WorldWideScience

Sample records for network quality level

  1. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  2. Collaborative Networking for the Development of Quality in Education at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytkönen, Anni; Kaivola, Taina

    At the University of Helsinki there are two collaborative networks of expertise leading and supporting the development of teaching: the senior lecturers in university pedagogy and the e-learning specialist network. Both networks are based on the guidelines in the university Programme for the development of teaching and studies for the strategy period 2007-2009. The strategic goals, organization and working methods of these two networks are described as examples of overall quality improvement through competence development of the teaching personnel. The paper contributes also to the evaluation of actual, perceived development at the end of the strategy period. The best practices of these networks are summarized as ideal structures supporting the continuous educational development work at universities.

  3. NETWORKS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Hadžistević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tools used in the past to analyze business value creation, such as value chain and process models, are simply too slow, inadequate, or inappropriate to address this new level of business complexity. In stead of that, company has to find way to create quality management system in a multi-layered supply chain. The problem can be solved by networking in the cluster. Cluster can be known as a competitive cooperation in the purpose to gain higher level of competitiveness and success. Bat there is another problem: Organization of the production process in a company is extremely complex process itself, and when we transfer it to the cluster level, we get a complex task which is difficult to solve. For that purpose, this paper analyses the conditions and possibilities that would enable those structures to adapt to changes in the surroundings - flexibility and management adequacy of production and organizational structures - by creating network value system.

  4. NETWORKS OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos A., Juan; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This article deals about the need of better highly-powered tools for quality improvement. A creative combination of Continuous Improvement Philosophy, Systems General Theory and Network General Theory is used, with the purpose of developing a Quality Improvement Network allowing an optimization of systems and processes within organizations. El artículo trata sobre la necesidad de herramientas con mayor potencia para la mejora de la calidad. Se utiliza la combinación, de manera creativa, de...

  5. Network security risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the existence of a computers network within any company with pretensions are obvious. But the construction and the existence of a network without meeting some minimum security requirements, although it would be preferable to be optimal, can lead to bad functioning in the performance of the company’s business. The vulnerability of a grouping, such as a network, is given by the weakest point in its competence. The establishing of the risk level of each component of the network, and implicitly of the grouping, is highly necessary

  6. Quality and food network configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how the emergence of distinct quality conventions relates to particular network relations within two selected Danish organic dairy enterprises. The paper starts out from the assumption that the distinct qualities, which distinguish organic food, can be viewed...... is thus extremely important and even more so if the product chain in question is a ‘high-quality’ food chain of a relatively high level of complexity, such as an organic food network. Analytically, our main focus is on the relation between network structure and the qualities mediated from cow to cup....... The paper is based on case studies of two Danish dairy enterprises (Thise Dairy and Arla Foods), which all operate within the Danish 'high-quality' and organic food market....

  7. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  8. User’s manual for the Automated Data Assurance and Management application developed for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The generation of Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from over 240 water-level stations. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface maps, the Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) tool was created by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science. The ADAM tool is used to provide accurate quality-assurance review of the real-time data from the EDEN network and allows estimation or replacement of missing or erroneous data. This user’s manual describes how to install and operate the ADAM software. File structure and operation of the ADAM software is explained using examples.

  9. Pushing the Quality Level in Networked News Business: Semantic-Based Content Retrieval and Composition in International News Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Schranz, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Electronic publishing exploits numerous possibilities to present or exchange information and to communicate via most current media like the Internet. By utilizing modern Web technologies like Web Services, loosely coupled services, and peer-to-peer networks we describe the integration of an intelligent business news presentation and distribution network. Employing semantics technologies enables the coupling of multinational and multilingual business news data on a scaleable international leve...

  10. Statistical air quality predictions for public health surveillance: evaluation and generation of county level metrics of PM2.5 for the environmental public health tracking network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Dimmick, William Fred; Kegler, Scott R; Qualters, Judith R

    2013-03-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed county level metrics for the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network) to characterize potential population exposure to airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM(2.5)). These metrics are based on Federal Reference Method (FRM) air monitor data in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS); however, monitor data are limited in space and time. In order to understand air quality in all areas and on days without monitor data, the CDC collaborated with the EPA in the development of hierarchical Bayesian (HB) based predictions of PM(2.5) concentrations. This paper describes the generation and evaluation of HB-based county level estimates of PM(2.5). We used three geo-imputation approaches to convert grid-level predictions to county level estimates. We used Pearson (r) and Kendall Tau-B (τ) correlation coefficients to assess the consistency of the relationship, and examined the direct differences (by county) between HB-based estimates and AQS-based concentrations at the daily level. We further compared the annual averages using Tukey mean-difference plots. During the year 2005, fewer than 20% of the counties in the conterminous United States (U.S.) had PM(2.5) monitoring and 32% of the conterminous U.S. population resided in counties with no AQS monitors. County level estimates resulting from population-weighted centroid containment approach were correlated more strongly with monitor-based concentrations (r = 0.9; τ = 0.8) than were estimates from other geo-imputation approaches. The median daily difference was -0.2 μg/m(3) with an interquartile range (IQR) of 1.9 μg/m(3) and the median relative daily difference was -2.2% with an IQR of 17.2%. Under-prediction was more prevalent at higher concentrations and for counties in the western U.S. While the relationship between county level HB-based estimates and AQS-based concentrations is

  11. Image quality assessment using deep convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yezhou; Ye, Xiang; Li, Yong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a method of accurately assessing image quality without a reference image by using a deep convolutional neural network. Existing training based methods usually utilize a compact set of linear filters for learning features of images captured by different sensors to assess their quality. These methods may not be able to learn the semantic features that are intimately related with the features used in human subject assessment. Observing this drawback, this work proposes training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) with labelled images for image quality assessment. The ReLU in the CNN allows non-linear transformations for extracting high-level image features, providing a more reliable assessment of image quality than linear filters. To enable the neural network to take images of any arbitrary size as input, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) is introduced connecting the top convolutional layer and the fully-connected layer. In addition, the SPP makes the CNN robust to object deformations to a certain extent. The proposed method taking an image as input carries out an end-to-end learning process, and outputs the quality of the image. It is tested on public datasets. Experimental results show that it outperforms existing methods by a large margin and can accurately assess the image quality on images taken by different sensors of varying sizes.

  12. Quality-Aware SCTP in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jen-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SCTP (Stream control transmission protocol is a new transport layer protocol that was published as RFC2960 by IETF (the Internet Engineering Task Force in October 2000 and amended in RFC4960 in September 2007. SCTP provides reliable ordered and unordered transport services. The congestion control and flow control mechanisms for SCTP are very similar to those for TCP (transmission control protocol. SCTP can apply more than one IP address when establishing associations. SCTP multihoming can support multiple paths in association. These features provide SCTP with some network-level fault tolerance through network address redundancy. SCTP multihoming has tremendous transmission potential. However, SCTP path management is very simple in RFC4960 and therefore cannot effectively distinguish path conditions; it also has no path switch strategy appropriate for wireless networking. These factors all degrade SCTP performance. This study proposes a new path management (quality-aware SCTP for wireless networks; this includes a new path failure detection method and ICE (idle path congestion window size estimation mechanism. An experiment using NS2 was performed, showing that quality-aware SCTP can effectively improve the network performance. Quality-aware SCTP is simple and provides a more effective performance than SCTP alone.

  13. Network compression as a quality measure for protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic Royer

    Full Text Available With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients.

  14. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  15. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  16. Sea level forecasts using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röske, Frank

    1997-03-01

    past state and another part describing the prediction. Both parts have been chosen according to methods of auto- and multiregression. A Kohonen network that has finished learning can be interpreted to be an adaptive table of such descriptions. To avoid overloading the Kohonen networks, the time series, made as complete as possible, were reduced to a learnable data set by means of two selection methods. The minimal distance method as a part of the cluster analysis was used, which selects representative temporal patterns. A novel method called circular group reduction was developed, which selects extreme patterns. This method is used as a supplement to the first one. To help the Kohonen network maintain its memory, the number of neurons and the maximum learning time were chosen according to the number of learning samples. To improve convergence, a combination of criteria was developed to break off learning, which could shown to be conform with the self-organization procedure. Kohonen networks were also applied in an autoregressive manner for the prediction of meteorological variables, especially wind. However, the quality of these predictions was inferior to those of the Marine Weather Service (SWA) in Hamburg, which is part of the German Weather Service (DWD) in Offenbach. High and low tide anomalies were predicted using Kohonen networks for multiregressions. The verbal predictions of high tide anomalies of the BSH Sea Level Forecasting Service were the most precise of all six comparison models. By using the Kohonen networks, it was even possible to improve these predictions and reduce their average error by 1 cm, from 15 to 14 cm.The precision of the Kohonen networks improved as their number of neurons increased and as their weight vectors became smaller. Since there were no major changes in the statistical properties of measurements made over mediumrange time scales, such networks that have completed learning were placed at the Sea Level Forecast Service. However

  17. Estimation of Expectable Network Quality in Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wollenberg, Till

    2012-01-01

    Part 3: Computing in Networks; International audience; Our work aims to improve the usability of wireless mesh networks as communication layer of smart office environments. While wireless mesh networks are well-suited for this task in general, the negative impact of interference, fading, and saturation makes the communication basically opportunistic. Our goal is to develop a system which allows a short-term estimation of network quality in terms of throughput, packet loss and latency. The est...

  18. Development of inferential sensors for real-time quality control of water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daamen, Ruby C.; Edwin A. Roehl, Jr.; Conrads, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and watersurface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The generation of EDEN waterlevel surfaces is derived from real-time data. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers using minimum, maximum, and rate-of-change thresholds for each station. Smaller errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the gages. Correcting smaller errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide water-level surfaces on a daily basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous waterlevel data.

  19. Enhancing Sensor Network Data Quality via Collaborated Circuit and Network Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Vespa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the quality of data gathered by sensor networks is directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the sensor data being transmitted in the networks. Different from the SNR that is often used in measuring the quality of communication links, the SNR used in this work measures how accurately the data in the network packets represent the physical parameters being sensed. Hence, the signal here refers to the physical parameters that are being monitored by sensor networks; the noise is due to environmental interference and circuit noises at sensor nodes, and packet loss during network transmission. While issues affecting SNR at sensor nodes have been intensively investigated, the impact of network packet loss on data SNR has not attracted significant attention in sensor network design. This paper investigates the impact of packet loss on sensor network data SNR and shows that data SNR is dramatically affected by network packet loss. A data quality metric, based on data SNR, is developed and a cross-layer adaptive scheme is presented to minimize data quality degradation in congested sensor networks. The proposed scheme consists of adaptive downsampling and bit truncation at sensor nodes and intelligent traffic management techniques at the network level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  20. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  1. The Strength of Family Ties: Perceptions of Network Relationship Quality and Levels of C-Reactive Proteins in the North Texas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N; Ruiz, John M; Smith, Timothy W; Smyth, Joshua M; Taylor, Daniel J; Allison, Matthew; Ahn, Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the quality of one's social relationships has been linked to important physical health outcomes, less work has been conducted examining family and friends that differ in their underlying positivity and negativity. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between supportive, aversive, and ambivalent family/friends with levels of C-reactive proteins. Three hundred participants from the North Texas Heart Study completed the social relationships index and a blood draw to assess high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRPs). After standard controls, the number of supportive family members predicted lower hs-CRP levels, whereas the number of ambivalent family members predicted higher hs-CRP levels. These links were independent of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. These data highlight the importance of considering specific types of relationships and their underlying positive and negative aspects in research on social ties and physical health.

  2. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  3. Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power, sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness. In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks.

  4. Quality guaranteed media delivery over advanced network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.; Fortino, G.; Palau, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Moving large quantities of data between distributed parties is a frequently invoked process in data intensive applications, such as collaborative digital media development. These transfers often have high quality requirements on the network services, especially when they involve user interactions or

  5. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  6. The networked instructor : The quality of networks in different stages of professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Heldens, Henderijn H P F; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quality of instructional networks in different stages of professional development. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and literature on teacher interaction, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 instructors at the university level. Using qualitative

  7. Quality of service in optical packet switched networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbar, Akbar G

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive study on OPS networks, its architectures, and developed techniques for improving its quality of switching and managing quality of service.  The book includes: Introduction to OPS networks, OOFDM networks, GMPLS-enabled optical networks, QoS in OPS networks Hybrid contention avoidance/resolution schemes in both long-haul and metro optical networks Hybrid optical switching schemes

  8. A black carbon air quality network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Caubel, J.; Cados, T.; Preble, C.; Rosen, A.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a portable, power efficient black carbon sensor for deployment in an air quality network in West Oakland, California. West Oakland is a San Francisco Bay Area residential/industrial community adjacent to regional port and rail yard facilities, and is surrounded by major freeways. As such, the community is affected by diesel particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, locomotives, and ships associated with freight movement. In partnership with Environmental Defense Fund, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, and the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project, we are collaborating with community members to build and operate a 100-sensor black carbon measurement network for a period of several months. The sensor employs the filter-based light transmission method to measure black carbon. Each sensor node in the network transmits data hourly via SMS text messages. Cost, power consumption, and performance are considered in choosing components (e.g., pump) and operating conditions (e.g., sample flow rate). In field evaluation trials over several weeks at three monitoring locations, the sensor nodes provided black carbon concentrations comparable to commercial instruments and ran autonomously for a week before sample filters and rechargeable batteries needed to be replaced. Buildup to the 100-sensor network is taking place during Fall 2016 and will overlap with other ongoing air monitoring projects and monitoring platforms in West Oakland. Sensors will be placed along commercial corridors, adjacent to freeways, upwind of and within the Port, and throughout the residential community. Spatial and temporal black carbon concentration patterns will help characterize pollution sources and demonstrate the value of sensing networks for characterizing intra-urban air pollution concentrations and exposure to air pollution.

  9. APPROACHES TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salagean Horatiu Catalin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, quality has become a source of competitive advantage and organizations must perceive quality as something natural and human in order to achieve excellence. The proper question for the context of the internationalisation of the economy is whether the culture of the regions, states or nations affects the development in the quality management field and the quality approach. The present study tries to give a theoretical approach of how culture influences the quality approach at the European level. The study deals only with the European quality approach, beacuse at European level one could meet a great variety of models and methodologies. In the U.S.A. and Japan one could identify a specific cultural approach regarding quality. At the European level, we cannot discuss in the same terms, because each country has a different cultural specifics in terms of quality. In order to determine the cultural specificity of the countries surveyed, the study has used the most popular analysis tool of cultural dimensions, namely the Dutch Professor Geert Hofstede\\'s model. The model illustrates according to a survey, the organizational behavior of several countries and was able to identify a set of variables and fundamental dimensions, that differentiates one culture from another. An attempt was made to see if there are connections between the values of Hofestede \\'s cultural dimensions and the quality characteristics in the analysed countries. The study, describes on the one hand,the quality evolution from quality control to Total Quality Management and on the other hand, focuses on the quality approach modalities at European level. The second part of the paper is structured into two parts, addressing on the one hand the quality in countries of Western Europe, such as United Kingdom, France and Germany,because these three countries are considered to be the exponents of quality development in Western Europe. In the same time, the

  10. Effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, G. R.; Cai, Z.; Su, Y. N.; Zong, S. L.; Zhai, G. Y.; Jia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Compared with traditional manufacturing mode, could networked manufacturing improve effort levels of the partners? What factors will affect effort level of the partners? How to encourage the partners to improve their effort levels? To answer these questions, we introduce network effect coefficient to build effort level model of the partners in networked manufacturing. The results show that (1) with the increase of the network effect in networked manufacturing, the actual effort level can go beyond the ideal level of traditional manufacturing. (2) Profit allocation based on marginal contribution rate would help improve effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing. (3) The partners in networked manufacturing who wishes to have a larger distribution ratio must make a higher effort level, and enterprises with insufficient effort should be terminated in networked manufacturing.

  11. Material procedure quality forecast based on genetic BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bao-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Material procedure quality forecast plays an important role in quality control. This paper proposes a prediction model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and back propagation (BP) neural network. It can obtain the initial weights and thresholds of optimized BP neural network with the GA global search ability. A material process quality prediction model with the optimized BP neural network is adopted to predict the error of future process to measure the accuracy of process quality. The results show that the proposed method has the advantages of high accuracy and fast convergence rate compared with BP neural network.

  12. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  13. Calidad de Vida de Cuidadores de Pacientes Hospitalizados, nivel de dependencia y red de apoyo Quality of life for caregivers of patients hospitalized level of dependence and support network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Covarrubias Delgado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la Calidad de Vida de Cuidadores de Pacientes Hospitalizados y la relación al Nivel de Dependencia y Red de Apoyo. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo correlacional, muestra de 106 cuidadores de pacientes hospitalizados en un Hospital público de San Luis Potosí, seleccionados por muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se aplicó el Instrumento Calidad de Vida del Cuidador Informal, Índice Katz, y el coeficiente de correlación Pearson como prueba hipótesis. Resultados: Predominaron mujeres cuidadoras cuya edad promedio fue 42 años, casadas, escolaridad primaria, ocupación en labores del hogar, parentesco de hijas, esposas y madres. Los hombres cuidadores en menor proporción, cuidaban a hijos o esposa; los receptores del cuidado en su mayoría fueron hombres con edad promedio de 55 años, predominaron los totalmente dependientes. La calidad de vida fue alta, pero en el indicador relaciones interpersonales con familiares y amigos presentaron nivel medio y bajo; se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa entre calidad de vida media, dependencia moderada y dependencia leve. Conclusiones: Existen repercusiones en la calidad de vida de los cuidadores en aspectos emocionales y sociales debido a modificaciones del entorno y organización de actividades diarias y el cuidado, se refleja separación de amistades debido a dedicación a esta tarea, destaca la familia como apoyo principal.Objective: to determine the quality of life for caregivers of patients hospitalized and the relationship to the level of dependence and Support Network. Methods: Study descriptive correlational, shows 106 caregivers of patients hospitalized in a public hospital in San Luis Potosi selected by non-probabilistic sampling, the instrument was administered Quality of Life of the informal caregivers, Index Katz, and the correlation coefficient Pearson as test hypotheses. Results: Predominated women caregivers whose average age was 42

  14. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; van Steen, Martinus Richardus

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of

  15. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  16. The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

    2013-04-01

    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to

  17. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  18. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  19. Nursing Home Care Quality: Insights from a Bayesian Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…

  20. Information Product Quality in Network Centric Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Patrick J; Tortorella, Michael; Pohl, Edward

    2005-01-01

    This study introduces a pragmatic methodology for examining the effectiveness of decision support information systems for Network Centric Operations based on the concept of manufacturing information products...

  1. Detecting Spam at the Network Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; Vliek, G.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Spam is increasingly a core problem affecting network security and performance. Indeed, it has been estimated that 80% of all email messages are spam. Content-based filters are a commonly deployed countermeasure, but the current research focus is now moving towards the early detection of spamming

  2. On quality issues in networked value constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarvic, N.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Eck, Pascal; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Picard, W.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main purposes of collaborative networks is to satisfy specific consumer needs, which one company cannot satisfy alone. With the opening of the internet in the 1990s the number of companies that collaborate by means of computer networks increased rapidly. As far as one of our main foci is

  3. Collaborative Network Management for Enhancing Quality Education of Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikoed, Wisithsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Numnaphol, Kochaporn

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the network and collaborative factors that enhance quality education of primary schools. Different methods were used in this research work: (1) Related approaches, theories, and research literatures and (2) Scholars were interviewed on 871 issues in the form of questionnaire, and the collaborative network factors were…

  4. Power Quality Improvement in Electrical Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Oladepo Olatunde; Awofolaju Tolulope Tola

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) in a distribution system offers several benefits to utilities, customers and society. However, the integration of these sources into the networks can cause some challenges regarding their expected impacts on the security and the dynamic behaviour of the entire network. This paper presents the Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MPSOA) to determine the optimal location and size of Distributed Generation and Capacitor banks to maximizi...

  5. Health Provider Networks, Quality and Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  6. Health provider networks, quality and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  7. Geospatial Data Quality of the Servir CORS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Teodoro, R.; Mira, N.; Mendes, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The SERVIR Continuous Operation Reference Stations (CORS) network was implemented in 2006 to facilitate land surveying with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning techniques. Nowadays, the network covers all Portuguese mainland. The SERVIR data is provided to many users, such as surveyors, universities (for education and research purposes) and companies that deal with geographic information. By middle 2012, there was a significant change in the network accessing paradigm, the most important of all being the increase in the responsibility of managing the network to guarantee a permanent availability and the highest quality of the geospatial data. In addition, the software that is used to manage the network and to compute the differential corrections was replaced by a new software package. These facts were decisive to perform the quality control of the SERVIR network and evaluate positional accuracy. In order to perform such quality control, a significant number of geodetic monuments spread throughout the country were chosen. Some of these monuments are located in the worst location regarding the network geometry in order to evaluate the accuracy of positions for the worst case scenarios. Data collection was carried out using different GNSS positioning modes and were compared against the benchmark positions that were determined using data acquired in static mode in 3-hour sessions. We conclude the geospatial data calculated and provided to the users community by the network is, within the surveying purposes, accurate, precise and fits the needs of those users.

  8. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  9. A Neural Network Model for Prediction of Sound Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen,, Lars Bramsløw

    An artificial neural network structure has been specified, implemented and optimized for the purpose of predicting the perceived sound quality for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. The network was implemented by means of commercially available software and optimized to predict results...... error on the test set. The overall concept proved functional, but further testing with data obtained from a new rating experiment is necessary to better assess the utility of this measure. The weights in the trained neural networks were analyzed to qualitatively interpret the relation between...... obtained in subjective sound quality rating experiments based on input data from an auditory model. Various types of input data and data representations from the auditory model were used as input data for the chosen network structure, which was a three-layer perceptron. This network was trained by means...

  10. A Practical Algorithm for Reconstructing Level-1 Phylogenetic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T. Huber; L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); S.M. Kelk (Steven); R. Suchecki

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractRecently much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks - a type of

  11. The implementation of a system for managing analytical quality in networked laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassam, Nuthar; Lindsay, Chris; Harrison, Kevin; Thompson, Douglas; Bosomworth, Mike P; Barth, Julian H

    2011-03-01

    In a network of laboratories analytical variability between instruments, even of the same type, may exist for reasons beyond the control of laboratory staff. Controlling variability is a prerequisite for the application of shared reference ranges and for ensuring the transferability of patient test results. Controlling variability requires a robust, non-conventional quality system to detect poor performance of analysers that are geographically distant. Essential to this quality system is a set of well-defined quality specifications. The approach used in our study started with (1) selection of a model for quality specifications based on biological variation; the 'three-level model' (TLM) was selected on the basis of its flexibility to accommodate various levels of analytical performance; (2) determination of the performance characteristics of the 71 analytes measured in core biochemistry in terms of imprecision and bias; (3) defining quality requirements in the form of imprecision, bias and total error for 71 analytes measured routinely in core biochemistry; and (4) developing software to assist a consistent wide application of the quality specifications and to monitor analytical indices to the common quality specifications. In this paper we describe how we have implemented this model across our network. Forty-six of the 71 analytes in our core laboratory repertoire were allocated to the TLM. We were able to demonstrate equivalence of results on all analysers, for 42 out of 46 analytes allocated to this model. We propose that other networked laboratories should investigate the suitability of this quality system for use in their network.

  12. Towards semen quality assessment using neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Christian; Salamon, P.; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology and results from a neural net based classification of human sperm head morphology. The methodology uses a preprocessing scheme in which invariant Fourier descriptors are lumped into “energy” bands. The resulting networks are pruned using optimal brain damage...

