluate the proposed method on a publicly available building detection data set. We demonstrate State-of-the-art results compared with the previous baseline methods.

  11. Learning Oriented Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks for Building Detection in Satellite Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gong, W.; Hu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The automated building detection in aerial images is a fundamental problem encountered in aerial and satellite images analysis. Recently, thanks to the advances in feature descriptions, Region-based CNN model (R-CNN) for object detection is receiving an increasing attention. Despite the excellent performance in object detection, it is problematic to directly leverage the features of R-CNN model for building detection in single aerial image. As we know, the single aerial image is in vertical view and the buildings possess significant directional feature. However, in R-CNN model, direction of the building is ignored and the detection results are represented by horizontal rectangles. For this reason, the detection results with horizontal rectangle cannot describe the building precisely. To address this problem, in this paper, we proposed a novel model with a key feature related to orientation, namely, Oriented R-CNN (OR-CNN). Our contributions are mainly in the following two aspects: 1) Introducing a new oriented layer network for detecting the rotation angle of building on the basis of the successful VGG-net R-CNN model; 2) the oriented rectangle is proposed to leverage the powerful R-CNN for remote-sensing building detection. In experiments, we establish a complete and bran-new data set for training our oriented R-CNN model and comprehensively evaluate the proposed method on a publicly available building detection data set. We demonstrate State-of-the-art results compared with the previous baseline methods.

  12. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST Machine-to-Machine (M2M gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  13. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  14. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent paper by Morillas et al. [Morillas, L. et al. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective, Remote Sens. Environ. 136, 234-246, 2013] evaluates the two-source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with revi...

  15. Optical detectors for integration into a low cost radiometric device for in-water applications: A feasibility study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramkilowan, A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -based remote sensing techniques, coupled with in-situ radiometric technology to offer a powerful and potentially cost effective method of addressing algal bloom related hazards. The work presented in this paper focuses on the decision making processes involved...

  16. Road Segmentation of Remotely-Sensed Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Landscape Metrics and Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapong Panboonyuen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Object segmentation of remotely-sensed aerial (or very-high resolution, VHS images and satellite (or high-resolution, HR images, has been applied to many application domains, especially in road extraction in which the segmented objects are served as a mandatory layer in geospatial databases. Several attempts at applying the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN to extract roads from remote sensing images have been made; however, the accuracy is still limited. In this paper, we present an enhanced DCNN framework specifically tailored for road extraction of remote sensing images by applying landscape metrics (LMs and conditional random fields (CRFs. To improve the DCNN, a modern activation function called the exponential linear unit (ELU, is employed in our network, resulting in a higher number of, and yet more accurate, extracted roads. To further reduce falsely classified road objects, a solution based on an adoption of LMs is proposed. Finally, to sharpen the extracted roads, a CRF method is added to our framework. The experiments were conducted on Massachusetts road aerial imagery as well as the Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS satellite imagery data sets. The results showed that our proposed framework outperformed Segnet, a state-of-the-art object segmentation technique, on any kinds of remote sensing imagery, in most of the cases in terms of precision, recall, and F 1 .

  17. Classification of ETM+ Remote Sensing Image Based on Hybrid Algorithm of Genetic Algorithm and Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisheng Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The back propagation neural network (BPNN algorithm can be used as a supervised classification in the processing of remote sensing image classification. But its defects are obvious: falling into the local minimum value easily, slow convergence speed, and being difficult to determine intermediate hidden layer nodes. Genetic algorithm (GA has the advantages of global optimization and being not easy to fall into local minimum value, but it has the disadvantage of poor local searching capability. This paper uses GA to generate the initial structure of BPNN. Then, the stable, efficient, and fast BP classification network is gotten through making fine adjustments on the improved BP algorithm. Finally, we use the hybrid algorithm to execute classification on remote sensing image and compare it with the improved BP algorithm and traditional maximum likelihood classification (MLC algorithm. Results of experiments show that the hybrid algorithm outperforms improved BP algorithm and MLC algorithm.

  18. Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing - definitions and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaepman-Strub, G.; Schaepman, M.E.; Painter, T.H.; Dangel, S.; Martonchik, J.

    2006-01-01

    The remote sensing community puts major efforts into calibration and validation of sensors, measurements, and derived products to quantify and reduce uncertainties. Given recent advances in instrument design, radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction, algorithm development, product

  19. The Design of Data Transmission Terminal in Remote Warning Control System Based on CDMA 1X Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework of data transmission terminal in remote warning control system based on CDMA 1X network. According to the functional requirements of wireless broadband communication system, the hardware interfaces and software of the CDMA 1X data transmission terminal are designed detailedly and the system is implemented using wireless access and embedded development technologies. It has good applicability and portability so that various wireless data transmissions can be achieved by replacing the data source module.

  20. Methods for calculation of undelivered electricity in medium voltage network that is not integrated into the remote control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrcelj Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is based on data obtained from the so-called. hand-held measuring current at 10 kV voltage level and from reports of outages at reclosers that are installed in a part of network that is observed. At first, is calculates the electrical load of the main distribution power lines, and then simulates the corresponding power flow and calculates the undelivered electricity. The method was applied to parts of the network PD ED Belgrade that are not in the remote control system and is developed for the purpose of considering the effects of automation in the 10 kV PD ED Belgrade.

  1. Evaluation of Physiologically-Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    Secondary Score 181.625 5.250 181.031 5.076 Total Score 631.458 20.787 491.113 26.085 Subjective Workload (TLX) 37.404 4.134 42.934 4.025 Heart Rate (Beats...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0075 Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely...16 Interim Report 1 August 2015 – 8 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to

  2. Analysis of the Radiometric Response of Orange Tree Crown in Hyperspectral Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N. N.; Moriya, E. A. S.; Honkavaara, E.; Miyoshi, G. T.; de Moraes, M. V. A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Näsi, R.

    2017-10-01

    High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013) presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems - RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  3. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF ORANGE TREE CROWN IN HYPERSPECTRAL UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Imai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013 presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems – RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  5. The Role of Telematic Practices in Computer Engineering: A Low-cost Remote Power Control in a Network Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Mateo Sanguino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a practical solution of e-learning laboratory devoted to the study of computer networks. This laboratory has been proven with two groups of students from the University of Huelva (Spain during two academic years. In order to achieve this objective, it has been necessary to create an entire network infrastructure that includes both the telematic access to the laboratory equipment and the remote power control. The interest of this work lies in an economical and simple system of remote control and telematic access with a twofold objective. On the one hand, to develop distance practices with attendance appearance by means of real hardware systems, not simulated. On the other hand, to reduce the power consumption regarding other proposals of remote labs with permanent power connection, providing herein an on demand connection only when required. As a result, a versatile and flexible laboratory has been put into practice whose basic network topology allows transferring traditional practices to telematic practices in a natural way and without harsh changes

  6. A novel proposal of GPON-oriented fiber grating sensing data digitalization system for remote sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubao; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Lu; Bai, Jian

    2016-05-01

    A novel GPON-oriented sensing data digitalization system is proposed to achieve remote monitoring of fiber grating sensing networks utilizing existing optical communication networks in some harsh environments. In which, Quick digitalization of sensing information obtained from the reflected lightwaves by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is realized, and a novel frame format of sensor signal is designed to suit for public transport so as to facilitate sensor monitoring center to receive and analyze the sensor data. The delay effect, identification method of the sensor data, and various interference factors which influence the sensor data to be correctly received are analyzed. The system simulation is carried out with OptiSystem/Matlab co-simulation approach. The theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the feasibility of the integration of the sensor network and communication network.

  7. RADIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES IN HEAVY MINERAL EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; TANCZOS, IC; STAPEL, C

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the Environmental Research Group of the KVI has been developing a number of radiometric techniques that may be employed in mineral sand exploration. These techniques involve: radiometric fingerprinting for assessing sand provenances and mineralogical composition; thermoluminescence

  8. Drought monitoring and assessment: Remote sensing and modeling approaches for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Budde, Michael; Young, Claudia; Rowland, James; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    Drought monitoring is an essential component of drought risk management. It is usually carried out using drought indices/indicators that are continuous functions of rainfall and other hydrometeorological variables. This chapter presents a few examples of how remote sensing and hydrologic modeling techniques are being used to generate a suite of drought monitoring indicators at dekadal (10-day), monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales for several selected regions around the world. Satellite-based rainfall estimates are being used to produce drought indicators such as standardized precipitation index, dryness indicators, and start of season analysis. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is being used to monitor vegetation condition. Several satellite data products are combined using agrohydrologic models to produce multiple short- and long-term indicators of droughts. All the data sets are being produced and updated in near-real time to provide information about the onset, progression, extent, and intensity of drought conditions. The data and products produced are available for download from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) data portal at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov. The availability of timely information and products support the decision-making processes in drought-related hazard assessment, monitoring, and management with the FEWS NET. The drought-hazard monitoring approach perfected by the U.S. Geological Survey for FEWS NET through the integration of satellite data and hydrologic modeling can form the basis for similar decision support systems. Such systems can operationally produce reliable and useful regional information that is relevant for local, district-level decision making.

  9. Radiometric Correction of Terrestrial LiDAR Data for Mapping of Harvest Residues Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Koenig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In precision agriculture detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role. Laser scanning already has been used to describe in-field variations of plant growth in 3D and over time and can serve as valuable complementary topographic data set for remote sensing, such as deriving soil properties from hyperspectral sensors. In this study full-waveform laser scanning data acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 instrument is used to classify 3D point clouds into post-harvest straw residues and bare soil. A workflow for point cloud based classification is presented using radiometric and geometric point features. A radiometric correction is performed by using a range-correction function f(r, which is derived from lab experiments with a reference target of known reflectance. Thereafter, the corrected signal amplitude and local height features are explored with respect to the target classes. The following procedure includes feature calculation, decision tree analysis, point cloud classification and finally result validation using detailed classified reference RGB images. The classification tree separates the classes of harvest residues and bare soil with an accuracy of 96% by using geometric and radiometric features. The LiDAR-derived harvest residue coverage value of 75% lies in accordance with the image-based reference (coverage of 68%. The results indicate the high potential of radiometric features for natural surface classification, particularly in combination with geometric features.

  10. KERNEL MAD ALGORITHM FOR RELATIVE RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate alteration detection (MAD algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA. The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1 data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  11. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  12. A virtual remote sensing observation network for continuous, near-real-time monitoring of atmospheric instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporov, Maria; Löhnert, Ulrich; Potthast, Roland; Cimini, Domenico; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    remote sensing (i.e. SEVIRI, AMSU) is used to complement observations from a virtual ground-based microwave radiometer network based on the reanalysis of the COSMO model for Europe. In this contribution, we present a synergetic retrieval algorithm of stability indices from satellite observations and ground-based microwave measurements based on the COSMO-DE reanalysis as truth. In order to make the approach feasible for data assimilation applications at national weather services, we simulate satellite observations with the standard RTTOV model and use the newly developed RTTOV-gb (ground-based) for the ground-based radiometers (De Angelis et al., 2016). For the detection of significant instabilities, we show the synergy benefit in terms of uncertainty reduction, probability of detection and other forecast skill scores. The overall goal of ARON is to quantify the impact of ground-based vertical profilers within an integrated forecasting system, which combines short-term and now-casting.

  13. An Empirical Approach to Ocean Color Data: Reducing Bias and the Need for Post-Launch Radiometric Re-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; O'Reilly, John E.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2009-01-01

    A new empirical approach is developed for ocean color remote sensing. Called the Empirical Satellite Radiance-In situ Data (ESRID) algorithm, the approach uses relationships between satellite water-leaving radiances and in situ data after full processing, i.e., at Level-3, to improve estimates of surface variables while relaxing requirements on post-launch radiometric re-calibration. The approach is evaluated using SeaWiFS chlorophyll, which is the longest time series of the most widely used ocean color geophysical product. The results suggest that ESRID 1) drastically reduces the bias of ocean chlorophyll, most impressively in coastal regions, 2) modestly improves the uncertainty, and 3) reduces the sensitivity of global annual median chlorophyll to changes in radiometric re-calibration. Simulated calibration errors of 1% or less produce small changes in global median chlorophyll (less than 2.7%). In contrast, the standard NASA algorithm set is highly sensitive to radiometric calibration: similar 1% calibration errors produce changes in global median chlorophyll up to nearly 25%. We show that 0.1% radiometric calibration error (about 1% in water-leaving radiance) is needed to prevent radiometric calibration errors from changing global annual median chlorophyll more than the maximum interannual variability observed in the SeaWiFS 9-year record (+/- 3%), using the standard method. This is much more stringent than the goal for SeaWiFS of 5% uncertainty for water leaving radiance. The results suggest ocean color programs might consider less emphasis of expensive efforts to improve post-launch radiometric re-calibration in favor of increased efforts to characterize in situ observations of ocean surface geophysical products. Although the results here are focused on chlorophyll, in principle the approach described by ESRID can be applied to any surface variable potentially observable by visible remote sensing.

  14. Radiometric characterization of Landsat Collection 1 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2017-01-01

    Landsat data in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archive are being reprocessed to generate a tiered collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated products that are suitable for time series analyses. With the implementation of the collection management, no major updates will be made to calibration of the Landsat sensors within a collection. Only calibration parameters needed to maintain the established calibration trends without an effect on derived environmental records will be regularly updated, while all other changes will be deferred to a new collection. This first collection, Collection 1, incorporates various radiometric calibration updates to all Landsat sensors including absolute and relative gains for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), stray light correction for Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), absolute gains for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), recalibration of Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanners (MSS) to ensure radiometric consistency among different formats of archived MSS data, and a transfer of Landsat 8 OLI reflectance based calibration to all previous Landsat sensors. While all OLI/TIRS, ETM+ and majority of TM data have already been reprocessed to Collection 1, a completion of MSS and remaining TM data reprocessing is expected by the end of this year. It is important to note that, although still available for download from the USGS web pages, the products generated using the Pre-Collection processing do not benefit from the latest radiometric calibration updates. In this paper, we are assessing radiometry of solar reflective bands in Landsat Collection 1 products through analysis of trends in on-board calibrator and pseudo invariant site (PICS) responses.

  15. Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S W; Rice, J. P.; Neira, J. E.; Johnson, B. C.; Jackson, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared regions for radiomet...

  16. Real-time Data Streams from ``e-RemoteCtrl'' to Central VLBI Network Status Monitoring Services Like IVS Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Collioud, Arnaud

    2014-12-01

    A central VLBI network status monitoring can be realized by using online status information about current VLBI sessions, real-time, and status data directly from each radio telescope. Such monitoring helps to organize sessions or to get immediate feedback from the active telescopes. Therefore the remote control software for VLBI radio telescopes ``e-RemoteCtrl'' (http://www.econtrol-software.de), which enables remote access as extension to the NASA Field System, realizes real-time data streams to dedicated data centers. The software has direct access to the status information about the current observation (e.g., schedule, scan, source) and the telescope (e.g., current state, temperature, pressure) in real-time. This information are directly sent to ``IVS Live''. ``IVS Live'' (http://ivslive.obs.u-bordeaux1.fr/) is a Web tool that can be used to follow the observing sessions, organized by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), navigate through past or upcoming sessions, or search and display specific information about sessions, sources (like VLBI images), and stations, by using an Internet browser.

  17. User selective mode-forming remote switch in multi-mode fiber distributing networks using MIMO processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizumi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Iwashita, Katsushi

    2017-06-01

    A mode-forming remote switch in multi-mode fiber distributing networks has been proposed. It can transmit the desired data to the desired port by adjusting transmitter signals. Feasibilities of the proposed scheme are confirmed by switching sub-carrier BPSK signal to the selected port. A graded-index multi-mode fiber link whose output is divided into two ports by a mode-dependent optical coupler, is used as mode-division multiplexing network. Its channel matrix is obtained by using MIMO processing technologies. Amplitudes and phases of the data are adjusted according to the channel matrix. The data is successfully switched to the desired port. Also, wavelength independences are clarified.

  18. Smart Multi-Level Tool for Remote Patient Monitoring Based on a Wireless Sensor Network and Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fernando Cornelio Jimènez; Villegas, Osslan Osiris Vergara; Ramírez, Dulce Esperanza Torres; Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe Cruz; Domínguez, Humberto Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations in the field of disease prevention and maintenance of patient health have enabled the evolution of fields such as monitoring systems. One of the main advances is the development of real-time monitors that use intelligent and wireless communication technology. In this paper, a system is presented for the remote monitoring of the body temperature and heart rate of a patient by means of a wireless sensor network (WSN) and mobile augmented reality (MAR). The combination of a WSN and MAR provides a novel alternative to remotely measure body temperature and heart rate in real time during patient care. The system is composed of (1) hardware such as Arduino microcontrollers (in the patient nodes), personal computers (for the nurse server), smartphones (for the mobile nurse monitor and the virtual patient file) and sensors (to measure body temperature and heart rate), (2) a network layer using WiFly technology, and (3) software such as LabView, Android SDK, and DroidAR. The results obtained from tests show that the system can perform effectively within a range of 20 m and requires ten minutes to stabilize the temperature sensor to detect hyperthermia, hypothermia or normal body temperature conditions. Additionally, the heart rate sensor can detect conditions of tachycardia and bradycardia. PMID:25230306

  19. Smart Multi-Level Tool for Remote Patient Monitoring Based on a Wireless Sensor Network and Mobile Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cornelio Jiménez González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in the field of disease prevention and maintenance of patient health have enabled the evolution of fields such as monitoring systems. One of the main advances is the development of real-time monitors that use intelligent and wireless communication technology. In this paper, a system is presented for the remote monitoring of the body temperature and heart rate of a patient by means of a wireless sensor network (WSN and mobile augmented reality (MAR. The combination of a WSN and MAR provides a novel alternative to remotely measure body temperature and heart rate in real time during patient care. The system is composed of (1 hardware such as Arduino microcontrollers (in the patient nodes, personal computers (for the nurse server, smartphones (for the mobile nurse monitor and the virtual patient file and sensors (to measure body temperature and heart rate, (2 a network layer using WiFly technology, and (3 software such as LabView, Android SDK, and DroidAR. The results obtained from tests show that the system can perform effectively within a range of 20 m and requires ten minutes to stabilize the temperature sensor to detect hyperthermia, hypothermia or normal body temperature conditions. Additionally, the heart rate sensor can detect conditions of tachycardia and bradycardia.

  20. Smart multi-level tool for remote patient monitoring based on a wireless sensor network and mobile augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fernando Cornelio Jiménez; Villegas, Osslan Osiris Vergara; Ramírez, Dulce Esperanza Torres; Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe Cruz; Domínguez, Humberto Ochoa

    2014-09-16

    Technological innovations in the field of disease prevention and maintenance of patient health have enabled the evolution of fields such as monitoring systems. One of the main advances is the development of real-time monitors that use intelligent and wireless communication technology. In this paper, a system is presented for the remote monitoring of the body temperature and heart rate of a patient by means of a wireless sensor network (WSN) and mobile augmented reality (MAR). The combination of a WSN and MAR provides a novel alternative to remotely measure body temperature and heart rate in real time during patient care. The system is composed of (1) hardware such as Arduino microcontrollers (in the patient nodes), personal computers (for the nurse server), smartphones (for the mobile nurse monitor and the virtual patient file) and sensors (to measure body temperature and heart rate), (2) a network layer using WiFly technology, and (3) software such as LabView, Android SDK, and DroidAR. The results obtained from tests show that the system can perform effectively within a range of 20 m and requires ten minutes to stabilize the temperature sensor to detect hyperthermia, hypothermia or normal body temperature conditions. Additionally, the heart rate sensor can detect conditions of tachycardia and bradycardia.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Web-based Greenhouse Remote Monitoring System with Zigbee Protocol and GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Tabatabaeifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern and big greenhouses, it is necessary to measure several climate parameters to automate and control the greenhouse properly. Monitoring and transmitting by cable may lead to an expensive and stiff measurement system. Since, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a distributed system that consists of small-size wireless sensor nodes equipped with radio and one or several sensors; it is a low cost option to build the required monitoring system. In this paper, we introduce and implement an intelligent monitoring system based on WSN by using Xbee modules. The Xbee Series 2 hardware uses a microchip from Ember Networks that enables several different flavors of standards-based ZigBee mesh networking. All gathered information by sensors, are sent to a remote center in form of GPRS packets through a GSM network and viewed by monitoring software. The proposed system has low power consumption, low cost and simple driver circuits. Furthermore, it can support various types of digital and analog sensors.

  2. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  3. Remote modulation of network excitability during deep brain stimulation for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-accepted medical therapy in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and is currently under investigation as a treatment for other disorders, including epilepsy. Although DBS is widely used, its therapeutic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent research shows that seizures are network-level phenomena, but the incomplete knowledge of neural circuit function has left a gap in our understanding of how disruption at a molecular or cellular level generates epilepsy. In addition, DBS may potentially provide the opportunity to selectively modulate targeted brain regions and related networks. Therefore, a better understanding of the relationship between normal neural networks and epileptogenic networks, as well as the role of DBS in the modulation of neural networks will help us to find the optimal stimulation targets and parameters to achieve a better therapeutic effect. This review will outline the most recent advances in the relationship between normal brain networks and epileptogenic networks, and the modulation of DBS on the excitability of epileptogenic networks. We will then discuss how to optimize DBS stimulation targets and parameters by taking into consideration the concept of network modulation in order to improve treatment of epilepsy in the future. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  5. The implement of a remote control system for automated warehouse by ZigBee networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ho-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive raw materials and products in stock unduly increase an enterprise's overhead. However, insufficient raw materials and products will also influence the efficiency and output of the manufacturing process. Therefore, to largely reduce stock cost and facilitate adequate production for plants with multiple manufacturing processes and warehouses, the adjustment of raw material and products between warehouses is necessary. In addition, in order to keep track of current raw materials and products, remote online monitoring and control of the storage/retrieval system is compulsory. To simplify the search in an AS/BS process, a graph-aided strategy that manually selects the location within the stock map is presented. Moreover, to avoid interference from internet wiring allocation with existing equipment, a wireless storage/retrieval system using the ZigBee module is adopted. Consequently, a prototype of the remote wireless monitoring and control storage/retrieval system for sixteen storage spaces is exemplified.

  6. A novel Smart Routing Protocol for remote health monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T V P; Sumithra, M G; Maheswar, R

    2014-01-01

    In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN), sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP) selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  7. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  8. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  9. Application of a Hybrid Model Based on a Convolutional Auto-Encoder and Convolutional Neural Network in Object-Oriented Remote Sensing Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the format and classification requirements for remote sensing data makes establishing a standard remote sensing sample dataset difficult. As a result, few remote sensing deep neural network models have been widely accepted. We propose a hybrid deep neural network model based on a convolutional auto-encoder and a complementary convolutional neural network to solve this problem. The convolutional auto-encoder supports feature extraction and data dimension reduction of remote sensing data. The extracted features are input into the convolutional neural network and subsequently classified. Experimental results show that in the proposed model, the classification accuracy increases from 0.916 to 0.944, compared to a traditional convolutional neural network model; furthermore, the number of training runs is reduced from 40,000 to 22,000, and the number of labelled samples can be reduced by more than half, all while ensuring a classification accuracy of no less than 0.9, which suggests the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.

  10. Development of a remote sensing algorithm for cyanobacterial phycocyanin pigment in the Baltic Sea using neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Stefan; Krawczyk, Harald

    2011-11-01

    Water quality monitoring in the Baltic Sea is of high ecological importance for all its neighbouring countries. They are highly interested in a regular monitoring of water quality parameters of their regional zones. A special attention is paid to the occurrence and dissemination of algae blooms. Among the appearing blooms the possibly toxicological or harmful cyanobacteria cultures are a special case of investigation, due to their specific optical properties and due to the negative influence on the ecological state of the aquatic system. Satellite remote sensing, with its high temporal and spatial resolution opportunities, allows the frequent observations of large areas of the Baltic Sea with special focus on its two seasonal algae blooms. For a better monitoring of the cyanobacteria dominated summer blooms, adapted algorithms are needed which take into account the special optical properties of blue-green algae. Chlorophyll-a standard algorithms typically fail in a correct recognition of these occurrences. To significantly improve the opportunities of observation and propagation of the cyanobacteria blooms, the Marine Remote Sensing group of DLR has started the development of a model based inversion algorithm that includes a four component bio-optical water model for Case2 waters, which extends the commonly calculated parameter set chlorophyll, Suspended Matter and CDOM with an additional parameter for the estimation of phycocyanin absorption. It was necessary to carry out detailed optical laboratory measurements with different cyanobacteria cultures, occurring in the Baltic Sea, for the generation of a specific bio-optical model. The inversion of satellite remote sensing data is based on an artificial Neural Network technique. This is a model based multivariate non-linear inversion approach. The specifically designed Neural Network is trained with a comprehensive dataset of simulated reflectance values taking into account the laboratory obtained specific optical

  11. Evaluation of Radiometric and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation Using Landsat 5 TM Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pablito M. López-Serrano; José J. Corral-Rivas; Ramón A. Díaz-Varela; Juan G. Álvarez-González; Carlos A. López-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Solar radiation is affected by absorption and emission phenomena during its downward trajectory from the Sun to the Earth’s surface and during the upward trajectory detected by satellite sensors. This leads to distortion of the ground radiometric properties (reflectance) recorded by satellite images, used in this study to estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB). Atmospherically-corrected remote sensing data can be used to estimate AGB on a global scale and with moderate effort. The objectiv...

  12. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

  13. Automated geographic registration and radiometric correction for UAV-based mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Sima, Chao; Yang, Chenghai; Cope, Dale A.

    2017-05-01

    Texas A and M University has been operating a large-scale, UAV-based, agricultural remote-sensing research project since 2015. To use UAV-based images in agricultural production, many high-resolution images must be mosaicked together to create an image of an agricultural field. Two key difficulties to science-based utilization of such mosaics are geographic registration and radiometric calibration. In our current research project, image files are taken to the computer laboratory after the flight, and semi-manual pre-processing is implemented on the raw image data, including ortho-mosaicking and radiometric calibration. Ground control points (GCPs) are critical for high-quality geographic registration of images during mosaicking. Applications requiring accurate reflectance data also require radiometric-calibration references so that reflectance values of image objects can be calculated. We have developed a method for automated geographic registration and radiometric correction with targets that are installed semi-permanently at distributed locations around fields. The targets are a combination of black (≍5% reflectance), dark gray (≍20% reflectance), and light gray (≍40% reflectance) sections that provide for a transformation of pixel-value to reflectance in the dynamic range of crop fields. The exact spectral reflectance of each target is known, having been measured with a spectrophotometer. At the time of installation, each target is measured for position with a real-time kinematic GPS receiver to give its precise latitude and longitude. Automated location of the reference targets in the images is required for precise, automated, geographic registration; and automated calculation of the digital-number to reflectance transformation is required for automated radiometric calibration. To validate the system for radiometric calibration, a calibrated UAV-based image mosaic of a field was compared to a calibrated single image from a manned aircraft. Reflectance

  14. The Analysis of a Link Between a Remote Local Area Network and Its Server Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaver, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    ... paramount. One way to provide this support is to create a Local Area Network (LAN) in which the workstations are positioned at the deployed location while the servers are maintained at a Main Operating Base (MOB...