  13. Downscaling pollen-transport networks to the level of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Cristina; Vigalondo, Beatriz; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Olesen, Jens M; Traveset, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Most plant-pollinator network studies are conducted at species level, whereas little is known about network patterns at the individual level. In fact, nodes in traditional species-based interaction networks are aggregates of individuals establishing the actual links observed in nature. Thus, emergent properties of interaction networks might be the result of mechanisms acting at the individual level. Pollen loads carried by insect flower visitors from two mountain communities were studied to construct pollen-transport networks. For the first time, these community-wide pollen-transport networks were downscaled from species-species (sp-sp) to individuals-species (i-sp) in order to explore specialization, network patterns and niche variation at both interacting levels. We used a null model approach to account for network size differences inherent to the downscaling process. Specifically, our objectives were (i) to investigate whether network structure changes with downscaling, (ii) to evaluate the incidence and magnitude of individual specialization in pollen use and (iii) to identify potential ecological factors influencing the observed degree of individual specialization. Network downscaling revealed a high specialization of pollinator individuals, which was masked and unexplored in sp-sp networks. The average number of interactions per node, connectance, interaction diversity and degree of nestedness decreased in i-sp networks, because generalized pollinator species were composed of specialized and idiosyncratic conspecific individuals. An analysis with 21 pollinator species representative of two communities showed that mean individual pollen resource niche was only c. 46% of the total species niche. The degree of individual specialization was associated with inter- and intraspecific overlap in pollen use, and it was higher for abundant than for rare species. Such niche heterogeneity depends on individual differences in foraging behaviour and likely has implications

  14. System-level Modeling of Wireless Integrated Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Hansen, Knud; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks have emerged as a promising infrastructure for a new generation of monitoring and tracking applications. In order to efficiently utilize the extremely limited resources of wireless sensor nodes, accurate modeling of the key aspects of wireless sensor networks...... is necessary so that system-level design decisions can be made about the hardware and the software (applications and real-time operating system) architecture of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based abstract modeling framework that enables system-level modeling of sensor network behavior...... by modeling the applications, real-time operating system, sensors, processor, and radio transceiver at the sensor node level and environmental phenomena, including radio signal propagation, at the sensor network level. We demonstrate the potential of our modeling framework by simulating and analyzing a small...

  15. Enhancement of the FDOT's project level and network level bridge management analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Over several years, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has been implementing the AASHTO Pontis Bridge Management System to support network-level and project-level decision making in the headquarters and district offices. Pontis is an int...

  16. Structural Quality of Service in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    , telephony and data. To meet the requirements of the different applications, and to handle the increased vulnerability to failures, the ability to design robust networks providing good Quality of Service is crucial. However, most planning of large-scale networks today is ad-hoc based, leading to highly......Digitalization has created the base for co-existence and convergence in communications, leading to an increasing use of multi service networks. This is for example seen in the Fiber To The Home implementations, where a single fiber is used for virtually all means of communication, including TV...... complex networks lacking predictability and global structural properties. The thesis applies the concept of Structural Quality of Service to formulate desirable global properties, and it shows how regular graph structures can be used to obtain such properties....

  17. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  18. Abnormal quality detection and isolation in water distribution networks using simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nejjari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model based detection and localisation method to deal with abnormal quality levels based on the chlorine measurements and chlorine sensitivity analysis in a water distribution network. A fault isolation algorithm which correlates on line the residuals (generated by comparing the available chlorine measurements with their estimations using a model with the fault sensitivity matrix is used. The proposed methodology has been applied to a District Metered Area (DMA in the Barcelona network.

  19. PUBLIC CERTIFICATION AND OPTIMAL LEVEL OF QUALITY STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    ILLTAE AHN

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes public certification program where the government sets a quality standard and provides labels to sellers whose qualities are above the standard. Buyers are uninformed of sellers¡¯ qualities without the program. We study an optimal level of quality standard or optimal ratio of labeling that maximizes the social welfare. We find that the optimal quality standard becomes higher or the optimal ratio of labeling decreases as the unit certification cost increases and the quality...

  20. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  1. [Quality circle in a trauma network of the German Association for Trauma Surgery. Upgrading patient care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstberger, A; Koller, M; Nerlich, M

    2011-02-01

    In industry, especially in the automobile industry, improvements in efficiency could be demonstrated by quality management and quality circles. There is no doubt that in medicine, major trauma is also a very complex challenge.The German Association for Trauma Surgery published the White Paper on the Management of the Seriously Injured in 2006. The White Paper specifies the demand for quality of care, sets the level of structural requirements for trauma care and postulates the cooperation of regional hospitals within a network of dedicated trauma centres. The Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria (TNO) was the first certified trauma network in Germany. One of the reasons for this success is the fact that cooperation between trauma surgeons has already had a long tradition in this geographic area. The key factor is communication which is supported by all technical and organisational means. The formal installation of quality circles on each level of trauma care, e.g. within and across institutions, was accepted by all partners within the network. The goal is the improvement of patient care in trauma above and beyond the guidelines of the White Paper. This paper shows the instruments used to enhance the quality of trauma care within a network.

  2. Distributed applications monitoring at system and network level

    CERN Document Server

    Aderholz, Michael; Augé, E; Bagliesi, G; Banistoni, G; Barone, L; Boschini, M; Brunengo, A; Bunn, J J; Butler, J; Campanella, M; Capiluppi, P; D'Amato, M; Darneri, M; Di Mattia, A; Dorokhov, A E; Gagliardi, F; Gaines, I; Gasparini, U; Ghiselli, A; Gordon, J; Grandi, C; Gálvez, P; Harris, F; Holtman, K; Karimäki, V; Karita, Y; Klem, J T; Legrand, I; Leltchouk, M; Linglin, D; Lubrano, P; Luminari, L; McArthur, I C; Michelotto, M; Morita, Y; Nazarenko, A; Newman, H; O'Dell, Vivian; O'Neale, S W; Osculati, B; Pepé, M; Perini, L; Pinfold, James L; Pordes, R; Prelz, F; Putzer, A; Resconi, S; Robertson, L; Rolli, S; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Schaffer, R D; Schalk, T L; Servoli, L; Sgaravatto, M; Shiers, J; Silvestris, L; Siroli, G P; Sliwa, K; Smith, T; Somigliana, R; Stanescu, C; Stockinger, H E; Ugolotti, D; Valente, E; Vistoli, C; Wilkinson, R P; Willers, Ian Malcolm; Williams, D O

    2001-01-01

    Most distributed applications are based on architectural models that do not involve real-time knowledge of network status and of their network usage. Moreover the new "network aware" architectures are still under development and their design is not yet complete. We considered, as a use case, an application using ODBMS (Objectivity /DB) for the distributed analysis of experimental data. The dynamic usage of system and network resources at host and application levels has been measured in different client/server configurations, and on several LAN and WAN layouts. The aim was to study the application efficiency and behavior versus the network characteristics and conditions. The most interesting results of the LAN and WAN tests are described. System bottlenecks and limitations have been identified, and efficient working conditions in the different scenarios have been defined. The behavior observed when moving away from the optimal working conditions is also described.

  3. Quality in Family Child Care Networks: An Evaluation of All Our Kin Provider Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Toni; Reiman, Kayla; Nelson, Christina; Sager, Jessica; Wagner, Janna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of quality with a sample of 28 family child care providers in the All Our Kin Family Child Care Network, a staffed family child care network which offers a range of services including relationship-based intensive consultation, and 20 family child care providers who had no…

  4. Architectural approach for quality and safety aware healthcare social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd; González, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Quality of information and privacy and safety issues are frequently identified as main limitations to make most benefit from social media in healthcare. The objective of the paper is to contribute to the analysis of healthcare social networks (SN), and online healthcare social network services (SNS) by proposing a formal architectural analysis of healthcare SN and SNS, considering the complexity of both systems, but stressing on quality, safety and usability aspects. Quality policies are necessary to control the quality of content published by experts and consumers. Privacy and safety policies protect against inappropriate use of information and users responsibility for sharing information. After the policies are established and documented, a proof of concept online SNS supporting primary healthcare promotion is presented in the paper.

  5. A Network Perspective on Individual-Level Ambidexterity in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogan, Michelle; Mors, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the call for a deeper understanding of ambidexterity at the individual level, we propose that managers’ networks are an important yet understudied factor in the ability to balance the trade-off between exploring for new business and exploiting existing business. Analyses of 1,449 ties...... in the internal and external networks of 79 senior managers in a management consulting firm revealed significant differences in the density, contact heterogeneity, and informality of ties in the networks of senior managers who engaged in both exploration and exploitation compared with managers that predominately...

  6. Assessing state-level active living promotion using network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Taniguchi, Nicole; Iskandar, Livia; Maddock, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals. A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii's active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies. A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low. Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

  7. Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Daudi S. Simbeye; Shi Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and presented a wireless sensor network monitoring and control system for aquaculture. The system can detect and control water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen content, pH value, and water level in real-time. The sensor nodes collect the water quality parameters and transmit them to the base station host computer through ZigBee wireless communication standard. The host computer is used for data analysis, processing and presentation using LabVIEW software pl...

  8. Multiple Transcoding Impact on Speech Quality in Ideal Network Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of transcoding on the speech quality. We have focused mainly on the transcoding between codecs without the negative influence of the network parameters such as packet loss and delay. It has ensured objective and repeatable results from our measurement. The measurement was performed on the Transcoding Measuring System developed especially for this purpose. The system is based on the open source projects and is useful as a design tool for VoIP system administrators. The paper compares the most used codecs from the transcoding perspective. The multiple transcoding between G711, GSM and G729 codecs were performed and the speech quality of these calls was evaluated. The speech quality was measured by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method, which provides results in Mean Opinion Score used to describe the speech quality on a scale from 1 to 5. The obtained results indicate periodical speech quality degradation on every transcoding between two codecs.

  9. A new tool for quality of multimedia estimation based on network behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Frnda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a software tool capable of predicting the final quality of triple play services by using the most common assessment metrics. The quality of speech and video in network environment is a growing concern of all the internet service providers to carry the multimedia traffic without the excessive delays and losses, which degrade the quality of multimedia as it is perceived by the end users. Prediction mathematical model is based on results obtained from many performed testing scenarios simulating real behavior in the network. Based on the proposed model, speech or video quality is calculated with regard to policies applied for packet processing by routers and to the level of total network utilization. The application cannot only predict QoS parameters but also generate the source code of particular QoS policy setting according to the user interaction and apply the policy to the routers in the network. Contribution of the work consists of a new software tool enables network administrators and designers to improve and optimize network traffic efficiently.

  10. Quality in Supply in Project Configured Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    2006-01-01

    The paper argues that in the AEC-industry the material and knowledge supply chains are increasingly intertwined and moreover characterised by configuration by project. In such a setting creating value for the customers and the enterprises becomes dependent of the ability to organise and coordinat...... collaborative design and quality control in operations.......The paper argues that in the AEC-industry the material and knowledge supply chains are increasingly intertwined and moreover characterised by configuration by project. In such a setting creating value for the customers and the enterprises becomes dependent of the ability to organise and coordinate...... in the supply chains. That the configuration is not always successful can be demonstrated by studying the emergence of failures occurring in the supply chain. The paper presents case study work done in Danish construction where actors and causes of failures were examined upstream and downstream in the supply...

  11. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  12. Quality of Service in Networks Supporting Cultural Multimedia Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of representative multimedia applications in the cultural heritage sector, as well as research results on quality of service (QoS) mechanisms in internet protocol (IP) networks that support such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a literature review. Findings: Cultural…

  13. Voice Quality Improvement with Error Concealment in Audio Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Baydere, Sebnem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-dimensional properties of audio data and resource-poor nodes make voice processing and transmission a challenging task for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). This study analyzes voice quality distortions caused by packet losses occurring over a multi-hop WSN testbed: A comprehensive analysis of

  14. DISCRETE VOLUME-ELEMENT METHOD FOR NETWORK WATER- QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An explicit dynamic water-quality modeling algorithm is developed for tracking dissolved substances in water-distribution networks. The algorithm is based on a mass-balance relation within pipes that considers both advective transport and reaction kinetics. Complete mixing of m...

  15. A combined geostatistical-optimization model for the optimal design of a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosionis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation due to extensive agricultural activities. In this work, a simulation-optimization framework is developed based on heuristic optimization methodologies and geostatistical modeling approaches to obtain an optimal design for a groundwater quality monitoring network. Groundwater quantity and quality data obtained from 43 existing observation locations at 3 different hydrological periods in Mires basin in Crete, Greece will be used in the proposed framework in terms of Regression Kriging to develop the spatial distribution of nitrates concentration in the aquifer of interest. Based on the existing groundwater quality mapping, the proposed optimization tool will determine a cost-effective observation wells network that contributes significant information to water managers and authorities. The elimination of observation wells that add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level and quality mapping of the area can be obtain using estimations uncertainty and statistical error metrics without effecting the assessment of the groundwater quality. Given the high maintenance cost of groundwater monitoring networks, the proposed tool could used by water regulators in the decision-making process to obtain a efficient network design that is essential.

  16. Network Governance at the Firm and Network Level: Goals, Routines, and Social Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W. Ziggers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the general understanding of governance in networks and the achievement of private and common goals.  Integrating transaction costs and social network theory, a simple integrated framework is provided for understanding why firms collaborate and under which conditions they establish durable networks that succeed in achieving goals. Network theory is extended by explicitly distinguishing between firm and network level governance, and by identifying governance mechanisms that adapt, coordinate, and safeguard customized exchanges. This way issues as how networks evolve, how they are governed, and ultimately, how collective outcomes might be generated can be better comprehended. This is especially relevant to policy planners and those having a perspective that goes beyond the performance of individual organizations.

  17. Polysemous Qualities and Universal Networks, Invariance and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc-Michel Perrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the conceptual organization of polysemous prototypical qualities. This study, based on data collected in 24 languages, makes use of a single notional space composed of 110 notions. This space enables us to separately represent the polysemies observed in each language as well as polysemous patterns observable in several languages in order to contrast the variability specific to each language with the linguistic invariance. The results show that what is common in the language sample is based on recurring polysemies organized in networks. This method will also be useful in explaining how the linguistic variability is built up. Indeed, some of the qualities involved in these networks always take part in polysemous associations specific to only one language. Such qualities, called federative notions, are characterized by the fact that they are regularly involved in polyse?mous patterns, and across numerous languages.

  18. Intelligent Packet Shaper to Avoid Network Congestion for Improved Streaming Video Quality at Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaul, Manohar; Khosla, Rajiv; Mitsukura, Y

    2003-01-01

    of this intelligent traffic-shaping algorithm on the underlying network real time packet traffic and the eradication of unwanted abruption in the streaming video qualiy. This paper concluded from the end results of the simulation that neural networks are a very superior means of modeling real-time traffic......This paper proposes a traffic shaping algorithm based on neural networks, which adapts to a network over which streaming video is being transmitted. The purpose of this intelligent shaper is to eradicate all traffic congestion and improve the end-user's video quality. It possesses the capability...... to predict, to a very high level of accuracy, a state of congestion based upon the training data collected about the network behaviour. Initially, the current traffic shaping technologies are discussed and later a simulation in a controlled environment is illustrated to exhibit the effects...

  19. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  20. Level Controlled Gossip Based Tsunami Warning Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh BHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a warning system based on distributed sensor networks employing level controlled gossip. Level controlled gossip is a technique that is being proposed which employs leveling and gossiping together. This technique reduces the number of messages by transmitting messages in the direction of base station and thereby increasing the life time of sensor network. By using various power levels at base station the sensor field is hierarchically partitioned into levels of increasing radius (containing various sensor nodes. The algorithm divides the entire sensor network into logical concentric zones based on proximity from the base station, whereby the packet is transmitted from a node of higher depth to nodes in the next zone with lesser depth. The transmission probability increases with the proximity of the Tsunami wave to the base station. The primary advantage of the protocol is transmitting a critical event with higher probability and at the same time conserving life time of the network for future monitoring.

  1. Network Physics anounces first product to provide business-level management of the most complex and dynamic networks

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Network Physics, provider of business-level, traffic flow-based network management solutions, today announced the introduction of the Network Physics NP/BizFlow-1000. With the NP/BizFlow-1000, Fortune 1000 companies with complex and dynamic networks can analyze the flows that link business groups, critical applications, and network software and hardware (1 page).

  2. The Dynamics of network and dyad level supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Various academic disciplines have treated the task of managing supply in the industrial company. These disciplines have focussed on various (inter-)organisational levels, e.g. the dyadic relation, the supply chain or the network. The present article argues that supply managers must manage both...... the dyadic supplier relations and the overall supply network of the company. By applying data from a longitudinal case study, this two-sided management task is investigated from a dynamic perspective. Three episodes from the case study, which describes the 14-year development of an industrial buyer......-supplier relation and its immediate network context, are presented. In analysing the data, the dynamic interdependency between management of one level and management of the other, will be demonstrated. The analysis reveals a need for an alternating approach to supply management, which takes the dynamic complexity...

  3. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  4. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  5. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor electricity generation in Nigeria is a very serious problem. Accurate prediction of water levels in dams is very important in power planning. Effective power planning helps in ensuring steady supply of electric power to consumers. The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water ...

  6. Precise leveling network analysis by graphic chart | Ojigi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative measurements made between any pair of Benchmarks (PB1 and PB2) in a precise leveling network often involves at least one forward and one backward observation in a PB1→PB2, PB2→PB1 sequence respectively. However, due to fatigue on the part of the surveyors and field assistants, hazards along geodetic ...

  7. Image aesthetic quality evaluation using convolution neural network embedded learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-xin; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Dan; Qian, Wen-hua; Wang, Li-peng

    2017-11-01

    A way of embedded learning convolution neural network (ELCNN) based on the image content is proposed to evaluate the image aesthetic quality in this paper. Our approach can not only solve the problem of small-scale data but also score the image aesthetic quality. First, we chose Alexnet and VGG_S to compare for confirming which is more suitable for this image aesthetic quality evaluation task. Second, to further boost the image aesthetic quality classification performance, we employ the image content to train aesthetic quality classification models. But the training samples become smaller and only using once fine-tuning cannot make full use of the small-scale data set. Third, to solve the problem in second step, a way of using twice fine-tuning continually based on the aesthetic quality label and content label respective is proposed, the classification probability of the trained CNN models is used to evaluate the image aesthetic quality. The experiments are carried on the small-scale data set of Photo Quality. The experiment results show that the classification accuracy rates of our approach are higher than the existing image aesthetic quality evaluation approaches.

  8. Evaluating C-RAN Fronthaul Functional Splits in Terms of Network Level Energy and Cost Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2016-01-01

    split in the baseband processing chain has been proposed to overcome these challenges. This paper evaluates, by mathematical and simulation methods, different splits with respect to network level energy and cost efficiency having in the mind the expected quality of service.The proposed mathematical......The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional...... model quantifies the multiplexing gains and the trade-offs between centralization and decentralization concerning the cost of the pool, fronthaul network capacity and resource utilization. The event-based simulation captures the influence of the traffic load dynamics and traffic type variation...

  9. Quality of psychiatric referrals to secondary-level care | Struwig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study examined the quality of referrals to secondary-level outpatient psychiatric services rendered by the. Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State. Referral letters were evaluated according to specific quality criteria. Aspects that would enable secondary-level doctors to make informed decisions ...

  10. 'Pastoral practices' for quality improvement in a Kenyan clinical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Gerry; Nzinga, Jacinta; English, Mike

    2017-12-01

    We explain social and organisational processes influencing health professionals in a Kenyan clinical network to implement a form of quality improvement (QI) into clinical practice, using the concept of 'pastoral practices'. Our qualitative empirical case study, conducted in 2015-16, shows the way practices constructing and linking local evidence-based guidelines and data collection processes provided a foundation for QI. Participation in these constructive practices gave network leaders pastoral status to then inscribe use of evidence and data into routine care, through championing, demonstrating, supporting and mentoring, with the support of a constellation of local champions. By arranging network meetings, in which the professional community discussed evidence, data, QI and professionalism, network leaders also facilitated the reconstruction of network members' collective professional identity. This consequently strengthened top-down and lateral accountability and inspection practices, disciplining evidence and audit-based QI in local hospitals. By explaining pastoral practices in this way and setting, we contribute to theory about governmentality in health care and extend Foucauldian analysis of QI, clinical networks and governance into low and middle income health care contexts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced data validation strategy of air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Mohamed-Faouzi; Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem

    2017-10-05

    Quick validation and detection of faults in measured air quality data is a crucial step towards achieving the objectives of air quality networks. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are threefold: (i) to develop a modeling technique that can be used to predict the normal behavior of air quality variables and help provide accurate reference for monitoring purposes; (ii) to develop fault detection method that can effectively and quickly detect any anomalies in measured air quality data. For this purpose, a new fault detection method that is based on the combination of generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) will be developed. GLRT is a well-known statistical fault detection method that relies on maximizing the detection probability for a given false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose to develop GLRT-based EWMA fault detection method that will be able to detect the changes in the values of certain air quality variables; (iii) to develop fault isolation and identification method that allows defining the fault source(s) in order to properly apply appropriate corrective actions. In this paper, reconstruction approach that is based on Midpoint-Radii Principal Component Analysis (MRPCA) model will be developed to handle the types of data and models associated with air quality monitoring networks. All air quality modeling, fault detection, fault isolation and reconstruction methods developed in this paper will be validated using real air quality data (such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen and carbon oxides measurement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Multi-level Fuzzy Evaluation Method for Smart Distribution Network Based on Entropy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Song, Xiaohui; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Smart distribution network is considered as the future trend of distribution network. In order to comprehensive evaluate smart distribution construction level and give guidance to the practice of smart distribution construction, a multi-level fuzzy evaluation method based on entropy weight is proposed. Firstly, focus on both the conventional characteristics of distribution network and new characteristics of smart distribution network such as self-healing and interaction, a multi-level evaluation index system which contains power supply capability, power quality, economy, reliability and interaction is established. Then, a combination weighting method based on Delphi method and entropy weight method is put forward, which take into account not only the importance of the evaluation index in the experts’ subjective view, but also the objective and different information from the index values. Thirdly, a multi-level evaluation method based on fuzzy theory is put forward. Lastly, an example is conducted based on the statistical data of some cites’ distribution network and the evaluation method is proved effective and rational.

  13. Quality Indicators Associated With the Level of NCQA Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Beauvais, Brad

    2017-04-01

    The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) is the most widely used accrediting body of health plans, but no study has explored how differences in health quality affect the accreditation level. Consumers may benefit as they guide health insurance purchasing decisions toward a cost-quality evaluation. The authors conducted a multinomial logistic regression analysis using data from the 2015 NCQA Quality Compass of 351 health plans. This study's outcome variable represented NCQA accreditation at 3 levels: accredited, commendable, and excellent. The authors examined the relationship of patient satisfaction, monitoring and prevention activities, appropriate care, and readmission rates on accreditation level. Satisfaction and monitoring and prevention activities were significantly associated with higher levels of accreditation in all analyses, but readmission was not. The expanded coverage of the Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity for health plans to market to consumers the benefits of accreditation to foster higher quality care.

  14. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  15. Wireless sensor networks: A survey on monitoring water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mompoloki Pule

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases related to poor water and sanitation conditions have over 200 million cases reported annually, causing 5–10 million deaths world-wide. Water quality monitoring has thus become essential to the supply of clean and safe water. Conventional monitoring processes involve manual collection of samples from various points in the distribution network, followed by laboratory testing and analysis. This process has proved to be ineffective since it is laborious, time consuming and lacks real-time results to promote proactive response to water contamination. Wireless sensor networks (WSN have since been considered a promising alternative to complement conventional monitoring processes. These networks are relatively affordable and allow measurements to be taken remotely, in real-time and with minimal human intervention. This work surveys the application of WSN in environmental monitoring, with particular emphasis on water quality. Various WSN based water quality monitoring methods suggested by other authors are studied and analyzed, taking into account their coverage, energy and security concerns. The work also compares and evaluates sensor node architectures proposed the various authors in terms of monitored parameters, microcontroller/microprocessor units (MCU and wireless communication standards adopted, localization, data security implementation, power supply architectures, autonomy and potential application scenarios.

  16. A comparison of two types of neural network for weld quality prediction in small scale resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanxun; Zhao, Dawei; Huang, YongAn

    2017-09-01

    Our study aims at developing an effective quality monitoring system in small scale resistance spot welding of titanium alloy. The measured electrical signals were interpreted in combination with the nugget development. Features were extracted from the dynamic resistance and electrode voltage curve. A higher welding current generally indicated a lower overall dynamic resistance level. A larger electrode voltage peak and higher change rate of electrode voltage could be detected under a smaller electrode force or higher welding current condition. Variation of the extracted features and weld quality was found more sensitive to the change of welding current than electrode force. Different neural network model were proposed for weld quality prediction. The back propagation neural network was more proper in failure load estimation. The probabilistic neural network model was more appropriate to be applied in quality level classification. A real-time and on-line weld quality monitoring system may be developed by taking advantages of both methods.

  17. Research on Holographic Evaluation of Service Quality in Power Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Jing, Tao; Ji, Yutong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of power data network, the continuous development of the Power data application service system, more and more service systems are being put into operation. Following this, the higher requirements for network quality and service quality are raised, in the actual process for the network operation and maintenance. This paper describes the electricity network and data network services status. A holographic assessment model was presented to achieve a comprehensive intelligence assessment on the power data network and quality of service in the operation and maintenance on the power data network. This evaluation method avoids the problems caused by traditional means which performs a single assessment of network performance quality. This intelligent Evaluation method can improve the efficiency of network operation and maintenance guarantee the quality of real-time service in the power data network..

  18. Coordinating standards and applications for optical water quality sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.; Pellerin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Joint USGS-CUAHSI Workshop: In Situ Optical Water Quality Sensor Networks; Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 8-10 June 2011; Advanced in situ optical water quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for advancing scientific understanding of aquatic systems through measurements of important biogeochemical parameters at the time scales over which they vary. High-frequency and real-time water quality data also provide the opportunity for early warning of water quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), convened a 3-day workshop to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, as well as handling, storage, and analysis of the continuous data they produce.

  19. Spam email filtering using network-level properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Paulo; Correia, André; Sousa, Pedro; Rocha, Miguel; Rio, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Spam is serious problem that affects email users (e.g. phishing attacks, viruses and time spent reading unwanted messages). We propose a novel spam email filtering approach based on network-level attributes (e.g. the IP sender geographic coordinates) that are more persistent in time when compared to message content. This approach was tested using two classifiers, Naive Bayes (NB) and Support Vector Machines (SVM), and compared against bag-of-words models and eight blacklists. Several experime...

  20. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  1. NQAR: Network Quality Aware Routing in Error-Prone Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a network quality aware routing (NQAR mechanism to provide an enabling method of the delay-sensitive data delivery over error-prone wireless sensor networks. Unlike the existing routing methods that select routes with the shortest arrival latency or the minimum hop count, the proposed scheme adaptively selects the route based on the network qualities including link errors and collisions with minimum additional complexity. It is designed to avoid the paths with potential noise and collision that may cause many non-deterministic backoffs and retransmissions. We propose a generic framework to select a minimum cost route that takes the packet loss rate and collision history into account. NQAR uses a data centric approach to estimate a single-hop delay based on processing time, propagation delay, packet loss rate, number of backoffs, and the retransmission timeout between two neighboring nodes. This enables a source node to choose the shortest expected end-to-end delay path to send a delay-sensitive data. The experiment results show that NQAR reduces the end-to-end transfer delay up to approximately 50% in comparison with the latency-based directed diffusion and the hop count-based directed diffusion under the error-prone network environments. Moreover, NQAR shows better performance than those routing methods in terms of jitter, reachability, and network lifetime.

  2. The impacts of network competence, knowledge sharing on service innovation performance: Moderating role of relationship quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoquan Jian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine how network competence, knowledge sharing and relationship quality affect service innovation performanceDesign/methodology/approach: Empirical ResearchFindings: 1 Both enterprise’s network competence and knowledge sharing have distinct positive impact on SIP; (2 Knowledge sharing partially mediates the effect of network competence on SIP. (3 Relationship quality positively moderates the effect of network competence on knowledge sharing, and the effect of knowledge sharing on SIP. (4 Relationship quality does not positively moderate the effect of network competence on SIP.Originality/value: This study has enriched current understanding of the relationship among network competence, knowledge sharing, relationship quality and service innovation performance.

  3. Application-Level and User-Level QoS Assessment of Audio-Video IP Transmission over Cross-Layer Designed Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Toshiro; Tasaka, Shuji; Nakaoka, Ken

    This paper performs application-level QoS and user-level QoS assessment of audio-video streaming in cross-layer designed wireless ad hoc networks. In order to achieve high QoS at the user-level, we employ link quality-based routing in the network layer and media synchronization control in the application layer. We adopt three link quality-based routing protocols: OLSR-SS (Signal Strength), AODV-SS, and LQHR (Link Quality-Based Hybrid Routing). OLSR-SS is a proactive routing protocol, while AODV-SS is a reactive one. LQHR is a hybrid protocol, which is a combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols. For applicationlevel QoS assessment, we performed computer simulation with ns-2 where an IEEE 802.11b mesh topology network with 24 nodes was assumed. We also assessed user-level QoS by a subjective experiment with 30 assessors. From the assessment results, we find AODV-SS the best for networks with long inter-node distances, while LQHR outperforms AODV-SS for short inter-node distances. In addition, we also examine characteristics of the three schemes with respect to the application-level QoS in random topology networks.

  4. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Comparison Of Power Quality Disturbances Classification Based On Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nway Nway Kyaw Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Power quality disturbances PQDs result serious problems in the reliability safety and economy of power system network. In order to improve electric power quality events the detection and classification of PQDs must be made type of transient fault. Software analysis of wavelet transform with multiresolution analysis MRA algorithm and feed forward neural network probabilistic and multilayer feed forward neural network based methodology for automatic classification of eight types of PQ signals flicker harmonics sag swell impulse fluctuation notch and oscillatory will be presented. The wavelet family Db4 is chosen in this system to calculate the values of detailed energy distributions as input features for classification because it can perform well in detecting and localizing various types of PQ disturbances. This technique classifies the types of PQDs problem sevents.The classifiers classify and identify the disturbance type according to the energy distribution. The results show that the PNN can analyze different power disturbance types efficiently. Therefore it can be seen that PNN has better classification accuracy than MLFF.

  6. Evaluating network-level predictors of behavior change among injection networks enrolled in the HPTN 037 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laramie R; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about ways network-level factors that may influence the adoption of combination prevention behaviors among injection networks, or how network-oriented interventions might moderate this behavior change process. A total of 232 unique injection risk networks in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized to a peer educator network-oriented intervention or standard of care control arm. Network-level aggregates reflecting the injection networks' baseline substance use dynamics, social interactions, and the networks exposure to gender- and structural-related vulnerabilities were calculated and used to predict changes in the proportion of network members adopting safer injection practices at 6-month follow-up. At follow-up, safer injection practices were observed among 46.31% of a network's members on average. In contrast, 25.7% of networks observed no change. Controlling for the effects of the intervention, significant network-level factors influencing network-level behavior change reflected larger sized injection networks (b=2.20, p=0.013) with a greater proportion of members who shared needles (b=0.29, pnetwork's safer injection practices were also observed for networks with fewer new network members (b=-0.31, p=0.008), and for networks whose members were proportionally less likely to have experienced incarceration (b=-0.20, p=0.012) or more likely to have been exposed to drug treatment (b=0.17, p=0.034) in the 6-months prior to baseline. A significant interaction suggested the intervention uniquely facilitated change in safer injection practices among female-only networks (b=-0.32, p=0.046). Network-level factors offer insights into ways injection networks might be leveraged to promote combination prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gap Filling of Daily Sea Levels by Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Pashova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, intelligent methods as artificial neural networks are successfully applied for data analysis from different fields of the geosciences. One of the encountered practical problems is the availability of gaps in the time series that prevent their comprehensive usage for the scientific and practical purposes. The article briefly describes two types of the artificial neural network (ANN architectures - Feed-Forward Backpropagation (FFBP and recurrent Echo state network (ESN. In some cases, the ANN can be used as an alternative on the traditional methods, to fill in missing values in the time series. We have been conducted several experiments to fill the missing values of daily sea levels spanning a 5-years period using both ANN architectures. A multiple linear regression for the same purpose has been also applied. The sea level data are derived from the records of the tide gauge Burgas, which is located on the western Black Sea coast. The achieved results have shown that the performance of ANN models is better than that of the classical one and they are very promising for the real-time interpolation of missing data in the time series.

  8. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  9. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within urban areas has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) can have a significant effect on human health. As such it is important to determine the potential exposure of individuals to these atmospheric constituents and investigate the processes that lead to the degradation of air quality within the urban environment. Whilst modelled pollutant levels on the local scale often suggest high degrees of spatial and temporal variability, the relatively sparse fixed site automated urban networks only provide low spatial resolution data that do not appear adequate in detecting such small scale variability. In this paper we demonstrate that measurements can now be made using networks of low-cost sensors that utilise a variety of techniques, including electrochemical and optical, to measure concentrations of atmospheric species. Once equipped with GPS and GPRS to determine position and transmit data respectively, these networks have the potential to provide valuable insights into pollutant variability inherent on the local or micro-scale. The methodology has been demonstrated successfully in field campaigns carried out in cities including London and Valencia, and is now being deployed as part of the Sensor Networks for Air Quality currently deployed at London Heathrow airport (SNAQ-Heathrow) which is outlined in the partner paper presented by Mead et al. (this conference). The SNAQ-Heathrow network of 50 sensor nodes will provide an unprecedented data set that includes measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, total VOCs, size-speciated PM as well as meteorological variables that include temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. This network will provide high temporal (20 second intervals) and spatial (50 sites within the airport area

  10. Multi-level deep supervised networks for retinal vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the appearance of retinal blood vessels are an important indicator for various ophthalmologic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and choroidal neovascularization. Vessel segmentation from retinal images is very challenging because of low blood vessel contrast, intricate vessel topology, and the presence of pathologies such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages. To overcome these challenges, we propose a neural network-based method for vessel segmentation. A deep supervised fully convolutional network is developed by leveraging multi-level hierarchical features of the deep networks. To improve the discriminative capability of features in lower layers of the deep network and guide the gradient back propagation to overcome gradient vanishing, deep supervision with auxiliary classifiers is incorporated in some intermediate layers of the network. Moreover, the transferred knowledge learned from other domains is used to alleviate the issue of insufficient medical training data. The proposed approach does not rely on hand-crafted features and needs no problem-specific preprocessing or postprocessing, which reduces the impact of subjective factors. We evaluate the proposed method on three publicly available databases, the DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE_DB1 databases. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach achieves better or comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods with a much faster processing speed, making it suitable for real-world clinical applications. The results of cross-training experiments demonstrate its robustness with respect to the training set. The proposed approach segments retinal vessels accurately with a much faster processing speed and can be easily applied to other biomedical segmentation tasks.

  11. Power Quality Investigation of Distribution Networks Embedded Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elsherif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a multitude of events have created a new environment for the electric power infrastructure. The presence of small-scale generation near load spots is becoming common especially with the advent of renewable energy sources such as wind power energy. This type of generation is known as distributed generation (DG. The expansion of the distributed generators- (DGs- based wind energy raises constraints on the distribution networks operation and power quality issues: voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage interruption, harmonic contents, flickering, frequency deviation, unbalance, and so forth. Consequently, the public distribution network conception and connection studies evolve in order to keep the distribution system operating in optimal conditions. In this paper, a comprehensive power quality investigation of a distribution system with embedded wind turbines has been carried out. This investigation is carried out in a comparison aspect between the conventional synchronous generators, as DGs are widely in use at present, and the different wind turbines technologies, which represent the foresightedness of the DGs. The obtained results are discussed with the IEC 61400-21 standard for testing and assessing power quality characteristics of grid-connected wind energy and the IEEE 1547-2003 standard for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems.

  12. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  13. The Level of Power Quality Measurement and Evaluation in A Stone Crusher Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ŞEKKELİ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric power. Quality of electrical energy in the electrical system that is requested continuous power (uninterrupted power, constant frequency and with constant amplitude can be explained by sinusoidal voltage. Deformation of voltage in the form of sinusoidal waveform is explained as a harmonic. Harmonics are most important factors in decreasing quality of energy in the electrical system. In industrial plants, existence of harmocins and voltage drop, causes serious problems both in plant and network. This problem affects the cost. In this study, a power quality measurements are carried out in stone crusher plant. Harmonics and voltage drop has been measured and evaluated with the power analyzer. In the power quality measurements, harmonic level of the plant is not so bad. However, it is recommended that compensation system with harmonic elimination can be established in plant.

  14. Classification of user expertise level by neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S C; Fulcher, J

    1997-04-01

    A neural network approach to low-level user modeling is described, in the context of text editing tasks using the Jove editor. Knowledge of a user's expertise is extracted automatically, based on their interaction with Jove over a two week period. A MLP classifier which uses rprop learning and incorporates output data fuzzification is developed to classify users into one of five expertise levels. Classification into the correct level is achieved in around 80% of the cases, with misclassification being restricted to adjacent classes. The neurofuzzy system is seen to outperform not only the binary classifier of Beale [1989], but also production rule and inductive expert systems developed especially for comparison purposes in this study.

  15. Ab initio quality neural-network potential for sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshet, Hagai; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-05-01

    An interatomic potential for high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) crystalline and liquid phases of sodium is created using a neural-network (NN) representation of the ab initio potential-energy surface. It is demonstrated that the NN potential provides an ab initio quality description of multiple properties of liquid sodium and bcc, fcc, and cI16 crystal phases in the P-T region up to 120 GPa and 1200 K. The unique combination of computational efficiency of the NN potential and its ability to reproduce quantitatively experimental properties of sodium in the wide P-T range enables molecular-dynamics simulations of physicochemical processes in HPHT sodium of unprecedented quality.

  16. First level network support handover to the IT Helpdesk

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 18th of May 2009, the first level network support will be handed over from Netops to the central IT Helpdesk. Thus, emails and phone calls directed to Netops (mailto:Netops@cern.ch and 74927) will be redirected to the Helpdesk (mailto:helpdesk.computing@cern.ch and 78888). Nevertheless, as in the past, escalation will be handled by IT/CS group. A detailed article on this change will be published in the next CERN Computer Newsletter. CS Group, IT Department

  17. First level network support handover to the IT Helpdesk

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 18th of May 2009, the first level network support will be handover from Netops to the central IT Helpdesk. Thus, emails and phone calls directed to Netops (mailto:Netops@cern.ch and 74927) will be redirected to the Helpdesk (mailto:helpdesk.computing@cern.ch and 78888). Nevertheless, as in the past, escalation will be handle by IT/CS group. A detailed article on this change will be published in the next CERN Computer Newsletter. CS Group, IT Department

  18. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  19. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  20. Impact of peer-led quality improvement networks on quality of inpatient mental health care: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Jasim, Sarah; Tripathi, Neeraj; Tucker, Sarah; Worrall, Adrian; Quirk, Alan; Crawford, Mike J

    2016-09-21

    Quality improvement networks are peer-led programmes in which members of the network assess the quality of care colleagues provide according to agreed standards of practice. These networks aim to help members identify areas of service provision that could be improved and share good practice. Despite the widespread use of peer-led quality improvement networks, there is very little information about their impact. We are conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial of a quality improvement network for low-secure mental health wards to examine the impact of membership on the process and outcomes of care over a 12 month period. Standalone low secure units in England and Wales that expressed an interest in joining the quality improvement network were recruited for the study from 2012 to 2014. Thirty-eight units were randomly allocated to either the active intervention (participation in the network n = 18) or a control arm (delayed participation in the network n = 20). Using a 5 % significance level and 90 % power, it was calculated that a sample size of 60 wards was required taking into account a 10 % drop out. A total of 75 wards were assessed at baseline and 8 wards dropped out the study before the data collection at follow up. Researchers masked to the allocation status of the units assessed all study outcomes at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. The primary outcome is the quality of the physical environment and facilities on the wards. The secondary outcomes are: safety of the ward, patient-rated satisfaction with care and mental well-being, staff burnout, training and supervision. Relative to control wards, it is hypothesized that the quality of the physical environment and facilities will be higher on wards in the active arm of the trial 12 months after randomization. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized evaluation of a peer-led quality improvement network that has examined the impact of participation on both patient-level and

  1. [Effect of a water-pipe network on the sensory quality of drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatarska, Anna; Smoczyński, Stefan; Wypyska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Object of studies was aimed at determining the effect of a water-pipe system on the sensory quality of drinking water originating from various intakes. The aim was to be achieved through analyses of the sensory quality (odor and flavor) of drinking water originating from various reception points within the water-pipe system. Based on the analyses carried out in the research, it may be stated that, transport of water through the water-pipe system in Olsztyn in the winter season does not affect deterioration of odor or flavor of water supplied to consumers. Besides worse sensory quality of drinking water at consumers' reception points may be determined by its worse quality immediately after treatment. As a result of water transport through a water-pipe network, it is possible to reduce the intensity of some odor and flavor attributes to an undetectable level.

  2. Network Performance and Quality of Experience of Remote Access Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Kist

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote Access Laboratories (RAL have become important learning and teaching tools. This paper presents a performance study that targets a specific remote access architecture implemented within a universities operational environment. This particular RAL system provides globally authenticated and arbitrated remote access to virtualized computers as well as computer controlled hardware experiments. This paper presents system performance results that have been obtained utilizing both a set of automated and human subject tests. Principle objectives of the study were: To gain a better understanding of the nature of network traffic caused by experimental activity usage; to obtain an indication of user expectations of activity performance; and to develop a measure to predict Quality of Experience, based on easily measurable Quality of Service parameters. The study emulates network layer variation of access-bandwidth and round-trip-time of typical usage scenarios and contrasts against user perception results that allow classifying expected user performance. It demonstrates that failure rate is excellent measure of usability, and that round-trip-time predominantly affects user experience. Thin-client and remote desktop architectures are popular to separate the location of users and the actual data processing and use similar structures, hence results of this study to be applied in these application areas as well.

  3. Applying fuzzy analytic network process in quality function deployment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afsharkazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an empirical study of QFD implementation when fuzzy numbers are used to handle the uncertainty associated with different components of the proposed model. We implement fuzzy analytical network to find the relative importance of various criteria and using fuzzy numbers we calculate the relative importance of these factors. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy matrix and house of quality to study the products development in QFD and also the second phase i.e. part deployment. In most researches, the primary objective is only on CRs to implement the quality function deployment and some other criteria such as production costs, manufacturing costs etc were disregarded. The results of using fuzzy analysis network process based on the QFD model in Daroupat packaging company to develop PVDC show that the most important indexes are being waterproof, resistant pill packages, and production cost. In addition, the PVDC coating is the most important index in terms of company experts’ point of view.

  4. Automatic quality assessment of apical four-chamber echocardiograms using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir H.; Luong, Christina; Tsang, Teresa; Allan, Gregory; Nouranian, Saman; Jue, John; Hawley, Dale; Fleming, Sarah; Gin, Ken; Swift, Jody; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-02-01

    Echocardiography (echo) is the most common test for diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac condi- tions. While most medical imaging modalities benefit from a relatively automated procedure, this is not the case for echo and the quality of the final echo view depends on the competency and experience of the sonographer. It is not uncommon that the sonographer does not have adequate experience to adjust the transducer and acquire a high quality echo, which may further affect the clinical diagnosis. In this work, we aim to aid the operator during image acquisition by automatically assessing the quality of the echo and generating the Automatic Echo Score (AES). This quality assessment method is based on a deep convolutional neural network, trained in an end-to-end fashion on a large dataset of apical four-chamber (A4C) echo images. For this project, an expert car- diologist went through 2,904 A4C images obtained from independent studies and assessed their condition based on a 6-scale grading system. The scores assigned by the expert ranged from 0 to 5. The distribution of scores among the 6 levels were almost uniform. The network was then trained on 80% of the data (2,345 samples). The average absolute error of the trained model in calculating the AES was 0.8 +/- 0:72. The computation time of the GPU implementation of the neural network was estimated at 5 ms per frame, which is sufficient for real-time deployment.

  5. Using statistical quality control techniques to monitor blood glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, T. A.; Clemmer, T. P.; Arthur, L. K.; Linford, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement techniques developed in industry are increasingly being applied to the medical field. Statistical process control charts are a CQI technique aimed at monitoring a process and its variability. At our hospital, statistical quality control charts are being constructed from laboratory blood glucose measurements of patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition. The charts will be used to monitor glucose levels, reveal variations, and illustrate the effects of ne...

  6. Analysis and optimal design of air quality monitoring networks using a variational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Henriquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality networks need revision and optimisation as instruments and network requirements, both scientific and societal, evolve over time. Assessing and optimising the information content of a monitoring network is a non-trivial problem. Here, we introduce a methodology formulated in a variational framework using an air quality model to simulate the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO as a passive tracer at the city scale. We address the specific case of adding or removing stations, and the more general situation of optimally distributing a given number of stations in a domain taking into account transport patterns and spatial factors such as population density and emission patterns. We consider three quality indicators: precision gain, information gain and degrees of freedom for a signal. These metrics are all functions of the singular values of the sensitivity matrix that links emissions and observations in the variational framework. We illustrate the application of the methodology in the case of Santiago (33.5°S, 70.5°W, 500 m a.s.l., a city of ca. 7 million inhabitants with significant pollution levels. We deem information gain as the best of the above indicators for this case. We then quantify the actual evolution of Santiago's network and compare it with the optimal configuration suggested by our methodology and with results previously obtained using a statistical approach. The application is restricted to diurnal and summer conditions, for which the dispersion model shows a good agreement with observations. The current method offers advantages in that it allows extending a network to include new sites, and it explicitly considers the effects of dispersion patterns, and desired weighting functions such as emission fluxes and population density. We find that Santiago's air quality has improved two-fold since 1988, regarding CO under diurnal summer conditions. Still, according to our results, the current configuration could be improved by

  7. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  8. Dynamic source routing strategy for two-level flows on scale-free networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Wu, Jia-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Packets transmitting in real communication networks such as the Internet can be classified as time-sensitive or time-insensitive. To better support the real-time and time-insensitive applications, we propose a two-level flow traffic model in which packets are labeled as level-1 or level-2, and those with level-1 have higher priority to be transmitted. In order to enhance the traffic capacity of the two-level flow traffic model, we expand the global dynamic routing strategy and propose a new dynamic source routing which supports no routing-flaps, high traffic capacity, and diverse traffic flows. As shown in this paper, the proposed dynamic source routing can significantly enhance the traffic capacity and quality of time-sensitive applications compared with the global shortest path routing strategy.

  9. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  10. Coeliac disease: the association between quality of life and social support network participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A R; Wolf, R; Contento, I; Verdeli, H; Green, P H R

    2016-06-01

    There is little information available on the use of social support systems for patients with coeliac disease (CD). We performed a cross-sectional study aiming to examine the association between participation in different types of social support networks and quality of life (QOL) in adults with CD. A survey including a validated CD specific QOL instrument was administered online and in-person to adults with CD who were following a gluten-free diet. Participation in social support networks (type, frequency and duration) were assessed. Among the 2138 participants, overall QOL scores were high, averaging 68.9 out of 100. Significant differences in QOL scores were found for age, length of time since diagnosis and level of education. Most (58%) reported using no social support networks. Of the 42% reporting use of social support networks (online 17.9%, face-to-face 10.8% or both 12.8%), QOL scores were higher for those individuals who used only face-to-face social support compared to only online support (72.6 versus 66.7; P networks is associated with greater QOL scores compared to online social support networks. These findings have potential implications for the management of individuals with CD. Emphasis on face-to-face support may improve long-term QOL and patient outcomes. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Optimal dynamics for quality control in spatially distributed mitochondrial networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinkesh K Patel

    Full Text Available Recent imaging studies of mitochondrial dynamics have implicated a cycle of fusion, fission, and autophagy in the quality control of mitochondrial function by selectively increasing the membrane potential of some mitochondria at the expense of the turnover of others. This complex, dynamical system creates spatially distributed networks that are dependent on active transport along cytoskeletal networks and on protein import leading to biogenesis. To study the relative impacts of local interactions between neighboring mitochondria and their reorganization via transport, we have developed a spatiotemporal mathematical model encompassing all of these processes in which we focus on the dynamics of a health parameter meant to mimic the functional state of mitochondria. In agreement with previous models, we show that both autophagy and the generation of membrane potential asymmetry following a fusion/fission cycle are required for maintaining a healthy mitochondrial population. This health maintenance is affected by mitochondrial density and motility primarily through changes in the frequency of fusion events. Health is optimized when the selectivity thresholds for fusion and fission are matched, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed coupling of the two processes through the protein OPA1. We also demonstrate that the discreteness of the components exchanged during fusion is critical for quality control, and that the effects of limiting total amounts of autophagy and biogenesis have distinct consequences on health and population size, respectively. Taken together, our results show that several general principles emerge from the complexity of the quality control cycle that can be used to focus and interpret future experimental studies, and our modeling framework provides a road-map for deconstructing the functional importance of local interactions in communities of cells as well as organelles.