  15. GAN-Assisted Two-Stream Neural Network for High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Tao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using deep learning to improve the capabilities of high-resolution satellite images has emerged recently as an important topic in automatic classification. Deep networks track hierarchical high-level features to identify objects; however, enhancing the classification accuracy from low-level features is often disregarded. We therefore proposed a two-stream deep-learning neural network strategy, with a main stream utilizing fine spatial-resolution panchromatic images to retain low-level information under a supervised residual network structure. An auxiliary line employed an unsupervised net to extract high-level abstract and discriminative features from multispectral images to supplement the spectral information in the main stream. Various feature extraction types from the neural network were selected and jointed in the novel net, as the combined high- and low-level features could provide a superior solution to image classification. In traditional convolutional neural networks, increased network depth might not influence the network performance perceptibly; however, we introduced a residual neural network to develop the expressive ability of the deeper net, increasing the role of net depth in feature extraction. To enhance feature robustness, we proposed a novel consolidation part in feature extraction. An adversarial net improved the feature extraction capabilities and aided digging the inherent and discriminative features from data, with increased extraction efficacy. Tests on satellite images indicated the high overall accuracy of our novel net, verifying that net depth or number of convolution kernels affected the classification capability. Various comparative tests proved the structural rationality for our two-stream structure.

  16. Remote sensing of water vapour profiles in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the near infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON can be used to derive the vertical distribution of tropospheric water vapour. The resolution of the TCCON spectra of 0.02 cm−1 is sufficient for retrieving lower and middle/upper tropospheric water vapour concentrations with a vertical resolution of about 3 and 8 km, respectively. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.

  17. The Influence of Colour on Radiometric Performances of Agricultural Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellano, S.; Hemming, S.; Russo, G.

    2008-01-01

    The whole construction parameters of the net, combined with the shape of the structure, the position of the sun and the sky conditions affect the radiometric performance of the permeable covering system. The radiometric properties of the permeable membrane influence the quality of the agricultural

  18. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value up to 5.43 μWm-3. The highest value of the radiogenic heat production in this basin has a value of 5.43 μWm-3 around Aimeke and Ogobia. The airborne total radiometric count of radio-elements and radiogenic heat maps were produced. Key Words: Aero-radiometric; Radiogenic Heat; Anambra Basin; Geothermal ...

  19. Simulations of Remote Mutants of Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal the Nature of a Network of Residues Coupled to Hydride Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon; Doron, Dvir; Major, Dan T.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have proposed that enzymes involve networks of coupled residues throughout the protein that participate in motions accompanying chemical barrier crossing. Here we have examined portions of a proposed network in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations. The simulations employ a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics approach with a recently developed semi-empirical AM1-SRP Hamiltonian that provides accurate results for this reaction. The simulations reproduce experimentally determined catalytic rates for the wild type and distant mutants of E. coli DHFR, underscoring the accuracy of the simulation protocol. Additionally the simulations provide detailed insight into how residues remote from the active site affect the catalyzed chemistry, through changes in the thermally averaged properties along the reaction coordinate. The mutations do not greatly affect the structure of the transition state near the bond activation, but we observe differences somewhat removed from the point of C-H cleavage that affect the rate. The mutations have global effects on the thermally averaged structure that propagate throughout the enzyme and the current simulations highlight several interactions that appear to be particularly important. PMID:24798860

  20. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  1. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  2. Distributed Least-Squares Estimation of a Remote Chemical Source via Convex Combination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Li Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of locating a continuous chemical source using the concentration measurements provided by a wireless sensor network (WSN. Such a problem exists in various applications: eliminating explosives or drugs, detecting the leakage of noxious chemicals, etc. The limited power and bandwidth of WSNs have motivated collaborative in-network processing which is the focus of this paper. We propose a novel distributed least-squares estimation (DLSE method to solve the chemical source localization (CSL problem using a WSN. The DLSE method is realized by iteratively conducting convex combination of the locally estimated chemical source locations in a distributed manner. Performance assessments of our method are conducted using both simulations and real experiments. In the experiments, we propose a fitting method to identify both the release rate and the eddy diffusivity. The results show that the proposed DLSE method can overcome the negative interference of local minima and saddle points of the objective function, which would hinder the convergence of local search methods, especially in the case of locating a remote chemical source.

  3. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  4. Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 μm and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

  5. Remote neuroimmune signaling: a long-range mechanism of nociceptive network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Carl Y; Hains, Bryan C

    2009-02-01

    Chronic pain secondary to neuronal injury is actively and continuously modulated at multiple locations along the sensory neuraxis. Here, we describe how nociceptive neurons of the spinal cord and thalamus process and communicate nociceptive information in terms of precisely calibrated firing patterns. We then discuss how several cell types with immunogenic properties (e.g. blood cells and glia) cause system-wide interference in nociceptive processing through novel signaling schema, thus contributing to nociceptive network plasticity and chronic pain.

  6. A FPGA embedded web server for remote monitoring and control of smart sensors networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, David; García, Enrique

    2013-12-27

    This article describes the implementation of a web server using an embedded Altera NIOS II IP core, a general purpose and configurable RISC processor which is embedded in a Cyclone FPGA. The processor uses the μCLinux operating system to support a Boa web server of dynamic pages using Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The FPGA is configured to act like the master node of a network, and also to control and monitor a network of smart sensors or instruments. In order to develop a totally functional system, the FPGA also includes an implementation of the time-triggered protocol (TTP/A). Thus, the implemented master node has two interfaces, the webserver that acts as an Internet interface and the other to control the network. This protocol is widely used to connecting smart sensors and actuators and microsystems in embedded real-time systems in different application domains, e.g., industrial, automotive, domotic, etc., although this protocol can be easily replaced by any other because of the inherent characteristics of the FPGA-based technology.

  7. A FPGA Embedded Web Server for Remote Monitoring and Control of Smart Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magdaleno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the implementation of a web server using an embedded Altera NIOS II IP core, a general purpose and configurable RISC processor which is embedded in a Cyclone FPGA. The processor uses the μCLinux operating system to support a Boa web server of dynamic pages using Common Gateway Interface (CGI. The FPGA is configured to act like the master node of a network, and also to control and monitor a network of smart sensors or instruments. In order to develop a totally functional system, the FPGA also includes an implementation of the time-triggered protocol (TTP/A. Thus, the implemented master node has two interfaces, the webserver that acts as an Internet interface and the other to control the network. This protocol is widely used to connecting smart sensors and actuators and microsystems in embedded real-time systems in different application domains, e.g., industrial, automotive, domotic, etc., although this protocol can be easily replaced by any other because of the inherent characteristics of the FPGA-based technology.

  8. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  9. Geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, B.; Cescatti, A.

    2017-11-01

    Radiometric measurements of hemispherical surface reflectance and long-wave irradiance are required to quantify the broadband albedo and the outgoing thermal radiation. These observations are typically integrated with eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to characterize the surface energy budget. While the aerodynamic footprint has been widely investigated, the geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies has been rarely tackled. In the present work, the size and shape of the hemispherical radiometric footprint are formalized for a bare surface and in presence of a vegetation cover. For this purpose, four idealized canopies are analyzed and the dependency of the radiometric footprint on leaf area index and canopy height is explored. Besides, the radiometric footprint is compared with the aerodynamic footprint in conditions of neutral stability. It was observed that almost 100% of the hemispherical radiometric signal originates within a distance of a few radiometer heights, while only about 50-80% of the cumulative aerodynamic signal is generated within a distance of about 20 sensor heights. In order to achieve comparable extensions of the footprint areas, hemispherical radiometric measurements should therefore be taken about 6-15 times higher than turbulent flux ones, depending on the vegetation type. The analysis also highlights that the size of the radiative footprint decreases at increasing leaf area index, whereas the aerodynamic footprint shows an opposite behavior. For the abovementioned reasons, this work may support the interpretation of energy flux measurements and the optimal design of eddy covariance stations located in heterogeneous sites.

  10. Radiometric Quality Evaluation of INSAT-3D Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Jindal, D.; Badal, N.; Kartikeyan, B.; Gopala Krishna, B.

    2014-11-01

    INSAT-3D is an advanced meteorological satellite of ISRO which acquires imagery in optical and infra-red (IR) channels for study of weather dynamics in Indian sub-continent region. In this paper, methodology of radiometric quality evaluation for Level-1 products of Imager, one of the payloads onboard INSAT-3D, is described. Firstly, overall visual quality of scene in terms of dynamic range, edge sharpness or modulation transfer function (MTF), presence of striping and other image artefacts is computed. Uniform targets in Desert and Sea region are identified for which detailed radiometric performance evaluation for IR channels is carried out. Mean brightness temperature (BT) of targets is computed and validated with independently generated radiometric references. Further, diurnal/seasonal trends in target BT values and radiometric uncertainty or sensor noise are studied. Results of radiometric quality evaluation over duration of eight months (January to August 2014) and comparison of radiometric consistency pre/post yaw flip of satellite are presented. Radiometric Analysis indicates that INSAT-3D images have high contrast (MTF > 0.2) and low striping effects. A bias of specifications.

  11. Remote Assessment of Cultural Heritage Environments with Wireless Sensor Array Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henoc Agbota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  12. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-05-19

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  13. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  14. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  15. Use of artificial neural networks and geographic objects for classifying remote sensing imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Resende Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for mapping land use and land cover in the northern region of Minas Gerais state, where, in addition to agricultural land, the landscape is dominated by native cerrado, deciduous forests, and extensive areas of vereda. Using forest inventory data, as well as RapidEye, Landsat TM and MODIS imagery, three specific objectives were defined: 1 to test use of image segmentation techniques for an object-based classification encompassing spectral, spatial and temporal information, 2 to test use of high spatial resolution RapidEye imagery combined with Landsat TM time series imagery for capturing the effects of seasonality, and 3 to classify data using Artificial Neural Networks. Using MODIS time series and forest inventory data, time signatures were extracted from the dominant vegetation formations, enabling selection of the best periods of the year to be represented in the classification process. Objects created with the segmentation of RapidEye images, along with the Landsat TM time series images, were classified by ten different Multilayer Perceptron network architectures. Results showed that the methodology in question meets both the purposes of this study and the characteristics of the local plant life. With excellent accuracy values for native classes, the study showed the importance of a well-structured database for classification and the importance of suitable image segmentation to meet specific purposes.

  16. Crop evapotranspiration estimation using remote sensing and the existing network of meteorological stations in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Michaelides, S.; Nisantzi, A.

    2011-05-01

    Cyprus is frequently confronted with severe droughts and the need for accurate and systematic data on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for decision making, regarding water irrigation management and scheduling. The aim of this paper is to highlight how data from meteorological stations in Cyprus can be used for monitoring and determining the country's irrigation demands. This paper shows how daily ETc can be estimated using FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted to satellite data and auxiliary meteorological parameters. This method is widely used in many countries for estimating crop evapotranspiration using auxiliary meteorological data (maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed) as inputs. Two case studies were selected in order to determine evapotranspiration using meteorological and low resolution satellite data (MODIS - TERRA) and to compare it with the results of the reference method (FAO-56) which estimates the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by using only meteorological data. The first approach corresponds to the FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted for using both meteorological and remotely sensed data. Furthermore, main automatic meteorological stations in Cyprus were mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS). All the agricultural areas of the island were categorized according to the nearest meteorological station which is considered as "representative" of the area. Thiessen polygons methodology was used for this purpose. The intended goal was to illustrate what can happen to a crop, in terms of water requirements, if meteorological data are retrieved from other than the representative stations. The use of inaccurate data can result in low yields or excessive irrigation which both lead to profit reduction. The results have shown that if inappropriate meteorological data are utilized, then deviations from correct ETc might be obtained, leading to water losses or crop water stress.

  17. Remote sensing of nutrient deficiency in Lactuca sativa using neural networks for terrestrial and advanced life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Edie Seldon

    2000-12-01

    A remote sensing study using reflectance and fluorescence spectra of hydroponically grown Lactuca sativa (lettuce) canopies was conducted. An optical receiver was designed and constructed to interface with a commercial fiber optic spectrometer for data acquisition. Optical parameters were varied to determine effects of field of view and distance to target on vegetation stress assessment over the test plant growth cycle. Feedforward backpropagation neural networks (NN) were implemented to predict the presence of canopy stress. Effects of spatial and spectral resolutions on stress predictions of the neural network were also examined. Visual inspection and fresh mass values failed to differentiate among controls, plants cultivated with 25% of the recommended concentration of phosphorous (P), and those cultivated with 25% nitrogen (N) based on fresh mass and visual inspection. The NN's were trained on input vectors created using reflectance and test day, fluorescence and test day, and reflectance, fluorescence, and test day. Four networks were created representing four levels of spectral resolution: 100-nm NN, 10-nm NN, 1-nm NN, and 0.1-nm NN. The 10-nm resolution was found to be sufficient for classifying extreme nitrogen deficiency in freestanding hydroponic lettuce. As a result of leaf angle and canopy structure broadband scattering intensity in the 700-nm to 1000-nm range was found to be the most useful portion of the spectrum in this study. More subtle effects of "greenness" and fluorescence emission were believed to be obscured by canopy structure and leaf orientation. As field of view was not as found to be as significant as originally believed, systems implementing higher repetitions over more uniformly oriented, i.e. smaller, flatter, target areas would provide for more discernible neural network input vectors. It is believed that this technique holds considerable promise for early detection of extreme nitrogen deficiency. Further research is recommended using

  18. Remote-Sensing Image Classification Based on an Improved Probabilistic Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenan Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid classifier for polarimetric SAR images. The feature sets consist of span image, the H/A/α decomposition, and the GLCM-based texture features. Then, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was adopted for classification, and a novel algorithm proposed to enhance its performance. Principle component analysis (PCA was chosen to reduce feature dimensions, random division to reduce the number of neurons, and Brent’s search (BS to find the optimal bias values. The results on San Francisco and Flevoland sites are compared to that using a 3-layer BPNN to demonstrate the validity of our algorithm in terms of confusion matrix and overall accuracy. In addition, the importance of each improvement of the algorithm was proven.

  19. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Beard, L P

    2000-01-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  20. Spectral and Radiometric Calibration using Tunable Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  SIRCUS-based calibration relies on a set of monitoring radiometers and tunable laser sources to provide an absolute radiometric calibration that can approach...

  1. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter has...

  2. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav

    2000-07-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  3. A Radiometric Uncertainty Tool for the Sentinel 2 Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Gorrono, Javier; Fomferra, N; Peters, M; Gascon, F; Underwood, Craig; Fox, NP; Kirches, G; Brockmann, C

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the European Copernicus programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Sentinel-2 (S2) Earth Observation (EO) mission which provides optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas. As part of this mission, a tool (named S2-RUT, from Sentinel-2 Radiometric Uncertainty Tool) has been developed. The tool estimates the radiometric uncertainty associated with each pixel in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factor images provided by ESA. T...

  4. Detection of mycobacteria by radiometric and standard plate procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, J J; Collins, M T; Rothlauf, M V; McClatchy, J K

    1983-01-01

    A group of 89 smear-positive sputum specimens were evaluated by radiometric and standard plate procedures to determine the methodology which would provide the earliest detection of mycobacteria and maximum test sensitivity. Digested non-decontaminated specimens were concentrated and inoculated into modified selective BACTEC radiometric 7H12 broth and Mitchison selective 7H10 agar. Sodium hydroxide (1.5% final concentration) was then used to decontaminate these specimens. They were then concen...

  5. Complex network modeling of spectral remotely sensed imagery: A case study of massive green algae blooms detection based on MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Shao, Fengjing; Wang, Changying; Sun, Rencheng; Ji, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Feature bands selection and targets classification is of great importance in spectral remotely sensed imagery interpretation. In this work, complex network is adopted for modeling spectral remotely sensed imagery. Subnet is constructed for each band based on spatial neighboring characteristic. Feature bands could be obtained by analyzing and comparing topological characteristics between subnets. After finding feature bands, subnets of feature bands are compounded. Targets classification could be measured by degree distribution of the composited network. This approach is evaluated with empirical experiments based on detecting massive green algae blooms with MODIS data. Feature bands found are coincided with spectral mechanism of green algae. By comparing with FAI, RVI, NDVI, EVI and OSABI methods, our approach improves correct classification rates.

  6. Cascaded optical fiber link using the Internet network for remote clocks comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodo, Nicola; Stefani, Fabio; Wiotte, Fabrice; Camisard, Emilie; Chardonnet, Christian; Santarelli, Giorgio; Amy-Klein, Anne; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Lopez, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    We report a cascaded optical link of 1100 km for ultra-stable frequency distribution over an Internet fiber network. The link is composed of four spans for which the propagation noise is actively compensated. The robustness and the performance of the link are ensured by five fully automated optoelectronic stations, two of them at the link ends, and three deployed on the field and connecting the spans. This device coherently regenerates the optical signal with the heterodyne optical phase locking of a low-noise laser diode. Optical detection of the beat-note signals for the laser lock and the link noise compensation are obtained with stable and low-noise fibered optical interferometer. We show 3.5 days of continuous operation of the noise-compensated 4-span cascaded link leading to fractional frequency instability of 4x10-16 at 1-s measurement time and 1x10-19 at 2000 s. This cascaded link was extended to 1480-km with the same performance. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultra-s...

  7. Enabling Remote Health-Caring Utilizing IoT Concept over LTE-Femtocell Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Hindia

    Full Text Available As the enterprise of the "Internet of Things" is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application's priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness.

  8. Enabling Remote Health-Caring Utilizing IoT Concept over LTE-Femtocell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, M N; Rahman, T A; Ojukwu, H; Hanafi, E B; Fattouh, A

    2016-01-01

    As the enterprise of the "Internet of Things" is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application's priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness.

  9. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  10. Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

  11. Radiometric packaging of uncooled bolometric infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Pope, Timothy; Côté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Ngo Phong, Linh; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    INO has a wide experience in the design and fabrication of different kinds of microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPAs). In particular, a 512x3 pixel microbolometer FPA has been selected as the sensor for the New Infrared Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument, one of the payloads of the SACD/Aquarius mission. In order to make the absolute temperature measurements necessary for many infrared Earth observation applications, the microbolometer FPA must be integrated into a package offering a very stable thermal environment. The radiometric packaging technology developed at INO presents an innovative approach since it was conceived to be modular and adaptable for the packaging of different microbolometer FPAs and for different sets of assembly requirements without need for requalification of the assembly process. The development of the radiometric packaging technology has broadened the position of INO as a supplier of radiometric detector modules integrating FPAs of microbolometers inside a radiometric package capable of achieving the requirements of different space missions. This paper gives an overview of the design of INO's radiometric package. Key performance parameters are also discussed and the test campaign conducted with the radiometric package is presented.

  12. Short-term solar forecasting based on sky images to enable higher PV generation in remote electricity networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a high share of photovoltaic (PV power generation in remote electricity networks is often limited by the networks’ capabilities to accommodate PV power fluctuations caused by passing clouds. Increasing the share of PV penetration in such networks is accompanied by an increased effort to achieve integration. In the absence of solar forecasting, sufficient spinning reserve must always be provided to cover unforeseen reductions. The expected ramp rates are magnified in small and centralised PV systems and can be in the order of a few seconds. In this study, we investigate the use of a low-cost sky camera for very short-term solar forecasting. Almost 2 months of sky camera data have been recorded in Perth, Western Australia and processed for to provide high-resolution irradiance forecasts based on visible sky images. For performance validation, the capability to provide reliable forecasts under constant clear sky conditions is investigated. During these times, PV generation is expected to be high and reliable, which provides an opportunity to reduce the online spinning reserve often enabling power station operation with one less operating diesel generation. For networks with disconnected diesel generators, we assume that clouds that could reduce the PV generation output have to be predicted at least 2 min before their arrival to have enough time for a diesel generator to start and synchronize with the grid. Therefore, we define an irradiance threshold discriminating between the persistent state of constant clear sky (stays clear and the non-persistent state (cloud shading event based on a 2–5 min time horizon. In a binary evaluation, we achieve an overall accuracy of 97% correct forecasts and low 3% false alarms of cloud events indicating a high potential for fuel savings. Focusing on the rare (2% of the time but more critical non-persistent conditions, we found 8 out of 84 cloud events have not been predicted in advance

  13. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  14. Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration using modelled daily shortwave radiation for remote sensing applications: an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Loise; Mallick, Kaniska; Kiely, Gerard; Roupsard, Olivier; Peichl, Mathias; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Upscaling instantaneous evapotranspiration retrieved at any specific time-of-day (ETi) to daily evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key challenge in mapping regional ET using polar orbiting sensors. Various studies have unanimously cited the shortwave incoming radiation (RS) to be the most robust reference variable explaining the ratio between ETd and ETi . This study aims to contribute in ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous incoming shortwave radiation (RSd / RSi) as a factor for converting ETi to ETd. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning algorithm first to predict RSd from RSi followed by using the RSd / RSi ratio to convert ETi to ETd across different terrestrial ecosystems. Using RSi and RSd observations from multiple sub-networks of the FLUXNET database spread across different climates and biomes (to represent inputs that would typically be obtainable from remote sensors during the overpass time) in conjunction with some astronomical variables (e.g. solar zenith angle, day length, exoatmospheric shortwave radiation), we developed the ANN model for reproducing RSd and further used it to upscale ETi to ETd. The efficiency of the ANN is evaluated for different morning and afternoon times of day, under varying sky conditions, and also at different geographic locations. RS-based upscaled ETd produced a significant linear relation (R 2 = 0.65 to 0.69), low bias (-0.31 to -0.56 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 4 %), and good agreement (RMSE 1.55 to 1.86 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 10 %) with the observed ETd, although a systematic overestimation of ETd was also noted under persistent cloudy sky conditions. Inclusion of soil moisture and rainfall information in ANN training reduced the systematic overestimation tendency in predominantly overcast days. An intercomparison with existing upscaling method at daily, 8-day, monthly, and yearly temporal resolution revealed a robust performance of the ANNdriven RS

  15. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  16. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p.

  17. Accuracy assessment for the radiometric calibration of imaging sensors using preflight techniques relying on the sun as a source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Kuester, M.; Anderson, N.

    2008-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has performed high-accuracy radiometric calibration in the laboratory for more than 20 years in support of vicarious calibration of space-borne and airborne imaging sensors. Typical laboratory calibration relies on lamp-based sources which, while convenient to operate and control, do not simulate the solar spectrum that is the basic energy source for many of the imaging systems. Using the sun as a source for preflight radiometric calibration reduces uncertainties caused by the spectral mismatch between the preflight and inflight calibration, especially in the case in which a solar diffuser is the inflight calibration method. Difficulties in using the sun include varying atmospheric conditions, changing solar angle during the day and with season, and ensuring traceability to national standards. This paper presents several approaches using the sun as a radiometric calibration source coupled with the expected traceable accuracies for each method. The methods include direct viewing of the solar disk with the sensor of interest, illumination of the sensor's inflight solar diffuser by the sun, and illumination of an external diffuser that is imaged by the sensor. The results of the error analysis show that it is feasible to achieve preflight calibration using the sun as a source at the same level of uncertainty as those of lamp-based approaches. The error analysis is evaluated and compared to solar-radiation-based calibrations of one of RSG's laboratory-grade radiometers.

  18. A HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINATION OF THE YENISEY FLOODPLAIN BASED ON LANDSCAPE AND RADIOMETRIC SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Linnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of technogenic radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC, Zheleznogorsk in the period from 1958 to 1992 has been studied in floodplain landscapes of the Yenisey river. After shutting down the direct-flow reactors the radioactive contamination of the Yenisey river became dozen times lower. Performed landscape and radiometric studies revealed factors responsible for radionuclide differentiation and the character of radionuclide distribution within two landscape segments of the Yenisey river floodplain. The first segment characterized the impact zone from 16 km to 20 downstream the discharge, the second one was studied in the remote zone as far as 2000 km down the river. Artificial radionuclide contamination was most intensive in the 60-ies of the past century when it reached the Kara Sea. Traces of that contamination were registered in soils of both sites at the depth of 20–50 cm.

  19. Remote sensing of spectral signatures of tropospheric aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    (MOS) sensor on board the Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS-P3) launched by the Indian Space. Research Organization ... to 1010nm at high radiometric resolution, precision, and with narrow spectral bands have been available for a variety of land, .... Solution of radiative transfer equation. Chandrasekhar (1960).

  20. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  1. Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

  2. Health assessment and risk mitigation of railroad networks exposed to natural hazards using commercial remote sensing and spatial information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The overarching goal of this project was to integrate data from commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies to create a novel data-driven decision making framework that empowers the railroad industry to monitor, assess, an...

  3. Development of a remote sensing network for time-sensitive detection of fine scale damage to transportation infrastructure : [final report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    This research project aimed to develop a remote sensing system capable of rapidly identifying fine-scale damage to critical transportation infrastructure following hazard events. Such a system must be pre-planned for rapid deployment, automate proces...

  4. The Remote Monitoring of Earth’s Atmosphere Based on Operative Processing GNSS Data in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS Network of Active Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kablak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of remote monitoring of atmosphere is designed to obtain information about the state of atmosphere. The principle of the remote monitoring of atmosphere is based on registering and processing GLONASS/GPS radio signals. Modern networks of active reference stations allow us to solve both practical problems of geodesy, navigation, and purely scientific problems that are important in all geosciences. The paper investigates a spatiotemporal instability in the atmosphere, based on 845 temporal measurements of tropospheric delay over the territory covered by 20 active reference stations of the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network. The method elaborated by the authors for the determination of tropospheric delay in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network in real time takes relief of the region into account. The results are very good, since mapping tropospheric delay can be made with an average RMSE of 1.5 mm. The method developed in this research can be used to improve the quality of weather forecasts and the prevention of natural disasters.

  5. Non-linear Bio-geophysical and Remote Sensing Relations Revealed in Neural Network Training for Fractional Snow Cover Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzowska-Wisniewski, E. H.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; Marsh, S. E.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Wisniewski, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of Fractional Snow Cover (FSC) in complex alpine-forested terrain is now possible with appropriate remote sensing data and analysis techniques. This research examines what minimum combination of input variables are required to obtain state-of-the-art FSC estimates for heterogeneous alpine-forested terrains. Currently, one of the most accurate FSC estimators for alpine regions is based on training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that can deconvolve the relationships between numerous compounded and possibly non-linear bio-geophysical relations encountered in rugged terrain. Under the assumption that the ANN optimally extracts available information from its input data, we can exploit the ANN as a tool to assess the contributions toward FSC estimation of each of the data sources, and combinations thereof. By assessing the quality of the modeled FSC estimates versus ground equivalent data, suitable combinations of input variables can be identified. High spatial resolution imagery from IKONOS are used to estimate snow cover for ANN training and validation, and also for error assessment of the ANN FSC results. Input variables are initially chosen representing information already incorporated into leading snow cover estimators. Additional variables such as topographic slope, aspect, and shadow distribution are evaluated to observe the ANN as it accounts for illumination incidence and directional reflectance of surfaces affecting the viewed radiance in complex terrain. Snow usually covers vegetation and underlying geology partially, therefore the ANN also has to resolve spectral mixtures of unobscured surfaces surrounded by snow. Multispectral imagery if therefore acquired in the fall prior to the first snow of the season and are included in the ANN analyses for assessing the baseline reflectance values of the environment that later become modified by the snow. The best ANN FSC model performance was achieved when all 15 pre-selected inputs were used

  6. Optimized sampling strategy of Wireless sensor network for validation of remote sensing products over heterogeneous coarse-resolution pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Liu, Q.; Wen, J.; Fan, W.; Dou, B.