  12. Toward a Theory of Industrial Supply Networks: A Multi-Level Perspective via Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most supply chains (SCs, transaction relationships between suppliers and customers are commonly considered to be an extrapolation from a linear perspective. However, this traditional linear concept of an SC is egotistic and oversimplified and does not sufficiently reflect the complex and cyclical structure of supplier-customer relationships in current economic and industrial situations. The interactional relationships and topological characteristics between suppliers and customers should be analyzed using supply networks (SNs rather than traditional linear SCs. Therefore, this paper reconceptualizes SCs as SNs in complex adaptive systems (CAS, and presents three main contributions. First, we propose an integrated framework of CAS network by synthesizing multi-level network analysis from the network-, community- and vertex-perspective. The CAS perspective enables us to understand the advances of SN properties. Second, in order to emphasize the CAS properties of SNs, we conducted a real-world SN based on the Japanese industry and describe an advanced investigation of SN theory. The CAS properties help in enriching the SN theory, which can benefit SN management, community economics and industrial resilience. Third, we propose a quantitative metric of entropy to measure the complexity and robustness of SNs. The results not only support a specific understanding of the structural outcomes relevant to SNs, but also deliver efficient and effective support to the management and design of SNs.

  13. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vehicle engine id one of the main sources of noise which its level is influenced by various parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motor oils quality before and after oil change on the variability of vehicle engine induced noise level. In this study it is tried to follow-up the efficacy of motor oil quality on engines sound level. Material and Method: First, engine noise of 94 vehicles were recorded for 30 seconds before and after oil change and all the vehicles technical information including mileage, type of motor oil, and type of vehicle were registered. Following, the recorded noises were calibrated in semi-anechoic chamber and the sound pressure levels were measured with A and C-weighting network and main octav bands, using a sound level meters. The obtained results analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: The effects of motor oil quality on different noise levels of engines were determined and a significant reduction in noise level of vehicles engine was observed. Investigation of the relationship between mileage and motor oil quality on various engines sound level manifested that vehicles with mileage ranged 100000-150000 miles had significant reduction in their sound pressure levels in comparison with other vehicles. Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  14. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical parameters and heavy metals. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured in situ. While total alkalinity, chloride, ammonia, nitrate and ...

  15. County-level environmental quality and associations with cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer has been associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as PM2.5 and arsenic. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. A novel county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) was developed for all U.S. counties (n=3,141)...

  16. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  17. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  18. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  19. Unmet needs, quality of life and support networks of people with dementia living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Castillo, Claudia; Woods, Bob; Galboda, Kumari; Oomman, Sabu; Olojugba, Charles; Orrell, Martin

    2010-11-12

    There is lack of evidence about the unmet needs of people with dementia (PWD) living at home and the predictors of high levels of unmet needs. The main aim of this study was to identify the relationship between unmet needs, social networks and quality of life of PWD living at home. One hundred and fifty two community dwelling PWD and 128 carers were interviewed about PWD's needs, social networks, quality of life and other functional and psychological factors. All the interviews with PWD were carried out at their homes. Interviews with carers were undertaken either at PWD's home, their own home or at the health centre. Whenever possible, PWD and carers were interviewed separately. The data collection took place between November 2005 and July 2007. The majority of participants (129, 84.9%) were recruited from National Health Services (NHS) and the rest (23, 15.1%) were recruited from other organisations such as social services and voluntary organizations in the UK. The most frequent unmet needs for PWD were daytime activities (77, 50.7%), company (60, 39.5%), and help with psychological distress (47, 30.9%). Higher number of behavioural and psychological symptoms, low-community involvement social networks, having a younger carer and higher carer's anxiety were found to be predictors of higher unmet needs in PWD. Social networks and behavioural and psychological symptoms had an indirect effect on PWD's self-rated quality of life through unmet needs. Interventions aiming to reduce unmet needs, through the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms and the involvement of PWD in the community, would potentially improve PWD's quality of life.

  20. TinyOS-based quality of service management in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N.; Anusuya-Rangappa, L.; Shirazi, B.A.; Huang, R.; Song, W.-Z.; Miceli, M.; McBride, D.; Hurson, A.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the cost and extremely limited capabilities of sensors prohibited Quality of Service (QoS) implementations in wireless sensor networks. With advances in technology, sensors are becoming significantly less expensive and the increases in computational and storage capabilities are opening the door for new, sophisticated algorithms to be implemented. Newer sensor network applications require higher data rates with more stringent priority requirements. We introduce a dynamic scheduling algorithm to improve bandwidth for high priority data in sensor networks, called Tiny-DWFQ. Our Tiny-Dynamic Weighted Fair Queuing scheduling algorithm allows for dynamic QoS for prioritized communications by continually adjusting the treatment of communication packages according to their priorities and the current level of network congestion. For performance evaluation, we tested Tiny-DWFQ, Tiny-WFQ (traditional WFQ algorithm implemented in TinyOS), and FIFO queues on an Imote2-based wireless sensor network and report their throughput and packet loss. Our results show that Tiny-DWFQ performs better in all test cases. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  1. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  2. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Buchberger, S.G.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological) contaminant propagation; for particulate

  3. Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

  4. Integration of FBG Strain Sensors in WDM Networks, Effects on Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Lawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of integrating an FBG sensor in a four wavelength WDM communications system operating at 1550 nm is presented. The simulations considered focus on the mutual effects of both the sensing and the communications systems. The effect of power levels of the interrogating optical source on the performance of the two systems is also investigated under excitation levels of up to 10 dBm. The network layout used in the simulations is based on an actual optical link in Oman having a variety of spans. The results obtained at data rates of 2.5 and 10 Gbps with variable strains up to ±600 μs show a good tolerance in terms of quality of transmission for the two systems. However, the greater the strain values, the more noticeable are the degradations of transmission quality parameters of the communications system.

  5. Network-level structural covariance in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Zhou, Juan; Seeley, William W

    2010-10-19

    Intrinsic or resting state functional connectivity MRI and structural covariance MRI have begun to reveal the adult human brain's multiple network architectures. How and when these networks emerge during development remains unclear, but understanding ontogeny could shed light on network function and dysfunction. In this study, we applied structural covariance MRI techniques to 300 children in four age categories (early childhood, 5-8 y; late childhood, 8.5-11 y; early adolescence, 12-14 y; late adolescence, 16-18 y) to characterize gray matter structural relationships between cortical nodes that make up large-scale functional networks. Network nodes identified from eight widely replicated functional intrinsic connectivity networks served as seed regions to map whole-brain structural covariance patterns in each age group. In general, structural covariance in the youngest age group was limited to seed and contralateral homologous regions. Networks derived using primary sensory and motor cortex seeds were already well-developed in early childhood but expanded in early adolescence before pruning to a more restricted topology resembling adult intrinsic connectivity network patterns. In contrast, language, social-emotional, and other cognitive networks were relatively undeveloped in younger age groups and showed increasingly distributed topology in older children. The so-called default-mode network provided a notable exception, following a developmental trajectory more similar to the primary sensorimotor systems. Relationships between functional maturation and structural covariance networks topology warrant future exploration.

  6. Sensor data security level estimation scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alex; Filho, Raimir Holanda

    2015-01-19

    Due to their increasing dissemination, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become the target of more and more sophisticated attacks, even capable of circumventing both attack detection and prevention mechanisms. This may cause WSN users, who totally trust these security mechanisms, to think that a sensor reading is secure, even when an adversary has corrupted it. For that reason, a scheme capable of estimating the security level (SL) that these mechanisms provide to sensor data is needed, so that users can be aware of the actual security state of this data and can make better decisions on its use. However, existing security estimation schemes proposed for WSNs fully ignore detection mechanisms and analyze solely the security provided by prevention mechanisms. In this context, this work presents the sensor data security estimator (SDSE), a new comprehensive security estimation scheme for WSNs. SDSE is designed for estimating the sensor data security level based on security metrics that analyze both attack prevention and detection mechanisms. In order to validate our proposed scheme, we have carried out extensive simulations that show the high accuracy of SDSE estimates.

  7. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharil Mad Saad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC, base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  8. Nutrient and pesticide data collected from the USGS National Water Quality Network and previous networks, 1980-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Casey; Norman, Julia E.; Reutter, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project. The NWQN includes 19 large river coastal sites, 44 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Water Program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides streamflow, nutrient, pesticide and sediment data collected and analyzed by NWQN and other historical water-quality networks from 1980-2015. Data from this release are presented at the USGS Tracking Water Quality page: http://cida.usgs.gov/quality/rivers/home.

  9. Letter to Editor: RESITA NETWORK - ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION NETWORK OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL NETWORKING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AT ACADEMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation, development, activities, and wider social impact of the AcademicEntrepreneurship and Innovation Network of South Eastern European Universities, or shortlyRESITA Network, is presented in this paper as a positive example of successful networking inentrepreneurship and innovation at academic level.

  10. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  11. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  12. Immunizing networks by targeting collective influencers at a mesoscopic level

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A practical approach to protecting networks against epidemic processes such as spreading of infectious diseases, malware, and harmful viral information is to remove some influential nodes beforehand to fragment the network into small components. Because determining the optimal order to remove nodes is a computationally hard problem, various approximate algorithms have been proposed to efficiently fragment networks by sequential node removal. Morone and Makse proposed an algorithm employing the non-backtracking matrix of given networks, which outperforms various existing algorithms with a reasonable computational cost. In fact, many empirical networks have community structure, compromising the assumption of local tree-like structure on which the original algorithm is based. We develop an immunization algorithm by synergistically combining the Morone-Makse algorithm and coarse graining of the network in which we regard a community as a supernode. The proposed algorithm works more efficiently than the Morone-Mak...

  13. The Structure and Quality of Social Network Support among Mental Health Consumers of Clubhouse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the structure and quality of social network support among a group of adult consumers of community-based mental health programs known as "clubhouses". The structure and quality of social network support was also examined by diagnosis, specifically between consumers living with and without schizophrenia. The study…

  14. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as

  15. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 5: Waste characterization and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains six papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include quality assurance programs; source terms; waste characterization programs; and DOE's information network modifications. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  16. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  17. Encryption for confidentiality of the network and influence of this to the quality of streaming video through network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, L.; Uhrin, D.; Frnda, J.; Voznak, M.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Mikulec, M.; Jakovlev, Sergej

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the interest in real-time services, like audio and video, is growing. These services are mostly transmitted over packet networks, which are based on IP protocol. It leads to analyses of these services and their behavior in such networks which are becoming more frequent. Video has become the significant part of all data traffic sent via IP networks. In general, a video service is one-way service (except e.g. video calls) and network delay is not such an important factor as in a voice service. Dominant network factors that influence the final video quality are especially packet loss, delay variation and the capacity of the transmission links. Analysis of video quality concentrates on the resistance of video codecs to packet loss in the network, which causes artefacts in the video. IPsec provides confidentiality in terms of safety, integrity and non-repudiation (using HMAC-SHA1 and 3DES encryption for confidentiality and AES in CBC mode) with an authentication header and ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). The paper brings a detailed view of the performance of video streaming over an IP-based network. We compared quality of video with packet loss and encryption as well. The measured results demonstrated the relation between the video codec type and bitrate to the final video quality.

  18. Management of speech and video telephony quality in heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lewcio, Błażej

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how networking research and quality engineering can be combined to successfully manage the transmission quality when speech and video telephony is delivered in heterogeneous wireless networks. Nomadic use of services requires intelligent management of ongoing transmission, and to make the best of available resources many fundamental trade-offs must be considered. Network coverage versus throughput and reliability of a connection is one key aspect, efficiency versus robustness of signal compression is another. However, to successfully manage services, user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) in heterogeneous networks must be known, and the perception of quality changes must be understood.  These issues are addressed in this book, in particular focusing on the perception of quality changes due to switching between diverse networks, speech and video codecs, and encoding bit rates during active calls.

  19. Network for Light Pollution education at secondary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Ros, Rosa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution (LP) is one form of environmental pollution less known than most others. It affects the visibility of the night sky, but also alters the balance of the ecosystem and affects human health, since it breaches the biological clocks that are coordinated with periods of light and darkness. To be alert on this subject, learn to recognize the problem, warn others of the consequences, and find solutions, are objectives of the present work.The LP as subject of study can be also a good point to teach and learn about the uses of light in general, including the problem to rich the starry night from the schoolyard.The Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE), proposes a set of simple, non expensive and funny activities, especially designed no only to understand the three types of light pollution: glow, intrusion and glare, but also to explain the problems associated to the over- consumption, to show why the public light produces strong and bad effects on the astronomical observation, including the radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and affects the human health. NASE workshop on this subject is devoted to the Natural Sciences teachers and professors and for this reason the activity cross over all the secondary school level spaces.More details in: http://www.naseprogram.org

  20. Quality-on-Demand Compression of EEG Signals for Telemedicine Applications Using Neural Network Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sriraam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A telemedicine system using communication and information technology to deliver medical signals such as ECG, EEG for long distance medical services has become reality. In either the urgent treatment or ordinary healthcare, it is necessary to compress these signals for the efficient use of bandwidth. This paper discusses a quality on demand compression of EEG signals using neural network predictors for telemedicine applications. The objective is to obtain a greater compression gains at a low bit rate while preserving the clinical information content. A two-stage compression scheme with a predictor and an entropy encoder is used. The residue signals obtained after prediction is first thresholded using various levels of thresholds and are further quantized and then encoded using an arithmetic encoder. Three neural network models, single-layer and multi-layer perceptrons and Elman network are used and the results are compared with linear predictors such as FIR filters and AR modeling. The fidelity of the reconstructed EEG signal is assessed quantitatively using parameters such as PRD, SNR, cross correlation and power spectral density. It is found from the results that the quality of the reconstructed signal is preserved at a low PRD thereby yielding better compression results compared to results obtained using lossless scheme.

  1. Quality-on-Demand Compression of EEG Signals for Telemedicine Applications Using Neural Network Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraam, N

    2011-01-01

    A telemedicine system using communication and information technology to deliver medical signals such as ECG, EEG for long distance medical services has become reality. In either the urgent treatment or ordinary healthcare, it is necessary to compress these signals for the efficient use of bandwidth. This paper discusses a quality on demand compression of EEG signals using neural network predictors for telemedicine applications. The objective is to obtain a greater compression gains at a low bit rate while preserving the clinical information content. A two-stage compression scheme with a predictor and an entropy encoder is used. The residue signals obtained after prediction is first thresholded using various levels of thresholds and are further quantized and then encoded using an arithmetic encoder. Three neural network models, single-layer and multi-layer perceptrons and Elman network are used and the results are compared with linear predictors such as FIR filters and AR modeling. The fidelity of the reconstructed EEG signal is assessed quantitatively using parameters such as PRD, SNR, cross correlation and power spectral density. It is found from the results that the quality of the reconstructed signal is preserved at a low PRD thereby yielding better compression results compared to results obtained using lossless scheme.

  2. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density.

  3. System-Level Design Methodologies for Networked Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir

    2008-01-01

    is the first such attempt in the published literature. The second part of the thesis deals with the issues related to the development of system-level design methodologies for networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip at various levels of design abstraction with special focus on the modeling and design...... of wireless integrated sensor networks which are an emerging class of networked embedded computer systems. The work described here demonstrates how to model multiprocessor systems-on-chip at the system level by abstracting away most of the lower-level details albeit retaining the parameters most relevant...... at the system-level. The multiprocessor modeling framework is then extended to include models of networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip which is then employed to model wireless sensor networks both at the sensor node level as well as the wireless network level. In the third and the final part, the thesis...

  4. A social network's changing statistical properties and the quality of human innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzi, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.

  5. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Naghmeh; Rabbat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their activities and influence in online social networks. Using these measures we analyse the prevalence of the generalized friendship paradox over Twitter and we report high levels of prevalence (up to over 90% of nodes). We contend that this prevalence of the friendship paradox and its generalized version arise because of the hierarchical nature of the connections in the network. This hierarchy is nested as opposed to being star-like. We conclude that these paradoxes are collective phenomena not created merely by a minority of well-connected or high-attribute nodes. Moreover, our results show that a large fraction of individuals can experience the generalized friendship paradox even in the absence of a significant correlation between degrees and attributes.

  6. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Momeni

    Full Text Available The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their activities and influence in online social networks. Using these measures we analyse the prevalence of the generalized friendship paradox over Twitter and we report high levels of prevalence (up to over 90% of nodes. We contend that this prevalence of the friendship paradox and its generalized version arise because of the hierarchical nature of the connections in the network. This hierarchy is nested as opposed to being star-like. We conclude that these paradoxes are collective phenomena not created merely by a minority of well-connected or high-attribute nodes. Moreover, our results show that a large fraction of individuals can experience the generalized friendship paradox even in the absence of a significant correlation between degrees and attributes.

  7. A social network's changing statistical properties and the quality of human innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzzi, Brian [Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)], E-mail: uzzi@northwestern.edu

    2008-06-06

    We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.

  8. Efficient Uplink Modeling for Dynamic System-Level Simulations of Cellular and Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobinger Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel theoretical framework for uplink simulations is proposed. It allows investigations which have to cover a very long (real- time and which at the same time require a certain level of accuracy in terms of radio resource management, quality of service, and mobility. This is of particular importance for simulations of self-organizing networks. For this purpose, conventional system level simulators are not suitable due to slow simulation speeds far beyond real-time. Simpler, snapshot-based tools are lacking the aforementioned accuracy. The runtime improvements are achieved by deriving abstract theoretical models for the MAC layer behavior. The focus in this work is long term evolution, and the most important uplink effects such as fluctuating interference, power control, power limitation, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and control channel limitations are considered. Limitations of the abstract models will be discussed as well. Exemplary results are given at the end to demonstrate the capability of the derived framework.

  9. Dynamic quality of service model for improving performance of multimedia real-time transmission in industrial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandran C; Karunakaran, Manivannan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, quality of service (QoS) is very popular in various research areas like distributed systems, multimedia real-time applications and networking. The requirements of these systems are to satisfy reliability, uptime, security constraints and throughput as well as application specific requirements. The real-time multimedia applications are commonly distributed over the network and meet various time constraints across networks without creating any intervention over control flows. In particular, video compressors make variable bit-rate streams that mismatch the constant-bit-rate channels typically provided by classical real-time protocols, severely reducing the efficiency of network utilization. Thus, it is necessary to enlarge the communication bandwidth to transfer the compressed multimedia streams using Flexible Time Triggered- Enhanced Switched Ethernet (FTT-ESE) protocol. FTT-ESE provides automation to calculate the compression level and change the bandwidth of the stream. This paper focuses on low-latency multimedia transmission over Ethernet with dynamic quality-of-service (QoS) management. This proposed framework deals with a dynamic QoS for multimedia transmission over Ethernet with FTT-ESE protocol. This paper also presents distinct QoS metrics based both on the image quality and network features. Some experiments with recorded and live video streams show the advantages of the proposed framework. To validate the solution we have designed and implemented a simulator based on the Matlab/Simulink, which is a tool to evaluate different network architecture using Simulink blocks.

  10. Provisioning Strategies for Transparent Optical Networks Considering Transmission Quality, Security, and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirattigalachote, Amornrat

    2012-07-01

    The continuous growth of traffic demand driven by the brisk increase in number of Internet users and emerging online services creates new challenges for communication networks. The latest advances in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology make it possible to build Transparent Optical Networks (TONs) which are expected to be able to satisfy this rapidly growing capacity demand. The work in this thesis addresses three important aspects. In particular, this thesis focuses on routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) strategies specifically devised to target: (i) the lightpath transmission quality, (ii) the network security (i.e., in terms of vulnerability to physical-layer attacks), and (iii) the reduction of the network energy consumption. Our contributions are summarized below. A number of Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) algorithms have been proposed in the literature to consider physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase. Their objective is to prevent the selection of optical connections (referred to as lightpaths) with poor signal quality. These ICBR approaches always assign each connection request the least impaired lightpath and support only a single threshold of transmission quality, used for all connection requests. However, next generation networks are expected to support a variety of services with disparate requirements for transmission quality. To address this issue, in this thesis we propose an ICBR algorithm supporting differentiation of services at the Bit Error Rate (BER) level, referred to as ICBR-Diff. Our approach takes into account the effect of physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase where various BER thresholds are considered for accepting/blocking connection requests, depending on the signal quality requirements of the connection requests. We tested the proposed ICBR-Diff approach in different network scenarios, including also a fiber heterogeneity. It is shown that it can

  11. Fragmenting networks by targeting collective influencers at a mesoscopic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    A practical approach to protecting networks against epidemic processes such as spreading of infectious diseases, malware, and harmful viral information is to remove some influential nodes beforehand to fragment the network into small components. Because determining the optimal order to remove nodes is a computationally hard problem, various approximate algorithms have been proposed to efficiently fragment networks by sequential node removal. Morone and Makse proposed an algorithm employing the non-backtracking matrix of given networks, which outperforms various existing algorithms. In fact, many empirical networks have community structure, compromising the assumption of local tree-like structure on which the original algorithm is based. We develop an immunization algorithm by synergistically combining the Morone-Makse algorithm and coarse graining of the network in which we regard a community as a supernode. In this way, we aim to identify nodes that connect different communities at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed algorithm works more efficiently than the Morone-Makse and other algorithms on networks with community structure.

  12. Quality of Information Approach to Improving Source Selection in Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    consider the performance of this process based on metrics relating to quality of information: accuracy, timeliness, completeness and reliability. These...that are indicators of that the network is meeting these quality requirements. We study effective data rate, social distance, link integrity and the...utility of information as metrics within a multi-genre network to determine the quality of information of its available sources. This paper proposes a

  13. Health professional networks as a vector for improving healthcare quality and safety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Frances C; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Plumb, Jennifer; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    While there is a considerable corpus of theoretical and empirical literature on networks within and outside of the health sector, multiple research questions are yet to be answered. To conduct a systematic review of studies of professionals' network structures, identifying factors associated with network effectiveness and sustainability, particularly in relation to quality of care and patient safety. The authors searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science and Business Source Premier from January 1995 to December 2009. A majority of the 26 unique studies identified used social network analysis to examine structural relationships in networks: structural relationships within and between networks, health professionals and their social context, health collaboratives and partnerships, and knowledge sharing networks. Key aspects of networks explored were administrative and clinical exchanges, network performance, integration, stability and influences on the quality of healthcare. More recent studies show that cohesive and collaborative health professional networks can facilitate the coordination of care and contribute to improving quality and safety of care. Structural network vulnerabilities include cliques, professional and gender homophily, and over-reliance on central agencies or individuals. Effective professional networks employ natural structural network features (eg, bridges, brokers, density, centrality, degrees of separation, social capital, trust) in producing collaboratively oriented healthcare. This requires efficient transmission of information and social and professional interaction within and across networks. For those using networks to improve care, recurring success factors are understanding your network's characteristics, attending to its functioning and investing time in facilitating its improvement. Despite this, there is no guarantee that time spent on networks will necessarily improve patient care.