    2015-12-01

    Coarse-resolution satellite albedo products are increasingly applied in geographical researches because of their capability to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of land surface parameters. In the long-term validation of coarse-resolution satellite products with ground measurements, the scale effect, i.e., the mismatch between point measurement and pixel observation becomes the main challenge, particularly over heterogeneous land surfaces. Recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technologies offer an opportunity for validation using multi-point observations instead of single-point observation. The difficulty is to ensure the representativeness of the WSN in heterogeneous areas with limited nodes. In this study, the objective is to develop a ground-based spatial sampling strategy through consideration of the historical prior knowledge and avoidance of the information redundancy between different sensor nodes. Taking albedo as an example. First, we derive monthly local maps of albedo from 30-m HJ CCD images a 3-year period. Second, we pick out candidate points from the areas with higher temporal stability which helps to avoid the transition or boundary areas. Then, the representativeness (r) of each candidate point is evaluated through the correlational analysis between the point-specific and area-average time sequence albedo vector. The point with the highest r was noted as the new sensor point. Before electing a new point, the vector component of the selected points should be taken out from the vectors in the following correlational analysis. The selection procedure would be ceased once if the integral representativeness (R) meets the accuracy requirement. Here, the sampling method is adapted to both single-parameter and multi-parameter situations. Finally, it is shown that this sampling method has been effectively worked in the optimized layout of Huailai remote sensing station in China. The coarse resolution pixel covering this station could be

  7. Preliminary geological and radiometric studies of granitoids of Zing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... igneous texture that the enclaves are syngenetic probably representing remnants of pre-existing rocks from which the granitoids were derived. The enhanced radiometric counts in fine-grained granite and pegmatite may be related to uranium occurrences of magmatic/hydrothermal nature around Mika, Jada and Nyaza.

  8. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i4.15. Key Words: Aero-radiometric; Radiogenic Heat; Anambra Basin; Geothermal. Anambra basin has not really been subjected to detailed radiogenic heat production despite the geological features that suggest that the area has prospect for geothermal energy production. This.

  9. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  10. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  11. Report of study group 5.4 remote operation of distribution networks; Rapport du comite de travail 5.4 distribution du gaz: exploitation a distance des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, D.; Osiadacz, A.

    2000-07-01

    This study by the IGU WOC 5.4 reviews, at a management level, the application of remote monitoring and control systems for distribution networks. Gas distribution companies have to carefully balance the safety, quality, economic and financial aspects of managing geographically distributed assets to meet customer needs. Remote systems are a key tool in meeting these objectives. A questionnaire was developed to identify the key drives for the selection of remote monitoring and control systems, high level company parameters and current technologies in use. The field in questionnaires received by the WOC 5.4 show that monitoring equipment and remote control systems for gas distribution in various configurations are commonly utilized by the firms operating in this field. The reason why the firms themselves did adopt a remote control system mainly depends on safety as well as on a reduction of operating costs due to reduction in the personnel and related overheads associated with the management of the system. (authors)

  12. Initial Radiometric Characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A Multispectral Imagery Using the 6S Radiative Transfer Model, Well-Known Radiometric Tarps, and MFRSR Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Min Yeom; Jisoo Hwang; Jae-Heon Jung; Kwon-Ho Lee; Chang-Suk Lee

    2017-01-01

    On-orbit radiometric characterization of the multispectral (MS) imagery of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)’s Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A), which was launched on 25 March 2015, was conducted to provide quantitative radiometric information about KOMPSAT-3A. During the in-orbit test (IOT), vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A was performed using the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model. The character...

  13. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  14. Remote Forensics May Bring the Next Sea Change in E-discovery: Are All Networked Computers Now Readily Accessible Under the Revised Federal Rules of Civil Procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AleJoseph J. Schwerha

    2008-09-01

    on geographically dispersed computers remotely.  That process, in general, is often defined as remote forensics. The question is now whether newly available remote forensic solution indicate that all networked computers are readily accessible under the current state of the law.  This article attempts to define remote forensics, examines a selection of applicable court decisions, and then analyzes the currently available commercial software packages that allow remote forensics.

  15. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  16. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  17. A Radiometric Uncertainty Tool for the Sentinel 2 Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gorroño

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Copernicus programme, the European Space Agency (ESA has launched the Sentinel-2 (S2 Earth Observation (EO mission which provides optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas. As part of this mission, a tool (named S2-RUT, from Sentinel-2 Radiometric Uncertainty Tool has been developed. The tool estimates the radiometric uncertainty associated with each pixel in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance factor images provided by ESA. This paper describes the design and development process of the initial version of the S2-RUT tool. The initial design step describes the S2 radiometric model where a set of uncertainty contributors are identified. Each of the uncertainty contributors is specified by reviewing the pre- and post-launch characterisation. The identified uncertainty contributors are combined following the guidelines in the ‘Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM model and this combination model is further validated by comparing the results to a multivariate Monte Carlo Method (MCM. In addition, the correlation between the different uncertainty contributions and the impact of simplifications in the combination model have been studied. The software design of the tool prioritises an efficient strategy to read the TOA reflectance factor images, extract the auxiliary information from the metadata in the satellite products and the codification of the resulting uncertainty image. This initial version of the tool has been implemented and integrated as part of the Sentinels Application Platform (SNAP.

  18. Radiometric cross-calibration of KOMPSAT-3 with Landsat-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongyoon; Jin, Cheonggil; Ahn, Hoyong; Choi, Chuluong

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a radiometric cross calibration of KOMPSAT-3 AEISS based on Landsat-8 OLI. Cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS) site. The spectral profile of the target comes from the near-simultaneous EO-1 Hyperion data over these sites for apply Spectral Band Adjustment Factor (SBAF). The results indicate that the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measurements for KOMPSAT-3 agree with Landsat-8 to within 5% after the application of SBAF. To validate radiometric coefficient, comparison TOA reflectance executed in north Virginia, USA. The difference in TOA reflectance was calculated to within a maximum ±1.55%. There was a huge improvement when the standard deviation altered from 0.1 to 0.01, when applying the SBAF. The result of radiometric coefficient presented here appear to be a good standard for maintaining the optical quality of the KOMPSAT-3, for which prelaunch, onboard, and vicarious calibration data are lacking.

  19. An artificial immune network approach to land use / land cover classification using multi-sensor remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Binglei

    An optimized immune network-based classification (OPTINC) method was developed and adapted for land use / land cover classification. Based on the widely-used artificial immune network (aiNet) model, three major improvements were made: (1) the preservation of the best antibodies for each class from being suppressed; (2) the usage of self-adaptive mutation rates in response to changes in model performance between learning generations; and (3) the integration of genetic algorithm-optimized linear combinations of Euclidean distance and spectral angle mapping distance as affinity measurements. OPTINC was evaluated for two study sites with multi-sensor data. Decision trees, neural networks and aiNet were also tested and compared in terms of classification accuracy, local homogeneity of the classified image, and model sensitivity to sample size. OPTINC outperformed the other models with higher accuracy and much less salt-and-pepper noise in the classification images. OPTINC was relatively less sensitive to training sample size than decision trees and neural networks were. Key Words: Artificial immune networks; Artificial neural networks; Decision trees; Land use / land cover classification

  20. The remote management optimizes the geothermal district heating network of Chevilly-Larue and l'Hay-les-Roses; La telegestion optimise le reseau de chaleur geothermique de Chevilly-Larue et l'Hay-les-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-11-01

    The installation of a new remote control system for the management of the district heating network of Chevilly-Larue and l'Hay-les-Roses cities (Paris region, France) has permitted to optimize the use of the different energy sources (geothermal, cogeneration, fuel-oil and natural gas) supplying the network and to better adjust the control of the production means. (J.S.)

  1. Legitimate data in remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J D

    2009-01-01

    An approach for ensuring legitimate data transfers of an individual within a remote healthcare solution. Biometric traits and networking are discussed for clarification of the approach. In this approach, a biometric solution is identified as a fingerprint scanner for use in a personal area network of the patient's home. Secure data exchange is acknowledged as a potential weakness in the transferring of patient data within this network. Some options are discussed to ensure security of data for the review by the caregiver. Example approaches regarding legitimacy are identified using a pulse oximeter [1], a blood pressure meter, and a weight scale as the remote patient devices in the remote healthcare solution.

  2. Evaluation of Radiometric and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation Using Landsat 5 TM Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablito M. López-Serrano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is affected by absorption and emission phenomena during its downward trajectory from the Sun to the Earth’s surface and during the upward trajectory detected by satellite sensors. This leads to distortion of the ground radiometric properties (reflectance recorded by satellite images, used in this study to estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB. Atmospherically-corrected remote sensing data can be used to estimate AGB on a global scale and with moderate effort. The objective of this study was to evaluate four atmospheric correction algorithms (for surface reflectance, ATCOR2 (Atmospheric Correction for Flat Terrain, COST (Cosine of the Sun Zenith Angle, FLAASH (Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes and 6S (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar, and one radiometric correction algorithm (for reflectance at the sensor ToA (Apparent Reflectance at the Top of Atmosphere to estimate AGB in temperate forest in the northeast of the state of Durango, Mexico. The AGB was estimated from Landsat 5 TM imagery and ancillary information from a digital elevation model (DEM using the non-parametric multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. Field reference data for the model training were collected by systematic sampling of 99 permanent forest growth and soil research sites (SPIFyS established during the winter of 2011. The following predictor variables were identified in the MARS model: Band 7, Band 5, slope (β, Wetness Index (WI, NDVI and MSAVI2. After cross-validation, 6S was found to be the optimal model for estimating AGB (R2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 33.5 Mg·ha−1; 37.61% of the average stand biomass. We conclude that atmospheric and radiometric correction of satellite images can be used along with non-parametric techniques to estimate AGB with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

  4. General-purpose computer networks and resource sharing in ERDA. Volume 3. Remote resource-sharing experience and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The investigation focused on heterogeneous networks in which a variety of dissimilar computers and operating systems were interconnected nationwide. Homogeneous networks, such as MFE net and SACNET, were not considered since they could not be used for general purpose resource sharing. Issues of privacy and security are of concern in any network activity. However, consideration of privacy and security of sensitive data arise to a much lesser degree in unclassified scientific research than in areas involving personal or proprietary information. Therefore, the existing mechanisms at individual sites for protecting sensitive data were relied on, and no new protection mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy and security were attempted. Further development of ERDA networking will need to incorporate additional mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy. The investigation itself furnishes an excellent example of computational resource sharing through a heterogeneous network. More than twenty persons, representing seven ERDA computing sites, made extensive use of both ERDA and non-ERDA computers in coordinating, compiling, and formatting the data which constitute the bulk of this report. Volume 3 analyzes the benefits and barriers encountered in actual resource sharing experience, and provides case histories of typical applications.

  5. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS using an automated test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has operated the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004. It is an approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel to make surface and atmospheric measurements during a satellite overpass. It was originally developed in 2002 in an attempt to increase the amount of data collected throughout the year while maintaining the accuracy of in-situ measurements. RadCaTS currently consists of four ground-viewing radiometers to measure surface reflectance, a Cimel sun photometer to make atmospheric measurements, and a weather station to measure ambient conditions. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN 5 to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance for a given overpass time, and the results are compared to the sensor under test. The work presented here describes the RadCaTS instrumentation suite and automated processing scheme used to determine the surface reflectance and TOA spectral radiance. The instruments used to measure surface and atmospheric properties are presented, followed by a discussion of their spatial layout and their radiometric calibration. The RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS overpasses in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ overpasses in 2009.

  6. Transmittance measurement of a heliostat facility used in the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-08-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  7. A comparison of radiometric correction techniques in the evaluation of the relationship between LST and NDVI in Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Chooi; Lim, Hwee San; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%.

  8. The simultaneous retrieval of surface evaporative fraction and heat transfer coefficients using variational data assimilation and surface radiometric temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Kustas, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in land data assimilation have yielded data assimilation techniques designed to solve the surface energy balance based on remote observations of surface radiometric temperature and a simple prognostic equation for surface temperature. These approaches have a number of potential advantages over existing diagnostic models, including the ability to make energy flux predictions between satellite overpass times, more physically realistic representations of ground heat flux, and reduced requirements for ancillary parameter estimation. Of particular interest is the variational approach presented by Caparrini et al. (Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2003) which uses a force-restore equation for surface temperature as a constraint for the simultaneous estimation of both evaporative fraction and bulk heat transfer coefficients from sequences of surface radiometric temperature observations. Using eddy correlation flux tower data and analogous energy balance results obtained from the diagnostic Two-Source Model (TSM), this presentation will examine the performance of the Caparrini et al. algorithm over a range of vegetative and hydrologic conditions in the southern United States. Results identify circumstances under which the simultaneous - and unambiguous - retrieval of both surface evaporation fraction and heat transfer coefficients is possible and clarify parameter interpretation issues associated with the single-source geometry of the variational approach. Inter-comparison with the TSM model illustrates circumstances under which the increased parameter complexity of the TSM model is justified by its more accurate two-source representation of thermal emission from partial vegetation canopies. Potential improvements to current variational data assimilation techniques will also be discussed.

  9. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  10. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  11. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  12. Report of airborne radiometric and magnetic test survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.H.; Park, Y.S.; Woo, S.M. (Korean Inst. of Energy and Resources, Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-12-01

    By the end of Oct. 1981, a complete set of GeoMetrics' air-borne radiometric and magnetic survey system was purchased by KIER using the ADB loan, and it took one week from Nov. 11 1981 to install the system on a Bell 206 B helicopter (HL 9102) owned by Asia Aeroservice Company. The test survey was flown over an area including Hongseong, Daecheon, Seosan and Manripo Sheets, from Nov. 19 to Dec. 14 1981. A Hongseong air-strip was used as the base.

  13. Neural network-based crop growth model to predict processing tomato yield on a site-specific basis using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michal

    Remote sensing is one of the major data acquisition tools available to rapidly acquire soil and plant related information over a wide area for use in precision agriculture. Green canopy has very specific reflectance characteristics distinguishing it from other materials such as soil and dry vegetative matter. Reflectance values in red (R) and near infra-red (NIR) spectral bands have been widely used for calculating normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Many researchers have related NDVI values to plant vigor, water stress, leaf area index (LAI) and/or yield. However, vegetative indices such as NDVI are usually sensitive to background reflectance characteristics. Often soil adjusted vegetation indices (SAVI) are used to minimize the background effect. In this study we have developed a relationship between the processing tomato yield and SAVI based on the R and NIR reflectance. Eight three band (R, NIR and green) aerial images were obtained at approximately two-week intervals during the 2000 processing tomato growing season. These images were analyzed to obtain SAVI values which were in turn related to LAI using regression techniques. A tuned neural network was developed to predict daily LAI values based on the biweekly experimental LAI values derived from aerial images. The coefficients of multiple determination between the actual LAI and neural network predicted LAI values were greater than 0.96 for all 56 grid points. The LAI values were numerically integrated over the whole growing season to obtain cumulative leaf area index days (CLAID). The CLAID values predicted from the neural network correlated very well with experimentally derived CLAID values (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.83) indicating that the neural network model simulated processing tomato growth well. A crop growth model that was capable of predicting crop yield based on neural network predicted LAI values and CIMIS weather data was developed. Although predicted yield tended to be low

  14. Evaluation of Radiometric Performance for the Thermal Infrared Sensor Onboard Landsat 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiometric performance of remotely-sensed images is important for the applications of such data in monitoring land surface, ocean and atmospheric status. One requirement placed on the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS onboard Landsat 8 was that the noise-equivalent change in temperature (NEΔT should be ≤0.4 K at 300 K for its two thermal infrared bands. In order to optimize the use of TIRS data, this study investigated the on-orbit NEΔT of the TIRS two bands from a scene-based method using clear-sky images over uniform ground surfaces, including lake, deep ocean, snow, desert and Gobi, as well as dense vegetation. Results showed that the NEΔTs of the two bands were 0.051 and 0.06 K at 300 K, which exceeded the design specification by an order of magnitude. The effect of NEΔT on the land surface temperature (LST retrieval using a split window algorithm was discussed, and the estimated NEΔT could contribute only 3.5% to the final LST error in theory, whereas the required NEΔT could contribute up to 26.4%. Low NEΔT could improve the application of TIRS images. However, efforts are needed in the future to remove the effects of unwanted stray light that appears in the current TIRS images.

  15. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  16. Near-surface remote sensing of spatial and temporal variation in canopy phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; Bobby H. Braswell; David Y. Hollinger; Julian P. Jenkins; Scott V. Ollinger

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to document how plant phenology is responding to global change factors, particularly warming trends. "Near-surface" remote sensing, using radiometric instruments or imaging sensors, has great potential to improve phenological monitoring because automated observations can be made at high temporal frequency. Here we build on previous work and...

  17. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  18. Estimating land surface heat flux using radiometric surface temperature without the need for an extra resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Yang, Y.; Liu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely-sensed land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in energy balance and is widely used for estimating regional heat flux. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero) poses a great challenge for regional heat flux estimation in one -source energy balance models. In this study, a one-source model for land (OSML) was proposed to estimate regional surface heat flux without a need for an empirical extra resistance. The proposed OSML employs both a conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analogue formula of sensible heat flux (H) to estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae) by using a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX), using a remotely-sensed data set at a regional scale. Validated against tower observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of H and latent heat flux (LE) from OSML was 47 W/m2 and 51 W/m2, which is comparable to other published studies. OSML and SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) compared under the same available energy indicated that LE estimated by OSML is comparable to that derived from the SEBS model. In conducting further inter-comparisons of rae, the aerodynamic resistance derived from SEBS (ra_SEBS), and aerodynamic resistance (ra) derived from Brutsaert et al. (2005) in corn and soybean fields, we found that rae and ra_SEBS are comparable. Most importantly, our study indicates that the OSML method is applicable without having to acquire wind speed or to specify aerodynamic surface characteristics and that it is applicable to heterogeneous areas.

  19. Coupling Flux Towers and Networks with Proximal and Remote Sensing Data: New Tools to Collect and Share Time-Synchronized Hourly Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Avenson, Tom; Burkart, Andreas; Gamon, John; Guan, Kaiyu; Julitta, Tommaso; Pastorello, Gilberto; Sakowska, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Multiple hundreds of flux towers are presently operational as standalone projects and as parts of larger networks. However, the vast majority of these towers do not allow straight-forward coupling with satellite data, and even fewer have optical sensors for validation of satellite products and upscaling from field to regional levels. In 2016, new tools to collect, process, and share time-synchronized flux data from multiple towers were developed and deployed globally. Originally designed to automate site and data management, these new tools can also be effective in coupling tower data with satellite data due to the following present capabilities: Fully automated FluxSuite system combines hardware, software and web-services, and does not require an expert to run it It can be incorporated into a new flux station or added to a present station, using weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux2 It utilizes EddyPro software to calculate fully-processed fluxes and footprints in near-realtime, alongside radiation, optical, weather and soil data All site data are merged into a single quality-controlled file timed using PTP time protocol Data from optical sensors can be integrated into this complete dataset via compatible dataloggers Multiple stations can be linked into time-synchronized network with automated reports and email alerts visible to PIs in real-time Remote sensing researchers without stations can form "virtual networks" of stations by collaborating with tower PIs from different physical networks The present system can then be utilized to couple ground data with satellite data via the following proposed concept: GPS-driven PTP protocol will synchronize instrumentation within the station, different stations with each other, and all of these to satellite data to precisely align optical and flux data in time Footprint size and coordinates computed and stored with flux data will help correctly align footprints and satellite motion to precisely align

  20. Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

  1. Tracking radiometric responsivity of optical sensors without on-board calibration systems-case of the Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Feng, Lian

    2015-01-26

    The radiometric stability of satellite sensors is crucial for generating highly consistent remote sensing measurements and products. We have presented a radiometric responsivity tracking method designed especially for optical sensors without on-board calibration systems. Using a temporally stable desert site with high reflectance, the sensor responsivity was simulated using the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model (RTM) with information from validated MODIS atmospheric data. Next, radiometric responsivity drifting was identified using a linear regression of the time series bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) normalized coefficients. The proposed method was applied to Chinese HJ-1A/1B charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors, which have been on-orbit operations for more than 5 years without continuous assessment of their radiometric performance. Results from the Dunhuang desert site between 2008 and 2013 indicated that the CCD sensors degraded at various rates, with the most significant degradation occurring in the blue bands, ranging from 2.8% to 4.2% yr-1. The red bands were more stable, with a degradation rate of 0.7-3.1% yr-1. A cross-sensor comparison revealed the least degradation for the HJ-1A CCD1 (blue: 2.8%; green: 2.8%; red: 0.7%; and NIR: 0.9% yr-1), whereas the degradation of HJ-1B CCD1 was most pronounced (blue: 3.5%; green: 4.1%; red: 2.3%; and NIR: 3.4% yr-1). The uncertainties of the method were evaluated theoretically based on the propagation of uncertainties from all possible sources of the RT simulations. In addition, a cross comparison with matchup ground-based absolute calibration results was conducted. The comparison demonstrated that the method was useful for continuously monitoring the radiometric performance of remote sensors, such as HJ-1A/1B CCD and GaoFen (GF) series (China's latest high-definition Earth observation satellite), and indicated the potential use of the

  2. In-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the FORMOSAT-2 Remote Sensing Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang-Huang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This principle focus of this study is the absolute radio metric calibrations of FORMOSAT-2 RSI imagery in orbit. There are two principal parts for achieving this calibration. The first is the assessment of the calibration site by examining atmospheric observations from ground stations and field measurements via ground-based radio metric instruments. After careful consideration based on the essential requirements for a suitable calibration site i.e., prevailing clear and clean at mo sphere conditions over a wide, flat and near lambertian surface with high reflectance, the airport on Dongsha Island was considered to be an suitable site. The next phase is to de sign a scheme for the field campaign at the calibration site for radio metric calibration. Thus a synchronous experiment acquiring simultaneous measurements from the FORMOSAT-2 Re mote Sensing Instrument (RSI sensor and ground-based instruments was proposed and implemented for the period 16 to 19 September 2004. As a result, a set of reason able radio metric coefficients for the absolute radiance calibration of the RSI was successfully constructed via the radiative transfer code associated with the synchronous measurements in this study.

  3. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combi......Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC......). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data...... source for retrieving the “near surface” moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net...

  4. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  5. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, E.E.; Kertcher, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Tepper, B.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of /sup 14/CO2 produced through oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum /sup 14/CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, /sup 14/CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium.

  6. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  7. An Assessment of Polynomial Regression Techniques for the Relative Radiometric Normalization (RRN of High-Resolution Multi-Temporal Airborne Thermal Infrared (TIR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Infrared (TIR remote sensing images of urban environments are increasingly available from airborne and satellite platforms. However, limited access to high-spatial resolution (H-res: ~1 m TIR satellite images requires the use of TIR airborne sensors for mapping large complex urban surfaces, especially at micro-scales. A critical limitation of such H-res mapping is the need to acquire a large scene composed of multiple flight lines and mosaic them together. This results in the same scene components (e.g., roads, buildings, green space and water exhibiting different temperatures in different flight lines. To mitigate these effects, linear relative radiometric normalization (RRN techniques are often applied. However, the Earth’s surface is composed of features whose thermal behaviour is characterized by complexity and non-linearity. Therefore, we hypothesize that non-linear RRN techniques should demonstrate increased radiometric agreement over similar linear techniques. To test this hypothesis, this paper evaluates four (linear and non-linear RRN techniques, including: (i histogram matching (HM; (ii pseudo-invariant feature-based polynomial regression (PIF_Poly; (iii no-change stratified random sample-based linear regression (NCSRS_Lin; and (iv no-change stratified random sample-based polynomial regression (NCSRS_Poly; two of which (ii and iv are newly proposed non-linear techniques. When applied over two adjacent flight lines (~70 km2 of TABI-1800 airborne data, visual and statistical results show that both new non-linear techniques improved radiometric agreement over the previously evaluated linear techniques, with the new fully-automated method, NCSRS-based polynomial regression, providing the highest improvement in radiometric agreement between the master and the slave images, at ~56%. This is ~5% higher than the best previously evaluated linear technique (NCSRS-based linear regression.

  8. Retrieval of spinach crop parameters by microwave remote sensing with back propagation artificial neural networks: A comparison of different transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Pandey, A.; Singh, K. P.; Singh, V. P.; Mishra, R. K.; Singh, D.

    2012-08-01

    Back propagation artificial natural network (BPANN) is a well known and widely used machine learning methodology in the field of remote sensing. In this paper an attempt is made to retrieve the spinach crop parameters like biomass, leaf area index, average plant height and soil moisture content by using the X-band scattering coefficients with BPANN at different growth stages of this crop. The maturity age of this crop was found to be 45 days from the date of sowing. After 45 days from the date of sowing, this crop was cut at a certain height for production. Then, it is a point of interest to investigate the microwave response of variation in production. Significant variations in all the crop parameters were observed after cutting the crop and consequently made the problem more critical. Our work confirms the utility of BPANN in handling such a non-linear data set. The BPANN is essentially a network of simple processing nodes arranged into different layers as input, hidden and the output. The input layer propagates components of a particular input vector after weighting these with synaptic weights to each node in the hidden layer. At each node, these weighted input vector components are added. Each hidden layer computes output corresponding to these weighted sum through a non-linear/linear function (e.g. LOGSIG, TANSIG and PURLIN). These functions are known as transfer functions. Thus, each of the hidden layer nodes compute output values, which become inputs to the nodes of the output layer. At nodes of output layer also a weighted sum of outputs of previous layer (hidden layer) are obtained and processed through a transfer function. Thus, the output layer nodes compute the network output for the particular input vector. In this paper, output nodes use linear transfer function. Different transfer functions e.g. TANSIG, LOGSIG and PURELIN were used and the performance of the ANN was optimized by changing the number of neurons in the hidden layers. The present

  9. General-purpose configuration of radiometric instruments for measuring concentration profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, P.; Wozniakova, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Ostrava. Ustav Teorie Hutnickych Procesu); Drapala, J. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1981-01-01

    The configuration of radiometric apparatuses for the automatic measuring of the concentration profile of active admixtures along the specimen applying the slot method and its three variants is described. A practical example is given of the adjustment of radiometric apparatuses. An equipment for automatic graphical recording of nuclear radiation spectra measured by a single-channel spectrometer is described.