  14. Character-level Convolutional Network for Text Classification Applied to Chinese Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weijie; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interesting exploration of character-level convolutional neural network solving Chinese corpus text classification problem. We constructed a large-scale Chinese language dataset, and the result shows that character-level convolutional neural network works better on Chinese corpus than its corresponding pinyin format dataset. This is the first time that character-level convolutional neural network applied to text classification problem.

  15. Trinets encode tree-child and level-2 phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); V. Moulton

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPhylogenetic networks generalize evolutionary trees, and are commonly used to represent evolutionary histories of species that undergo reticulate evolutionary processes such as hybridization, recombination and lateral gene transfer. Recently, there has been great interest in trying to

  16. Evaluation of Video Quality in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Shakir; Obaid Ur Rehman; Zeeshan Abbas; Abdullah Masood; Wajeeha Shahid

    2016-01-01

    .... Scenarios involving multimedia transmissions with characteristics of video quality control and evaluation must be computed on the basis of Quality of Experience which relies on user's perception...

  17. Is Artificial Neural Network Suitable for Damage Level Determination of Rc- Structures?

    OpenAIRE

    Baltacıoğlu, A. K.; Öztürk, B.; Civalek, Ö.; Akgöz, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, an artificial neural network (ANN) application is introduced for estimation of damage level of reinforced concrete structures. Back-propagation learning algorithm is adopted. A typical neural network architecture is proposed and some conclusions are presented. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) for the assessment of earthquake related damage is investigated

  18. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  19. Ghrelin level negatively predicts quality of life in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P H; Song, Y L; Hsu, C H

    2017-02-01

    A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted to investigate whether ghrelin level in obese women predicts the quality of life (QOL). A total of 307 subjects fulfilled the criteria: (1) age between 20 and 65 years old, (2) body mass index ≥27 kg/m 2 (3) waist circumference ≥80 cm were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to one of the plasma ghrelin level categories according to the quartiles. The median of age and BMI of the 307 obese women were 45 ± 18 years and 29.9 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. The main outcome evaluated is the associations of plasma ghrelin level and QOL, which were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of linear trend test show significant statistical difference in plasma lipoproteins (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholestero and LDL-cholesterol = and levels of obesity-related hormone peptides, including leptin, adiponectin, insulin among quartiles of ghrelin. Multiple liner regression analysis of serum obesity-related hormone peptide level and QOL using stepwise method shows ghrelin concentration was the only predictor of QOL, including PCS-12 level (β = -0.18, p = 0.001), MCS-12 level (β = -0.14, p = 0.009), WHOQOL-BREF scores: physical (β = -0.13, p = 0.03), psychological (β = -0.16, p = 0.007), social (β = -0.21, p =  ghrelin concentration is strongly associated with QOL level among obese women. Hence, ghrelin concentration might be a valuable marker to be monitored in obese women.

  20. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, Gabriela A; Leal, Maria do C; Leao, Anna T T; Sheiham, Aubrey; Vettore, Mario V

    2012-01-13

    Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group--employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group--women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥ 4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥ 4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Pregnant and post-partum Brazilian women in paid

  1. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarca Gabriela A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. Methods A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline to post-partum period (follow-up. All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group - employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group - women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. Results There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1

  2. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom Summary The challenge of improving water quality (WQ) is a growing global concern [1]. Poor WQ is mainly attributed to poor water management and outdated agricultural activities. We propose that collaborative sensor networks spread across an entire catchment can allow cooperation among individual activities for integrated WQ monitoring and management. We show that sharing information on critical parameters among networks of water bodies and farms can enable identification and quantification of the contaminant sources, enabling better decision making for agricultural practices and thereby reducing contaminants fluxes. Motivation and results Nutrient losses from land to water have accelerated due to agricultural and urban pursuits [2]. In many cases, the application of fertiliser can be reduced by 30-50% without any loss of yield [3]. Thus information about nutrient levels and trends around the farm can improve agricultural practices and thereby reduce water contamination. The use of sensor networks for monitoring WQ in a catchment is in its infancy, but more applications are being tested [4]. However, these are focussed on local requirements and are mostly limited to water bodies. They have yet to explore the use of this technology for catchment-scale monitoring and management decisions, in an autonomous and dynamic manner. For effective and integrated WQ management, we propose a system that utilises local monitoring networks across a catchment, with provision for collaborative information sharing. This system of networks shares information about critical events, such as rain or flooding. Higher-level applications make use of this information to inform decisions about nutrient management, improving the quality of monitoring through the provision of richer datasets of catchment information to local networks. In the full paper, we present example scenarios and analyse how the benefits of

  3. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality

  4. Usage of link-level performance indicators for HSDPA network-level simulations in E-UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Frank; de Bruin, I.C.C.; Silva, João Carlos; Souto, Nuno; Cercas, Francisco; Correia, Américo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes integration of HSDPA (high-speed downlink packet access) link-level simulation results into network-level simulations for enhanced UMTS. The link-level simulations model all physical layer features depicted in the 3GPP standards. These include: generation of transport blocks;

  5. Design of a Multiobjective Reverse Logistics Network Considering the Cost and Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics, which is induced by various forms of used products and materials, has received growing attention throughout this decade. In a highly competitive environment, the service level is an important criterion for reverse logistics network design. However, most previous studies about product returns only focused on the total cost of the reverse logistics and neglected the service level. To help a manufacturer of electronic products provide quality postsale repair service for their consumer, this paper proposes a multiobjective reverse logistics network optimisation model that considers the objectives of the cost, the total tardiness of the cycle time, and the coverage of customer zones. The Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II is employed for solving this multiobjective optimisation model. To evaluate the performance of NSGA-II, a genetic algorithm based on weighted sum approach and Multiobjective Simulated Annealing (MOSA are also applied. The performance of these three heuristic algorithms is compared using numerical examples. The computational results show that NSGA-II outperforms MOSA and the genetic algorithm based on weighted sum approach. Furthermore, the key parameters of the model are tested, and some conclusions are drawn.

  6. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables andlevels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. Theparticipants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097 responded to questions concerning socialrelationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic was measured. Bloodpressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses toquestions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex ascovariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits,little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based onall questions was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolicblood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend. Ingeneral, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between severalof the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additionalcovariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI suggestingthat the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelatedfactors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should considerqualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships in addition tostructural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  7. Artificial neural networks for prediction of quality in resistance spot welding; Redes neuronales artificiales para la prediccion de la calidad en soldadura por resistencia por puntos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, O.; Lopez, M.; Martin, F.

    2006-07-01

    An artificial neural network is proposed as a tool for predicting from three parameters (weld time, current intensity and electrode sort) if the quality of a resistance spot weld reaches a certain level or not. The quality is determined by cross tension testing. The fact of reaching this quality level or not is the desired output that goes with each input of the artificial neural network during its supervised learning. The available data set is made up of input/desired output pairs and is split randomly into a training subset (to update synaptic weight values) and a validation subset (to avoid overfitting phenomenon by means of cross validation). (Author) 44 refs.

  8. Enhancing Network Quality using Baseband Frequency Hopping, Downlink Power Control and DTX in a Live GSM Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wagard, Jeroen; Skjærris, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Baseband frequency hopping in the combination with downlink power control and discontinuous transmission has been investigated as a quality improving feature in a live GSM network. Using the dropped call rate and the frame erasure rate to measure the network quality, the use of frequency hopping...... to the statistical inaccuracy with discontinuous transmission in GSM and maybe due to poor performance of the mobile stations, was encountered. The current status is therefore to reject the use of downlink discontinuous transmission until more information about the performance of the mobile stations is found...

  9. The university library in social networks: planning a quality presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Carmen Andrade Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Talks about the feasibility of participation of university libraries in social networking. We present the benefits and opportunities of Web 2.0 and online communities. Poses a set of guidelines aimed at developing a work plan that enables the implementation of site information in a social network. It highlights the capabilities of librarians to optimize this type of service.

  10. The Meso-level Structure of F/OSS Collaboration Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conald, Guido; Rullani, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Social networks in Free/Open Source Software (F/OSS) have been usually analyzed at the level of the single project e.g., [6], or at the level of a whole ecology of projects, e.g., [33]. In this paper, we also investigate the social network generated by developers who collaborate to one or multiple...... F/OSS projects, but we focus on the less-studied meso-level structure emerging when applying to this network a community-detection technique. The network of ‘communities’ emerging from this analysis links sub-groups of densely connected developers, sub-groups that are smaller than the components...

  11. Determinants on the quality of social networks among Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Chan, O F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine prospectively the quality of social networks of Hong Kong Chinese adults. A randomized household survey was employed. A total of 1170 Hong Kong Chinese respondents were recruited to the study. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 79 years, 43% of respondents were male. Findings revealed a negative association between familial trust and social network size. Network trust, social identification, and structural networks were all found to be positively associated with social network size and perceived respect from social network. The importance of family and the prioritization of the needs of the family over individual needs has implications on social network size and formation for Hong Kong Chinese individuals. More research is needed to further examine the importance of familial relationships and the prioritization of family and the impact this has on social network development and maintenance among Hong Kong Chinese.

  12. Social networks and health-related quality of life among Chinese older adults with vision impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Andy H Y; Xiong, Zhifan

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the associations between social networks and vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Chinese older adults. Urban older adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported visual functioning, general health, social networks, and vision-specific HRQOL. Objective visual function was clinically measured by ophthalmologists in terms of distance visual acuity. Findings indicate that age-related vision loss is significantly associated with older adults' social networks. Multiple regression analyses show that social networks are mildly related to vision-specific HRQOL even after controlling for other variables, and that friendship network was a significant predictor, independent of family network, of vision-specific HRQOL. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of family network, whereas this study finds that friendship network correlates more strongly with HRQOL measures among Chinese visually impaired older adults. This suggests a need to expand intervention beyond the family system.

  13. AEROCAN, the Canadian sub-network of AERONET: Aerosol monitoring and air quality applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Abboud, Ihab; Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for monitoring the spatial variability of particulate matter (PM) in relatively polluted regions of the globe. AEROCAN, a Canadian sub-network of AERONET, was established 20 years ago and currently consists of twenty sites across the country. In this study, we examine whether the AEROCAN sunphotometer data provide evidence of anthropogenic contributions to ambient particulate matter concentrations in relatively clean Canadian locations. The similar weekly cycle of AOD and PM2.5 over Toronto provides insight into the impact of local pollution on observed AODs. High temporal correlations (up to r = 0.78) between daily mean AOD (or its fine-mode component) and PM2.5 are found at southern Ontario AEROCAN sites during May-August, implying that the variability in the aerosol load resides primarily in the boundary layer and that sunphotometers capture day-to-day PM2.5 variations at moderately polluted sites. The sensitivity of AEROCAN AOD data to anthropogenic surface-level aerosol enhancements is demonstrated using boundary-layer wind information for sites near sources of aerosol or its precursors. An advantage of AEROCAN relative to the Canadian in-situ National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network is the ability to detect free tropospheric aerosol enhancements, which can be large in the case of lofted forest fire smoke or desert dust. These aerosol plumes eventually descend to the surface, sometimes in populated areas, exacerbating air quality. In cases of large AOD (≥0.4), AEROCAN data are also useful in characterizing the aerosol type. The AEROCAN network includes three sites in the high Arctic, a region not sampled by the NAPS PM2.5 monitoring network. These polar sites show the importance of long-range transport and meteorology in the Arctic haze phenomenon. Also, AEROCAN sunphotometers are, by design and due to regular maintenance, the most

  14. Innovation, Quality and Networking in Engineering Education in Europe: the Contribution of SOCRATES THEMATIC NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Claudio; Guberti, Elisa; Maffioli, Francesco

    Accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering is surely an argument which stimulates a great interest not only in the Italian level but above all in the European perspective. It appears strategic that Europe is equipped with a system which permits to compare the degree programmes in Engineering offered by various universities in Europe also in view of a major competition in the area of higher education in the European Union, in comparison with third countries. This appears the principal basis of different actions financed by the European Commission, which have among their own objectives also the study of an accreditation system of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe. In this article 3 SOCRATES Thematic Networks are presented, which, one after the other, starting from 1998, have been operational in the European panorama. Among their objectives there is a recurrent motive: accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe.

  15. Two-Level Scheduling for Video Transmission over Downlink OFDMA Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Mau-Luen; Chow, Chee-Onn; Xu, Yi-Han; Ramli, Nordin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-level scheduling scheme for video transmission over downlink orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. It aims to maximize the aggregate quality of the video users subject to the playback delay and resource constraints, by exploiting the multiuser diversity and the video characteristics. The upper level schedules the transmission of video packets among multiple users based on an overall target bit-error-rate (BER), the importance level of packet and resource consumption efficiency factor. Instead, the lower level renders unequal error protection (UEP) in terms of target BER among the scheduled packets by solving a weighted sum distortion minimization problem, where each user weight reflects the total importance level of the packets that has been scheduled for that user. Frequency-selective power is then water-filled over all the assigned subcarriers in order to leverage the potential channel coding gain. Realistic simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art scheduling scheme by up to 6.8 dB in terms of peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Further test evaluates the suitability of equal power allocation which is the common assumption in the literature.

  16. The routing, modulation level, and spectrum allocation algorithm in the virtual optical network mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunyun; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hongfa

    2017-10-01

    With the development of large video services and cloud computing, the network is increasingly in the form of services. In SDON, the SDN controller holds the underlying physical resource information, thus allocating the appropriate resources and bandwidth to the VON service. However, for some services that require extremely strict QoT (quality of transmission), the shortest distance path algorithm is often unable to meet the requirements because it does not take the link spectrum resources into account. And in accordance with the choice of the most unoccupied links, there may be more spectrum fragments. So here we propose a new RMLSA (the routing, modulation Level, and spectrum allocation) algorithm to reduce the blocking probability. The results show about 40% less blocking probability than the shortest-distance algorithm and the minimum usage of the spectrum priority algorithm. This algorithm is used to satisfy strict request of QoT for demands.

  17. Use of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles for enhanced interlibrary loan, part II: Network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, V M; Dell, E Y

    1993-07-01

    The Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Union List Task Force of the Health Sciences Libraries Consortium (HSLC) accepted the charge of maximizing use of the advanced features of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles. A pilot project was initiated to address the task force's recommendation to the HSLC Board that all nonrush interlibrary loan (ILL) documents be transmitted to participants within forty-eight hours of request receipt. This paper describes the project, which tests a network application for unattended, overnight transmission of documents. In determining whether this technology could be used as the primary medium for ILL of photocopies, the following criteria were used: the percentage of ILL requests filled by telefacsimile; the speed, quality, and reliability of service; and the impact of telefacsimile on document delivery costs. The article discusses the project history, optimal use of equipment features for library applications, full-scale implementation, and operational issues that affect ILL policy.

  18. A high level architecture for personalized learning in collaborative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Tanha, J.

    2010-01-01

    In Collaborative Network (CN) environments, creation of collective understanding about both the aimed outcome and the procedure for achieving it by its members is the antecedent to any successful co-working and co-development. While a part of the common CN knowledge is pre-existing to its

  19. Group-Level Symptom Networks in Depression Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Borsboom, Denny; Schoevers, Robert A.

    In Reply In our publication in JAMA Psychiatry,1 we reported that the structure of symptom networks is related to the course of depression. Our findings are based on a between-patients design. Although we agree with Bos and Wanders that this has implications for the interpretation of our results, we

  20. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent...

  1. Two-Level Effects of Interorganizational Network Collaboration on Graduate Satisfaction: A Comparison of Five Intercollege Networks in Dutch Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.; Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the public management literature, network effects are studied primarily at two levels: (a) the level of the interorganizational network as a whole and (b) the level of individual organizations’ networking behavior. This article combines the two levels within one theoretical framework and derives

  2. Analysis of feature selection with Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) to classify sources influencing indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    There are various sources influencing indoor air quality (IAQ) which could emit dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter. These gases are usually safe for us to breathe in if they are emitted in safe quantity but if the amount of these gases exceeded the safe level, they might be hazardous to human being especially children and people with asthmatic problem. Therefore, a smart indoor air quality monitoring system (IAQMS) is needed that able to tell the occupants about which sources that trigger the indoor air pollution. In this project, an IAQMS that able to classify sources influencing IAQ has been developed. This IAQMS applies a classification method based on Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). It is used to classify the sources of indoor air pollution based on five conditions: ambient air, human activity, presence of chemical products, presence of food and beverage, and presence of fragrance. In order to get good and best classification accuracy, an analysis of several feature selection based on data pre-processing method is done to discriminate among the sources. The output from each data pre-processing method has been used as the input for the neural network. The result shows that PNN analysis with the data pre-processing method give good classification accuracy of 99.89% and able to classify the sources influencing IAQ high classification rate.

  3. Integrated Quality Evaluation of the In-Situ Networking Measurements and Upscaling Using Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G.; Li, A.

    2017-09-01

    The flourished development of wireless sensor network technology sheds light to the effective and inexpensive collection of in-situ networking measurements. This will contribute to the temporal validation of coarse resolution remote sensing products. However, the quality evaluation of the in-situ networking measurements and upscaling is still problematic. This study proposed an evaluation method based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Specifically, the qualities of networking measurements and upscaling were evaluated through the relevance of each plot, and the pixelwise coefficient of variation of the scaling results. Both of which can be generated by GPR. The preliminary results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method on quality evaluation of upscaling. Its potential on measurements (per se) quality evaluation will be analysed future.

  4. Quality of Service Issues for Reinforcement Learning Based Routing Algorithm for Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Shrirang Ambaji; Rao, G. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are dynamic networks which are decentralized and autonomous in nature. Many routing algorithms have been proposed for these dynamic networks. It is an important problem to model Quality of Service requirements on these types of algorithms which traditionally have certain limitations. To model this scenario we have considered a reinforcement learning algorithm SAMPLE. SAMPLE promises to deal effectively with congestion and under high traffic load. As it is natural for ad...

  5. A Bayesian belief network for quality assessment: application to employment officer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooff, D A; Schneider, J M

    2006-02-01

    'Supported' employment stipulates that disabled people should have real jobs for real pay. This paper models kinds of supported employment, assesses how the support and placement features affect its outcomes and its quality from the perspective of the employees, and provides a dynamic model to help explore what types of interventions might promote greater social inclusion for people with learning and other disabilities. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) provide the general framework for modelling the relationships between the variables and features of interest. The structure, probabilistic specification and quality indicators were elicited from project advisory groups, including people with learning disability, and took into account a pilot survey of 30 individuals. A subsequent survey of 1,461 supported employees was used to update the model and to provide actual assessments of quality of placement. We present the BBN methodology in some detail, as novel to this discipline. We show how the model was constructed, and its implications for supported employment. We derive indices for quality of placement, taking into account the views of clients. We show how survey and individual results can be used to update the model. Use of the model suggests that quality of placement is, on average, relatively high, with small differences between groups with differing primary disability. The BBN is the appropriate methodology to model complex relationships and interventions for problems such as these. The model developed in this study can be used to assess and improve the fit between people and jobs, both at the individual level and for groups of employees, and can take into account different kinds of quality for different stakeholders.

  6. Place-Based Social Network Quality and Correlates of Substance Use among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based social network quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…

  7. Knowledge Contribution in Knowledge Networks: Effects of Participants’ Central Positions on Contribution Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sedighi, M; Hamedi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge networks play a crucial role in contemporary organisations to improve participation for knowledge sharing. Examining employees’ knowledge contribution play an important role for in success implementing knowledgenetworks. Whereas most part of studies emphasis on the quantity aspect of knowledge contributions, the success of knowledge networks also depends strongly on quality aspect of participants’ voluntarily contributions. Further, employees’ central positions can make a strategic ...

  8. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  9. Modeling subjective evaluation of soundscape quality in urban open spaces: An artificial neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Kang, Jian

    2009-09-01

    This research aims to explore the feasibility of using computer-based models to predict the soundscape quality evaluation of potential users in urban open spaces at the design stage. With the data from large scale field surveys in 19 urban open spaces across Europe and China, the importance of various physical, behavioral, social, demographical, and psychological factors for the soundscape evaluation has been statistically analyzed. Artificial neural network (ANN) models have then been explored at three levels. It has been shown that for both subjective sound level and acoustic comfort evaluation, a general model for all the case study sites is less feasible due to the complex physical and social environments in urban open spaces; models based on individual case study sites perform well but the application range is limited; and specific models for certain types of location/function would be reliable and practical. The performance of acoustic comfort models is considerably better than that of sound level models. Based on the ANN models, soundscape quality maps can be produced and this has been demonstrated with an example.

  10. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  11. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sea level ECV quality assessment via global ocean model assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharffenberg, Martin; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    In the ocean modeling community satellite data, especially SSH fields, are assimilated on a regular basis. SSH fields are very important in this context because of their dynamical relevance for constraining the ocean's flow field. However, assimilating SSH data into an ocean model does not only improve the quality of model but in addition, can also help testing the quality and the consistency of the input data as well. In our work we aim to quantify improvements in Sea Level (SL) data through the ESA - Climate Change Initiative (cci) effort and we aim to test the consistency of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) of Sea Level (SL_ECV) with other ECVs through the assimilation process and to investigate where remaining inconsistencies exist and why. For this purpose the GECCO2 assimilation approach assimilates SSH jointly with in situ data over the ocean. The dynamically consistent ocean state estimation adjusts only uncertain model parameters to bring the model into consistency with ocean observations. Improvements in data products can be investigated by studying the residuals between the different data products and the constrained model. PHASE 1: With this approach we could demonstrate, that in many regions the SL_ECV has been improved from version V0 (AVISO product) to version V1 (SL_cci product). However, there are regions where SL_ECV_V1 is further away from the model "truth". In that sense it is important to understand that the model assimilated SL_ECV_V0 (origianl AVISO product) and therefore has tried to adapt to the SL_ECV_V0. Therefore, inconsistencies existed when comparing the synthesis results to the updated version SL_ECV_V1! These deviations between the model "truth" and the improved data product (SL_ECV_V1) increased mostly in low energetic areas. PHASE 2: Two GECCO2-assimilation-runs (5 additional iterations) have been performed to date: 1) assimilating the original AVISO SL-product (V0) and 2) assimilating the updated-improved sea level estimate

  13. Improved network convergence and quality of service by strict priority queuing of routing traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Sergey; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2002-07-01

    During the transient period after a link failure the network cannot guarantee the agreed service levels to user data. This is due to the fact that forwarding tables in the network are inconsistent. Moreover, link states can inadvertently be advertised wrong due to protocol time outs, which may result in persistent route flaps. Reducing the probability of wrongly advertised link states, and the time during which the forwarding tables are inconsistent, is therefore of eminent importance to provide consistent and high level QoS to user data. By queuing routing traffic in a queue with strict priority over all other (data) queues, i.e. assigning the highest priority in a Differentiated Services model, we were able to reduce the probability of routing data loss to almost zero, and reduce flooding times almost to their theoretical limit. The quality of service provided to user traffic was considerable higher than without the proposed modification. The scheme is independent of the routing protocol, and can be used with most differentiated service models. It is compatible with the current OSPF standard, and can be used in conjunction with other improvements in the protocol with similar objectives.