  10. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  11. A 868MHz-based wireless sensor network for ground truthing of soil moisture for a hyperspectral remote sensing campaign - design and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näthe, Paul; Becker, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture and plant available water are important environmental parameters that affect plant growth and crop yield. Hence, they are significant parameters for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture. However, validation through ground-based soil moisture measurements is necessary for accessing soil moisture, plant canopy temperature, soil temperature and soil roughness with airborne hyperspectral imaging systems in a corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign as a part of the INTERREG IV A-Project SMART INSPECTORS. At this point, commercially available sensors for matric potential, plant available water and volumetric water content are utilized for automated measurements with smart sensor nodes which are developed on the basis of open-source 868MHz radio modules, featuring a full-scale microcontroller unit that allows an autarkic operation of the sensor nodes on batteries in the field. The generated data from each of these sensor nodes is transferred wirelessly with an open-source protocol to a central node, the so-called "gateway". This gateway collects, interprets and buffers the sensor readings and, eventually, pushes the data-time series onto a server-based database. The entire data processing chain from the sensor reading to the final storage of data-time series on a server is realized with open-source hardware and software in such a way that the recorded data can be accessed from anywhere through the internet. It will be presented how this open-source based wireless sensor network is developed and specified for the application of ground truthing. In addition, the system's perspectives and potentials with respect to usability and applicability for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture shall be pointed out. Regarding the corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign, results from ground measurements will be discussed in terms of their contributing aspects to the remote sensing system. Finally, the significance of the wireless sensor

  12. A Remote Sensing Data Based Artificial Neural Network Approach for Predicting Climate-Sensitive Infectious Disease Outbreaks: A Case Study of Human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technologies can accurately capture environmental characteristics, and together with environmental modeling approaches, help to predict climate-sensitive infectious disease outbreaks. Brucellosis remains rampant worldwide in both domesticated animals and humans. This study used human brucellosis (HB as a test case to identify important environmental determinants of the disease and predict its outbreaks. A novel artificial neural network (ANN model was developed, using annual county-level numbers of HB cases and data on 37 environmental variables, potentially associated with HB in Inner Mongolia, China. Data from 2006 to 2008 were used to train, validate and test the model, while data for 2009–2010 were used to assess the model’s performance. The Enhanced Vegetation Index was identified as the most important predictor of HB incidence, followed by land surface temperature and other temperature- and precipitation-related variables. The suitable ecological niche of HB was modeled based on these predictors. Model estimates were found to be in good agreement with reported numbers of HB cases in both the model development and assessment phases. The study suggests that HB outbreaks may be predicted, with a reasonable degree of accuracy, using the ANN model and environmental variables obtained from satellite data. The study deepened the understanding of environmental determinants of HB and advanced the methodology for prediction of climate-sensitive infectious disease outbreaks.

  13. Remote sensing of harmful algal events in optically complex waters using regionally specific neural network-based algorithms for MERIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vilas, L.; Castro Fernandez, M.; Spyrakos, E.; Torres Palenzuela, J.

    2013-08-01

    In typical case 2 waters an accurate remote sensing retrieval of chlorophyll a (chla) is still challenging. There is a widespread understanding that universally applicable water constituent retrieval algorithms are currently not feasible, shifting the research focus to regionally specific implementations of powerful inversion methods. This study takes advantage of regionally specific chlorophyll a (chla) algorithms, which were developed by the authors of this abstract in previous works, and the characteristics of Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) in order to study harmful algal events in the optically complex waters of the Galician Rias (NW). Harmful algal events are a frequent phenomenon in this area with direct and indirect impacts to the mussel production that constitute a very important economic activity for the local community. More than 240 106 kg of mussel per year are produced in these highly primary productive upwelling systems. A MERIS archive from nine years (2003-2012) was analysed using regionally specific chla algorithms. The latter were developed based on Multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks and fuzzy c-mean clustering techniques (FCM). FCM specifies zones (based on water leaving reflectances) where the retrieval algorithms normally provide more reliable results. Monthly chla anomalies and other statistics were calculated for the nine years MERIS archive. These results were then related to upwelling indices and other associated measurements to determine the driver forces for specific phytoplankton blooms. The distribution and changes of chla are also discussed.

  14. Remote Sensing Scene Classification Based on Convolutional Neural Networks Pre-Trained Using Attention-Guided Sparse Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level land-use scene classification is a challenging problem, in which deep learning methods, e.g., convolutional neural networks (CNNs, have shown remarkable capacity. However, a lack of sufficient labeled images has proved a hindrance to increasing the land-use scene classification accuracy of CNNs. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a CNN pre-training method under the guidance of a human visual attention mechanism. Specifically, a computational visual attention model is used to automatically extract salient regions in unlabeled images. Then, sparse filters are adopted to learn features from these salient regions, with the learnt parameters used to initialize the convolutional layers of the CNN. Finally, the CNN is further fine-tuned on labeled images. Experiments are performed on the UCMerced and AID datasets, which show that when combined with a demonstrative CNN, our method can achieve 2.24% higher accuracy than a plain CNN and can obtain an overall accuracy of 92.43% when combined with AlexNet. The results indicate that the proposed method can effectively improve CNN performance using easy-to-access unlabeled images and thus will enhance the performance of land-use scene classification especially when a large-scale labeled dataset is unavailable.

  15. Radiometric Correction of Simultaneously Acquired Landsat-7/Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Imagery Using Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA: Contributing to the Landsat Time Series Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Cristian Padró

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Pseudoinvariant Areas (PIA makes it possible to carry out a reasonably robust and automatic radiometric correction for long time series of remote sensing imagery, as shown in previous studies for large data sets of Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery. In addition, they can be employed to obtain more coherence among remote sensing data from different sensors. The present work validates the use of PIA for the radiometric correction of pairs of images acquired almost simultaneously (Landsat-7 (ETM+ or Landsat-8 (OLI and Sentinel-2A (MSI. Four pairs of images from a region in SW Spain, corresponding to four different dates, together with field spectroradiometry measurements collected at the time of satellite overpass were used to evaluate a PIA-based radiometric correction. The results show a high coherence between sensors (r2 = 0.964 and excellent correlations to in-situ data for the MiraMon implementation (r2 > 0.9. Other methodological alternatives, ATCOR3 (ETM+, OLI, MSI, SAC-QGIS (ETM+, OLI, MSI, 6S-LEDAPS (ETM+, 6S-LaSRC (OLI, and Sen2Cor-SNAP (MSI, were also evaluated. Almost all of them, except for SAC-QGIS, provided similar results to the proposed PIA-based approach. Moreover, as the PIA-based approach can be applied to almost any image (even to images lacking of extra atmospheric information, it can also be used to solve the robust integration of data from new platforms, such as Landsat-8 or Sentinel-2, to enrich global data acquired since 1972 in the Landsat program. It thus contributes to the program’s continuity, a goal of great interest for the environmental, scientific, and technical community.

  16. Analysis of the topographic effect on the radiometric correction of MERIS images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Topography alters the vertical structure of the atmosphere and, therefore, its radiative properties regarding the reflection and transmission of the solar radiation. Also it modifies the conditions of illumination of terrain, with remarkable influence in the remote sensing measures of the terrestrial surface in the optical spectrum. In this work we have applied two models of atmospheric and radiometric correction on an ENVISAT/MERIS image, considering the topography, to analyse the importance of such effects. For this, we have exploited the recent rise of Digital Models of Elevation (MDE sufficiently detailed and precise, available to a global scale, that open new prospects for the topographical corrections of remote sensing data. The results show the adjustment of the conjoint correction model (atmospheric and topographical in the considered case, improving comparison of spectral signatures of similar surfaces independently of the elevation or the conditions of illumination, compensating the relative variations caused by the topography in the reflectivity measured by sensors. Although the remote sensing of the terrestrial surface has tended traditionally to avoid the bands of atmospheric absorption, a peculiarity that presents the ENVISAT/MERIS images is the availability of a band (O2A of absorption of the oxygen, located in the 761.5 nm. This band is used mainly for atmospheric corrections (estimate of the surface’s pressure, elevation of clouds, aerosols effects, etc.. But also it has been employed recently to determine the fluorescence of the vegetation, consequently this band of absorption has received remarkable attention in the last years. Considering that this absorption of the oxygen is strongly affected for topography, the determination of information on the terrestrial surface from this absorption of the oxygen requires a very precise correction of the topographical effects. Therefore in this work we analyse in particular the effect

  17. Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This experiment measured the reflectance of tarps with ground instruments in order to check radiometric calibration, validate atmospheric correction, and predict at-sensor radiance for satellite instruments. The procedure of this experiment is as follows: 1) Assemble laboratory apparatus to duplicate ground reference measurement geometry and satellite measurement geometry; 2) Measure spectral radiance with Optronics OL 750 double monochromator/spectroradiometer; 3) Measure radiance of NIST-calibrated Spectralon panel irradiated by collimated light at incidence angle of calibrated reflectance (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, or 50 deg), viewing normal to panel surface; 4) Measure radiance of Spectralon panel irradiated at incidence angle equal to solar zenith angle at time of overpass; 5) Calculate reflectance of Spectralon panel irradiated at solar zenith angle, viewing normal to panel surface (ground geometry).

  18. Development Of Teal Ruby Experiment Radiometric Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtley, W. B.; Kowallis, O. K.; Molnar, L. A.; Wright, T. J.

    1981-12-01

    The Teal Ruby Experiment (TRE) sensor presents unique problems to radiometric performance testing and calibration of a mosaic infrared sensor because of the large number of resolution elements; the wide range of spectral, temporal, and flux level operating regions; and the cryogenic operating conditions. This paper contains a summary of the Teal Ruby test facilities and requirements at the infrared charge-coupled device (IRCCD) detector array, zone assembly, focal plane assembly, and sensor levels. Automated test facilities and capabilities are presented to highlight the development requirements and approaches to testing. Key issues concern the complexity of testing, selection of test parameters, commonality of test algorithms and data presentation, data needs for acceptance testing, optimization and integration, and test equipment standards for accuracy, operating range, and contamination control.

  19. Neotectonics along the Turkana Rift (North Kenya) from river network analysis, remote sensing and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetel, W.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J.-J.

    2003-04-01

    The NS-trending Turkana Rift (North Kenya) cuts through a N140^oE transverse depressed zone between the Kenyan and Ethiopian domes. It forms a 200 km-long rift segment of the East African Rift System, centered on the Turkana Lake. In this region, widespread rifting occurred during the Oligocene to Mio-Pliocene and opened large NS-trending hemigrabens imaged by seismics to the West of the Turkana Lake. Because the Turkana rifted zone is a low and poorly contrasted topographic area, it is difficult to draw the trace of the active rift, in contrast with 1) the narrow (20 km-wide) N10^o-trending axial trough forming the Suguta valley to the South, and 2) the Chew Bahir faulted basin to the North. Despite a semi-arid climate, the Turkana area shows a dense and widely-distributed river drainage network dominated by the Turkwell, Kerio and Omo first-order rivers. The entire stream pattern has been extracted from Landsat satellite images and then analyzed in terms of drainage anomalies. Major anomalies have been recognized at various scales and assigned to active tectonics. The direct correlation between surface data and the deep structures imaged on seismics allows to precise the inherited (Oligo-Miocene) or newly-formed origin of the active deformation. Evidence for neotectonics are observed along 1) a large-scale transverse (EW) fault rooting at depth along a steep basement discontinuity (Turkwell), 2) a rift-parallel (NS) fault zone probably emplaced during Plio-Pleistocene and actually bounding the Napedet volcanic plateau to the West, and 3) over a round-shaped uplifted zone caused by inversion tectonics (Kalabata). Structural interpretation of offshore high-resolution seismics from Lake Turkana illustrates the existence of recent deformation and also helps complete the overall neotectonic framework of the Turkana rift zone. Finally, this study leads us to regard the Turkana area as a broad (ca. 100 km wide) zone of diffuse extension where active deformation is

  20. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  1. Evaluation of the Radiometric Integrity of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper Band 6 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Probably the most generally accepted method for processing radiometric data from space is to correct the observed radiance or apparent temperature to a surface radiance or temperature value using atmospheric propagation models. As part of NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) experiment the atmospheric propagation models were used in reverse in an attempt to evaluate the post launch radiometric response of the radiometer. Techniques successfully used to radiometrically calibrate the HCMM sensor were extended. The HCMM experiment is described and used as a base for the evaluation of the TM band 6 (infrared) sensor.

  2. An Enhanced Algorithm for Automatic Radiometric Harmonization of High-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery Using Pseudoinvariant Features and Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheinrich, M.; Fischer, P.; Probeck, M.; Ramminger, G.; Wagner, T.; Krauß, T.

    2017-05-01

    The growing number of available optical remote sensing data providing large spatial and temporal coverage enables the coherent and gapless observation of the earth's surface on the scale of whole countries or continents. To produce datasets of that size, individual satellite scenes have to be stitched together forming so-called mosaics. Here the problem arises that the different images feature varying radiometric properties depending on the momentary acquisition conditions. The interpretation of optical remote sensing data is to a great extent based on the analysis of the spectral composition of an observed surface reflection. Therefore the normalization of all images included in a large image mosaic is necessary to ensure consistent results concerning the application of procedures to the whole dataset. In this work an algorithm is described which enables the automated spectral harmonization of satellite images to a reference scene. As the stable and satisfying functionality of the proposed algorithm was already put to operational use to process a high number of SPOT-4/-5, IRS LISS-III and Landsat-5 scenes in the frame of the European Environment Agency's Copernicus/GMES Initial Operations (GIO) High-Resolution Layer (HRL) mapping of the HRL Forest for 20 Western, Central and (South)Eastern European countries, it is further evaluated on its reliability concerning the application to newer Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging products. The results show that the algorithm is comparably efficient for the processing of satellite image data from sources other than the sensor configurations it was originally designed for.

  3. XRTD: An X-Windows based, real-time radiometric display and analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, Vincent M.

    1993-01-01

    XRTD is a graphical user interface (GUI) based tool for monitoring real time radiometric spacecraft data. The tool is designed to allow the navigation analyst to both view and analyze the characteristics of Doppler and ranging data. This capability is critical if ground personnel wish to verify the correct performance of ongoing maneuvers. The raw tracking data is transferred from Deep Space Network (DSN) computers to a local workstation, where the predicted value for the observable is subtracted from the actual observed value to create a residual. The tool then allows the navigation analyst to rescale and replot the data using simple GUI techniques. The navigator may then perform a number of data analysis and modeling techniques on the resulting residuals to allow for the real time characterization of spacecraft events. These techniques include the modeling of maneuvers, the compression and differencing of data, and Fast Fourier transforms of the data. This tool has shortened the amount of time required for initial characterization of spacecraft maneuvers from several hours to a few minutes.

  4. ProVal : First data from a new Argo profiler dedicated to high quality radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organelli, E.; Leymarie, E.; Penkerc'h, C.; Claustre, H.; Antoine, D.; Marty, S.

    2016-02-01

    Following the recommendation of the International Ocean Color Coordinating Group in 2011 (IOCCG report #11), the Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche (LOV) has developed a new profiling float dedicated to the validation of satellite ocean color remote sensing data. Taking advantage of our experience in both Argo floats and radiometric measurements, we have developed the ProVal float. This new float has a two-arm design that allows sensor redundancy and mitigation of shading by the float through using the radiometer best placed with respect to the sun. ProVal measures downward irradiance and upwelling radiance at seven wavelengths with the highest quality currently achievable with this type of radiometer. It also measures the downward Photosynthetically Available Radiation, the fluorescence of Chlorophyll-a and of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter and finally the backscattering at 700nm. ProVal is able to monitor all year round these apparent and inherent optical properties of the water column simultaneously with ocean color satellite observations. After a description of the original concept of our platform based on a new float designed by NKE (PROVOR CTS5) combined with a new acquisition board developed on our specifications, we present initial data from this float taken during several deployments in the Mediterranean Sea. Together with results on sensor aging over deployments, ProVal data are compared with those acquired by other platforms dedicated to Ocean Color measurements (buoy measurements from the BOUSSOLE site and satellite ocean color observations). Perspective of future deployments will be also presented.

  5. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  6. GALILEO SSI/IDA RADIOMETRICALLY CALIBRATED IMAGES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Galileo Orbiter SSI radiometrically calibrated images of the asteroid 243 Ida, created using ISIS software and assuming nadir pointing. This...

  7. Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

    2012-12-01

    Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

  8. Susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B by a rapid radiometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, W.G.; Fay, D.; Thumar, B.; Dixon, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, radiometric method was developed to determine the susceptibility of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B. The rapid, radiometric method depended on measurement of the inhibition of /sup 24/CO/sub 2/ production in the presence of amphotericin B. Thirty isolates of filamentous fungi were tested by the rapid, radiometric method and a reference agar dilution method. There was 93% agreement between the two methods when an 80% or greater decrease in CO/sub 2/ production was used to calculate the minimal inhibitory concentration with the rapid, radiometric method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, based on 80% decrease of CO/sub 2/ production, were achieved within 24 h of incubation with all of the fungi tested.

  9. Remote Lab for Robotics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Jiménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a remote lab environment used to test and training sessions for robotics tasks. This environment is made up of the components and devices based on two robotic arms, a network link, Arduino card and Arduino shield for Ethernet, as well as an IP camera. The remote laboratory is implemented to perform remote control of the robotic arms with visual feedback by camera, of the robots actions, where, with a group of test users, it was possible to obtain performance ranges in tasks of telecontrol of up to 92%.

  10. Radiometric Dating for Novice Learners: Visualizing, Modeling, and Simulating via Animated Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Sinex

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric dating is introduced to beginning students in a real-world fashion through animated spreadsheets. Students discover the behavior of the parent-daughter relationship in radioactive decay, how the parent-daughter ratio yields the age, and a number of assumptions involved in radiometric dating. After exploring the concepts, and with some elementary mathematical modeling skills, students analyze data from the literature.

  11. Incoherence-Mediated Remote Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyue; Motter, Adilson E.; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    In previously identified forms of remote synchronization between two nodes, the intermediate portion of the network connecting the two nodes is not synchronized with them but generally exhibits some coherent dynamics. Here we report on a network phenomenon we call incoherence-mediated remote synchronization (IMRS), in which two noncontiguous parts of the network are identically synchronized while the dynamics of the intermediate part is statistically and information-theoretically incoherent. We identify mirror symmetry in the network structure as a mechanism allowing for such behavior, and show that IMRS is robust against dynamical noise as well as against parameter changes. IMRS may underlie neuronal information processing and potentially lead to network solutions for encryption key distribution and secure communication.

  12. Laser photothermal radiometric instrument for industrial steel hardness inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Pawlak, M.; Garcia, J.; Mandelis, A.; Giunta, S.; Milletari, S.; Bawa, S.

    2010-03-01

    To meet the industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control, a non-contact, non-destructive laser photothermal radiometric instrument (HD-PTR) was developed. The instrument is equipped with a non-liquid-nitrogen-cooled HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector, a National Instruments data acquisition card with a Dynamic System Analysis (DSA) module, and control software. A series of industrial steel samples which included automotive screws and aircraft gears (flat or curvilinear) were examined. The effective hardness case depths of these samples ranged from 0.21 mm to 1.78 mm. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) can be extracted when using a fast swept-sine photothermal method. These parameters include the phase minimum (or peak) frequency, fmin, the half width, W, and the area, S. It was found that they are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depths. fminis most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for shallower case depths.

  13. ESTIMATION OF RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS OF EGYPTSAT-1 SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Nasr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors usually must be calibrated as part of a measurement system. Calibration may include the procedure of correcting the transfer of the sensor, using the reference measurements, in such a way that a specific input-output relation can be guaranteed with a certain accuracy and under certain conditions. It is necessary to perform a calibration to relate the output signal precisely to the physical input signal (e.g., the output Digital Numbers (DNs to the absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance. Generic calibration data associated with Egyptsat-1 sensor are not provided by the manufacturer. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate Egyptsat-1 sensor specific calibration data and tabulates the necessary constants for its different multispectral bands. We focused our attention on the relative calibration between Egyptsat-1 and Spot-4 sensors for their great spectral similarity. The key idea is to use concurrent correlation of signals received at both sensors in the same day (i.e., sensors are observing the same phenomenon. Calibration formula constructed from Spot-4 sensor is used to derive the calibration coefficients for Egyptsat-1. A brief overview of the radiometric calibration coefficients retrieval procedures is presented. A reasonable estimate of the overall calibration coefficient is obtained. They have been used to calibrate reflectances of Egyptsat-1 sensor. Further updates to evaluate and improve the retrieved calibration data are being investigated.

  14. COMBINED GEOMETRIC/RADIOMETRIC POINT CLOUD MATCHING FOR SHEAR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, dense image matching methods such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM became popular for many applications. The SGM approach has been adapted to and implemented for Leica ADS line-scanner data by North West Geomatics (North West in co-operation with Leica Geosystems; it is used in North West’s production workflow. One of the advantages of ADS imagery is the calibrated color information (RGB and near infrared, extending SGM-derived point clouds to dense “image point clouds” or, more general, information clouds (info clouds. With the goal of automating the quality control of ADS data, info clouds are utilized for Shear Analysis: Three-dimensional offsets of adjacent ADS image strips are determined from a pattern of info cloud pairs in strip overlaps by point cloud matching. The presented approach integrates geometry (height and radiometry (intensity information; matching is based on local point-to-plane distances for all points in a given cloud. The offset is derived in a least squares adjustment by applying it to each individual distance computation equation. Using intensities in addition to heights greatly benefits the offset computation, because intensity gradients tend to occur more frequently than height gradients. They can provide or complement the required information for the derivation of planimetric offset components. The paper details the combined geometric/radiometric point cloud matching approach and verifies the results against manual measurements.

  15. Laser photothermal radiometric instrument for industrial steel hardness inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X; Sivagurunathan, K; Pawlak, M; Garcia, J; Mandelis, A [Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, Department of MIE, University Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Giunta, S; Milletari, S [Industrial Technologies Deparment of Avio S.p.A., Via I Maggio 99, 10040 Rivalta di Torino (Italy); Bawa, S, E-mail: guox@mie.utoronto.c [Metex Heat Treatment Ltd., 225 Wilkinson Road, Brampton, ON L6T 4M2 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    To meet the industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control, a non-contact, non-destructive laser photothermal radiometric instrument (HD-PTR) was developed. The instrument is equipped with a non-liquid-nitrogen-cooled HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector, a National Instruments data acquisition card with a Dynamic System Analysis (DSA) module, and control software. A series of industrial steel samples which included automotive screws and aircraft gears (flat or curvilinear) were examined. The effective hardness case depths of these samples ranged from 0.21 mm to 1.78 mm. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) can be extracted when using a fast swept-sine photothermal method. These parameters include the phase minimum (or peak) frequency, f{sub min}, the half width, W, and the area, S. It was found that they are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depths. f{sub min}is most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for shallower case depths.

  16. Radiometric prescreen for antitumor activity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speedie, M K; Fique, D V; Blomster, R N

    1980-07-01

    After modification, a technique for radiometrically measuring bacterial growth has been applied to a mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assay is based on inhibition of 14CO2 release from [14C]glucose, which provides an extremely sensitive measure of cellular respiratory activity and growth. The criterion for antitumor activity is the differential inhibition of wild-type and mutant (distorted cell membrane) strains of the yeast. The system was optimized for medium, time of incubation, temperature, and size of inoculum. Known antitumor agents, including bleomycin, actinomycin D, adriamycin, and ellipticine were tested in the system, and differential inhibition was observed. Vincristine showed no inhibitory effects at the concentrations tried. The sensitivity for 20% inhibition ranged from 0.8 micrograms of adriamycin per ml to 0.14 mg of ellipticine per ml. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B exhibited no differential inhibition. Antibacterial agents were inactive. This method may provide a rapid, sensitive, in vitro quantitative assay for antitumor agents which could be applied to a variety of assay needs and which can be run with facilities and equipment available in most laboratories.

  17. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; Mcintire, Jeffrey; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Ji, Qiang; Schwarting, Tom; Zeng, Jinan

    2015-01-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 or J1) mission is scheduled to launch in January 2017, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the J1 spacecraft completed its sensor level performance testing in December 2014. VIIRS instrument is expected to provide valuable information about the Earth environment and properties on a daily basis, using a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer. The design covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands, from 0.412 m to 12.01 m, and has spatial resolutions of 370 m and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will provide an overview of pre-launch J1 VIIRS performance testing and methodologies, describing the at-launch baseline radiometric performance as well as the metrics needed to calibrate the instrument once on orbit. Key sensor performance metrics include the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field response, and stray light rejection. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the sensor requirements and to SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  18. Remote diagnosis server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  19. Initial Radiometric Characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A Multispectral Imagery Using the 6S Radiative Transfer Model, Well-Known Radiometric Tarps, and MFRSR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Yeom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On-orbit radiometric characterization of the multispectral (MS imagery of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI’s Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A, which was launched on 25 March 2015, was conducted to provide quantitative radiometric information about KOMPSAT-3A. During the in-orbit test (IOT, vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A was performed using the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S radiative transfer model. The characteristics of radiometric tarps, the atmospheric optical depth from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR measurements, and sun–sensor–geometry were carefully considered, in order to calculate the exact top of atmosphere (TOA radiance received by KOMPSAT-3A MS bands. In addition, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF behaviors of the radiometric tarps were measured in the laboratory with a two-dimensional hyperspectral gonioradiometer, to compensate for the geometry discrepancy between the satellite and the ASD FieldSpec® 3 spectroradiometer. The match-up datasets between the TOA radiance and the digital number (DN from KOMPSAT-3A were used to determine DN-to-radiance conversion factors, based on linear least squares fitting for two field campaigns. The final results showed that the R2 values between the observed and simulated radiances for the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR bands, are greater than 0.998. An approximate error budget analysis for the vicarious calibration of KOMPSAT-3A showed an error of less than 6.8%. When applying the laboratory-based BRDF correction to the case of higher viewing zenith angle geometry, the gain ratio was improved, particularly for the blue (1.3% and green (1.2% bands, which exhibit high sensitivity to the BRDF of radiometric tarps during the backward-scattering phase. The calculated gain ratio between the first and second campaigns showed a less than 5% discrepancy, indicating that

  20. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of GF-4 in Multispectral Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The GaoFen-4 (GF-4, launched at the end of December 2015, is China’s first high-resolution geostationary optical satellite. A panchromatic and multispectral sensor (PMS is onboard the GF-4 satellite. Unfortunately, the GF-4 has no onboard calibration assembly, so on-orbit radiometric calibration is required. Like the charge-coupled device (CCD onboard HuanJing-1 (HJ or the wide field of view sensor (WFV onboard GaoFen-1 (GF-1, GF-4 also has a wide field of view, which provides challenges for cross-calibration with narrow field of view sensors, like the Landsat series. A new technique has been developed and used to calibrate HJ-1/CCD and GF-1/WFV, which is verified viable. The technique has three key steps: (1 calculate the surface using the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF characterization of a site, taking advantage of its uniform surface material and natural topographic variation using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+/Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery and digital elevation model (DEM products; (2 calculate the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA with the simulated surface reflectance using the atmosphere radiant transfer model; and (3 fit the calibration coefficients with the TOA radiance and corresponding Digital Number (DN values of the image. This study attempts to demonstrate the technique is also feasible to calibrate GF-4 multispectral bands. After fitting the calibration coefficients using the technique, extensive validation is conducted by cross-validation using the image pairs of GF-4/PMS and Landsat-8/OLI with similar transit times and close view zenith. The validation result indicates a higher accuracy and frequency than that given by the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA using vicarious calibration. The study shows that the new technique is also quite feasible for GF-4 multispectral bands as a routine long-term procedure.