  14. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  15. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  16. Finite mixture models to characterize and refine air quality monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Losada, Álvaro; Lozano-García, Antonio; Pino-Mejías, Rafael; Contreras-González, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Existing air quality monitoring programs are, on occasion, not updated according to local, varying conditions and as such the monitoring programs become non-informative over time, under-detecting new sources of pollutants or duplicating information. Furthermore, inadequate maintenance may cause the monitoring equipment to be utterly deficient in providing information. To deal with these issues, a combination of formal statistical methods is used to optimize resources for monitoring and to characterize the monitoring networks, introducing new criteria for their refinement. Monitoring data were obtained on key pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from 12 air quality monitoring sites in Seville (Spain) during 2012. A total of 49 data sets were fit to mixture models of Gaussian distribution using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. To summarize these 49 models, the mean and coefficient of variation were calculated for each mixture and carried out a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to study the grouping of the sites according to these statistics. To handle the lack of observational data from the sites with unmonitored pollutants, the missing statistical values were imputed by applying the random forests technique and then later, a principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to better understand the relationship between the level of pollution and the classification of monitoring sites. All of the techniques were applied using free, open-source, statistical software. One example of source attribution and contribution is analyzed using mixture models and the potential for mixture models is posed in characterizing pollution trends. The mixture statistics have proven to be a fingerprint for every model and this work presents a novel use of them and represents a promising approach to characterizing mixture models in the air quality management discipline. The

  17. Agricultural pesticide use estimates for the USGS National Water Quality Network, 1992-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides estimated agricultural pesticide use for 83 NWQN watersheds for 110 pesticide compounds from 1992-2014. Pesticide use was not estimated for the 30 wadeable stream reference sites, or from 3 large river coastal sites (07381590, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA3"; 07381600, "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA2"; or 15565477, "Yukon River at Pilot Station, AK"). Use was not estimated for reference sites because pesticides are not monitored at reference water-quality sampling sites. Pesticide use data are not available for Alaska and thus no data is available for the Yukon River site. The other two coastal sites (07381590 and 07381600) where use was not estimated are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. This data release provides use estimates for the same pesticide parent compounds sampled in water and analyzed by USGS, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), Schedule 2437: http://wwwnwql.cr.usgs.gov/USGS/catalog/index.cfm. Pesticide use data are not available for

  18. Quality of Service in Bluetooth networking - part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Martin; Heijenk, Geert

    The Quality of Service functions and procedures included in the Bluetooth 1.0 specification have been reviewed. Next issues associated with providing Quality of Service over a wireless link in general and Bluetooth in particular have been investigated. Allthough the Bluetooth 1.0 specification

  19. Groundwater-quality characteristics for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, November 2009 through September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 146 shallow (less than or equal to 500 feet deep) wells for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, from November 2009 through September 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions and dissolved solids, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, uranium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and coliform bacteria. Selected samples also were analyzed for gross alpha radioactivity, gross beta radioactivity, radon, tritium, gasoline range organics, diesel range organics, dissolved hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethene, and ethane), and wastewater compounds. Water-quality measurements and concentrations in some samples exceeded numerous U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) in some samples were arsenic, selenium, nitrite, nitrate, gross alpha activity, and uranium. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some samples exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goals. Measurements of pH and turbidity and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in some samples. Radon concentrations in some samples exceeded the alternative MCL proposed by the EPA. Molybdenum and boron concentrations in some samples exceeded EPA Health Advisory Levels. Water-quality measurements and concentrations also exceeded numerous Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) groundwater standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded WDEQ Class I domestic groundwater standards in some samples were measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, boron, selenium, nitrite, and nitrate. Measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron

  20. Sleep Quality in Medical Students; the Impact of Over-Use of Mobile Cell-Phone and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Absari, Rozita; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Saadati, Mohammadreza; Sharifimoghadam, Soroush; Ahmadi, Ali; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is closely associated with lifestyle habits including use of mobile cell-phones.This study aimed to identify the relationship between sleep quality due to abuse in mobile cell-phones and engagement in social networks. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 undergraduate students selected by proportional stratified sampling in Qom, Iran in 2015. Data were collected by two standard questionnaire including Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire beside the status of usage in cell-phone social networks. T-test, chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression were used in data analysis. The mean age of participants was 21.8 ±3.2 yr, 69.1% were female, and 11.7% were married. The mean of COS and sleep quality scores were 48.18 ±17.5 and 5.38 ±2.31, respectively. The prevalence of over-use of cell phone was 10.7% (CI 0.95; 8.8%, 12.6%) and the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.7% (CI 0.95; 57.1%, 66.3%). The mean of all aspects and total score of sleep quality showed a direct significant association by cell-phone addiction score except sleep duration score that was inversely. Based on multivariate analysis affected to cell-phone addiction, being male gender and studying in general physician level are the most important predictors of poor sleep quality. Over use of internet and social networks via smart phones is related to poor sleep quality and quantity. Predefined sport programs, educational, cultural, and interesting entertainment are the essential needs for all medical students. These interventions are more important especially for male students who have longer educational.

  1. Link-quality measurement and reporting in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Abdellah; Jeon, Gwanggil; Choi, Byoungjo

    2013-03-04

    Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  2. Link-Quality Measurement and Reporting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjo Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  3. Data mining methods for quality assurance in an environmental monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.; Rizzoli, Andrea Emilio; Beard, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a system architecture that employs data mining techniques for ensuring quality assurance in an environmental monitoring network. We investigate how data mining techniques can be incorporated in the quality assurance decision making process. As prior expert decisions are

  4. Quantity is nothing without quality: automated QA/QC for streaming sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Lindsey E. Rustad; John H. Porter; Jeffrey R. Taylor; Ethan W. Dereszynski; James B. Shanley; Corinna Gries; Donald L. Henshaw; Mary E. Martin; Wade. M. Sheldon; Emery R. Boose

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks are revolutionizing environmental monitoring by producing massive quantities of data that are being made publically available in near real time. These data streams pose a challenge for ecologists because traditional approaches to quality assurance and quality control are no longer practical when confronted with the size of these data sets and the...

  5. 78 FR 72620 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... RIN 9000-AM65 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirements AGENCY...(s). Examples of higher-level quality standards include, but are not limited to, ISO 9001, ASQ E...

  6. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identified...... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  7. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological contaminant propagation; for particulate substances it is in sediment leading to discolouration. There is a strong influence of flows and velocities on transport, mixing, production and decay of these substances in the network. This imposes a different approach to demand modelling which is reviewed in this article.

    For the large diameter lines that comprise the transport portion of a typical municipal pipe system, a skeletonised network model with a top-down approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 h, and a pure advection-reaction water quality model will usually suffice. For the smaller diameter lines that comprise the distribution portion of a municipal pipe system, an all-pipes network model with a bottom-up approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 min or less, and a water quality model that considers dispersion and transients may be needed.

    Demand models that provide stochastic residential demands per individual home and on a one-second time scale are available. A stochastic demands based network water quality model needs to be developed and validated with field measurements. Such a model will be probabilistic in nature and will offer a new perspective for assessing water quality in the drinking water distribution system.

  8. MODELING AND MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING OF GEODETIC LEVELING NETWORK WHILE MONITORING SETTLEMENT OF UNIQUE ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Usov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that reliability and trust of geodetic structure monitoring are related with new principles of leveling network construction, their testing and mathematical processing. Two indices, point density and errors in their altitude location, have been considered recently as the main characteristics of geodetic construction quality used for geodetic monitoring of  engineering object settlements.As it is an evitable distortion of the measuring data in the process of its accumulation and processing due to influence of additional factors (rough and systematic measurement errors, original data errors and so on, nowadays while evaluating the quality of geodetic constructions one more important characteristic is to be taken into account that is reliability of the geodetic construction.The majority of standard geodetic construction schemes do not have a sufficient reliability rate for definitive determination of construction settlements in any measuring cycle. Due to this very reason a problem concerning higher reliability of geodetic constructions and efficiency of their mathematical processing and, in consequence, provision of more accurate determination of engineering object settlements is considered as an actual one and it finds its solution in the paper.

  9. Quality-Aware Resource Management for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemesi, R.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Anderson, J.H.; Prencipe, G.; Wattenhoffer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the distributed and resource constrained nature of wireless sensor networks, their design proves to be difficult. We present a resource management framework, which integrates a data-centric lightweight operating system with a publish/subscribe middleware. In this framework, the main system

  10. Flow-based Networking and Quality of Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleiberg, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades the Internet has been widely deployed and integrated into the society, radically altering the way people communicate and exchange information. Although the Internet was intended as a research network between few a institutions in the United States, it has grown to take a

  11. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira P. Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials.

  12. Identification of a supplier network through Quality Function Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth

    1994-01-01

    During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...... of meetings the production manager and the marketing manager transformed attributes into characteristics and constructed Houses of Quality for a sugar-free cookie. As expected, most product characteristics were deployed to potential suppliers. In this way the company identified the departments and firms...

  13. Low-level Control of Network Elements from an Agent Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus; Jensen, P.; Soldatos, J.

    1999-01-01

    An important issue for the implementation of an agent system, which controls a telecommunications network, is to enable low-level access of the network devices by the agent platform, bypassing the control logic inherent in them. This issue has been coped with successfully in the IMPACT project...

  14. To imitate or differentiate: Cross-level identity work in an innovation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I Fortin (Israël); Oliver, D. (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSurvival in global high-tech industries requires many organizations to participate in specialized innovation networks. However, sustained participation in these networks often proves more challenging than expected for organizations and their representatives, due to complex cross-level

  15. DIABCARE Quality Network in Europe--a model for quality management in chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwernetz, K

    2001-04-01

    The DIABCARE Q-Net project developed a complete and integrated information technology system to monitor diabetes care, according to the gold standards of the St Vincent Declaration Action Program. This is the first Telematic platform for standardized documentation on medical quality and evaluation across Europe, which will serve as a model for other chronic diseases. Quality development starts from the comparison of diabetes services, based on the key data on diabetes care in the basic information sheet. This is a 141 field form, which is to be completed once a year for each patient under the care of the diabetes team. The system performs an analysis of the local data and compares the data with peer teams by means of telecommunication of anonymous data. These data are collected regionally. At the next level these regional data are compared on a national basis across Europe using dedicated communication lines. National data can be compared transnationally by the use of the Internet and the DIABCARE benchmarking servers. These different lines are used according to the necessary security standards. Medical data are transferred via dedicated lines, aggregated data via the Internet. The architecture follows the open-platform concept in order to allow for heterogeneous technical environments. Already at the start of the project, the necessity for expanding the quality approach to telemedicine methodology was identified and included. For each level, specific programs are available to improve the performance of diabetes care delivery: DIABCARE data as client and DIABCARE server as regional and DIABCARE 'international server' as transnational server. Functioning pilots were established across all levels. The clients have been linked to the servers on a routine basis. According to the open architecture design, the various countries decided on different systems at the entry point: full system--Portugal; fax systems--Italy, Bavaria; implementation into doctor's office systems

  16. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits CO and NO and NO2. Mead et al (submitted Aug., 2012)). Based on this work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM, temperature, relative

  17. Quality assurance in transnational higher education: a case study of the tropEd network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Peterhans, Bernadette; Dardis, Lorraine; Scherpbier, Albert

    2013-03-27

    Transnational or cross-border higher education has rapidly expanded since the 1980s. Together with that expansion issues on quality assurance came to the forefront. This article aims to identify key issues regarding quality assurance of transnational higher education and discusses the quality assurance of the tropEd Network for International Health in Higher Education in relation to these key issues. Literature review and review of documents. From the literature the following key issues regarding transnational quality assurance were identified and explored: comparability of quality assurance frameworks, true collaboration versus erosion of national education sovereignty, accreditation agencies and transparency. The tropEd network developed a transnational quality assurance framework for the network. The network accredits modules through a rigorous process which has been accepted by major stakeholders. This process was a participatory learning process and at the same time the process worked positive for the relations between the institutions. The development of the quality assurance framework and the process provides a potential example for others.

  18. Quality assurance in transnational higher education: a case study of the tropEd network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transnational or cross-border higher education has rapidly expanded since the 1980s. Together with that expansion issues on quality assurance came to the forefront. This article aims to identify key issues regarding quality assurance of transnational higher education and discusses the quality assurance of the tropEd Network for International Health in Higher Education in relation to these key issues. Methods Literature review and review of documents. Results From the literature the following key issues regarding transnational quality assurance were identified and explored: comparability of quality assurance frameworks, true collaboration versus erosion of national education sovereignty, accreditation agencies and transparency. The tropEd network developed a transnational quality assurance framework for the network. The network accredits modules through a rigorous process which has been accepted by major stakeholders. This process was a participatory learning process and at the same time the process worked positive for the relations between the institutions. Discussion The development of the quality assurance framework and the process provides a potential example for others. PMID:23537108

  19. Effects of the Wireless Channel, Signal Compression and Network Architecture on Speech Quality in Voip Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikolaos, Tiantioukas

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this thesis is to measure the quality of voice in VoIP communications. More specifically it investigates the effects of wireless channel conditions as well as channel coding and compression on the received speech quality...

  20. Social networks usage implications at the level of medical services consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gardan

    2017-03-01

    The research results reveal key issues from the perspective of emotional involvement within consumption for the patients and the influence of key variables such as level of education, personality and lifestyle within social networks usage context.

  1. Conceptual plan for closer integration of network- and project-level pavement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of current performance modeling concepts and a feasibility study of the possibility of integrating network- and project-level performance prediction. The widely differing modeling methods in use today are reviewed a...

  2. Building a Sustainable Quality Matters™ Community of Practice through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, John; Richter, Stephanie; Miller, Tracy; Rhode, Jason; Click, Aline; Underwood, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The growth of distance education has necessitated strong evidence of quality for institutions of higher education, and numerous standards and principles of quality have been developed, such as Quality Matters™ (Quality Matters). These systems are often considered only at the course level to guide design and improve student outcomes, but they can…

  3. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  4. Rethinking Teacher Quality at the Higher Education Level: Need For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality has been a controversial issue in education generally and Business Education in particular. Business Education is aimed at equipping the recipients with the relevant knowledge, skills, attitude and values that will enable them function effectively as citizens. The quality of Business Teachers is paramount to the ...

  5. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-09-01

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  6. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  7. MULTI-LEVEL NETWORK RESILIENCE: TRAFFIC ANALYSIS, ANOMALY DETECTION AND SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Marnerides

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic analysis and anomaly detection have been extensively used to characterize network utilization as well as to identify abnormal network traffic such as malicious attacks. However, so far, techniques for traffic analysis and anomaly detection have been carried out independently, relying on mechanisms and algorithms either in edge or in core networks alone. In this paper we propose the notion of multi-level network resilience, in order to provide a more robust traffic analysis and anomaly detection architecture, combining mechanisms and algorithms operating in a coordinated fashion both in the edge and in the core networks. This work is motivated by the potential complementarities between the research being developed at IIT Madras and Lancaster University. In this paper we describe the current work being developed at IIT Madras and Lancaster on traffic analysis and anomaly detection, and outline the principles of a multi-level resilience architecture.

  8. Introducing LCC in maintenance decision making on network level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.F.M.; Schoenmaker, R.; Meerveld, H. van; Bakker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Every four years the Dutch government and the executive agency Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) negotiate a Service Level Agreement (SLA) for the performance of the national roads, waterways and water systems. In this SLA, the required performance of the infrastructure, the risks and the maintenance budget for

  9. Automated distress surveys : analysis of network-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    TxDOT Project 0-6663, Phase 1: Rutting : Applus, Dynatest, Fugro, Pathway and TxDOT : Reference: detailed project level (24 550-ft sections) : Phase 2: Distresses : Dynatest, Fugro, WayLink-OSU and TxDOT : Reference: detailed proj...

  10. Social but safe? Quality and safety of diabetes-related online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Cole, Emily; Kaci, Liljana; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2011-05-01

    To foster informed decision-making about health social networking (SN) by patients and clinicians, the authors evaluated the quality/safety of SN sites' policies and practices. Multisite structured observation of diabetes-focused SN sites. Measurements 28 indicators of quality and safety covering: (1) alignment of content with diabetes science and clinical practice recommendations; (2) safety practices for auditing content, supporting transparency and moderation; (3) accessibility of privacy policies and the communication and control of privacy risks; and (4) centralized sharing of member data and member control over sharing. Quality was variable across n=10 sites: 50% were aligned with diabetes science/clinical practice recommendations with gaps in medical disclaimer use (30% have) and specification of relevant glycosylated hemoglobin levels (0% have). Safety was mixed with gaps in external review approaches (20% used audits and association links) and internal review approaches (70% use moderation). Internal safety review offers limited protection: misinformation about a diabetes 'cure' was found on four moderated sites. Of nine sites with advertising, transparency was missing on five; ads for unfounded 'cures' were present on three. Technological safety was poor with almost no use of procedures for secure data storage and transmission; only three sites support member controls over personal information. Privacy policies' poor readability impedes risk communication. Only three sites (30%) demonstrated better practice. Limitations English-language diabetes sites only. The quality/safety of diabetes SN is variable. Observed better practice suggests improvement is feasible. Mechanisms for improvement are recommended that engage key stakeholders to balance autonomy, community ownership, conditions for innovation, and consumer protection.

  11. Watershed boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds (Co-op) program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release contains geo-referenced digital data and associated attributes of watershed boundaries for 113 NWQN and 3 Co-op sites. Two sites, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA"; 07381590, and "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA"; 07381600, are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. Watershed boundaries were delineated for the portion of the watersheds between "Red River near Alexandria, LA"; 07355500 and "Atchafalaya River at Melville, LA"; 07381495 to the two distributary sites respectively. Drainage area was undetermined for these two distributary sites because the main stream channel outflows into many smaller channels so that streamflow is no longer relative to the watershed area. NWQN watershed boundaries were derived from the Watershed Boundary Dataset-12-digit hydrologic units (WBD-12). The development of the WBD-12 was a coordinated effort between the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS), the USGS, and the Environmental

  12. Efficient Strategies for Active Interface-Level Network Topology Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    massive outage of services globally. There are other similar projects at Ark that are dedicated to Internet topology research, including Dolphin [3... Dolphin : The measurement system for the next generation Internet,” in 4th International Conference on Communications, Internet and Information... evolution of the Internet’s AS-level topology,” in IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 1–12, 2006. [23] Y.-J. Chi, R

  13. Using image quality metrics to identify adversarial imagery for deep learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harguess, Josh; Miclat, Jeremy; Raheema, Julian

    2017-05-01

    Deep learning has continued to gain momentum in applications across many critical areas of research in computer vision and machine learning. In particular, deep learning networks have had much success in image classification, especially when training data are abundantly available, as is the case with the ImageNet project. However, several researchers have exposed potential vulnerabilities of these networks to carefully crafted adversarial imagery. Additionally, researchers have shown the sensitivity of these networks to some types of noise and distortion. In this paper, we investigate the use of no-reference image quality metrics to identify adversarial imagery and images of poor quality that could potentially fool a deep learning network or dramatically reduce its accuracy. Results are shown on several adversarial image databases with comparisons to popular image classification databases.

  14. Frequency and Quality of Social Networking Among Young Adults: Associations With Depressive Symptoms, Rumination, and Corumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Hershenberg, Rachel; Feinstein, Brian A.; Gorman, Kaitlyn; Bhatia, Vickie; Starr, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined associations between social networking and depressive symptoms among youth. In Study 1, 384 participants (68% female; mean age = 20.22 years, SD = 2.90) were surveyed. In Study 2, 334 participants (62% female; M age = 19.44 years, SD = 2.05) were surveyed initially and 3 weeks later. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with quality of social networking interactions, not quantity. There was some evidence that depressive rumination moderated associations, and both depressive rumination and corumination were associated with aspects of social networking usage and quality. Implications for understanding circumstances that increase social networking, as well as resulting negative interactions and negative affect are discussed. PMID:24490122

  15. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... method, which identifies the regions with relatively poor water quality and highlights the potential locations for re-chlorination points. .... *USEPA (2009a) states 1 NTU when the system uses conventional or direct filtration and 5NTU when the system uses filtration other than the conven- tional or direct ...

  16. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  17. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...... particular sensitive towards water quality deterioration. The analysis revealed sampling locations within steady clusters, which increased samples' comparability over time. Furthermore, the method provided a simplified overview of water movement in complex distribution networks, and could assist...

  18. The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network: Data and quality control summary for 1986 and 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Barchet, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    This report, the tenth in a series documenting results from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network, contains a statistical summary of daily precipitation chemistry data from the nine-site network in the eastern United States, both for the years 1986 and 1987 individually and for the period 1977 through 1987. In addition, external quality assurance results for 1986 and 1987 are summarized. 17 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II:System Operation, Power Quality and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Josep M. Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed operational concepts of microgrids that have an impact on their participation in ANM and in the requirements for achieving targets. Power quality is the most challenging task in microgrids, especially when t...

  20. Using Conjugate Gradient Network to Classify Stress Level of Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. S. Pawar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of stress is important because it can cause many diseases e.g., heart disease, headache, migraine, sleep problems, irritability etc. Diagnosis of stress in patients often involves acquisition of biological signals for example heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyography signals (EMG etc. Stress diagnosis using biomedical signals is difficult and since the biomedical signals are too complex to generate any rule an experienced person or expert is needed to determine stress levels. Also, it is not feasible to use all the features that are available or possible to extract from the signal. So, relevant features should be chosen from the extracted features that are capable to diagnose stress. Electronics devices are increasingly being seen in the field of medicine for diagnosis, therapy, checking of stress levels etc. The research and development work of medical electronics engineers leads to the manufacturing of sophisticated diagnostic medical equipment needed to ensure good health care. Biomedical engineering combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve health care diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Management of Power Quality Issues in Low Voltage Networks using Electric Vehicles: Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    the existing and future power quality problems. One of the main aspects of the power quality relates to voltage quality. The aim of this work is to experimentally analyse whether series-produced EVs, adhering to contemporary standard and without relying on any V2G capability, can mitigate line voltage drops...... in improving the power quality of a highly unbalanced grid......As Electric Vehicles (EVs) are becoming more wide spread, their high power consumption presents challenges for the residential low voltage networks, especially when connected to long feeders with unevenly distributed loads. However, if intelligently integrated, EVs can also partially solve...

  2. Exploring the impact of different multi-level measures of physician communities in patient-centric care networks on healthcare outcomes: A multi-level regression approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uddin, Shahadat

    2016-01-01

    .... In order to assess the impact different multi-level attributes of patient-centric care networks on healthcare outcomes, this study first captured patient-centric care networks for 85 hospitals using...

  3. Polarity-specific high-level information propagation in neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nan; Chang, Po-Yen; Hsiao, Pao-Yueh; Lo, Chung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the connectome of a nervous system provides valuable information about the functions of its subsystems. Although much has been learned about the architectures of neural networks in various organisms by applying analytical tools developed for general networks, two distinct and functionally important properties of neural networks are often overlooked. First, neural networks are endowed with polarity at the circuit level: Information enters a neural network at input neurons, propagates through interneurons, and leaves via output neurons. Second, many functions of nervous systems are implemented by signal propagation through high-level pathways involving multiple and often recurrent connections rather than by the shortest paths between nodes. In the present study, we analyzed two neural networks: the somatic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and the partial central complex network of Drosophila, in light of these properties. Specifically, we quantified high-level propagation in the vertical and horizontal directions: the former characterizes how signals propagate from specific input nodes to specific output nodes and the latter characterizes how a signal from a specific input node is shared by all output nodes. We found that the two neural networks are characterized by very efficient vertical and horizontal propagation. In comparison, classic small-world networks show a trade-off between vertical and horizontal propagation; increasing the rewiring probability improves the efficiency of horizontal propagation but worsens the efficiency of vertical propagation. Our result provides insights into how the complex functions of natural neural networks may arise from a design that allows them to efficiently transform and combine input signals.

  4. Intracellular organelle networks: Understanding their organization and communication through systems-level modeling and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinle Ba; Ge Yang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Membrane-bound intracellular organelles are biochemically distinct compartments used by eukaryotic cells for serving specialized physiological functions and organizing their internal environment.Recent studies revealed surprisingly extensive communication between these organelles and highlighted the network nature of their organization and communication.Since organization and communication of the organelles are carried out at the systems level through their networks,systems-level studies are essential for understanding the underlying mechanisms.METHODS:We reviewed recent studies that used systems-level quantitative modeling and analysis to understand organization and communication of intracellular organelle networks.RESULTS:We first review modeling and analysis studies on how fusion/fission and degradation/biogenesis,two essential and closely related classes of activities of individual organelles,collectively mediate the dynamic organization of their networks.We then tum to another important aspect of the dynamic organization of the organelle networks,namely how organelles are physically connected within their networks,a property referred to as the topology of the networks in mathematics,and summarize some of their distinct properties.Lastly,we briefly review modeling and analysis studies that aim to understand communication between different organelle networks,focusing on cellular calcium homeostasis as an example.We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions for research in this area.CONCLUSIONS:Together,the reviewed studies provide critical insights into how diverse activities of individual organelles collectively mediate the organization and communication of their networks.They demonstrate the essential role of systemslevel modeling and analysis in understanding complex behavior of such networks.