  1. Adaptable imaging package for remote vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Liardon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An easy-to-customize, low-cost solution for remote imagery is described. The system, denoted ImPROV (Imaging Package for Remote Vehicles, supports multiple cameras, live streaming, long-range encrypted communication using mobile networks, positioning and time-stamped imagery, etc. The adaptability of the system is demonstrated by its deployment on different remotely operated or autonomous vehicles, which include model aircraft, drones, balloon, kite and a submarine.

  2. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  3. Automatic extraction of faults and fractal analysis from remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gloaguen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-based classification is a promising technique for image classification. Unlike pixel-based methods, which only use the measured radiometric values, the object-based techniques can also use shape and context information of scene textures. These extra degrees of freedom provided by the objects allow the automatic identification of geological structures. In this article, we present an evaluation of object-based classification in the context of extraction of geological faults. Digital elevation models and radar data of an area near Lake Magadi (Kenya have been processed. We then determine the statistics of the fault populations. The fractal dimensions of fault dimensions are similar to fractal dimensions directly measured on remote sensing images of the study area using power spectra (PSD and variograms. These methods allow unbiased statistics of faults and help us to understand the evolution of the fault systems in extensional domains. Furthermore, the direct analysis of image texture is a good indicator of the fault statistics and allows us to classify the intensity and type of deformation. We propose that extensional fault networks can be modeled by iterative function system (IFS.

  4. A Scientometric Visualization Analysis for Night-Time Light Remote Sensing Research from 1991 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conducted a scientometric analysis based on the Night-Time Light (NTL remote sensing related literature datasets retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in Web of Science core collection database. Using the methods of bibliometric and Social Network Analysis (SNA, we drew several conclusions: (1 NTL related studies have become a research hotspot, especially after 2011 when the second generation of NTL satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS sensor was on board. In the same period, the open-access policy of the long historical dataset of the first generation satellite Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS started. (2 Most related studies are conducted by authors from USA and China, and the USA takes the lead in the field. We identified the biggest research communities constructed by co-authorships and the related important authors and topics by SNA. (3 By the visualization and analysis of the topic evolution using the co-word and co-cited reference networks, we can clearly see that: the research topics change from hardware oriented studies to more real-world applications; and from the first generation of the satellite DMSP/OLS to the second generation of satellite S-NPP. Although the Day Night Band (DNB of the S-NPP exhibits higher spatial and radiometric resolution and better calibration conditions than the first generation DMSP/OLS, the longer historical datasets in DMSP/OLS are still important in long-term and large-scale human activity analysis. (4 In line with the intuitive knowledge, the NTL remote sensing related studies display stronger connections (such as interpretive frame, context, and academic purpose to the social sciences than the general remote sensing discipline. The citation trajectories are visualized based on the dual-maps, thus the

  5. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.

  6. Revisiting the paper “Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustas, William P.; Nieto, Hector; Morillas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The recent paper by Morillas et al. [Morillas, L. et al. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective, Remote Sens. Environ. 136, 234–246, 2013] evaluates the two-source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with re...... data in order to more accurately assess the effects of the transport exchange processes of this Mediterranean landscape on TSEB formulations.......) with revisions by Kustas and Norman (1999) over a semiarid tussock grassland site in southeastern Spain. The TSM - in its current incarnation, the two-source energy balance model (TSEB) - was applied to this landscape using ground-based infrared radiometer sensors to estimate both the composite surface...... radiometric temperature and component soil and canopy temperatures. Morillas et al. (2013) found the TSEB model substantially underestimated the sensible H (and overestimated the latent heat LE) fluxes. Using the same data set from Morillas et al. (2013), we were able to confirm their results. We also found...

  7. Remote Sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observed that all bodies at temperatures above zero degrees absolute emit electromagnetic radiation at different wavelengths, as per Planck's law. 2. B(A, T) = 2hc ..... International co-operation of nations in evolving integrated global observa- tion for disaster studies is getting in place. Evolution of Remote Sensing in India.

  8. Scientific Programming Using Java: A Remote Sensing Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Don; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Johnson, Michael; Cao, Changyong; Gasser, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of a project to port remote sensing code from the C programming language to Java. The advantages and disadvantages of using Java versus C as a scientific programming language in remote sensing applications are discussed. Remote sensing applications deal with voluminous data that require effective memory management, such as buffering operations, when processed. Some of these applications also implement complex computational algorithms, such as Fast Fourier Transformation analysis, that are very performance intensive. Factors considered include performance, precision, complexity, rapidity of development, ease of code reuse, ease of maintenance, memory management, and platform independence. Performance of radiometric calibration code written in Java for the graphical user interface and of using C for the domain model are also presented.

  9. Translating Radiometric Requirements for Satellite Sensors to Match International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Pearlman, Aaron; Datla, Raju; Kacker, Raghu; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    International scientific standards organizations created standards on evaluating uncertainty in the early 1990s. Although scientists from many fields use these standards, they are not consistently implemented in the remote sensing community, where traditional error analysis framework persists. For a satellite instrument under development, this can create confusion in showing whether requirements are met. We aim to create a methodology for translating requirements from the error analysis frame...

  10. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  11. THE EUROSDR PROJECT "RADIOMETRIC ASPECTS OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGES" – RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  12. A new methodology for in-flight radiometric calibration of the MIVIS imaging sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lechi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor radiometric calibration is of great importance in computing physical values of radiance of the investigated targets, but often airborne scanners are not equipped with any in-flight radiometric calibration facility. Consequently, the radiometric calibration or airborne systems usually relies only on pre-flight and vicarious calibration or on indirect approaches. This paper introduces an experimental approach that makes use of on-board calibration techniques to perform the radiometric calibration of the CNR’s MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer airborne scanner. This approach relies on the use of an experimental optical test bench originally designed at Politecnico di Milano University (Italy, called MIVIS Flying Test Bench (MFTB, to perform the first On-The-Fly (OTF calibration of the MIVIS reflective spectral bands. The main task of this study is to estimate how large are the effects introduced by aircraft motion (e.g., e.m. noise or vibrations and by environment conditions (e.g., environment temperature on the radiance values measured by the MIVIS sensor during the fly. This paper describes the first attempt to perform an On-The-Fly (OTF calibration of the MIVIS reflective spectral bands (ranging from 430 nm to 2.500 nm. Analysis of results seems to point out limitations of traditional radiometric calibration methodology based only on pre-flight approaches, with important implications for data quality assessment.

  13. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-08-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented.

  14. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  15. Underway sensing of radiometric properties utilizing a novel sub-hull installation on R/V SONNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, O.; Rüssmeier, N.; Garaba, S. P.; Voss, D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding light interaction with biogeochemical constituents in the marine environment has improved in the last few years due to small, fast, automated and affordable optical tools. Ocean color observations are dependent on ambient sunlight, wind speed influencing sea surface reflected glint, instrument self shading, sensor accuracy, sensitivity as well as spatial and spectral resolution influencing our abilities in sensing oceanic processes. In this study we present a new method useful in collecting radiometric information, namely upwelling radiance from a platform submerged in a novel hydrographic sub-hull of a research vessel. The information analyzed here was obtained during a recent field campaign in the Northwestern European shelf seas aboard the new German research vessel SONNE. A comparison of the measurements from this approach with a free falling hyperspectral profiler was conducted to determine the degree of uncertainty that results from ship shadow. We observed intensity deviations in a range of about 30% compared to profiling measurements, which can be attributed to instrument shading and environmental perturbations. A form-fitting algorithm was adapted to receive corresponding depths with identical spectral shape indicating an equivalent light path of 22 m for the sub-hull installation. Remote sensing reflectance was then calculated by normalizing the upwelling radiance with the downward solar irradiance. During an east to west transect in the North Sea we successfully applied the above method while cruising at a maximum speed up of 12 knots, resolving the mixing zone of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) dominant Baltic waters towards the open North Sea.

  16. Assessment and Correction of on-Orbit Radiometric Calibration for FY-3 VIRR Thermal Infrared Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FengYun-3 (FY-3 Visible Infrared Radiometer (VIRR, along with its predecessor, Multispectral Visible Infrared Scanning Radiometer (MVISR, onboard FY-1C&D have had continuous global observation more than 14 years. This data record is valuable for weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environment research. Data quality is vital for satellite data assimilations in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and quantitative remote sensing applications. In this paper, the accuracies of radiometric calibration for VIRR onboard FY-3A and FY-3B, in thermal infrared (TIR channels, are evaluated using the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO simultaneous nadir overpass intercalibration method. Hyperspectral and high-quality observations from Infrared Atmosphere Sounding Instrument (IASI onboard METOP-A are used as reference. The biases of VIRR measurements with respect to IASI over one-and-a-half years indicate that the TIR calibration accuracy of FY-3B VIRR is better than that of FY-3A VIRR. The brightness temperature (BT measured by FY-3A/VIRR is cooler than that measured by IASI with monthly mean biases ranging from −2 K to −1 K for channel 4 and −1 K to 0.2 K for channel 5. Measurements from FY-3B/VIRR are more consistent with that from IASI, and the annual mean biases are 0.84 ± 0.16 K and −0.66 ± 0.18 K for channels 4 and 5, respectively. The BT biases of FY-3A/VIRR show scene temperature-dependence and seasonal variation, which are not found from FY-3B/VIRR BT biases. The temperature-dependent biases are shown to be attributed to the nonlinearity of detectors. New nonlinear correction coefficients of FY-3A/VIRR TIR channels are reevaluated using various collocation samples. Verification results indicate that the use of the new nonlinear correction can greatly correct the scene temperature-dependent and systematic biases.

  17. AN ENHANCED ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATIC RADIOMETRIC HARMONIZATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY USING PSEUDOINVARIANT FEATURES AND LINEAR REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langheinrich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of available optical remote sensing data providing large spatial and temporal coverage enables the coherent and gapless observation of the earth’s surface on the scale of whole countries or continents. To produce datasets of that size, individual satellite scenes have to be stitched together forming so-called mosaics. Here the problem arises that the different images feature varying radiometric properties depending on the momentary acquisition conditions. The interpretation of optical remote sensing data is to a great extent based on the analysis of the spectral composition of an observed surface reflection. Therefore the normalization of all images included in a large image mosaic is necessary to ensure consistent results concerning the application of procedures to the whole dataset. In this work an algorithm is described which enables the automated spectral harmonization of satellite images to a reference scene. As the stable and satisfying functionality of the proposed algorithm was already put to operational use to process a high number of SPOT-4/-5, IRS LISS-III and Landsat-5 scenes in the frame of the European Environment Agency's Copernicus/GMES Initial Operations (GIO High-Resolution Layer (HRL mapping of the HRL Forest for 20 Western, Central and (SouthEastern European countries, it is further evaluated on its reliability concerning the application to newer Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging products. The results show that the algorithm is comparably efficient for the processing of satellite image data from sources other than the sensor configurations it was originally designed for.

  18. Radiometric modeling of cavernous targets to assist in the determination of absolute temperature for input to process models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Matthew; Salvaggio, Carl; Brown, Scott D.; Messinger, David W.; Goodenough, Adam A.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2007-04-01

    Determining the temperature of an internal surface within cavernous targets, such as the interior wall of a mechanical draft cooling tower, from remotely sensed imagery is important for many surveillance applications that provide input to process models. The surface leaving radiance from an observed target is a combination of the self-emitted radiance and the reflected background radiance. The self-emitted radiance component is a function of the temperature-dependent blackbody radiation and the view-dependent directional emissivity. The reflected background radiance component depends on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the surface, the incident radiance from surrounding sources, and the BRDF for each of these background sources. Inside a cavity, the background radiance emanating from any of the multiple internal surfaces will be a combination of the self-emitted and reflected energy from the other internal surfaces as well as the downwelling sky radiance. This scenario provides for a complex radiometric inversion problem in order to arrive at the absolute temperature of any of these internal surfaces. The cavernous target has often been assumed to be a blackbody, but in field experiments it has been determined that this assumption does not always provide an accurate surface temperature. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) modeling tool is being used to represent a cavity target. The model demonstrates the dependence of the radiance reaching the sensor on the emissivity of the internal surfaces and the multiple internal interactions between all the surfaces that make up the overall target. The cavity model is extended to a detailed model of a mechanical draft cooling tower. The predictions of derived temperature from this model are compared to those derived from actual infrared imagery collected with a helicopter-based broadband infrared imaging system collected over an operating tower located at the Savannah

  19. Application of future remote sensing systems to irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Area estimates of irrigated crops and knowledge of crop type are required for modeling water consumption to assist farmers, rangers, and agricultural consultants in scheduling irrigation for distributed management of crop yields. Information on canopy physiology and soil moisture status on a spatial basis is potentially available from remote sensors, so the questions to be addressed relate to: (1) timing (data frequency, instantaneous and integrated measurement); and scheduling (widely distributed spatial demands); (2) spatial resolution; (3) radiometric and geometric accuracy and geoencoding; and (4) information/data distribution. This latter should be overnight, with no central storage, onsite capture, and low cost.

  20. Evaluation of the Radiometric Integrity of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Band 6 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for experimentally evaluating the radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT-4 band 6 data is described which draws on a method used to radiometrically calibrate the HCMR data which involved underflying the satellite with an infrared line scanner. By extending this technology to higher altitudes experimental radiance data suitable for radiometric calibration of the TM band 6 sensor can be generated. Repetition of this experiment can permit evaluation of long term drift in the sensor and provide a data base for evaluating atmospheric propagation models for radiation transfer. To date, efforts were concentrated on modifying the infrared line scanner to match the spectral response of the TM band 6 sensor. In addition, the LOWTRAN code corresponding to a satellite overpass of September 1982 was run to yield a plot of transmission and path radiance as a function of altitude.

  1. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  2. Radiometric survey in mammography: problems and challenges; Levantamento radiometrico em mamografia: problemas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, M.V.T.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Garcia, I.F.M.; Ferreira, M.J.; Macedo, E.M., E-mail: navarro@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude

    2015-07-01

    In addition to being mandatory, the radiometric survey is a necessity, especially in the Brazilian reality with the construction of smaller and smaller rooms. However, calibration conditions, the instrumentation and its use, can produce underestimated factors. Measures made at Labprosaud/IFBA, with five different instruments and the ISO N 25 radiation quality, show the possibility of the values presented in the radiometric surveys are underestimated by up to 10 times. The results indicate the need for meters to be calibrated in ISO N qualities, in mammography energy range, in integrated dose mode and exposure times shorter or equal to 1 s. (author)

  3. Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

    1983-12-01

    Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

  4. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  5. Role of primary care physicians in treating patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction located in remote areas (from the REseau Nord-Alpin des Urgences [RENAU], Network).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayehd, Komlavi; Ricard, Cécile; Ageron, François-Xavier; Buscaglia, Léna; Savary, Dominique; Audema, Bernard; Lacroix, Diane; Barthes, Manuela; Joubert, Patrick; Gheno, Gaël; Belle, Loic

    2015-02-01

    European guidelines for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) encourage healthcare networks to increase rates of, and decrease delays to, reperfusion. We examined the impact of training primary care physicians (PCPs) to use equipment for pre-hospital management of STEMI patients in remote areas. A network for cardiac emergencies was set up in the French Northern Alps in 2002 and a registry of STEMI patients has been kept since. In 2005, 24 local volunteer PCPs were trained and equipped with electrocardiograms, fibrinolysis kits, and automated external defibrillators to deal with cardiac emergencies in remote areas (>30-minute ambulance travelling time). In this study, when the central call dispatcher received a telephone call from a patient in a remote area reporting chest pain with a high probability of STEMI, the dispatcher sent a mobile intensive care unit (MICU) with an emergency physician on board and asked the local PCP, if available, to manage the patient while awaiting arrival of the MICU. Patients in whom the diagnosis of STEMI was confirmed were taken by MICU to an interventional cardiology hospital. We report on patients who received care from a PCP before arrival of the MICU. Between 2005 and 2010, 4,015 patients were enrolled in the registry; 180 patients were located in a remote area, of whom 140 were in an area covered by a participating PCP. Of the 62 patients attended by a PCP before MICU arrival, 27 received thrombolysis and eight patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation were shocked with an automated external defibrillator by the PCP. Mean times from telephone call to thrombolysis were shorter when the patient was attended by a PCP (45.0 ± 25.5 vs 62.4 ± 23.4 min without intervention; p = 0.003). STEMI diagnosis without contraindication to thrombolysis was confirmed in 26 of 27 patients treated as such by PCPs and 1 patient was diagnosed with a Tako-Tsubo syndrome. PCP care of STEMI patients located in isolated areas

  6. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-02-06

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n =237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n =250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n =234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n =110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n =36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n =38): 14.1% (n =33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n =3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n =2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

  7. Remote Control of the CFHT Dome Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Ivan; Roberts, Larry; Vermeulen, Tom; Taroma, Ralph; Matsushige, Grant

    2011-03-01

    Several years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will attempt to provide Design Information on the Dome Shutter, which is both Controlled and Monitored Remotely from Waimea. The Dome Shutter Control System incorporates an upgraded Allen-Bradley PLC processor (SLC 5/05), which provides Remote Operation and Monitoring of the existing System. Several earlier upgrade projects were integrated to provide improvement to the Shutter System such as PLC Control, System Feedback, and Safety Features. This particular upgrade provides Remote capability, CFHT developed Control GUI, and Remote monitoring that promise to deliver a more versatile, visual, and safer Shutter Operation. The Dome Shutter Control System provides three modes of Operation namely; Remote, Integration, and Local. The Control GUI is used to operate the Shutter remotely. Integration mode is provided to develop PLC software code and is performed by connecting a Laptop directly to the Shutter Control Panel. Local mode is retained to provide Remote Lockout (No Remote Control), which allows Shutter control ONLY via the existing Electrical Panel. This mode is primarily intended for Shutter maintenance and troubleshooting. The Dome Shutter remains the first Line-of-Defense for Telescope protection due to inclement weather and so special attention was considered during Remote development. The Shutter has been equipped with an Autonomous Shutdown sequence in the event of Power or Network failure. If Loss of HELCO Power or Start-up of our Stand-by Diesel Generator is detected; a planned timing sequence will Close the Shutter Automatically. Likewise, an internal CFHT Network heartbeat was

  8. Translating Radiometric Requirements for Satellite Sensors to Match International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron; Datla, Raju; Kacker, Raghu; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    International scientific standards organizations created standards on evaluating uncertainty in the early 1990s. Although scientists from many fields use these standards, they are not consistently implemented in the remote sensing community, where traditional error analysis framework persists. For a satellite instrument under development, this can create confusion in showing whether requirements are met. We aim to create a methodology for translating requirements from the error analysis framework to the modern uncertainty approach using the product level requirements of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will fly on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R). In this paper we prescribe a method to combine several measurement performance requirements, written using a traditional error analysis framework, into a single specification using the propagation of uncertainties formula. By using this approach, scientists can communicate requirements in a consistent uncertainty framework leading to uniform interpretation throughout the development and operation of any satellite instrument.

  9. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations m...

  10. Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 33.6-GHz, high-resolution, passive microwave images suggests that new sea ice accumulating in open leads is characterized by a unique textural signature which can be used to discriminate new ice forming in this environment from adjacent surfaces of similar radiometric temperature. Ten training areas were selected from the data set, three of which consisted entirely of first-year ice, four entirely of multilayer ice, and three of new ice in open leads in the process of freezing. A simple gradient operator was used to characterize the radiometric texture in each training region in terms of the degree to which radiometric gradients are oriented. New ice in leads has a sufficiently high proportion of well-oriented features to distinguish it uniquely from first-year ice and multiyear ice. The predominance of well-oriented features probably reflects physical processes by which new ice accumulates in open leads. Banded structures, which are evident in aerial photographs of new ice, apparently give rise to the radiometric signature observed, in which the trend of brightness temperature gradients is aligned parallel to lead trends. First-year ice and multiyear ice, which have been subjected to a more random growth and process history, lack this banded structure and therefore are characterized by signatures in which well-aligned elements are less dominant.

  11. Radiometric flight results from the HyperSpectral Imager for Climate Science (HySICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Smith, Paul; Belting, Chris; Castleman, Zach; Drake, Ginger; Espejo, Joey; Heuerman, Karl; Lanzi, James; Stuchlik, David

    2017-04-01

    Long-term monitoring of the Earth-reflected solar spectrum is necessary for discerning and attributing changes in climate. High radiometric accuracy enables such monitoring over decadal timescales with non-overlapping instruments, and high precision enables trend detection on shorter timescales. The HyperSpectral Imager for Climate Science (HySICS) is a visible and near-infrared spatial/spectral imaging spectrometer intended to ultimately achieve ˜ 0.2 % radiometric accuracies of Earth scenes from space, providing an order-of-magnitude improvement over existing space-based imagers. On-orbit calibrations from measurements of spectral solar irradiances acquired by direct views of the Sun enable radiometric calibrations with superior long-term stability than is currently possible with any manmade spaceflight light source or detector. Solar and lunar observations enable in-flight focal-plane array (FPA) flat-fielding and other instrument calibrations. The HySICS has demonstrated this solar cross-calibration technique for future spaceflight instrumentation via two high-altitude balloon flights. The second of these two flights acquired high-radiometric-accuracy measurements of the ground, clouds, the Earth's limb, and the Moon. Those results and the details of the uncertainty analyses of those flight data are described.

  12. Radiometric trace analysis of cobalt with diethyldithiocarbamate-35S, or 203Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1962-01-01

    Two radiometric methods for the determination of submugram amounts of cobalt are described. (A) Cobalt is extracted from an ammoniacal solution with a zinc-diethyldithiocarbamate-35S solution in chloroform. Excess reagent and interfering metals are removed with mercury(II) and cyanide. The 35S in

  13. South African initiative for pre-flight radiometric calibration of satellite imagers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available or the UUT to the collimated beam coming from the monochromator. m) A mounting region for the UUT. Calibration measurements are automated using LabView. Figure 1: Schematic of Spectral Calibration Bench 3.2. Radiometric Modeling The relative spectral...

  14. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  15. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  16. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  17. New radiometric and petrological constraints on the evolution of the Pichincha volcanic complex (Ecuador)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Fornari, Michel; Mothes, Patricia; van der Plicht, Johannes; Stix, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fieldwork, radiometric ((40)Ar/(39)Ar and (14)C) ages and whole-rock geochemistry allow a reconstruction of eruptive stages at the active, mainly dacitic, Pichincha Volcanic Complex (PVC), whose eruptions have repeatedly threatened Quito, most recently from 1999 to 2001. After the emplacement of

  18. Application of radioisotopes Au -198 to radiometrical field investigation of spraying machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W.; Kocorowska, E. [Technical Univeristy, Poznan (Poland). Radio and Photo-Chemistry Department

    1997-10-01

    The poster shows application of radioisotope {sup 198}Au to radiometrical field testing of spraying machine. In the research was tested the Polish suspensioned tractor OZS400 type spraying machine. The machine worked in two different variants: without and with the beam stabilisation (oscillatory stabilisation)

  19. HealthFace: A web-based remote monitoring interface for medical healthcare systems based on a wireless body area sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    KIRBAŞ, İsmail; BAYILMIŞ, Cüneyt

    2012-01-01

    The wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) is a type of wireless sensor network. The wireless sensor nodes in a WBASN are placed on, near, or within a human body. In a medical healthcare system, WBASNs continuously provide healthcare monitoring, especially of elderly or ill people, wherever the patient goes. Wireless nodes sense and process human vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and respiration. They then send collected data to a medical center v...

  20. A case study of comparing radiometrically calibrated reflectance of an image mosaic from unmanned aerial system with that of a single image from manned aircraft over a same area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Yang, Chenghai; Cope, Dale; Sima, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Though sharing with many commonalities, one of the major differences between conventional high-altitude airborne remote sensing and low-altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) based remote sensing is that the latter one has much smaller ground footprint for each image shot. To cover the same area on the ground, it requires the low-altitude UASbased platform to take many highly-overlapped images to produce a good mosaic, instead of just one or a few image shots by the high-altitude aerial platform. Such an UAS flight usually takes 10 to 30 minutes or even longer to complete; environmental lighting change during this time span cannot be ignored especially when spectral variations of various parts of a field are of interests. In this case study, we compared the visible reflectance of two aerial imagery - one generated from mosaicked UAS images, the other generated from a single image taken by a manned aircraft - over the same agricultural field to quantitatively evaluate their spectral variations caused by the different data acquisition strategies. Specifically, we (1) developed our customized ground calibration points (GCPs) and an associated radiometric calibration method for UAS data processing based on camera's sensitivity characteristics; (2) developed a basic comparison method for radiometrically calibrated data from the two aerial platforms based on regions of interests. We see this study as a starting point for a series of following studies to understand the environmental influence on UAS data and investigate the solutions to minimize such influence to ensure data quality.

  1. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis.

  2. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-10-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

  3. Radiometric corrections of the vignetting effect in aerial digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés L. G. Jaime

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring agriculture cultures by aerial remote sensing present high potential of application. Despite of that potential, some problems still have been detected. One of them is the vignetting effect. This phenomenon introduces error in DN as far away as geometric image center the target is, according to the cos4Theta law. To study this effect it was adopted the procedure that computes Equation - Equação. If these values increase with the distances from images geometric center then the vignetting effect increases proportionally. The study was carried out analyzing the DN of white plate targets in aerial images in two dates 02/11/2001 and 11/04/2002. The white plate targets were distributed in the field and could be seen around the images geometric center, in different distances. In the aerial images the DN from the plates were extracted according to the cos4Theta law and compared to several distances in conformity to Equation - Equação. The results showed that the effect was observed in the first (02/11/2001 images, but not in later (11/04/2002 images. That difference can be explained by the different atmospheric haze and sensor-illumination source geometry. On the other hand when the experiment was performed at ground level the vignetting effect was identified. Therefore the effect exists and can be modeled.

  4. Weight loss social support in 140 characters or less: use of an online social network in a remotely delivered weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Tate, Deborah F

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about how online social networking can help enhance weight loss. To examine the types of online social support utilized in a behavioral weight loss intervention and relationship of posting and weight loss. A sub-analysis of the content and number of posts to Twitter among participants (n = 47) randomized to a mobile, social network arm as part of a 6-month trial among overweight adults, examining weight loss, use of Twitter, and type of social support (informational, tangible assistance, esteem, network, and emotional support). A number of Twitter posts were related to % weight loss at 6 months (p status update (n = 1,319). Engagement with Twitter was related to weight loss and participants mainly used Twitter to provide Information support to one another through status updates.