  5. Molecular heterogeneity at the network level: high-dimensional testing, clustering and a TCGA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Städler, Nicolas; Dondelinger, Frank; Hill, Steven M; Akbani, Rehan; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Mukherjee, Sach

    2017-09-15

    Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging. Furthermore, since network differences could provide important and biologically interpretable information to identify molecular subgroups, there is a need to consider the unsupervised task of learning subgroups and networks that define them. This is a nontrivial clustering problem, with neither subgroups nor subgroup-specific networks known at the outset. We leverage recent ideas from high-dimensional statistics for testing and clustering in the network biology setting. The methods we describe can be applied directly to most continuous molecular measurements and networks do not need to be specified beforehand. We illustrate the ideas and methods in a case study using protein data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This provides evidence that patterns of interplay between signalling proteins differ significantly between cancer types. Furthermore, we show how the proposed approaches can be used to learn subtypes and the molecular networks that define them. As the Bioconductor package nethet. staedler.n@gmail.com or sach.mukherjee@dzne.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  7. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user’s N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user’s N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  8. ASSESSING VOLTAGE QUALITY IN A TYPICAL LV NETWORK A Case Study of Ado- Ekiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajiga B.O

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The power outage in Ado Ekiti is disturbing and has produced a negative effect on the life and economy of the people. This study presents investigation of power supply challenges in Ado-Ekiti Low Voltage Distribution network with the specific focus on the development of an algorithm for its improved performance.. In this work voltage quality problems and the causes of LV network faults interruptions and outages were investigated and analyzed using quantitative statistical method. Load flow of the LV network was carried out using impedance modeling with the aid of MATLABSIMULINK. Results obtained from the analysis were applied to develop algorithm for improved performance of the LV network while measures for improved LV performance were formulated from the developed algorithm. The analysis indicated that the voltage drop on the LV network is within the range 0.87p.u-0.94p.u. Voltage deviation is completely outside the permissible range of 6.

  9. Level architecture in genetic regulatory networks and the role of microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that genes that code for proteins regulate the expression of each other through protein-mediated interactions. With the discovery of microRNAs^1 (miRNAs), it has been conjectured that there are many such regulatory miRNAs in the cell that are never transcribed into proteins but are important for regulation and, hence, could explain the nature of the non-coding (or junk) DNA.^2 Furthermore, miRNAs are highly conserved molecules. So, just as genes that code for proteins form regulatory networks, we conjecture that miRNAs form a higher-level regulatory network amongst themselves as mediated by the genes-coding-for-proteins regulatory network to form a complex organism. We investigate this conjecture within the framework of random Boolean networks where the two-level architecture is modelled via two coupled random Boolean networks with one network taking precedence over the other for various input/output values. Aspects of the evolution of the lower-level network will also be addressed. ^1 D. P. Bartel, Cell 116, 281 (2004). ^2 J. S. Mattick, Sci. Amer. 291, 60 (2004).

  10. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  11. A neural network approach to smarter sensor networks for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Edel; Smeaton, Alan F; O'Connor, Noel E; Regan, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is evolving towards large-scale and low-cost sensor networks operating reliability and autonomously over extended periods of time. Sophisticated analytical instrumentation such as chemo-bio sensors present inherent limitations because of the number of samples that they can take. In order to maximize their deployment lifetime, we propose the coordination of multiple heterogeneous information sources. We use rainfall radar images and information from a water depth sensor as input to a neural network (NN) to dictate the sampling frequency of a phosphate analyzer at the River Lee in Cork, Ireland. This approach shows varied performance for different times of the year but overall produces output that is very satisfactory for the application context in question. Our study demonstrates that even with limited training data, a system for controlling the sampling rate of the nutrient sensor can be set up and can improve the efficiency of the more sophisticated nodes of the sensor network.

  12. Investigating the Tradeoffs between Power Consumption and Quality of Service in a Backbone Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Gelenbe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving in networks has traditionally focussed on reducing battery consumption through smart wireless network design. Recently, researchers have turned their attention to the energy cost and carbon emissions of the backbone network that both fixed and mobile communications depend on, proposing primarily mechanisms that turn equipments OFF or put them into deep sleep. This is an effective way of saving energy, provided that the nodes can return to working condition quickly, but it introduces increased delays and packet losses that directly affect the quality of communication experienced by the users. Here we investigate the associated tradeoffs between power consumption and quality of service in backbone networks that employ deep sleep energy savings. We examine these tradeoffs by conducting experiments on a real PC-based network topology, where nodes are put into deep sleep at random times and intervals, resulting in a continuously changing network with reduced total power consumption. The average power consumption, the packet loss and the average delay of this network are examined with respect to the average value of the ON rate and the ON/OFF cycle of the nodes.

  13. Building abstinent networks is an important resource in improving quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ashley Elizabeth; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    To investigate changes in social network and quality of life of a substance use disorder cohort as they progressed through treatment. Multi-site, prospective, observational study of 338 adults entering substance use disorder treatment. Patients at 21 facilities across Norway contributed baseline data when they initiated treatment, and follow-up data was collected from them one year later. The cohort was divided into those who completed, dropped out, and remained in treatment one year after treatment initiation. For each treatment status group, general linear models with repeated measures analyzed global and social quality of life with the generic QOL10 instrument over time. The between-group factor was a change in social network variable from the EuropASI. Those who gained an abstinent network reported the largest quality of life improvements. Improvements were smallest or negligible for the socially isolated and those who were no longer in contact with the treatment system. Developing an abstinent network is particularly important to improve the quality of life of those in substance use disorder treatment. Social isolation is a risk factor for impaired quality of life throughout the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MapReduce Based Parallel Bayesian Network for Manufacturing Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mao-Kuan; Ming, Xin-Guo; Zhang, Xian-Yu; Li, Guo-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Increasing complexity of industrial products and manufacturing processes have challenged conventional statistics based quality management approaches in the circumstances of dynamic production. A Bayesian network and big data analytics integrated approach for manufacturing process quality analysis and control is proposed. Based on Hadoop distributed architecture and MapReduce parallel computing model, big volume and variety quality related data generated during the manufacturing process could be dealt with. Artificial intelligent algorithms, including Bayesian network learning, classification and reasoning, are embedded into the Reduce process. Relying on the ability of the Bayesian network in dealing with dynamic and uncertain problem and the parallel computing power of MapReduce, Bayesian network of impact factors on quality are built based on prior probability distribution and modified with posterior probability distribution. A case study on hull segment manufacturing precision management for ship and offshore platform building shows that computing speed accelerates almost directly proportionally to the increase of computing nodes. It is also proved that the proposed model is feasible for locating and reasoning of root causes, forecasting of manufacturing outcome, and intelligent decision for precision problem solving. The integration of bigdata analytics and BN method offers a whole new perspective in manufacturing quality control.

  15. Integrating Micro-level Interactions with Social Network Analysis in Tie Strength Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre, Osku; Gupta, Jayesh Prakash; Kärkkäinen, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    , relationships) with large-scale social network analysis (SNA). This study provides a way to find relevant actors from publicly available data in the context of tie strengthening process, and answers how to take this stream of research closer to computational social science.......A social tie is a target for ongoing, high-level scientific debate. Measuring the tie strength in social networks has been an important topic for academic studies since Mark Granovetter's seminal papers in 1970's. However, it is still a problematic issue mainly for two reasons: 1) existing tie...... strengthening process in online social networks. Therefore, we suggest a new approach to tie strength research, which focuses on studying communication patterns (edges) more rather than actors (nodes) in a social network. In this paper we build a social network analysis-based approach to enable the evaluation...

  16. Comparison of artificial neural network and regression models in the prediction of urban stormwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, D; Sivakumar, M

    2008-01-01

    Urban stormwater quality is influenced by many interrelated processes. However, the site-specific nature of these complex processes makes stormwater quality difficult to predict using physically based process models. This has resulted in the need for more empirical techniques. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to model urban stormwater quality. A total of 5 different constituents were analyzed-chemical oxygen demand, lead, suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Input variables were selected using stepwise linear regression models, calibrated on logarithmically transformed data. Artificial neural networks models were then developed and compared with the regression models. The results from the analyses indicate that multiple linear regression models were more applicable for predicting urban stormwater quality than ANN models.

  17. Neural Network based Control of SG based Standalone Generating System with Energy Storage for Power Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2017-08-01

    An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.

  18. Power quality challenges in future distribution networks; Aspekte der Strom- und Spannungsqualitaet in kuenftigen Verteilungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, Matthias; Meyer, Jan; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Power quality in distribution grids is determined by consumer topology, generation topology, network topology and environmental influences (i.e. weather). New developments like decentralized power generation or e-mobility lead to significant changes in the grids as well as the equipment connected thereto. This paper discusses possible impacts of new technologies on power quality and is intended to attract attention of stakeholders to these issues. (orig.)

  19. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  20. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy ...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...

  1. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  2. Changes in perceptions of quality of, and access to, services among clients of a fractional franchise network in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail; Gage, Anastasia; Balal, Asma

    2007-05-01

    With declining levels of international donor funding for financing reproductive health programmes, developing country governments and international donors are looking towards private sector strategies to expand the supply of quality reproductive health services. One of the challenges of a health franchise is to improve the quality of services provided by independent private practitioners. Private providers are more likely to abide by the quality standards set by a franchiser if they see a financial benefit resulting from franchise participation. This study was conducted to measure whether (a) there were improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to health facilities once these facilities became part of a franchise and (b) improvements in perceived quality and perceived access were associated with increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Franchisees were given basic reproductive health training for seven days and services marketing training for two days. Exit interviews were conducted with male and female clients at health facilities. A pre-test measurement was taken in April 2001, prior to the start of project activities. A post-test measurement was taken in February/March 2002, about 9 months after the pre-test. Multilevel regression analysis, which takes the hierarchical structure of the data into account, was used for the analysis. After taking provider-level variation into account and controlling for client characteristics, the analyses showed significant improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to services. Private provider participation in a franchise network helps improve client perceptions of quality of, and access to, services. Improvements in client perceptions of quality and access contribute to increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Once increased client loyalty translates into higher client volumes, providers are likely to see the benefits of franchise participation. In turn, this should lead to

  3. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  4. Analysis of the structure of complex networks at different resolution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-02-28

    Modular structure is ubiquitous in real-world complex networks, and its detection is important because it gives insights in the structure-functionality relationship. The standard approach is based on the optimization of a quality function, modularity, which is a relative quality measure for a partition of a network into modules. Recently some authors have pointed out that the optimization of modularity has a fundamental drawback: the existence of a resolution limit beyond which no modular structure can be detected even though these modules might have own entity. The reason is that several topological descriptions of the network coexist at different scales, which is, in general, a fingerprint of complex systems. Here we propose a method that allows for multiple resolution screening of the modular structure. The method has been validated using synthetic networks, discovering the predefined structures at all scales. Its application to two real social networks allows to find the exact splits reported in the literature, as well as the substructure beyond the actual split.

  5. National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Monitoring Network Basin Boundary Geospatial Dataset, 2008-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset and the accompanying Data Series report was created to assist in analysis and interpretation of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological...

  6. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  7. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  8. Analysis on the University’s Network Security Level System in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianli

    2017-12-01

    The rapid development of science and technology, the continuous expansion of the scope of computer network applications, has gradually improved the social productive forces, has had a positive impact on the increase production efficiency and industrial scale of China's different industries. Combined with the actual application of computer network in the era of large data, we can see the existence of influencing factors such as network virus, hacker and other attack modes, threatening network security and posing a potential threat to the safe use of computer network in colleges and universities. In view of this unfavorable development situation, universities need to pay attention to the analysis of the situation of large data age, combined with the requirements of network security use, to build a reliable network space security system from the equipment, systems, data and other different levels. To avoid the security risks exist in the network. Based on this, this paper will analyze the hierarchical security system of cyberspace security in the era of large data.

  9. Social networks of people with mild intellectual disabilities: characteristics, satisfaction, wishes and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A E; Embregts, P J C M; Hendriks, A H C

    2015-05-01

    A supportive social network is crucial for facilitating social inclusion, which can, in turn, contribute to the quality of life (QOL) for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study, we investigate how people with mild ID perceive their social networks and which network characteristics relate to satisfaction with the network and perceived QOL. Data were gathered from 33 young adults with a mild to borderline ID using structured questionnaires: the MSNA to map the social network, the IDQOL-16 to assess QOL, and a questionnaire to determine satisfaction and wishes with regard to the social network. The majority of the participants (73.1%) were satisfied with their social networks. Improvement in the area of strengthening existing ties (e.g. more frequent contact, better contact) was desired as opposed to expansion of the network. Affection--especially towards family and professionals--was most strongly related to perceived QOL. It appears to be essential that relatives live in the same town, can frequently meet up and provide both emotional and practical support. The significance of family and the importance of high-quality interpersonal relationships between professional and client in the lives of young adults with ID cannot be overestimated. Although measures of satisfaction and wishes can have limitations, in actual practice it is considered useful to assess the opinions of clients with respect to their social networks. Interventions can then be tailored to the needs and wishes of the persons themselves. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A longitudinal analysis of data quality in a large pediatric data research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Utidjian, Levon; Ruth, Byron J; Kahn, Michael G; Burrows, Evanette; Marsolo, Keith; Patibandla, Nandan; Razzaghi, Hanieh; Colvin, Ryan; Ranade, Daksha; Kitzmiller, Melody; Eckrich, Daniel; Bailey, L Charles

    2017-11-01

    PEDSnet is a clinical data research network (CDRN) that aggregates electronic health record data from multiple children's hospitals to enable large-scale research. Assessing data quality to ensure suitability for conducting research is a key requirement in PEDSnet. This study presents a range of data quality issues identified over a period of 18 months and interprets them to evaluate the research capacity of PEDSnet. Results were generated by a semiautomated data quality assessment workflow. Two investigators reviewed programmatic data quality issues and conducted discussions with the data partners' extract-transform-load analysts to determine the cause for each issue. The results include a longitudinal summary of 2182 data quality issues identified across 9 data submission cycles. The metadata from the most recent cycle includes annotations for 850 issues: most frequent types, including missing data (>300) and outliers (>100); most complex domains, including medications (>160) and lab measurements (>140); and primary causes, including source data characteristics (83%) and extract-transform-load errors (9%). The longitudinal findings demonstrate the network's evolution from identifying difficulties with aligning the data to a common data model to learning norms in clinical pediatrics and determining research capability. While data quality is recognized as a critical aspect in establishing and utilizing a CDRN, the findings from data quality assessments are largely unpublished. This paper presents a real-world account of studying and interpreting data quality findings in a pediatric CDRN, and the lessons learned could be used by other CDRNs.

  11. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  12. Analysis and evolution of air quality monitoring networks using combined statistical information indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Osses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present combined statistical indexes for evaluating air quality monitoring networks based on concepts derived from the information theory and Kullback–Liebler divergence. More precisely, we introduce: (1 the standard measure of complementary mutual information or ‘specificity’ index; (2 a new measure of information gain or ‘representativity’ index; (3 the information gaps associated with the evolution of a network and (4 the normalised information distance used in clustering analysis. All these information concepts are illustrated by applying them to 14 yr of data collected by the air quality monitoring network in Santiago de Chile (33.5 S, 70.5 W, 500 m a.s.l.. We find that downtown stations, located in a relatively flat area of the Santiago basin, generally show high ‘representativity’ and low ‘specificity’, whereas the contrary is found for a station located in a canyon to the east of the basin, consistently with known emission and circulation patterns of Santiago. We also show interesting applications of information gain to the analysis of the evolution of a network, where the choice of background information is also discussed, and of mutual information distance to the classifications of stations. Our analyses show that information as those presented here should of course be used in a complementary way when addressing the analysis of an air quality network for planning and evaluation purposes.

  13. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.

  14. Local GABA concentration is related to network-level resting functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Charlotte J; Bachtiar, Velicia; Amadi, Ugwechi; Gudberg, Christel A; Ilie, Andrei S; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; O'Shea, Jacinta; Woolrich, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Filippini, Nicola; Near, Jamie; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-03-25

    Anatomically plausible networks of functionally inter-connected regions have been reliably demonstrated at rest, although the neurochemical basis of these 'resting state networks' is not well understood. In this study, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting state fMRI and demonstrated an inverse relationship between levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA within the primary motor cortex (M1) and the strength of functional connectivity across the resting motor network. This relationship was both neurochemically and anatomically specific. We then went on to show that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), an intervention previously shown to decrease GABA levels within M1, increased resting motor network connectivity. We therefore suggest that network-level functional connectivity within the motor system is related to the degree of inhibition in M1, a major node within the motor network, a finding in line with converging evidence from both simulation and empirical studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01465.001.

  15. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  16. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  17. Designing Groundwater Monitoring Networks for Regional-Scale Water Quality Assessment: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M. J.; Wagner, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    The design of groundwater monitoring networks is an important concern of regional-scale water-quality assessment programs because of the high cost of data collection. The work presented here addresses regional-scale design issues using ground-water simulation and optimization set within a Bayesian framework. The regional-scale design approach focuses on reducing the uncertainty associated with a fundamental quantity: the proportion of a subsurface water resource which exceeds a specified threshold concentration, such as a mandated maximum contaminant level. This proportion is hereafter referred to as the threshold proportion. The goal is to identify optimal or near-optimal sampling designs that reduce the threshold proportion uncertainty to an acceptable level. In the Bayesian approach, there is a probability density function (pdf) associated with the unknown threshold proportion before sampling. This function is known as the prior pdf. The form of the prior pdf, which is dependent on the information available regarding the distribution of water quality within the aquifer system, controls the amount of sampling needed. In the absence of information, the form of the prior pdf is uniform; however, if a ground-water flow and transport model is available, a Monte Carlo analysis of ground-water flow and transport simulations can be used to generate a prior pdf which is non-uniform and which contains the information available regarding solute sources, pathways and transport. After sampling, the prior pdf is conditioned on the sampling data. The conditional distribution is known as the posterior pdf. In most cases there is a reduction in uncertainty associated with conditioning. The reduction in uncertainty achieved after collecting samples can be explored for different combinations of prior pdf distribution and sampling method. Three scenarios are considered: (i) uniform prior pdf with random sampling; (ii) non-uniform prior pdf with random sampling; and (iii) non

  18. Improving the Quality of Service and Security of Military Networks with a Network Tasking Order Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    departure/ return locations and times, one- way travel with departure/arrival locations and times, or orbit information with departure/ return locations and...found that their heuristic occasionally returned a better solution than the “optimal” solution found using the MILP approach. This suggests that either...Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, 23: 1556-1563 (August 2005). [39] Lala , Jaynarayan, Douglas Maughan, Catherine McCollum, and

  19. Carbon Monoxide | Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that can increase the severity of lung ailments, cause dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and even death. EPA has defined the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide as nine parts per million averaged over an eight-hour period, and this threshold cannot be exceeded more than once a year or an area would be violating the standard.

  20. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  1. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  2. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks -journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  3. Quality of Context Enhancements and Cost Effective Radio over Fiber Network Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed Sherif Mahmoud

    In Communication networks today there is an endless quest for increased capacity and improved quality. With wireless systems being now popular worldwide for allowing users and devices to communicate and share information with each other irrespective of their location, the development of sustainable...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring D Appendix D to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... associated with area dimensions ranging from several meters up to about 100 meters. (2) Middle scale—Defines...

  5. Analysis of the Deployment Quality for Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sensing area; this constraint is known as k-coverage where k is the number of nodes. The deployment quality of sensor nodes depends directly on node density and sensing range; mainly a random sensor nodes deployment is required. The major question is centred around the problem of network coverage, how can we guarantee that each point of the sensing area is covered by the required number of sensor nodes and what a sufficient condition to guarantee the network coverage? To deal with this, probabilistic intrusion detection models are adopted, called single/multi-sensing detection, and the deployment quality issue is surveyed and analysed in terms of coverage. We evaluate the capability of our probabilistic model in homogeneous wireless sensor network, in terms of sensing range, node density, and intrusion distance.

  6. Neural network for quality control of submunitions produced by injection loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Wantuck, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Sciences and Applications Div.; Newman, K.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Yorktown, VA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Injection loading of submunitions for smart weapons is a novel automated processing technique that can benefit from adaptive process control. This paper describes how the quality of submunitions could be controlled by using a neural network code in real time. Future work is planned to demonstrate fewer rejects and pollution reduction during submunition manufacturing.

  7. Opening the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: An Actor-Network theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Broer (Tineke); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); R.A. Bal (Roland)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Quality improvement collaboratives are often labeled as black boxes because effect studies usually do not describe exactly how the results were obtained. In this article we propose a way of opening such a black box, by taking up a dynamic perspective based on Actor-Network

  8. Integrated Information and Network Management for End-to-End Quality of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Integrated Information and Network Management for End-to-End Quality of Service Marco Carvalho and Adrian Granados Florida Institute for...Carvalho, M., Granados A., Naqwi, W., Brothers, A., Hanna, J., and Turck, K., “A cross-layer communications substrate for tactical information management

  9. Analysis of Network Clustering Algorithms and Cluster Quality Metrics at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobourov, Stephen; Gallant, Mike; Börner, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Overview Notions of community quality underlie the clustering of networks. While studies surrounding network clustering are increasingly common, a precise understanding of the realtionship between different cluster quality metrics is unknown. In this paper, we examine the relationship between stand-alone cluster quality metrics and information recovery metrics through a rigorous analysis of four widely-used network clustering algorithms—Louvain, Infomap, label propagation, and smart local moving. We consider the stand-alone quality metrics of modularity, conductance, and coverage, and we consider the information recovery metrics of adjusted Rand score, normalized mutual information, and a variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work. Our study includes both synthetic graphs and empirical data sets of sizes varying from 1,000 to 1,000,000 nodes. Cluster Quality Metrics We find significant differences among the results of the different cluster quality metrics. For example, clustering algorithms can return a value of 0.4 out of 1 on modularity but score 0 out of 1 on information recovery. We find conductance, though imperfect, to be the stand-alone quality metric that best indicates performance on the information recovery metrics. Additionally, our study shows that the variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work cannot be assumed to differ only slightly from traditional normalized mutual information. Network Clustering Algorithms Smart local moving is the overall best performing algorithm in our study, but discrepancies between cluster evaluation metrics prevent us from declaring it an absolutely superior algorithm. Interestingly, Louvain performed better than Infomap in nearly all the tests in our study, contradicting the results of previous work in which Infomap was superior to Louvain. We find that although label propagation performs poorly when clusters are less clearly defined, it scales efficiently and accurately to large

  10. Recognition of Roasted Coffee Bean Levels using Image Processing and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Andayani, U.

    2017-03-01

    The coffee beans roast levels have some characteristics. However, some people cannot recognize the coffee beans roast level. In this research, we propose to design a method to recognize the coffee beans roast level of images digital by processing the image and classifying with backpropagation neural network. The steps consist of how to collect the images data with image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method and finally normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The values of decimal scaling features become an input of classifying in backpropagation neural network. We use the method of backpropagation to recognize the coffee beans roast levels. The results showed that the proposed method is able to identify the coffee roasts beans level with an accuracy of 97.5%.