  5. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  6. Hybrid Off-Grid SPV/WTG Power System for Remote Cellular Base Stations Towards Green and Sustainable Cellular Networks in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the sustainability of power resources and environmental conditions for telecommunication base stations (BSs at off-grid sites. Accordingly, this study examined the feasibility of using a hybrid solar photovoltaic (SPV/wind turbine generator (WTG system to feed the remote Long Term Evolution-macro base stations at off-grid sites of South Korea the energy necessary to minimise both the operational expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions. Three key aspects have been discussed: (i optimal system architecture; (ii energy yield analysis; and (iii economic analysis. In addition, this study compares the feasibility of using a hybrid SPV/WTG system vs. a diesel generator. The simulation results show that by applying the proposed SPV/WTG system scheme to the cellular system, the total operational expenditure can be up to 48.52% more efficient and sustainability can be ensured with better planning by providing cleaner energy.

  7. Extending IPsec for Efficient Remote Attestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schulz, Steffen

    When establishing a VPN to connect different sites of a network, the integrity of the involved VPN endpoints is often a major security concern. Based on the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), available in many computing platforms today, remote attestation mechanisms can be used to evaluate the internal state of remote endpoints automatically. However, existing protocols and extensions are either unsuited for use with IPsec or impose considerable additional implementation complexity and protocol overhead.

  8. Remote Monitoring of the Heart Condition of Athletes by Measuring the Cardiac Action Potential Propagation Time Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang Sudarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly performing athletes are susceptible to cardiac damage of several kinds which may be irreversible. The monitoring of heart rate and ECG waveforms from such subjects by wireless sensor networks has been reported in health and sports care documents. However, a more decisive parameter for instant to instant changes would be the time of Cardiac Action Potential Propagation. This time, which can be between 15-20 ms would shoot suddenly in acute stress in highly performing athletes for short durations. Repeated incidents of such rising values will tend to cause irreversible damage to the heart. We developed the technique of measuring this time and reporting it through a wireless sensor network to monitoring station.

  9. Development of absolute radiometric response functions for HyPlant & G-LiHT using SIRCUS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to provide absolute radiometric and cross-calibrated spectral characterizations for G-LiHT and HyPlant.  The objectives are: (i) to...

  10. Progress on ITER remote experimentation centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Takahisa, E-mail: ozeki.takahisa@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuchi Rokkasho, Kitakami-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Clement-Lorenzo, Susana [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral, B3, 13/03, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Nakajima, Noriyoshi [National institute for Fusion Science and Project leader of IFERC, 2-166 Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Construction of ITER remote experimentation centre (REC) based on the broader approach (BA) activity of the joint program of Japan and Europe (EU) is progressing. In order to make the future experiments of ITER and JT-60SA effectively and efficiently implemented, development of a remote experiment system by using the Satellite Tokamak (JT-60SA) facilities was planned and the development of software for the remote experiment is ongoing, including the systems for the remote connection and the communication between the remote site and the on-site facility. The network system from REC in Rokkasho-site of Japan to the network in EU was established in collaboration with the National Institute of Informatics (NII). Effective data transfer method that is capable of fast transfer speeds in the gigabit range is investigated. Data transfer at the rate of several Gbps was successfully obtained between the institutes in Japan. The preliminary versions of the software for data analysis are developed, such as for visualization of time dependent experimental data and transport simulations, visualization of plasma boundary/equilibrium and spatial profiles of diagnostic data. The remote data access program and an integrated platform for Documentation and Experiment Management are also being developed. A remote experiment room in the Rokkasho-site in Japan was designed and the construction started. The function of REC will be tested and the total system will be demonstrated by the middle of 2017.

  11. Determining the Tropospheric Delay of a Radio Signal by the Radiometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, G. N.; Troitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method and algorithm for real-time determination of the tropospheric delay of a radio signal and the radiometric complex developed on their basis. The method is based on the measurement of the atmospheric thermal microwave radiation intensity at the frequencies ν 1 = 20.7 GHz, ν 2 = 32 GHz, and ν 3 = 56.7 GHz and solution of the corresponding inverse problem with respect to the atmospheric parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, and water content) which completely determine the tropospheric delay of a radio signal. The method was experimentally tested by comparing the radio-signal delay series obtained by the radiometric method and the GLONASS/GPS data. The error of determining the wet component of the radio-signal delay was about 3 mm.

  12. An information theory characterization of radar images and a new definition for radiometric resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The noise properties of the radar image formation process are used in the present modeling of a communication channel in which the desired target properties are the information transmitted, and the final image represents the received signal. The average information rate over this communication channel is calculated together with appropriate bounds and approximations, and is found to be small on a per-sample basis. As a result, many samples must be averaged to allow for the discrimination, or classification, of several levels of target reflectivity. These information rate properties are consistent with known results concerning target detection and image quality in speckle, and the rate is applicable to the definition of radar image radiometric resolution. Radiometric resolution is functionally related to the degree of noncoherent averaging performed by the sensor.

  13. Direct antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the radiometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libonati, J.P.; Stager, C.E.; Davis, J.R.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Direct-drug-susceptibility tests were performed on clinical specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by either Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome staining. The results of conventional agar dilution and a modified radiometric (BACTEC) method were compared. A total of 580 smear-positive specimens were tested by the BACTEC method at three separate sites. Three hundred and seventy-seven of these were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 343 (91%) yielded acceptable direct-susceptibility-test results. We used the conventional method to determine that 343 of 519 smear-positive specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 212 (62%) produced acceptable results within 3 wks. Conventional results were reported in 3-4 wks, while the time required to obtain results with the BACTEC method ranged from 5 to 21 days (average 11.5 days). Results indicate that the radiometric method provides reportable results more frequently with time savings as compared to the conventional method.

  14. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  15. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  16. Data fusion in data scarce areas using a back-propagation artificial neural network model: a case study of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Mao, Zhihua; Xia, Junshi; Du, Peijun; Shi, Liangliang; Huang, Haiqing; Wang, Tianyu; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun

    2017-06-01

    The cloud cover for the South China Sea and its coastal area is relatively large throughout the year, which limits the potential application of optical remote sensing. A HJ-charge-coupled device (HJ-CCD) has the advantages of wide field, high temporal resolution, and short repeat cycle. However, this instrument suffers from its use of only four relatively low-quality bands which can't adequately resolve the features of long wavelengths. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper-plus (ETM+) provides high-quality data, however, the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) stopped working and caused striping of remote sensed images, which dramatically reduced the coverage of the ETM+ data. In order to combine the advantages of the HJ-CCD and Landsat ETM+ data, we adopted a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) to fuse these two data types for this study. The results showed that the fused output data not only have the advantage of data intactness for the HJ-CCD, but also have the advantages of the multi-spectral and high radiometric resolution of the ETM+ data. Moreover, the fused data were analyzed qualitatively, quantitatively and from a practical application point of view. Experimental studies indicated that the fused data have a full spatial distribution, multi-spectral bands, high radiometric resolution, a small difference between the observed and fused output data, and a high correlation between the observed and fused data. The excellent performance in its practical application is a further demonstration that the fused data are of high quality.

  17. A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Andujar Marquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  18. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  19. REDUCTION OF STRIPING NOISE IN OVERLAPPING LIDAR INTENSITY DATA BY RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To serve seamless mapping, airborne LiDAR data are usually collected with multiple parallel strips with one or two cross strip(s. Nevertheless, the overlapping regions of LiDAR data strips are usually found with unbalanced intensity values, resulting in the appearance of stripping noise. Despite that physical intensity correction methods are recently proposed, some of the system and environmental parameters are assumed as constant or not disclosed, leading to such an intensity discrepancy. This paper presents a new normalization technique to adjust the radiometric misalignment found in the overlapping LiDAR data strips. The normalization technique is built upon a second-order polynomial function fitted on the joint histogram plot, which is generated with a set of pairwise closest data points identified within the overlapping region. The method was tested on Teledyne Optech’s Gemini dataset (at 1064 nm wavelength, where the LiDAR intensity data were first radiometrically corrected based on the radar (range equation. Five land cover features were selected to evaluate the coefficient of variation (cv of the intensity values before and after implementing the proposed method. Reduction of cv was found by 19% to 59% in the Gemini dataset, where the striping noise was significantly reduced in the radiometrically corrected and normalized intensity data. The Gemini dataset was also used to conduct land cover classification, and the overall accuracy yielded a notable improvement of 9% to 18%. As a result, LiDAR intensity data should be pre-processed with radiometric correction and normalization prior to any data manipulation.

  20. ROV, Remote Operated Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Patiris, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show the basic principles of a Remote Operated Vehicle. The aim is also to document in detail how a small scale remote operated vehicle is constructed from the start. This thesis provides theoretical information about remote operated vehicles, as well as ex-plains the construction of hobbyist Remote Operated Vehicle as I carried it out. In the theoretical part information about the history, classification and the cables used in modern Re-mote Operated Vehi...

  1. Prototyping Radiometrically Terrain Corrected Sentinel-1A Large-Scale Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, K.; Nicoll, J. B.; Logan, T. A.; Gens, R.; Garron, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Data Center (ASF DAAC) is undertaking prototyping and analysis of radiometrically terrain corrected (RTC) data products derived from Sentinel-1A SAR data, processed using different software packages. RTC products from both the GAMMA software and the Sentinel 1 toolbox were created for a variety of terrain types. Images were analyzed for residual terrain effects, number of looks, and noise floor. Radiometric terrain correction addresses two aspects of the effects of side-looking geometry of SAR imagery. First, the geometric distortions are corrected using the best digital elevation model available for a given region. Second, the radiometry is adjusted in the affected foreshortening and layover regions using the pixel-area integration approach for radiometric normalization. The RTC process provides improved backscatter estimates that can be used as input for applications such as the monitoring of deforestation, land-cover classification, and delineation of wet snow covered areas. The result of this prototyping effort, if approved, will be used to create an extensive archive of RTC products that can be easily combined with other geographically-projected datasets.

  2. Radiometric Correction of Multitemporal Hyperspectral Uas Image Mosaics of Seedling Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelin, L.; Honkavaara, E.; Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Rosnell, T.; Hakala, T.; Vastaranta, M.; Koivisto, T.; Holopainen, M.

    2017-10-01

    Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  3. RADIOMETRIC CORRECTION OF MULTITEMPORAL HYPERSPECTRAL UAS IMAGE MOSAICS OF SEEDLING STANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Markelin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  4. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J.; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  5. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL, a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp, a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  6. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility.

  7. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium complex with the Bactec radiometric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffner, S.E.

    1988-05-01

    A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex.

  8. Inflight Radiometric Calibration of New Horizons' Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C. J. A.; Parker, A. H.; Olkin, C. B.; Reuter, D. C.; Ennico, K.; Grundy, W. M.; Graps, A. L.; Harrison, K. P.; Throop, H. B.; Buie, M. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two semi-independent calibration techniques used to determine the inflight radiometric calibration for the New Horizons Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The first calibration technique compares the measured number of counts (DN) observed from a number of well calibrated stars to those predicted using the component-level calibration. The ratio of these values provides a multiplicative factor that allows a conversation between the preflight calibration to the more accurate inflight one, for each detector. The second calibration technique is a channel-wise relative radiometric calibration for MVIC's blue, near-infrared and methane color channels using Hubble and New Horizons observations of Charon and scaling from the red channel stellar calibration. Both calibration techniques produce very similar results (better than 7% agreement), providing strong validation for the techniques used. Since the stellar calibration described here can be performed without a color target in the field of view and covers all of MVIC's detectors, this calibration was used to provide the radiometric keyword values delivered by the New Horizons project to the Planetary Data System (PDS). These keyword values allow each observation to be converted from counts to physical units; a description of how these keyword values were generated is included. Finally, mitigation techniques adopted for the gain drift observed in the near-infrared detector and one of the panchromatic framing cameras are also discussed.

  9. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Buizert, Christo; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination, and 2) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (MIS 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samp...

  10. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Rumeau

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r² exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r² = 0.959. Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

  11. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  12. Construction of hazard maps of Hantavirus contagion using Remote Sensing, logistic regression and Artificial Neural Networks: case Araucan\\'ia Region, Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, G; Salinas, R

    2016-01-01

    In this research, methods and computational results based on statistical analysis and mathematical modelling, data collection in situ in order to make a hazard map of Hanta Virus infection in the region of Araucania, Chile are presented. The development of this work involves several elements such as Landsat satellite images, biological information regarding seropositivity of Hanta Virus and information concerning positive cases of infection detected in the region. All this information has been processed to find a function that models the danger of contagion in the region, through logistic regression analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

  13. Remote Sensing Techniques Applying Neural Networks for Effective Retrieval of Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf from VIIRS Satellite Observations, without the need for a Fluorescence Channel, and their comparisons with other Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-habashi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Lovko, V. J.

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing approaches using neural networks (NN), are described that make use of the Ocean Color Remote Sensing Reflectances (OC Rrs) available from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite bands at 486, 551 and 671nm to detect and retrieve Karenia brevis (KB) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) that plague West Florida Shelf (WFS) coasts impacting the environment and tourism. This approach is necessitated because VIIRS, unfortunately, unlike the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), does not have a 678 nm chlorophyll-a fluorescence channel that is normally effectively used with the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm for detecting KB HABs in the WFS. We describe here the application of neural networks (NNs) previously reported by us for Chesapeake Bay chlorophyll retrievals, for the retrieval of phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm (aph443) in VIIRS images of the WFS using the existing VIIRS 486, 551 and 671nm bands. These NN retrieved aph443 values, are then converted to equivalent [Chla] values using known empirical relationships between them for the WFS. Now waters compatible with KB HABS in the WFS are known to be characterized by a minimum permissible [Chla] and a maximum permissible particulate backscatter bbp at 551nm (and therefore a maximum permissible VIIRS Rrs 551 nm). These two limiting criteria are then used to create exclusion masks which are then consecutively applied as filters to retrieved VIIRS Rrs551nm images and then to VIIRS [Chla] images (obtained from equivalent NN retrieved aph443 images). The residual [Chla] image after application of the filters then shows values compatible with KB HABS in the WFS having satisfied both maximum Rrs551nm and minimum [Chla] criteria. The residual images of KB compatible [Chla] values are then used to identify, delineate and quantify the existing KB HABS. Comparisons with in-situ measurements and other techniques, including nFLH with MODIS, are presented, and confirm

  14. Application of historical, topographic maps and remote sensing data for reconstruction of gully network development as source of information for gully erosion modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Central parts of European Russia are characterized by relatively shorter history of intensive agriculture in comparison to the Western Europe. As a result of that, significant part of the time period of large-scale cultivation is covered by different types of historical documents. For the last about 150 years reasonably good-quality maps are available. Gully erosion history for the European Russia is more or less well-established, with known peaks of activity associated with initial cultivation (400-200 years ago for the territory of Central Russian Upland) and change of land ownership in 1861 that caused splitting large landlords-owned fields into numerous small parcels owned by individual peasant families. The latter was the most important trigger for dramatic growth of gully erosion intensity as most of such parcels were oriented downslope. It is believed that by detailed reconstructions of gully network development using all the available information sources it can be possible to obtain information suitable for gully erosion models testing. Such models can later be applied for predicting further development of the existing gully networks for several different land use and climate change scenarios. Reconstructions for the two case study areas located in different geographic and historical settings will be presented.

  15. Designing Climate-Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks by Combining Remotely Sensed Coral Reef Habitat with Coastal Multi-Use Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Maina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making for the conservation and management of coral reef biodiversity requires an understanding of spatial variability and distribution of reef habitat types. Despite the existence of very high-resolution remote sensing technology for nearly two decades, comprehensive assessment of coral reef habitats at national to regional spatial scales and at very high spatial resolution is still scarce. Here, we develop benthic habitat maps at a sub-national scale by analyzing large multispectral QuickBird imagery dataset covering ~686 km2 of the main shallow coral fringing reef along the southern border with Tanzania (4.68°S, 39.18°E to the reef end at Malindi, Kenya (3.2°S, 40.1°E. Mapping was conducted with a user approach constrained by ground-truth data, with detailed transect lines from the shore to the fore reef. First, maps were used to evaluate the present management system’s effectiveness at representing habitat diversity. Then, we developed three spatial prioritization scenarios based on differing objectives: (i minimize lost fishing opportunity; (ii redistribute fisheries away from currently overfished reefs; and (iii minimize resource use conflicts. We further constrained the priority area in each prioritization selection scenario based on optionally protecting the least or the most climate exposed locations using a model of exposure to climate stress. We discovered that spatial priorities were very different based on the different objectives and on whether the aim was to protect the least or most climate-exposed habitats. Our analyses provide a spatially explicit foundation for large-scale conservation and management strategies that can account for ecosystem service benefits.

  16. Elettronika Virtual Network Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Fiore; Giuseppe Modugnio; Doru Ursutiu; Alexandra Teodor; Atilla Valadi

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a simple and efficient implementation of a remote control system for the telecommunication networks. The paper deals with the automatization of transmission sites, the unattended monitoring and the ease of management of those. For the hardware’s remote control we introduce a user friendly software interface between the user and the stations.

  17. Landsat 8 Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) Products: Evaluations, Intercomparisons, and Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Franz, Bryan A.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Markham, Brian; Bailey, Sean; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Greb, Steven; Strait, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat-8 is generating high-quality aquatic science products, the most critical of which is the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance to the total downwelling irradiance just above water. The quality of the Rrs products has not, however, been extensively assessed. This manuscript provides a comprehensive evaluation of Level-1B, i.e., top of atmosphere reflectance, and Rrs products available from OLI imagery under near-ideal atmospheric conditions in moderately turbid waters. The procedure includes a) evaluations of the Rrs products at sites included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC), b) intercomparisons and cross-calibrations against other ocean color products, and c) optimizations of vicarious calibration gains across the entire OLI observing swath. Results indicate that the near-infrared and shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR) band combinations yield the most robust and stable Rrs retrievals in moderately turbid waters. Intercomparisons against products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODISA) indicate slight across-track non-uniformities (<1%) associated with OLI scenes in the blue bands. In both product domains (TOA and Rrs), on average, the OLI products were found larger in radiometric responses in the blue channels. Following the implementation of updated vicarious calibration gains and accounting for across-track non-uniformities, matchup analyses using independent in-situ validation data confirmed improvements in Rrs products. These findings further support high-fidelity OLI-derived aquatic science products in terms of both demonstrating a robust atmospheric correction method and providing consistent products across OLI's imaging swath.

  18. Landsat 8 Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) Products: Evaluations, Intercomparisons, and Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Franz, Bryan A.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Markham, Brian; Bailey, Sean; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Greb, Steven; Strait, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat-8 is generating high-quality aquatic science products, the most critical of which is the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance to the total downwelling irradiance just above water. The quality of the Rrs products has not, however, been extensively assessed. This manuscript provides a comprehensive evaluation of Level-1B, i.e., top of atmosphere reflectance, and Rrs products available from OLI imagery under near-ideal atmospheric conditions in moderately turbid waters. The procedure includes a) evaluations of the Rrs products at sites included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC), b) intercomparisons and cross-calibrations against other ocean color products, and c) optimizations of vicarious calibration gains across the entire OLI observing swath. Results indicate that the near-infrared and shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR) band combinations yield the most robust and stable Rrs retrievals in moderately turbid waters. Intercomparisons against products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODISA) indicate slight across-track non-uniformities (TOA and Rrs), on average, the OLI products were found larger in radiometric responses in the blue channels. Following the implementation of updated vicarious calibration gains and accounting for across-track non-uniformities, matchup analyses using independent in-situ validation data confirmed improvements in Rrs products. These findings further support high-fidelity OLI-derived aquatic science products in terms of both demonstrating a robust atmospheric correction method and providing consistent products across OLI's imaging swath.

  19. Advances in remote sensing of vegetation function and traits

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-07-09

    Remote sensing of vegetation function and traits has advanced significantly over the past half-century in the capacity to retrieve useful plant biochemical, physiological and structural quantities across a range of spatial and temporal scales. However, the translation of remote sensing signals into meaningful descriptors of vegetation function and traits is still associated with large uncertainties due to complex interactions between leaf, canopy, and atmospheric mediums, and significant challenges in the treatment of confounding factors in spectrum-trait relations. This editorial provides (1) a background on major advances in the remote sensing of vegetation, (2) a detailed timeline and description of relevant historical and planned satellite missions, and (3) an outline of remaining challenges, upcoming opportunities and key research objectives to be tackled. The introduction sets the stage for thirteen Special Issue papers here that focus on novel approaches for exploiting current and future advancements in remote sensor technologies. The described enhancements in spectral, spatial and temporal resolution and radiometric performance provide exciting opportunities to significantly advance the ability to accurately monitor and model the state and function of vegetation canopies at multiple scales on a timely basis.

  20. Aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Huizheng; Qi, Bing; Zhao, Hujia; Xia, Xiangao; Eck, Thomas F.; Goloub, Philippe; Dubovik, Oleg; Estelles, Victor; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Blarel, Luc; Wu, Yunfei; Zhu, Jun; Du, Rongguang; Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Hong; Gui, Ke; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Yu; Sun, Tianze; Chen, Quanliang; Shi, Guangyu; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    composed a major contribution of the absorbing particles in the classification scheme based on SSA, fine-mode fraction and extinction Angström exponent. This study contributes to our understanding of aerosols and regional climate/air quality, and the results will be useful for validating satellite retrievals and for improving climate models and remote sensing algorithms.

  1. Concurrent remote management of CPE by multiple service providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, H.; Smedt, A. de; Hartog, F.T.H. de; Önnegren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Configuration and management of devices in the home is becoming ever more complex for the user. The trend is, therefore, that it will be performed remotely by network and service providers using dedicated configuration servers. The current remote management architectures do not support an

  2. Design and Implementation Issues for Modern Remote Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, E. G.; Cardozo, E.; Moraes, D. H.; Coelho, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of remote laboratories present different levels of complexity according to the nature of the equipments operated by the remote laboratory, the requirements imposed on the accessing computers, the network linking the user to the laboratory, and the type of experiments the laboratory supports. This paper addresses the…

  3. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  4. Aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Che

    2018-01-01

    the solar zenith angle range of 50 to 80° under cloud-free conditions. The fine mode composed a major contribution of the absorbing particles in the classification scheme based on SSA, fine-mode fraction and extinction Angström exponent. This study contributes to our understanding of aerosols and regional climate/air quality, and the results will be useful for validating satellite retrievals and for improving climate models and remote sensing algorithms.

  5. Real-time remote monitoring system for aquaculture water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo Hongpin; Li Guanglin; Peng Weifeng; Song Jie; Bai Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

      A multi-parameters monitoring system based on wireless network was set up to achieve remote real-time monitoring of aquaculture water quality, in order to improve the quality of aquaculture products...

  6. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  7. Detection of anti-tuberculosis activity in some folklore plants by radiometric BACTEC assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Shukla, C; Bisht, G R S; Saikia, D; Kumar, S; Thakur, R L

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tubercular drugs are less effective because of the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis, so plants being an alternative source of anti-microbial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-tuberculosis potential of the plants using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a rapid screening model for detection of anti-mycobacterial activity and further to evaluate the active plants for anti-tuberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis using radiometric BACTEC assay. The 15 plants were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis by the disk diffusion assay. The ethanolic extracts of Mallotus philippensis, Vitex negundo, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Rumex hastatus, Mimosa pudica, Kalanchoe integra and Flacourtia ramontchii were active against M. smegmatis in primary screening. The anti-tuberculosis potential was identified in the leaves extracts of Mallotus philippensis by radiometric BACTEC assay. The ethanolic extract of M. philippensis showed anti-tuberculosis activity against virulent and avirulent strains of M. tuberculosis H(37) Rv and M. tuberculosis H(37) Ra with minimum inhibitory concentration 0·25 and 0·125 mg ml(-1), respectively. The inhibition in growth index values of M. tuberculosis was observed in the presence of ethyl acetate fraction at a minimum concentration of 0·05 mg ml(-1). We found that BACTEC radiometric assay is a valuable method for detection of anti-tuberculosis activity of the plant extracts. The results indicate that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of M. philippensis exhibited significant anti-mycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis. These findings provide scientific evidence to support the traditional medicinal uses of M. philippensis and indicate a promising potential of this plant for the development of anti-tuberculosis agent. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied

  8. Segmentation of Heritage Building by Means of Geometric and Radiometric Components from Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitelkadi, K.; Tahiri, D.; Simonetto, E.; Sebari, I.; Polidori, L.

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, the terrestrial laser scanning represents an integral source of data for cultural heritage 3D storage and access through digital communication tools. The achievement of 3D models requires the implementation of several tasks such as segmentation. Segmentation is the key step during the point cloud processing where all homogeneous areas are identified, which describe a building facade. Usually, a large part of the segmentation approach focuses on the geometric information contained in the point cloud data by exploiting mathematical representation of a parametric surface. However, due to the complexity of the architecture, such segmentation does not suffice. Henceforth, other approaches turn to the use of color and laser intensity components. Although a variety of algorithms have been developed in this sense, problems of over-segmentation or under-segmentation are observed. In this context, we propose a new approach for point cloud segmentation aiming at a more accurate result. This approach relies on all the components of a colored point - both geometric and radiometric - combining the RGB values, laser intensity and geometric data. Our process begins with the extraction of homogeneous planar segments using the RANSAC algorithm. Next, the result is subjected to a radiometric-based segmentation, first through color similarity as one of the homogeneity criteria of a region growing algorithm, then through the use of intensity similarity for segment fusion. Experiments are performed on a facade presenting an example of Moroccan classical architecture located in Casablanca's Medina. Results show the importance of integrating all point cloud components, both geometric and radiometric.

  9. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  10. Analysis of Sentinel-1 Radiometric Stability and Quality for Land Surface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad El Hajj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land monitoring using temporal series of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images requires radiometrically well calibrated sensors. In this paper, the radiometric stability of the new SAR Sentinel-1A “S-1A” sensor was first assessed by analyzing temporal variations of the backscattering coefficient (σ° returned from invariant targets. Second, the radiometric level of invariant targets was compared from S-1A and Radarsat-2 “RS-2” data. The results show three stable sub-time series of S-1A data. The first (between 1 October 2014 and 19 March 2015 and third (between 25 November 2015 and 1 February 2016 sub-time series have almost the same mean σ°-values (a difference lower than 0.3 dB. The mean σ°-value of the second sub-time series (between 19 March 2015 and 25 November 2015 is higher than that of the first and the third sub-time series by roughly 0.9 dB. Moreover, our results show that the stability of each sub-time series is better than 0.48 dB. In addition, the results show that S-1A images of the first and third sub-time series appear to be well calibrated in comparison to RS-2 data, with a difference between S-1A and RS-2 lower than 0.3 dB. However, the S-1A images of the second sub-time series have σ°-values that are higher than those from RS-2 by roughly 1 dB.

  11. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

  12. On-Orbit Radiometric Performance of the Landsat 8 ThermalInfrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Montanaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS requirements for noise, stability, and uniformity were designed to ensure the radiometric integrity of the data products. Since the launch of Landsat 8 in February 2013, many of these evaluations have been based on routine measurements of the onboard calibration sources, which include a variable-temperature blackbody and a deep space view port. The noise equivalent change in temperature (NEdT of TIRS data is approximately 0.05 K @ 300 K in both bands, exceeding requirements by about a factor of 8 and Landsat 7 ETM+ performance by a factor of 3. Coherent noise is not readily apparent in TIRS data. No apparent change in the detector linearization has been observed. The radiometric stability of the TIRS instrument over the period between radiometric calibrations (about 40 min is less than one count of dark current and the variation in terms of radiance is less than 0.015 \\(W/m^2/sr/\\mu m\\ (or 0.13 K at 300 K, easily meeting the short term stability requirements. Long term stability analysis has indicated a degradation of about 0.2% or less per year. The operational calibration is only updated using the biases taken every orbit, due to the fundamental stability of the instrument. By combining the data from two active detector rows per band, 100% detector operability is maintained for the instrument. No trends in the noise, operability, or short term radiometric stability are apparent over the mission life. The uniformity performance is more difficult to evaluate as scene-varying banding artifacts have been observed in Earth imagery. Analyses have shown that stray light is affecting the recorded signal from the Earth and inducing the banding depending on the content of the surrounding Earth surface. As the stray light effects are stronger in the longer wavelength TIRS band11 (12.0 \\(\\mu m\\, the uniformity is better in the shorter wavelength band10 (10.9 \\(\\mu m\\. Both bands have exceptional noise and

  13. A Kalman Approach to Lunar Surface Navigation using Radiometric and Inertial Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Sands, O. Scott; Nguyen, Binh V.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on a surface navigation system to determine astronaut position, guide exploration, and return safely to the lunar habitat. In this report, we investigate one potential architecture for surface navigation, using an extended Kalman filter to integrate radiometric and inertial measurements. We present a possible infrastructure to support this technique, and we examine an approach to simulating navigational accuracy based on several different system configurations. The results show that position error can be reduced to 1 m after 5 min of processing, given two satellites, one surface communication terminal, and knowledge of the starting position to within 100 m.

  14. China radiometric calibration sites ground-based automatic observing systems for CAL/VAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xin; Rong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Xiuqing; Ba, Xiutian

    2015-10-01

    A brand-new field observing station has been built up in the China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) of Dunhuang Gobi for CAL/VAL, include house, observing field, power supply, tower crane, et al. Many automatic observation instruments designed and manufactured by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanical Chinese Academy of Sciences were deployed in CRCS Dunhuang Site and introduced deeply in this paper. Followed with the finishing of the basic constructions of the field observing station, it will be an open field test and exchange platform for sharing of test data, research and infrastructure, promote exchanges and cooperation between the relevant disciplines and units.

  15. Titan Density Reconstruction Using Radiometric and Cassini Attitude Control Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis G., Jr.; Burk, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares three different methods of Titan atmospheric density reconstruction for the Titan 87 Cassini flyby. T87 was a unique flyby that provided independent Doppler radiometric measurements on the ground throughout the flyby including at Titan closest approach. At the same time, the onboard accelerometer provided an independent estimate of atmospheric drag force and density during the flyby. These results are compared with the normal method of reconstructing atmospheric density using thruster on-time and angular momentum accumulation. Differences between the estimates are analyzed and a possible explanation for the differences is evaluated.

  16. Underlying Surface Remote Sensing by the Microwave Radiometer with High Measurement Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaichin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to microwave radiometer design. The approach implies simultaneous using both modified zero measurement method and multi-receiver technique. Simultaneous using increases the operating characteristics of airborne microwave radiometers for aircrafts with self-contained power supply. The block diagram of the onboard Earth remote sensing microwave radiometric system is presented. The block diagram and operating timing diagrams of the designed radiometer are shown. An original technique to design a fiducial noise source for transfer characteristics is discussed. The advantages of the designed radiometer in comparison with the state of the art zero-type microwave radiometer are described.

  17. Analysis of Properties of Reflectance Reference Targets for Permanent Radiometric Test Sites of High Resolution Airborne Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahokas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for high resolution airborne imaging systems is an unresolved issue. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available gravels and painted and unpainted concrete targets for permanent, open-air radiometric test sites under sub-optimal climate conditions in Southern Finland. The reflectance spectrum and reflectance anisotropy and their stability were characterized during the summer of 2009. The management of reflectance anisotropy and stability were shown to be the key issues for better than 5% reflectance accuracy.

  18. TOGA - A GNSS Reflections Instrument for Remote Sensing Using Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, S.; Meehan, T. K.; Robison, D.

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensing the Earth's surface using GNSS signals as bi-static radar sources is one of the most challenging applications for radiometric instrument design. As part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, our group at JPL has built a prototype instrument, TOGA (Time-shifted, Orthometric, GNSS Array), to address a variety of GNSS science needs. Observing GNSS reflections is major focus of the design/development effort. The TOGA design features a steerable beam antenna array which can form a high-gain antenna pattern in multiple directions simultaneously. Multiple FPGAs provide flexible digital signal processing logic to process both GPS and Galileo reflections. A Linux OS based science processor serves as experiment scheduler and data post-processor. This paper outlines the TOGA design approach as well as preliminary results of reflection data collected from test flights over the Pacific ocean. This reflections data demonstrates observation of the GPS L1/L2C/L5 signals.

  19. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  20. Remote identification of a shipwreck site from MBES backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Giuseppe; Calder, Brian

    2012-11-30

    The method described attempts to remotely identify the shape of an anthropogenic object, such as a wreck of a modern vessel, using reflectivity data from Multi-Beam Echosounder (MBES) systems. In the beam domain, the backscatter strength values - geometrically and radiometrically corrected - are used to extract a large number of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features with different input parameters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied in order to achieve dimensionality reduction whilst a K-means algorithm clusters as "shipwreck site" a large number of beams for each line. After the geo-referencing process, a K-nearest-neighbors (K-NN) technique is applied as a filter for possible misclassifications. Finally, the shape of the shipwreck site is defined from the georeferenced beams using the α-shape method, constructing an output compatible with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RSComPro: An Open Communication Protocol for Remote Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Trujillo, Juan-José

    The remote sensing protocol (RSComPro) is a communication protocol, which has been developed for controlling multiple remote sensing systems simultaneously through a UDP/IP and TPC/IP network. This protocol is meant to be open to the remote sensing community. The scope is the implementation of so...

  2. RSComPro: An Open Communication Protocol for Remote Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Trujillo, Juan-José

    The remote sensing protocol (RSComPro) is a communication protocol which has been developed for controlling multiple remote sensing systems simultaneously through a UDP/IP and TPC/IP network. This protocol is meant to be open to the remote sensing community. The scope is the implementation of so-...

  3. Assessment of Watershed Drought Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataut, S.; Piechota, T.

    2005-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought assessment of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) using remote sensing. Lee's Ferry discharge data for Colorado river in the UCRB and the various Palmer Drought Indices (PDI) such as Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (PHDI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Palmer Z Index (ZINDX) for the five climatic divisions of the UCRB for last 100 years will be analyzed to find out the best climatic division in the UCRB for carrying out the further analysis between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from 5 km resolution Advanced Very High Radiometric Radar (AVHRR) data and the various PDI. The multivariate statistical technique called rotated principal component analysis will be carried out in the time series of the NDVI data in order to avoid multicollinearity and to extract the component that significantly explains the variance in the dataset. The corresponding significant principal scores will be correlated with the PDI to derive relationship between the NDVI and PDI. Preliminary analysis has shown that there is significant correlation between the NDVI and the various PDI, which implies that NDVI could be used as an important data source to detect and monitor the drought condition in the UCRB.

  4. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O., E-mail: rodriguesrs19@gmail.com, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-11-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  5. The importance of geoprocessing tools in radiometric monitoring of large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Throughout history, the natural tendency of men to physically characterize their different surroundings has played an important role on the evolution of societies. Today, that tendency combined to the development of computer technologies, has allowed the accelerated growth of the Geographical Information Systems, which permits the analysis and manipulation of spatial data from diverse sources, producing geo referenced databases. The gamma radiation, one of the main contributors of human exposure to natural radiation, is known for its high penetration energy. Today, the environmental gamma radiation is measured through radiometric tracking mobile units, allowing large scale samplings and precise assessments. As a geo processing case study, a radiometric monitoring work was conducted in the town of Aguas da Prata-SP using a tracking mobile system, composed by a scintillator detector, a GPS and a computer, all installed in a vehicle. The data made of collected points and their respective doses and geographical references were captured and stored in a computer software and then inserted and treated in a GIS environment. After a cartographic base was created using a digitalized map of Aguas da Prata, the sampled points were plotted and interpolated with the cartographic base, producing two maps that demonstrate the tracking route and the gamma radiation dose range throughout the monitored area. Geo processing tools have shown great efficiency in this study, allowing agile manipulation and management of a large quantity of data, thus promoting a spatial analysis of natural radiation levels in the studied region. (author)

  6. Comparison of digital radiometric features between radicular cysts and periapical granulomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Keon Il [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wankwang University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a radiometric analysis of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas is useful in the differential diagnosis. In this experiment, twenty-nine periapical radiographs of the radicular cyst and those periapical granuloma were used. The periapical radiography was taken by intraoral paralleling device. The X-ray film was digitized and digitally filtered to reduce film-grain noise. We estimated density difference of the inner/outer area, roundness or circularity, bone profile or scan line of the margin and cumulative percentage frequency curve of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The differences in density between ROIs of inner and outer area of radicular cysts were smaller than those of periapical granulomas.2. The equivalent circular diameter was over 6.3 mm, there was significant difference between periapical cyst and periapical granuloma.3. In differential diagnosis of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma using bone profile, sensitivity, spicificity and accuracy were considerably high (0.83, 0.86, 0.86) respectively.4. Cumulative percentage frequency curve of the radicular cyst was closer to the pseudo-pixel value of 50 than average curve, whereas periapical granuloma was closer to that of 0. Hence we conclude that digital radiometric features might be useful in the differential diagnosis between radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.

  7. Analysing the suitability of radiometrically calibrated full-waveform lidar data for delineating Alpine rock glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roncat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With full-waveform (FWF lidar systems becoming increasingly available from different commercial manufacturers, the possibility for extracting physical parameters of the scanned surfaces in an area-wide sense, as addendum to their geometric representation, has risen as well. The mentioned FWF systems digitize the temporal profiles of the transmitted laser pulse and of its backscattered echoes, allowing for a reliable determination of the target distance to the instrument and of physical target quantities by means of radiometric calibration, one of such quantities being the diffuse Lambertian reflectance. The delineation of glaciers is a time-consuming task, commonly performed manually by experts and involving field trips as well as image interpretation of orthophotos, digital terrain models and shaded reliefs. In this study, the diffuse Lambertian reflectance was compared to the glacier outlines mapped by experts. We start the presentation with the workflow for analysis of FWF data, their direct georeferencing and the calculation of the diffuse Lambertian reflectance by radiometric calibration; this workflow is illustrated for a large FWF lidar campaign in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria, operated with an Optech ALTM 3100 system. The geometric performance of the presented procedure was evaluated by means of a relative and an absolute accuracy assessment using strip differences and orthophotos, resp. The diffuse Lambertian reflectance was evaluated at two rock glaciers within the mentioned lidar campaign. This feature showed good performance for the delineation of the rock glacier boundaries, especially at their lower parts.

  8. Analysing the suitability of radiometrically calibrated full-waveform lidar data for delineating Alpine rock glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncat, A.; Wieser, M.; Briese, C.; Bollmann, E.; Sailer, R.; Klug, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2013-10-01

    With full-waveform (FWF) lidar systems becoming increasingly available from different commercial manufacturers, the possibility for extracting physical parameters of the scanned surfaces in an area-wide sense, as addendum to their geometric representation, has risen as well. The mentioned FWF systems digitize the temporal profiles of the transmitted laser pulse and of its backscattered echoes, allowing for a reliable determination of the target distance to the instrument and of physical target quantities by means of radiometric calibration, one of such quantities being the diffuse Lambertian reflectance. The delineation of glaciers is a time-consuming task, commonly performed manually by experts and involving field trips as well as image interpretation of orthophotos, digital terrain models and shaded reliefs. In this study, the diffuse Lambertian reflectance was compared to the glacier outlines mapped by experts. We start the presentation with the workflow for analysis of FWF data, their direct georeferencing and the calculation of the diffuse Lambertian reflectance by radiometric calibration; this workflow is illustrated for a large FWF lidar campaign in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria), operated with an Optech ALTM 3100 system. The geometric performance of the presented procedure was evaluated by means of a relative and an absolute accuracy assessment using strip differences and orthophotos, resp. The diffuse Lambertian reflectance was evaluated at two rock glaciers within the mentioned lidar campaign. This feature showed good performance for the delineation of the rock glacier boundaries, especially at their lower parts.

  9. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  10. Validation of Ocean Color Remote Sensing Reflectance Using Autonomous Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gregory P.; Boss, Emanuel; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Proctor, Christopher W.; Haentjens, Nils; Lewis, Marlon R.; Brown, Keith; Sorrentino, Diego; Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Barnard, Andrew H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The use of autonomous proling oats for observational estimates of radiometric quantities in the ocean is explored, and the use of this platform for validation of satellite-based estimates of remote sensing reectance in the ocean is examined. This effort includes comparing quantities estimated from oat and satellite data at nominal wavelengths of 412, 443, 488, and 555 nm, and examining sources and magnitudes of uncertainty in the oat estimates. This study had 65 occurrences of coincident high-quality observations from oats and MODIS Aqua and 15 occurrences of coincident high-quality observations oats and Visible Infrared Imaging Radi-ometer Suite (VIIRS). The oat estimates of remote sensing reectance are similar to the satellite estimates, with disagreement of a few percent in most wavelengths. The variability of the oatsatellite comparisons is similar to the variability of in situsatellite comparisons using a validation dataset from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY). This, combined with the agreement of oat-based and satellite-based quantities, suggests that oats are likely a good platform for validation of satellite-based estimates of remote sensing reectance.

  11. Multi-model radiometric slope correction of SAR images of complex terrain using a two-stage semi-empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.; Reiche, J.

    2015-01-01

    Practical approaches for the implementation of terrain type dependent radiometric slope correction for SAR data are introduced. Radiometric slope effects are modelled as the products of two models. The first is a simple physical model based on the assumption of a uniform opaque layer of isotropic

  12. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  13. Research of the Remote Experiment System Based on Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Liangyu; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiufang

    The remote education based on Virtual Reality technology is one of the leading developmental ways in modern education. The present researching status of VR technology's application in the remote experiment is analyzed and the characteristics are summarized in this paper. Then the remote experiment system is designed and the learning mode of the 3-D virtual experiment, the virtual experiment model based on Internet, the functional modules of virtual experiment system are studied. The network-based system of remote virtual experiment is built with the programming languages VRML and JavaScript. Furthermore, the remote experiment system on fatigue test of the drive axle is developed and some key problems in the remote virtual experiment are realized.

  14. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  15. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  16. Urban remote sensing investigations.

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul DONNAY; Binard, Marc; Marchal, Denis; Istvan NADASDI

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the research activities achieved by the team TELSAT/06-TELSAT/11/06-TELSAT/T3/D03 of the University of Liege, in the framework of the National research programme on satellite remote sensing (National Scientific Policy Office). The team specialized in urban remote sensing and especially in applications relevant to urban, land and country planning and the monitoring of enevironment. Besides a theoretical approach of the methods of remote sensing, those trends imply a good ...

  17. Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-07-01

    We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

  18. Coastal High-resolution Observations and Remote Sensing of Ecosystems (C-HORSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Coastal benthic marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs, seagrass beds, and kelp forests are highly productive as well as ecologically and commercially important resources. These systems are vulnerable to degraded water quality due to coastal development, terrestrial run-off, and harmful algal blooms. Measurements of these features are important for understanding linkages with land-based sources of pollution and impacts to coastal ecosystems. Challenges for accurate remote sensing of coastal benthic (shallow water) ecosystems and water quality are complicated by atmospheric scattering/absorption (approximately 80+% of the signal), sun glint from the sea surface, and water column scattering (e.g., turbidity). Further, sensor challenges related to signal to noise (SNR) over optically dark targets as well as insufficient radiometric calibration thwart the value of coastal remotely-sensed data. Atmospheric correction of satellite and airborne remotely-sensed radiance data is crucial for deriving accurate water-leaving radiance in coastal waters. C-HORSE seeks to optimize coastal remote sensing measurements by using a novel airborne instrument suite that will bridge calibration, validation, and research capabilities of bio-optical measurements from the sea to the high altitude remote sensing platform. The primary goal of C-HORSE is to facilitate enhanced optical observations of coastal ecosystems using state of the art portable microradiometers with 19 targeted spectral channels and flight planning to optimize measurements further supporting current and future remote sensing missions.

  19. Connecting for Innovation: Four Universities Collaboratively Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach in Rural and Remote Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Sue; Sharplin, Elaine; Ledger, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a group of teacher educators from four universities, experienced in rural and remote education, formed the Tertiary Educators Rural, Regional and Remote Network (TERRR Network). The collaborative goal was to improve the quality of graduates taking appointments beyond the metropolitan areas of Western Australia. The TERRR Network developed…

  20. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  1. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  2. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  3. Status of the remote participation technical co-ordination in the EFDA Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V. [Associatione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); How, J.A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    This series of 26 slides is dedicated to the status of the remote participation in the EFDA (European fusion development agreement). The main aims of remote participation is to enable fusion scientists and engineers to collaborate as if they were in the same place whatever place it might be: an office, a meeting room, a laboratory or an experiment control room. The different issues that are addressed are: -) remote data access, -) remote computer access, -) tele-conference and -) network issues.

  4. AN ENHANCED REMOTE AUTHENTICATION SCHEME USING SECURE KEY EXCHANGE PROTOCOL WITH PLATFORM INTEGRITY ATTESTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fazli Bin Mat Nor; Kamarularifin Abd Jalil; Jamalul-lail Ab Manan

    2011-01-01

    Most remote authentication schemes use key exchange protocol to provide secure communication over an untrusted network. The protocol enables remote client and host to authenticate each other and communicate securely with prearranged shared secret key or server secret key. Many remote services environment such as online banking and electronic commerce are dependent on remote authentication schemes to validate user legitimacy in order to fulfill the authentication process. Unfortunately, these ...

  5. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  6. Remote programming of cochlear implants: a telecommunications model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElveen, John T; Blackburn, Erin L; Green, J Douglas; McLear, Patrick W; Thimsen, Donald J; Wilson, Blake S

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of remote programming for cochlear implants. Retrospective review of the cochlear implant performance for patients who had undergone mapping and programming of their cochlear implant via remote connection through the Internet. Postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for 7 patients who had undergone remote mapping and programming of their cochlear implant were compared with the mean scores of 7 patients who had been programmed by the same audiologist over a 12-month period. Times required for remote and direct programming were also compared. The quality of the Internet connection was assessed using standardized measures. Remote programming was performed via a virtual private network with a separate software program used for video and audio linkage. All 7 patients were programmed successfully via remote connectivity. No untoward patient experiences were encountered. No statistically significant differences could be found in comparing postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for patients who had undergone remote programming versus a similar group of patients who had their cochlear implant programmed directly. Remote programming did not require a significantly longer programming time for the audiologist with these 7 patients. Remote programming of a cochlear implant can be performed safely without any deterioration in the quality of the programming. This ability to remotely program cochlear implant patients gives the potential to extend cochlear implantation to underserved areas in the United States and elsewhere.

  7. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S133-S140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enzyme * metabolism * radiometric assay * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  8. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  9. Medical Remote Sensors in Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    were generally equal to those acquired in fixed environments (Kiokes et al., 2014). In their study, Kiokes et al. (2014) used the Arduino Uno...wirelessly transmit data to the coaches’ terminal using a star topology. The Arduino Uno operated on the ZigBee application framework and communicated

  10. Personal Network (PN) Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, K.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  11. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  12. A comparative study of different radiometric methodologies for the determination of 226Ra in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F. Al-Hamarneh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of various radiometric methods to analyze 226Ra in water has been employed on a set of 10 standard solutions of different concentrations in the range of 1–10 Bq/L−1. The analysis was carried out using well-established procedures by means of gamma-ray, alpha-particle and liquid scintillation spectrometry. The feasibility of the various methods has been quantified in terms of relative standard error and percentage error. Correlations between the various methods have been presented and discussed. In general, good agreement was found in the results of various methodologies, which assures the accuracy of the methods and allows for the validation of instrumentation and procedures. Of the different methods adopted here, a combined procedure for the determination of 226Ra along with 228Ra using Quantulus 1220 ultra-low level background liquid scintillation counting gave the most accurate results.

  13. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  14. High-precision radiometric tracking for planetary approach and encounter in the inner solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C. S.; Thurman, S. W.; Davidson, J. M.; Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The benefits of improved radiometric tracking data have been studied for planetary approach within the inner Solar System using the Mars Rover Sample Return trajectory as a model. It was found that the benefit of improved data to approach and encounter navigation was highly dependent on the a priori uncertainties assumed for several non-estimated parameters, including those for frame-tie, Earth orientation, troposphere delay, and station locations. With these errors at their current levels, navigational performance was found to be insensitive to enhancements in data accuracy. However, when expected improvements in these errors are modeled, performance with current-accuracy data significantly improves, with substantial further improvements possible with enhancements in data accuracy.

  15. Detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood by radiometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the radiometric detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood, using three media preparations, Bactec 6A and 6B isotonic media and 8B hypertonic medium. All enterococci tested were detected by the 6A and 6B media. However, the 6A medium failed to detect 76% of the Streptococcus bovis isolates and 57% of the viridans streptococci, whereas all S. bovis isolates and 95% of the viridans streptococci were detected with the 6B formulation. No improvement in detection was noted in comparing the 6B and the 8B hypertonic media. The importance of adequate detection of this group of organisms, especially in patients with endocarditis, is discussed.

  16. Importance of radiometric survey in radiodiagnosis installationscalculated; Importancia del levantamiento radiometrico en instalaciones de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando; Alarcon, Luis; Zapata, Victor H.; Ortega, Dulia; Ramirez, Alfredo; Aravena, Gonzalo [Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Ubeda, Carlos [Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile); Oyarzun, Carlos [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile); Inzulza, Alonso [Hospital Juan Noe (Chile)

    2005-07-01

    A radiometric survey was conducted in two services of imaging with a total of 7 evaluated radiology rooms. The Quality Control Protocol methodology was used in Radiology ARCAL (Regional Agreement of cooperation for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) XLIX of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The effective dose in different positions of interest rates were calculated, from the point of view of radiation protection. All evaluated rooms have rates of effective doses that meet the values limits set in the Protocol ARCAL XLIX, for 82% of the positions evaluated. However operators located in the position A (controlled area) exceed on average 370% with a range of [1-870] the limit proposed by ARCAL XLIX.

  17. Local-scale flood mapping on vegetated floodplains from radiometrically calibrated airborne LiDAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw; Höfle, Bernhard; König, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    , but the exact strength of the recorded laser pulse depends on the area covered by the targets located within a laser pulse footprint area. To account for this we analysed the physical quantity of radiometrically calibrated ALS data, the backscattering coefficient, in relation to water and vegetation coverage...... of herbaceous vegetation. To address this problem, this study presents the application of full-waveform airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for detection of floodwater extent. In general, water surfaces are characterised by low values of backscattered energy due to water absorption of the infrared laser shots...... within a single laser footprint. The results showed that the backscatter was negatively correlated to water coverage, and that of the three distinguished classes of water coverage (low, medium, and high) only the class with the largest extent of water cover (>70%) had relatively distinct characteristics...

  18. Evaluation of susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis to antituberculous drugs by radiometric BACTEC 460TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavirani, S; Fanti, F; Benecchi, M; Calderaro, A; Taddei, S; Arcangeletti, C; Medici, M C; Dettori, G; Chezzi, C

    2003-04-01

    Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis strains to antituberculous drugs (isoniazid and rifampin) was detected by radiometric BACTEC 460TB system. M.bovis strains were isolated from tissue samples showing tuberculous lesions collected at an abbattoir from cattle belonging to 47 tuberculosis outbreaks occurring in Northern Italy in 1995-1999. Forty-six out of 61 strains (75.4%) resulted susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampin. Thirteen strains (21.3%) were resistant to isoniazid only. No strains showed resistance to rifampin only. Two strains (3.3%) resulted resistant to both drugs, showing antituberculous multidrug-resistance. Given the compulsory eradication program of bovine tuberculosis by elimination of infected animals and the ban on antituberculous drug treatments in animals, detection of resistant M. bovis strains appears of great interest.

  19. Remote actuated valve implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  20. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  1. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  2. Time-Series Hyperspectral and Multi-spectral Radiometric Measurements at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Sosik, H. M.; Crockford, E. T.; Chakraborty, S.

    2016-02-01

    High frequency temporal measurements are critical to resolving processes in dynamic coastal environments and geo-stationary satellites enable multiple observations over the course of a day. Such temporal resolution will be important in understanding rapid evolution of coastal physical processes (e.g., tides, wind forcing, water mass movement) as well as short-term changes in biological and chemical properties. The GEO-CAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events) is one of 17 priority missions identified in the National Research Council's Earth Science Decadal Survey and will provide high spatial and temporal resolution observations of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality and biogeochemistry. At present, however there are a limited number of hyperspectral ocean color observations in coastal waters and even fewer time-series observations. Such data sets, particularly when coupled with supporting optical and water property observations, would be highly beneficial in evaluating sensor requirements and algorithm performance. Here, we describe results of comparisons of hyperspectral and multi-spectral radiometric observations deployed at a cabled coastal ocean observatory on the New England continental shelf, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). The radiometric measurements are complemented by a broad suite of meteorological and hydrographic core measurements as well as efforts providing detailed characterization of changes in phytoplankton community structure with automated submersible flow cytometry and in-water optical properties (chl fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence, backscattering). Our findings illustrate the dynamic nature of this coastal ecosystem and the utility of hyperspectral radiometry and geostationary satellite observations to characterize short term variability in optical and biogeochemical properties of coastal environments.

  3. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters; Beschleunigerphysik und radiometrische Eigenschaften supraleitender Wellenlaengenschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-11-17

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  4. eComLab: remote laboratory platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontual, Murillo; Melkonyan, Arsen; Gampe, Andreas; Huang, Grant; Akopian, David

    2011-06-01

    Hands-on experiments with electronic devices have been recognized as an important element in the field of engineering to help students get familiar with theoretical concepts and practical tasks. The continuing increase the student number, costly laboratory equipment, and laboratory maintenance slow down the physical lab efficiency. As information technology continues to evolve, the Internet has become a common media in modern education. Internetbased remote laboratory can solve a lot of restrictions, providing hands-on training as they can be flexible in time and the same equipment can be shared between different students. This article describes an on-going remote hands-on experimental radio modulation, network and mobile applications lab project "eComLab". Its main component is a remote laboratory infrastructure and server management system featuring various online media familiar with modern students, such as chat rooms and video streaming.

  5. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  6. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  7. Reconfigurable Radio-Over-Fiber Networks [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching.......This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching....

  8. Reconfigurable Radio-Over-Fiber Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching.......This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching....

  9. Multispectral Remote Sensing from Unmanned Aircraft: Image Processing Workflows and Applications for Rangeland Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Rango

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS as remote sensing platforms offers the unique ability for repeated deployment for acquisition of high temporal resolution data at very high spatial resolution. Multispectral remote sensing applications from UAS are reported in the literature less commonly than applications using visible bands, although light-weight multispectral sensors for UAS are being used increasingly. . In this paper, we describe challenges and solutions associated with efficient processing of multispectral imagery to obtain orthorectified, radiometrically calibrated image mosaics for the purpose of rangeland vegetation classification. We developed automated batch processing methods for file conversion, band-to-band registration, radiometric correction, and orthorectification. An object-based image analysis approach was used to derive a species-level vegetation classification for the image mosaic with an overall accuracy of 87%. We obtained good correlations between: (1 ground and airborne spectral reflectance (R2 = 0.92; and (2 spectral reflectance derived from airborne and WorldView-2 satellite data for selected vegetation and soil targets. UAS-acquired multispectral imagery provides quality high resolution information for rangeland applications with the potential for upscaling the data to larger areas using high resolution satellite imagery.

  10. Using proximal remote sensing in non-invasive phenotyping of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xu, Hongxing; Feng, Ling; Fu, Xiao; Zhang, Yalin; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Proximal imaging remote sensing technologies are used to phenotype and to characterize organisms based on specific external body reflectance features. These imaging technologies are gaining interest and becoming more widely used and applied in ecological, systematic, evolutionary, and physiological studies of plants and also of animals. However, important factors may impact the quality and consistency of body reflectance features and therefore the ability to use these technologies as part of non-invasive phenotyping and characterization of organisms. We acquired hyperspectral body reflectance profiles from three insect species, and we examined how preparation procedures and preservation time affected the ability to detect reflectance responses to gender, origin, and age. Different portions of the radiometric spectrum varied markedly in their sensitivity to preparation procedures and preservation time. Based on studies of three insect species, we successfully identified specific radiometric regions, in which phenotypic traits become significantly more pronounced based on either: 1) gentle cleaning of museum specimens with distilled water, or 2) killing and preserving insect specimens in 70% ethanol. Standardization of killing and preservation procedures will greatly increase the ability to use proximal imaging remote sensing technologies as part of phenotyping and also when used in ecological and evolutionary studies of invertebrates.

  11. Remote information service access system based on a client-server-service model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A.M.

    1996-08-06

    A local host computing system, a remote host computing system as connected by a network, and service functionalities: a human interface service functionality, a starter service functionality, and a desired utility service functionality, and a Client-Server-Service (CSS) model is imposed on each service functionality. In one embodiment, this results in nine logical components and three physical components (a local host, a remote host, and an intervening network), where two of the logical components are integrated into one Remote Object Client component, and that Remote Object Client component and the other seven logical components are deployed among the local host and remote host in a manner which eases compatibility and upgrade problems, and provides an illusion to a user that a desired utility service supported on a remote host resides locally on the user`s local host, thereby providing ease of use and minimal software maintenance for users of that remote service. 16 figs.

  12. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A working group (WG) study was conducted aiming at realizing human type robots. The following six working groups in the basement field were organized to study in terms mostly of items of technical development and final technical targets: platform, and remote attendance control in the basement field, maintenance of plant, etc., home service, disaster/construction, and entertainment in the application field. In the platform WG, a robot of human like form is planning which walks with two legs and works with two arms, and the following were discussed: a length of 160cm, weight of 110kg, built-in LAN, actuator specifications, modulated structure, intelligent driver, etc. In the remote attendance control WG, remote control using working function, stabilized movement, stabilized control, and network is made possible. Studied were made on the decision on a remote control cockpit by open architecture added with function and reformable, problems on the development of the standard language, etc. 77 ref., 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. HOPC: A NOVEL SIMILARITY METRIC BASED ON GEOMETRIC STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES FOR MULTI-MODAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic matching of multi-modal remote sensing images (e.g., optical, LiDAR, SAR and maps remains a challenging task in remote sensing image analysis due to significant non-linear radiometric differences between these images. This paper addresses this problem and proposes a novel similarity metric for multi-modal matching using geometric structural properties of images. We first extend the phase congruency model with illumination and contrast invariance, and then use the extended model to build a dense descriptor called the Histogram of Orientated Phase Congruency (HOPC that captures geometric structure or shape features of images. Finally, HOPC is integrated as the similarity metric to detect tie-points between images by designing a fast template matching scheme. This novel metric aims to represent geometric structural similarities between multi-modal remote sensing datasets and is robust against significant non-linear radiometric changes. HOPC has been evaluated with a variety of multi-modal images including optical, LiDAR, SAR and map data. Experimental results show its superiority to the recent state-of-the-art similarity metrics (e.g., NCC, MI, etc., and demonstrate its improved matching performance.

  14. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  15. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  16. LAI estimation in a Mediterranean grassland by in situ radiometric measurements and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarolo, M.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2009-04-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of a key variables in studying and understanding biogeochemical cycle mechanisms and ecosystem functionalities and, then, one of a main inputs for ecological modeling. Leaf area surface is related to the main interactions between leaves and the atmosphere as water interception, radiation extinction, energy, mass and gas exchange. Therefore LAI reduction, consequently the loss of productivity, is expression of any physiological and biochemical change of plant status due for example to summer water stress in Mediterranean areas. A good knowledge of seasonal trend and spatial variability of LAI can helps not only modelers but also local farmer to manage grasslands in a sustainable way (grazing, harvesting). In situ LAI measurements are often limited to relatively small areas whit a small number of samplings that can be sporadic, destructive and time-consuming. Nowadays an interesting alternative to estimate LAI is provided by a large variety of radiometric sensors (ground, airborne and satellite based) whit several spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. However, few studies shown the effect of different radiometers set-up on VIs-LAI relationships that are also differently sensible to different ranges of LAI, management and to which method is used for LAI measurements. In this work, we analyzed the relations between several spectral vegetation indexes (VIs) and LAI for the Mediterranean grassland of Amplero, in the Abruzzo Region, Italy. In situ measurements were carried out in 2005 and 2006. Contemporaneously to destructive LAI measurements, radiometric measurements over the grass herbage were made by two different radiometric sensors: by hyperspectral Hand Held ASD spettroradiometer (HYS) field samplings and by broad band measurements (BNR) of incoming and outgoing global (shortwave) solar radiation components and of incident and reflected photosintetically active radiation (PAR). In addition we included in this analysis VIs

  17. GestuRemote

    OpenAIRE

    Rambjørg, Pål; Eikelid, Tormod; Grimseth, John André; Myrvang, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Ved å bruke Java (Gjenkjenning), Arduino (Universal IR kontroll) og Raspberry Pi (Media Senter++), blir eit enkelt vink til ein kommando. GestuRemote sitt mål er å erstatte den tradisjonelle/utdaterte fjernkontrollen, pluss litt ekstra funksjoner. Prosjektet GestuRemote tar i bruk fleire plattformar i sin oppbygging; Webkamera (Java), Kinect (C++), Raspberry Pi (XBMC) og Arduino (Wiring) GDT har i frå starten jobba parallelt med to løysingar; Webkamera og Kinect. Kinect d...

  18. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, ev...

  19. On-orbit radiometric validation and field-of-view calibration of spaceborne microwave sounding instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William J.; Bickmeier, Laura J.; Jairam, Laura G.; Leslie, R. Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Two calibration/validation efforts planned for current and future spaceborne microwave sounding instruments will be presented. First, the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed-Microwave (NAST-M) airborne sensor is used to directly validate the microwave radiometers (AMSU and MHS) on several operational satellites. Comparison results for underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites will be shown. Second, a potential approach will be presented for on-orbit field-of-view (FOV) calibration of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). A variety of proposed spacecraft maneuvers that could facilitate the characterization of the radiometric boresight of all 22 ATMS channels will be discussed. Radiance observations from the NAST-M airborne sensor can be used to directly validate the radiometric performance of spaceborne sensors. NAST-M includes a total of four spectrometers, with three operating near the oxygen lines at 50-57, 118.75, and 424.76 GHz, and a fourth spectrometer centered on the water vapor absorption line at 183.31 GHz. All four feedhorns are co-located, have 3-dB (full-width at half-maximum) beamwidths of 7.5° (translating to 2.5-km nominal pixel diameter at nadir incidence), and are directed at a single mirror that scans cross-track beneath the aircraft with a nominal swath width of 100 km. We will present results for two recent validation efforts: 1) the Pacific THORpex (THe Observing-system Research and predictability experiment) Observing System Test (PTOST 2003, Honolulu, HI) and 2) the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx 2007, Houston, TX). Radiance differences between the NAST-M sensor and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) were found to be less than 1K for most channels. Comparison results for ocean underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites are shown. We also present an approach for on-orbit FOV calibration of the ATMS satellite instrument using vicarious

  20. In-flight absolute calibration of radiometric sensors over dark targets using vicarious methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Robert John, Jr.

    1997-10-01

    The ability to conduct in-flight, absolute radiometric calibrations of ocean color sensors will determine their usefulness in the decade to come. On-board calibration systems are often integrated into the overall design of such sensors and have claimed uncertainty levels below 5%. Independent means of system calibration are needed to confirm that the sensor is accurately calibrated. Vicarious (i.e. ground-referencing) methods are an attractive way to conduct this verification. This research describes the development of in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration methods which reference dark (i.e. low-reflectance) sites. The high sensitivity of ocean color sensors results in saturation over bright surfaces. Low-reflectance targets, such as water bodies, are therefore required for their vicarious calibration. Sensitivity analyses of the reflectance-based and radiance-based techniques, when applied to a water target, are performed. Uncertainties in atmospheric parameters, surface reflectance measurements, and instrument characterization are evaluated for calibrations of a representative ocean color sensor. For a viewing geometry near the sun glint region, reflectance-based uncertainties range between 1.6% and 2.3% for visible and near-IR wavelengths; radiance-based uncertainties range between 6.8% and 20.5%. These studies indicate that better characterization of aerosol parameters is desired and that radiometer pointing accuracy must be improved to make the radiance-based method useful. The uncertainty estimates are evaluated using data from a field campaign at Lake Tahoe in June, 1995. This lake is located on the California-Nevada border and has optical characteristics similar to oceanic waters. Aircraft-based radiance data and surface measurements of water reflectance are used to calibrate visible and near infrared bands of the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The vicariously-derived calibration coefficients are compared to those obtained

  1. Experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of fluorescence LIDAR-based discrimination of oil spills from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Lognoli, David; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of an ultra-compact fluorescence LIDAR from an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the characterisation of oil spills in natural waters. The first step of this study was to define the experimental conditions for a LIDAR and its budget constraints on the basis of the specifications of small UAVs already available on the market. The second step consisted of a set of fluorescence LIDAR measurements on oil spills in the laboratory in order to propose a simplified discrimination method and to calculate the oil fluorescence conversion efficiency. Lastly, the main technical specifications of the payload were defined and radiometric calculations carried out to evaluate the performances of both the payload and the proposed discrimination method.

  2. v9fb: a remote framebuffer infrastructure of linux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ionkov, Latchesar [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    v9fb is a software infrastructure that allows extending framebufFer devices in Linux over the network by providing an abstraction to them in the form of a filesystem hierarchy. Framebuffer based graphic devices export a synthetic filesystem which offers a simple and easy-to-use interface for performing common framebuffer operations. Remote framebuffer devices could be accessed over the network using the 9P protocol support in Linux. We describe the infrastructure in detail and review some of the benefits it offers similar to Plan 9 distributed systems. We discuss the applications of this infrastructure to remotely display and run interactive applications on a terminal while ofFloading the computation to remote servers, and more importantly the flexibility it offers in driving tiled-display walls by aggregating graphic devices in the network.

  3. Radiometric cross Calibration of Gaofen-1 WFV Cameras Using Landsat-8 OLI Images: A Simple Image-Based Method

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Li; Lian Feng; Xiaoping Pang; Weishu Gong; Xi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    WFV (Wide Field of View) cameras on-board Gaofen-1 satellite (gaofen means high resolution) provide unparalleled global observations with both high spatial and high temporal resolutions. However, the accuracy of the radiometric calibration remains unknown. Using an improved cross calibration method, the WFV cameras were re-calibrated with well-calibrated Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data as reference. An objective method was proposed to guarantee the homogeneity and sufficient dyna...

  4. Radiometric Cross Calibration of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal Mishra; Md. Obaidul Haque; Larry Leigh; David Aaron; Dennis Helder; Brian Markham

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the radiometric consistency between Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) using cross calibration techniques. Two approaches are used, one based on cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event on 29–30 March 2013. The other approach is based on using time series of image statistics acquired by these two sensors over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration ...

  5. Validation of EO-1 Hyperion and Advanced Land Imager Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site at Railroad Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Ong, Lawrence; Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The Earth-Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in 2000. Radiometric calibration of Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) has been performed throughout the mission lifetime using various techniques that include ground-based vicarious calibration, pseudo-invariant calibration sites, and also the moon. The EO-1 mission is nearing its useful lifetime, and this work seeks to validate the radiometric calibration of Hyperion and ALI from 2013 until the satellite is decommissioned. Hyperion and ALI have been routinely collecting data at the automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site [RadCaTS/Railroad Valley (RRV)] since launch. In support of this study, the frequency of the acquisitions at RadCaTS has been significantly increased since 2013, which provides an opportunity to analyze the radiometric stability and accuracy during the final stages of the EO-1 mission. The analysis of Hyperion and ALI is performed using a suite of ground instrumentation that measures the atmosphere and surface throughout the day. The final product is an estimate of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance, which is compared to Hyperion and ALI radiances. The results show that Hyperion agrees with the RadCaTS predictions to within 5% in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and to within 10% in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). The 2013-2014 ALI results show agreement to within 6% in the VNIR and 7.5% in the SWIR bands. A cross comparison between ALI and the Operational Land Imager (OLI) using RadCaTS as a transfer source shows agreement of 3%-6% during the period of 2013-2014.

  6. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and metrological support for measuring radiometric properties of objects of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutikov, V. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Morozova, S. P.; Ogarev, S. A.; Panfilov, A. S.; Sakharov, M. K.; Samoylov, M. L.; Bingham, G.; Humpherys, T.; Thurgood, A.; Privalsky, V. E.

    2006-04-01

    The international Global Earth Observation System of Systems is at its initial stage. We present some general information about the program and formulate the task of ensuring the uniformity of radiometric measurements to be conducted by all the participating national systems. Methods of solving the task are suggested on the basis of the wide application of standard sources that use phase transition of eutectic alloys and pure metals as well as with the help of improved ground calibration facilities.

  7. SATNET development and operation, pluribus satellite IMP development, remote site maintenance, internet operations and maintenance, mobile access terminal network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP for VAK-UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, J. F.

    1982-08-01

    This Quarterly Technical Report describes work on the development of and experimentation with packet broadcast by satellite; on development of Pluribus Satellite IMPs (Interface Message Provision); on a study of the technology of Remote Site Maintenance; on Internetwork monitoring; on shipboard satellite communications; and on the development of Transmission control Protocols for the HP3000 and VAX-UNIX.

  8. Vesicoureteral reflux in young children: a study of radiometric thermometry as detection modality using an ex vivo porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-09-01

    Microwave radiometry is evaluated for renal thermometry tailored to detect the pediatric condition of vesicoureteral urine reflux (VUR) from the bladder through the ureter into the kidney. Prior to a potential reflux event, the urine is heated within the bladder by an external body contacting a hyperthermia applicator to generate a fluidic contrast temperature relative to normal body temperature. A single band, miniaturized radiometer (operating at 3.5 GHz) is connected to an electromagnetic-interference-shielded and suction-coupled elliptical antenna to receive thermal radiation from an ex vivo porcine phantom model. Brightness (radiometric) and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying urine phantom reflux volumes (20-40 mL) and contrast temperatures ranging from 2 to 10 °C within the kidney phantom. The kidney phantom itself is located at 40 mm depth (skin-to-kidney center distance) and surrounded by the porcine phantom. Radiometric step responses to injection of urine simulant by a syringe are shown to be highly correlated with in situ kidney temperatures measured by fiberoptic probes. Statistically, the performance of the VUR detecting scheme is evaluated by error probabilities of making a wrong decision. Laboratory testing of the radiometric system supports the feasibility of passive non-invasive kidney thermometry for the detection of VUR classified within the two highest grades

  9. Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

  10. Radiometric and geometric assessment of data from the RapidEye constellation of satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Sampath, Aparajithan; Brunn, A.; Trosset, G.; Hoffmann, D.; Roloff, S.; Thiele, M.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface using imagery acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. The RapidEye (RE) satellite constellation acquires high-resolution satellite images covering the entire globe within a very short period of time by sensors identical in construction and cross-calibrated to each other. To evaluate the RE high-resolution Multi-spectral Imager (MSI) sensor capabilities, a cross-comparison between the RE constellation of sensors was performed first using image statistics based on large common areas observed over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) by the sensors and, second, by comparing the on-orbit radiometric calibration temporal trending over a large number of calibration sites. For any spectral band, the individual responses measured by the five satellites of the RE constellation were found to differ B2B) alignment of the image data sets. The position accuracy was assessed by comparing the RE imagery against high-resolution aerial imagery, while the B2B characterization was performed by registering each band against every other band to ensure that the proper band alignment is provided for an image product. The B2B results indicate that the internal alignments of these five RE bands are in agreement, with bands typically registered to within 0.25 pixels of each other or better.

  11. New radiometric ages on gneisses of the Oliverian domes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartman, R.E.; Leo, G.W.

    1985-03-01

    Gneissic plutons of the Oliverian domes, mantled by Ammonoosuc Volcanics, are located along the axis of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium from New Hampshire to Connecticut. The contacts between the plutonic and volcanic rocks appear to be concordant on a regional scale, but gneiss intrudes the volcanics in several domes. Available radiometric and fossil evidence suggests that the Ammonoosuc Volcanics have a Middle Ordovician age but are somewhat older than the Oliverian gneisses. New U-Pb zircon data from Oliverian gneisses of six domes plot on a concordia diagram as an almost colinear array that yields an upper intercept age of about 444 m.y. The plotted data vary from nearly concordant to moderately discordant, the degree of discordance, correlating with /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages that range from 459 to 415 m.y. The pattern of discordance does not relate to the uranium contents of the zircons nor to the geographic distribution of the domes. If /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages are considered individually without an assumed consanguinity of the units, however, they do not find particular support in geologic relationships. Thus, they prefer the concordia intercept age of 444 +/- 8 m.y. for the suite as the best estimate for the time of crystallization of the Oliverian gneisses. Possibly, the Whitefield, Gneiss in the Jefferson dome represents a 10 to 15 m.y. older unit, although they are cautious about claiming such resolution with the present data.

  12. Radiometric Cross-calibration of KOMPSAT-3A with Landsat-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cross calibration was conducted at the Libya 4 PICS site on 2015 using Landsat-8 and KOMPSAT-3A. Ideally a cross calibration should be calculated for each individual scene pair because on any given date the TOA spectral profile is influenced by sun and satellite view geometry and the atmospheric conditions. However, using the near-simultaneous images minimizes this effect because the sensors are viewing the same atmosphere. For the cross calibration, the calibration coefficient was calculated by comparing the at sensor spectral radiance for the same location calculated using the Landsat-8 calibration parameters in metadata and the DN of KOMPSAT-3A for the regions of interest (ROI. Cross calibration can be conducted because the satellite sensors used for overpass have a similar bandwidth. However, not all satellites have the same color filter transmittance and sensor reactivity, even though the purpose is to observe the visible bands. Therefore, the differences in the RSR should be corrected. For the cross-calibration, a calibration coefficient was calculated using the TOA radiance and KOMPSAT-3 DN of the Landsat-8 OLI overpassed at the Libya 4 Site, As a result, the accuracy of the calibration coefficient at the site was assumed to be ± 1.0%. In terms of the results, the radiometric calibration coefficients suggested here are thought to be useful for maintaining the optical quality of the KOMPSAT-3A.

  13. Experimental research for relative radiometric calibration of imaging spectrometer based on Savart plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Chunmin; Yan, Tingyu

    2017-02-01

    The basic principle of tempo-spatially mixed modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) based on savart plates is outlined. A calibration method of pixel response non-uniformity of charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in such type of instrument is presented. The method which uses column-flat-fields can avoid the influence of interference fringes. The use of polychromatic calibration source can solve the problem of the slant of the fringes in large optical path difference areas. The procedure of calibration experiment and the algorithm of data processing are detailed described. Two groups of relative radiometric calibration coefficient are obtained through the method of least-square. The original images are corrected by using the coefficients to validate its calibration effect. The results indicated that the method can obviously improve the uniformity of pixels and the vignetting artifacts and defect of the instrument can be well corrected. This study provides a theoretical guidance for study, design, modulation, experiment and engineering of FTIS.

  14. Multispectral scanner flight model (F-1) radiometric calibration and alignment handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This handbook on the calibration of the MSS-D flight model (F-1) provides both the relevant data and a summary description of how the data were obtained for the system radiometric calibration, system relative spectral response, and the filter response characteristics for all 24 channels of the four band MSS-D F-1 scanner. The calibration test procedure and resulting test data required to establish the reference light levels of the MSS-D internal calibration system are discussed. The final set of data ("nominal" calibration wedges for all 24 channels) for the internal calibration system is given. The system relative spectral response measurements for all 24 channels of MSS-D F-1 are included. These data are the spectral response of the complete scanner, which are the composite of the spectral responses of the scan mirror primary and secondary telescope mirrors, fiber optics, optical filters, and detectors. Unit level test data on the measurements of the individual channel optical transmission filters are provided. Measured performance is compared to specification values.

  15. Radiometric Measurement Comparison Using the Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) Visible and Near Infrared Integrating Sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B Carol; Sakuma, F; Butler, J J; Biggar, S F; Cooper, J W; Ishida, J; Suzuki, K

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the pre-flight calibration and validation activities for the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color satellite instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in February 1995 at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA), and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology (NRLM) in Tsukuba, Japan used their portable radiometers to measure the spectral radiance of the OCTS visible and near-infrared integrating sphere at four radiance levels. These four levels corresponded to the configuration of the OCTS integrating sphere when the calibration coefficients for five of the eight spectral channels, or bands, of the OCTS instrument were determined. The measurements of the four radiometers differed by -2.7 % to 3.9 % when compared to the NEC calibration of the sphere and the overall agreement was within the combined measurement uncertainties. A comparison of the measurements from the participating radiometers also resulted in agreement within the combined measurement uncertainties. These results are encouraging and demonstrate the utility of comparisons using laboratory calibration integrating sphere sources. Other comparisons will focus on instruments that are scheduled for spacecraft in the NASA study of climate change, the Earth Observing System (EOS).

  16. Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiong Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The VIIRS instrument on board the S-NPP spacecraft has successfully operated for more than four years since its launch in October 2011. Many VIIRS environmental data records (EDR have been continuously generated from its sensor data records (SDR with improved quality, enabling a wide range of applications in support of users in both the operational and research communities. This paper provides a brief review of sensor on-orbit calibration methodologies for both the reflective solar bands (RSB and the thermal emissive bands (TEB and an overall assessment of their on-orbit radiometric performance using measurements from instrument on-board calibrators (OBC, as well as regularly scheduled lunar observations. It describes and illustrates changes made and to be made for calibration and data quality improvements. Throughout the mission, all of the OBC have continued to operate and function normally, allowing critical calibration parameters used in the data production systems to be derived and updated. The temperatures of the on-board blackbody (BB and the cold focal plane assemblies are controlled with excellent stability. Despite large optical throughput degradation discovered shortly after launch in several near- and short-wave infrared spectral bands and strong wavelength-dependent solar diffuser degradation, the VIIRS overall performance has continued to meet its design requirements. Also discussed in this paper are challenging issues identified and efforts to be made to further enhance the sensor calibration and characterization, thereby maintaining or improving data quality.

  17. Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy F. Glenn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV hyperspectral calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS and inertial navigation sensors (INS under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 m (based on RMSE with a flying height of 344 m above ground level (AGL.

  18. Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Chiang, Kwofu; Efremova, Boryana; Fullbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; McIntire, Jeff; Oudrari, Hassan; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The VIIRS instrument on board the S-NPP spacecraft has successfully operated for more than four years since its launch in October, 2011. Many VIIRS environmental data records (EDR) have been continuously generated from its sensor data records (SDR) with improved quality, enabling a wide range of applications in support of users in both the operational and research communities. This paper provides a brief review of sensor on-orbit calibration methodologies for both the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the thermal emissive bands (TEB) and an overall assessment of their on-orbit radiometric performance using measurements from instrument on-board calibrators (OBC) as well as regularly scheduled lunar observations. It describes and illustrates changes made and to be made for calibration and data quality improvements. Throughout the mission, all of the OBC have continued to operate and function normally, allowing critical calibration parameters used in the data production systems to be derived and updated. The temperatures of the on-board blackbody (BB) and the cold focal plane assemblies are controlled with excellent stability. Despite large optical throughput degradation discovered shortly after launch in several near and short-wave infrared spectral bands and strong wavelength dependent solar diffuser degradation, the VIIRS overall performance has continued to meet its design requirements. Also discussed in this paper are challenging issues identified and efforts to be made to further enhance the sensor calibration and characterization, thereby maintaining or improving data quality.

  19. Determining water use of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sánchez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h−1 and ±1.0 mm d−1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

  20. New Radiometric Age Constraints for the Matuyama-Bruhnes Reversal and Santa Rosa Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbas, A.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Kent, D. V.; Coe, R. S.; Konrad, K.; Clark, P. U.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of the timing of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) position and the absolute paleointensities for geomagnetic events is vital for understanding the Earth's geodynamo. Here we present new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations using an ARGUS-VI multi-collector mass spectrometer for lava flows on Floreana Island, Galapagos, and Tahiti Nui, Society Islands. New Galapagos ages (n=6) place the GA-79 lava flow on Floreana Island, which records an excursional VGP from an equatorial region (Cox and Dalrymple, 1966), within the Santa Rosa excursion. This flow contains extremely low paleointesity values of 1.1 x 1022 Am2 (n=11; Wang and Kent, 2013). We also present 52 new ages on 18 lava flows from the Punaruu valley, Tahiti, which record the Matuyama-Bruhnes reversal. The new ages confirm that the lavas record this reversal, but the ages differ from the original stratigraphy presented in Mochizuki et al. (2011). Our new ages using the Kuiper et al. (2008) fish canyon sanidine ages for Punaruu valley lava flows are concordant with previous astronomically tuned ages (Channell et al. 2002, 2009) and represent the highest precision radiometric ages for the most recent reversal. Here we show that paleointensity lows associated with excursional events can be comparable to or less than those associated with reversals. In addition, such field strength reductions can occur in time intervals as short as 3 thousand years.