  11. Graph coarse-graining reveals differences in the module-level structure of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Rainer; Glerean, Enrico; Pan, Raj Kumar; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Networks have become a standard tool for analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In this approach, brain areas and their functional connections are mapped to the nodes and links of a network. Even though this mapping reduces the complexity of the underlying data, it remains challenging to understand the structure of the resulting networks due to the large number of nodes and links. One solution is to partition networks into modules and then investigate the modules' composition and relationship with brain functioning. While this approach works well for single networks, understanding differences between two networks by comparing their partitions is difficult and alternative approaches are thus necessary. To this end, we present a coarse-graining framework that uses a single set of data-driven modules as a frame of reference, enabling one to zoom out from the node- and link-level details. As a result, differences in the module-level connectivity can be understood in a transparent, statistically verifiable manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by applying it to networks constructed from fMRI data recorded from 13 healthy subjects during rest and movie viewing. While independently partitioning the rest and movie networks is shown to yield little insight, the coarse-graining framework enables one to pinpoint differences in the module-level structure, such as the increased number of intra-module links within the visual cortex during movie viewing. In addition to quantifying differences due to external stimuli, the approach could also be applied in clinical settings, such as comparing patients with healthy controls. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Randomization and resilience of brain functional networks as systems-level endophenotypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Yi Zac; Su, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Chu-Chung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-07-21

    Schizophrenia is increasingly conceived as a disorder of brain network organization or dysconnectivity syndrome. Functional MRI (fMRI) networks in schizophrenia have been characterized by abnormally random topology. We tested the hypothesis that network randomization is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and therefore evident also in nonpsychotic relatives of patients. Head movement-corrected, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 first-degree relatives of patients, and 29 healthy volunteers. Graphs were used to model functional connectivity as a set of edges between regional nodes. We estimated the topological efficiency, clustering, degree distribution, resilience, and connection distance (in millimeters) of each functional network. The schizophrenic group demonstrated significant randomization of global network metrics (reduced clustering, greater efficiency), a shift in the degree distribution to a more homogeneous form (fewer hubs), a shift in the distance distribution (proportionally more long-distance edges), and greater resilience to targeted attack on network hubs. The networks of the relatives also demonstrated abnormal randomization and resilience compared with healthy volunteers, but they were typically less topologically abnormal than the patients' networks and did not have abnormal connection distances. We conclude that schizophrenia is associated with replicable and convergent evidence for functional network randomization, and a similar topological profile was evident also in nonpsychotic relatives, suggesting that this is a systems-level endophenotype or marker of familial risk. We speculate that the greater resilience of brain networks may confer some fitness advantages on nonpsychotic relatives that could explain persistence of this endophenotype in the population.

  13. The Incidence of Water Quality: A County Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Peter; Seneca, Joseph J.

    1980-04-01

    Relationships between nine quality characteristics of domestic water systems and the income and racial composition of the using populations are examined for a national sample of counties. Simple correlations suggest a regressive distribution for some but not all pollutants. More detailed analysis of two pollutants adjusts for variation in size of county population and shows a regressive distribution of fecal coliform but an income neutral distribution of cadminum. The findings are far from definitive but point to the type of analysis required to draw broader incidence conclusions.

  14. An investigation of link quality assessment for mobile multi-hop and multi-rate wireless networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Jacobsson, M.; Onur, E.; Niemegeers, I.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks will be an important component in future communication systems. The performance of wireless ad hoc networks can be improved by link quality-aware applications. Wireless link quality is dynamic in nature, especially in mobile scenarios. Therefore, accurate and fast packet

  15. INTEGRAL INDEX OF OPERATION QUALITY FOR EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTIVE GENERATION SOURCES ON ELECTRIC NETWORK MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro D. Lezhniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Method of operation quality evaluation of electric network, comprising renewable sources of energy (RSE is considered. Integral index that enables to evaluate the impact of RSE on energy losses and its quality as well as balance reliability in electric network is suggested. Mathematical model is constructed, taking into account the assumption that electric network with RSE may be in various operation modes, characterized by different technical economic indices. To determine the integral index of operation quality of electric network with RSE in all possible states tools of Markov processes theory and criterial method are used.

  16. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggil Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  17. A design of wireless sensor networks for a power quality monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

    2010-01-01

    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  18. Enhancement of digital radiography image quality using a convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuewen; Li, Litao; Cong, Peng; Wang, Zhentao; Guo, Xiaojing

    2017-10-10

    Digital radiography system is widely used for noninvasive security check and medical imaging examination. However, the system has a limitation of lower image quality in spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio. In this study, we explored whether the image quality acquired by the digital radiography system can be improved with a modified convolutional neural network to generate high-resolution images with reduced noise from the original low-quality images. The experiment evaluated on a test dataset, which contains 5 X-ray images, showed that the proposed method outperformed the traditional methods (i.e., bicubic interpolation and 3D block-matching approach) as measured by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) about 1.3 dB while kept highly efficient processing time within one second. Experimental results demonstrated that a residual to residual (RTR) convolutional neural network remarkably improved the image quality of object structural details by increasing the image resolution and reducing image noise. Thus, this study indicated that applying this RTR convolutional neural network system was useful to improve image quality acquired by the digital radiography system.

  19. A Framework for Advanced Video Traces: Evaluating Visual Quality for Video Transmission Over Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisslein Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional video traces (which characterize the video encoding frame sizes in bits and frame quality in PSNR are limited to evaluating loss-free video transmission. To evaluate robust video transmission schemes for lossy network transport, generally experiments with actual video are required. To circumvent the need for experiments with actual videos, we propose in this paper an advanced video trace framework. The two main components of this framework are (i advanced video traces which combine the conventional video traces with a parsimonious set of visual content descriptors, and (ii quality prediction schemes that based on the visual content descriptors provide an accurate prediction of the quality of the reconstructed video after lossy network transport. We conduct extensive evaluations using a perceptual video quality metric as well as the PSNR in which we compare the visual quality predicted based on the advanced video traces with the visual quality determined from experiments with actual video. We find that the advanced video trace methodology accurately predicts the quality of the reconstructed video after frame losses.

  20. [Assessment model of townlet eco-environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Hai-tao

    2008-12-01

    Aiming at the problems in the townlet eco-environmental quality assessment in China, a comprehensive assessment model of townlet ecological environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network was set up, which contained 20 cryptic layer nodes and 3 layers. The rank classification criterion of eco-environmental quality's assessment indicator system were chosen as the training sample of the model, the 10% of training sample as well as the middle and critical values were regarded as examining sample, and the monitoring values of assessment region were treated as test sample. Choosing the Dushan Town in Ezhou City as an example, the training and prediction were made by using MATLAB software. The results showed that BP-artificial neural network was not only feasible and dependable, but also couldprovide acceptable results in accord with the regional realistic eco-environmental feature.

  1. Three-Level Direct Torque Control Based on Artificial Neural Network of Double Star Synchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elakhdar BENYOUSSEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct torque control strategy for double star synchronous machine fed by two three-level inverters. The analysis of the torque and the stator flux linkage reference frame shows that the concept of direct torque control can be extended easily to double star synchronous machine. The proposed approach consists to replace the switching tables by one artificial neural networks controller. The output switching states vectors of the artificial neural networks controller are used to control the two three-level inverters. Simulations results are given to show the effectiveness and the robustness of the suggested control method.

  2. Altered Brain Network in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting Graph Theory-Based Network Study at Voxel-Wise Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyang; Hu, Xiaofei; Hu, Jun; Liang, Minglong; Yin, Xuntao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jiuquan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare degenerative disorder characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Neuroimaging has provided noticeable evidence that ALS is a complex disease, and shown that anatomical and functional lesions extend beyond precentral cortices and corticospinal tracts, to include the corpus callosum; frontal, sensory, and premotor cortices; thalamus; and midbrain. The aim of this study is to investigate graph theory-based functional network abnormalities at voxel-wise level in ALS patients on a whole brain scale. Forty-three ALS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. The voxel-wise network degree centrality (DC), a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, was used to characterize the alteration of whole brain functional network. Compared with the controls, the ALS patients showed significant increase of DC in the left cerebellum posterior lobes, bilateral cerebellum crus, bilateral occipital poles, right orbital frontal lobe, and bilateral prefrontal lobes; significant decrease of DC in the bilateral primary motor cortex, bilateral sensory motor region, right prefrontal lobe, left bilateral precuneus, bilateral lateral temporal lobes, left cingulate cortex, and bilateral visual processing cortex. The DC's z-scores of right inferior occipital gyrus were significant negative correlated with the ALSFRS-r scores. Our findings confirm that the regions with abnormal network DC in ALS patients were located in multiple brain regions including primary motor, somatosensory and extra-motor areas, supporting the concept that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Specifically, our study found that DC in the visual areas was altered and ALS patients with higher DC in right inferior occipital gyrus have more severity of disease. The result demonstrated that the altered DC value in this region can probably be used to assess severity of ALS.

  3. The effect of increasing levels of embedded generation on the distribution network. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A.; Earp, G.K.; Howson, D.; Owen, R.D.; Wright, A.J.

    1999-10-01

    This report was commissioned as part of the EA Technology Strategic Technology Programme under guidance of the Module 5 (Embedded Generation) Steering Group. This report aims to provide information related to the distribution and supply of electricity in the context of increasing levels of embedded generation. There is a brief description of the operating environment within which electricity companies in the UK must operate. Technical issues related to the connection of generation to the existing distribution infrastructure are highlighted and the design philosophy adopted by network designers in accommodating applications for the connection of embedded generation to the network is discussed. The effects embedded generation has on the network and the issues raised are presented as many of them present barriers to the connection of embedded generators. The final chapters cover the forecast of required connection to 2010 and solutions to restrictions preventing the connection of more embedded generation to the network. (author)

  4. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  5. Quality Analysis in Phase Modulated Radio over Fiber in WDM/DWDM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Kiran, K. V.; Kumar, V.; Yadav, D.; Barpanda, N. K.; Das, Santos Kumar

    2017-05-01

    There has been increasing demand for connection setup with a higher quality of service (QoS) in WDM/DWDM networks, especially in fields like radio over fiber, where phase modulation affects the link quality. Hence to meet guaranteed QoS in a phase modulated link, the effects of phase modulation on link quality are very much needed. The link quality is termed as quality factor (Q-factor). The primary objective is to use effectively the connections available to optimize the computed number of connections and reduce the blocked connections but at the same time guaranteeing QoS as per client's need. The analysis has been done by taking care of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) techniques. The performance analysis is presented in terms of blocking probability.

  6. Reactor vessel water level estimation during severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Back, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Global concern and interest in the safety of nuclear power plants have increased considerably since the Fukushima accident. In the event of a severe accident, the reactor vessel water level cannot be measured. The reactor vessel water level has a direct impact on confirming the safety of reactor core cooling. However, in the event of a severe accident, it may be possible to estimate the reactor vessel water level by employing other information. The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model can be used to estimate the reactor vessel water level through the process of repeatedly adding fuzzy neural networks. The developed CFNN model was found to be sufficiently accurate for estimating the reactor vessel water level when the sensor performance had deteriorated. Therefore, the developed CFNN model can help provide effective information to operators in the event of a severe accident.

  7. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  8. Stochastic hydro-economic model for groundwater quality management using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José-Luis; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Peña-Haro, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A strong normative development in Europe, including the Nitrate Directive (1991) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000), has been promulgated. The WFD states that all water bodies have to reach a good quantitative and chemical status by 2015. It is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict, for tackling a suitable assessment of the impacts generated by water policies aimed to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater. For that, an annual lumped probabilistic model based on Bayesian networks (BNs) has been designed for hydro-economic modelling of groundwater quality control under uncertain conditions. The information introduced in the BN model comes from different sources such as previous groundwater flow and mass transport simulations, hydro-economic models, stakeholders and expert opinion, etc. The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer unit within the 'Easter Mancha' groundwater body, which is one of the largest aquifers in Spain (7,400 km(2)), included in the Júcar River Basin. Over the past 30 years, socioeconomic development within the region has been mainly depending on intensive use of groundwater resources for irrigating crops. This has provoked a continuous groundwater level fall in the last two decades and significant streamflow depletion in the connected Júcar River. This BN model has proved to be a robust Decision Support System for helping water managers in the decision making process.

  9. Service Quality Assessment for NASA's Deep Space Network: No Longer a Luxury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Erik; Wolgast, Paul; Zendejas, Silvino

    2010-01-01

    When NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) was established almost a half century ago, the concept of computer-based service delivery was impractical or infeasible due to the state of information technology As a result, the interface the DSN exposes to its customers tends to be equipment-centric, lacking a clear demarcation between the DSN and the mission operation systems (MOS) of its customers. As the number of customers has continued to increase, the need to improve efficiency and minimize costs has grown. This growth has been the impetus for a DSN transformation from an equipment-forrent provider to a provider of standard services. Service orientation naturally leads to requirements for service management, including proactive measurement of service quality and service levels as well as the efficiency of internal processes and the performance of service provisioning systems. DSN System Engineering has surveyed industry offerings to determine if commercial successes in decision support and Business Intelligence (BI) solutions can be applied to the DSN. A pilot project was initiated, and subsequently executed to determine the feasibility of repurposing a commercial Business Intelligence platform for engineering analysis in conjunction with the platform's intended business reporting and analysis functions.

  10. Language Efficiency, Term Quality, and the Basic Level of Categorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss the role played by terms at the basic or generic levels of the sub-hierarchies of very 'deep' concept hierarchies such as SNOMED CT, a medical nomenclature system. On the basis of an analysis of selected sub-hierarchies of SNOMED-CT, the type...

  11. Network-level connectivity dynamics of movie watching in 6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Emerson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32 =5.02, p<.0001. More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention. For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32 =-2.46, p=.02; Seed-based: t(32 =-1.62, p=.12 and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32 =2.84, p=.008; Seed-based: t(32 =2.28, p=.03, which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to such

  12. Forecasting daily source air quality using multivariate statistical analysis and radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Hoff, Steven J; Zelle, Brian C; Nelson, Minda A

    2008-12-01

    It is vital to forecast gas and particle matter concentrations and emission rates (GPCER) from livestock production facilities to assess the impact of airborne pollutants on human health, ecological environment, and global warming. Modeling source air quality is a complex process because of abundant nonlinear interactions between GPCER and other factors. The objective of this study was to introduce statistical methods and radial basis function (RBF) neural network to predict daily source air quality in Iowa swine deep-pit finishing buildings. The results show that four variables (outdoor and indoor temperature, animal units, and ventilation rates) were identified as relative important model inputs using statistical methods. It can be further demonstrated that only two factors, the environment factor and the animal factor, were capable of explaining more than 94% of the total variability after performing principal component analysis. The introduction of fewer uncorrelated variables to the neural network would result in the reduction of the model structure complexity, minimize computation cost, and eliminate model overfitting problems. The obtained results of RBF network prediction were in good agreement with the actual measurements, with values of the correlation coefficient between 0.741 and 0.995 and very low values of systemic performance indexes for all the models. The good results indicated the RBF network could be trained to model these highly nonlinear relationships. Thus, the RBF neural network technology combined with multivariate statistical methods is a promising tool for air pollutant emissions modeling.

  13. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of performance... defined in part 430, subpart B, of this chapter; or (b) An employee who, when covered by a performance... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Level of performance required for quality...

  14. Relationship between Problematic Internet Use, Depression and Quality of Life Levels of Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinarslan, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU), depression and quality of life levels of individuals is a growing concern in many societies. One of the main purposes of this study was to examine the relationships or correlations among PIU, depression and quality of life levels of Turkish undergraduate students. Furthermore, this study…

  15. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; Bright, V. B.; North, R.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P. H.; Jones, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for air travel in the UK has led to calls for ways to address the effects of increasing activities in airports in London. London Heathrow airport (LHR) is the largest airport in the UK and in recent years has been operating close to full capacity resulting in consideration of building a third runway to ease the burden at the airport. Such an expansion would be subject to meeting several criteria including local air quality challenges. Air quality issues associated with the airport include particulates (e.g. PM2.5, PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and these are associated with different sources including aircraft activities and road traffic within and outside of the airport. Although it is well known that airports contribute to poor air quality, part of the challenge is to quantify contributions from these different sources. The work presented here shows the utility of low-cost high density sensor networks in addressing this challenge. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring air quality pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment. In this paper we extend this to include modified versions of these instruments which incorporate additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs, CO2 as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 μm). Meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also recorded. For this paper, we focus on LHR, although the technique has much wider applicability. A network of 30 sensor nodes is being deployed for over 16 months in and around LHR as part of NERC funded Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. We present here some of the early results from the deployment showing source attribution associated with different operational modes at LHR. Regional pollution episodes influenced by macro meteorology are

  16. The WHO AFRO external quality assessment programme (EQAP): Linking laboratory networks through EQA programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeras, Debrah I; Peeling, Rosanna W; Onyebujoh, Philip; Yahaya, Ali A; Gumede-Moeletsi, Hieronyma N; Ndihokubwayo, Jean B

    2016-01-01

    External Quality Assessment (EQA) surveys performed by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) revealed the need for the strengthening of public health microbiology laboratories, particularly for testing of epidemic-prone diseases in the African Region. These surveys revealed common issues such as supply chain management, skilled personnel, logistical support and overall lack of quality standards. For sustainable improvements to health systems as well as global health security, deficiencies identified need to be actively corrected through robust quality assurance programmes and implementation of laboratory quality management systems. Given all the pathogens of public health importance, an external quality assessment programme with a focus on vaccine-preventable diseases and emerging and re-emerging dangerous pathogens is important, and should not be stand-alone, but integrated within laboratory networks as seen in polio, measles, yellow fever and rubella. In 2015, WHO AFRO collaborated with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and partners in a series of consultations with countries and national and regional EQA providers for the development of quality assurance models to support HIV point-of-care testing and monitoring. These consultations revealed similar challenges as seen in the WHO AFRO surveys. WHO AFRO brought forth its experience in implementing quality standards for health programmes, and also opened discussions on how lessons learned through such established programmes can be utilised to supporting and strengthening the introduction of early infant diagnosis of HIV and viral load point-of-care testing. An optimised external quality assessment programme will impact the ability of countries to meet core capacities, providing improved quality management systems, improving the confidence of diagnostic network services in Africa, and including capacities to detect events

  17. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of adolescents aged 14–22 living in Cape Town, South Africa, this article presents evidence of how differences in individual-level risk factors as well as sexual network structures between different racial or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread ...

  18. Perceptions of Teacher Candidates about Social Network Usage Levels in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçoglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of the teacher candidates in educational faculties in Turkey about social network usage levels in today's globalizing world. The study was performed with 4 separate study groups. The first study group consisted of 657 teacher candidates, the second study group consisted of 364 teacher…

  19. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo

    Full Text Available Local access networks (LAN are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.

  20. A Closer Look at Deep Learning Neural Networks with Low-level Spectral Periodicity Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Kereliuk, Corey; Pikrakis, Aggelos

    2014-01-01

    Systems built using deep learning neural networks trained on low-level spectral periodicity features (DeSPerF) reproduced the most “ground truth” of the systems submitted to the MIREX 2013 task, “Audio Latin Genre Classification.” To answer why this was the case, we take a closer look...

  1. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS UPON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan ISIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to evaluate the effects of the quality of life levels of university students upon their depression levels. The students of School of Physical Education and Sports who took physical activity courses (n=148 and students of other academ ic branches who did not take physical activity courses (n=180 participated in the study voluntarily. To the participant individuals; SF - 36 quality of life scale (8 subscales, 2 summary scores, Beck Depression Inventory (Total scores and a personal infor mation form (about age, height, weight, sportive age, marital status and income status were administered. When intergroup quality of life subscale differences were examined; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference in physic al functioning (t=6.810; p0.05. As for the quality of life summary scores; a statistically significant difference exist ed in physical health summary scores (t=3.580; p0.05. Again; intergroup depression scores were investigated; it was found out that students who stud ied at other academic departments had higher depression scores than those who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (t= - 6.855; p<0.001. It was concluded that physical activities had positive effects upon both quality of life and depression le vels and that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression levels.

  3. Unified study of Quality of Service (QoS) in OPS/OBS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Dawit Hadush; Lema, Gebrehiwet Gebrekrstos; Yekun, Ephrem Admasu; Kebede, Samrawit Haylu

    2017-07-01

    With the growth of Internet traffic, an inevitable use of optical networks provide a large bandwidth, fast data transmission rates and Quality of Service (QoS) support. Currently, Optical Burst Switched (OBS)/Optical Packet Switched (OPS) networks are under study as future solutions for addressing the increase demand of Internet traffic. However, due to their high blocking probability in the intermediate nodes they have been delayed in the industries. Packet loss in OBS/OPS networks is mainly occur due to contention. Hence, the contribution of this study is to analyze the file loss ratio (FLR), packet overhead and number of disjoint paths, and processing delay over Coded Packet Transport (CPT) scheme for OBS/OPS network using simulation. The simulations show that CPT scheme reduces the FLR in OBS/OPS network for the evaluated scenarios since the data packets are chopped off into blocks of the data packet for transmission over a network. Simulation results for secrecy and survivability are verified with the help of the analytical model to define the operational range of CPT scheme.

  4. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman; Patrik Hansson; Michael Rönnlund

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationshi...

  5. LEA: An Algorithm to Estimate the Level of Location Exposure in Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy in wireless networks is nowadays a major concern. This is due to the fact that the mere fact of transmitting may allow a network to pinpoint a mobile node. We consider that a first step to protect a mobile node in this situation is to provide it with the means to quantify how accurately a network establishes its position. To achieve this end, we introduce the location-exposure algorithm (LEA, which runs on the mobile terminal only and whose operation consists of two steps. In the first step, LEA discovers the positions of nearby network nodes and uses this information to emulate how they estimate the position of the mobile node. In the second step, it quantifies the level of exposure by computing the distance between the position estimated in the first step and its true position. We refer to these steps as a location-exposure problem. We tested our proposal with simulations and testbed experiments. These results show the ability of LEA to reproduce the location of the mobile node, as seen by the network, and to quantify the level of exposure. This knowledge can help the mobile user decide which actions should be performed before transmitting.

  6. A Study of Quality of Service Communication for High-Speed Packet-Switching Computer Sub-Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenqian

    1999-01-01

    With the development of high-speed networking technology, computer networks, including local-area networks (LANs), wide-area networks (WANs) and the Internet, are extending their traditional roles of carrying computer data. They are being used for Internet telephony, multimedia applications such as conferencing and video on demand, distributed simulations, and other real-time applications. LANs are even used for distributed real-time process control and computing as a cost-effective approach. Differing from traditional data transfer, these new classes of high-speed network applications (video, audio, real-time process control, and others) are delay sensitive. The usefulness of data depends not only on the correctness of received data, but also the time that data are received. In other words, these new classes of applications require networks to provide guaranteed services or quality of service (QoS). Quality of service can be defined by a set of parameters and reflects a user's expectation about the underlying network's behavior. Traditionally, distinct services are provided by different kinds of networks. Voice services are provided by telephone networks, video services are provided by cable networks, and data transfer services are provided by computer networks. A single network providing different services is called an integrated-services network.

  7. Analysis of Network Clustering Algorithms and Cluster Quality Metrics at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Scott; Kobourov, Stephen; Gallant, Mike; Börner, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Notions of community quality underlie the clustering of networks. While studies surrounding network clustering are increasingly common, a precise understanding of the realtionship between different cluster quality metrics is unknown. In this paper, we examine the relationship between stand-alone cluster quality metrics and information recovery metrics through a rigorous analysis of four widely-used network clustering algorithms-Louvain, Infomap, label propagation, and smart local moving. We consider the stand-alone quality metrics of modularity, conductance, and coverage, and we consider the information recovery metrics of adjusted Rand score, normalized mutual information, and a variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work. Our study includes both synthetic graphs and empirical data sets of sizes varying from 1,000 to 1,000,000 nodes. We find significant differences among the results of the different cluster quality metrics. For example, clustering algorithms can return a value of 0.4 out of 1 on modularity but score 0 out of 1 on information recovery. We find conductance, though imperfect, to be the stand-alone quality metric that best indicates performance on the information recovery metrics. Additionally, our study shows that the variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work cannot be assumed to differ only slightly from traditional normalized mutual information. Smart local moving is the overall best performing algorithm in our study, but discrepancies between cluster evaluation metrics prevent us from declaring it an absolutely superior algorithm. Interestingly, Louvain performed better than Infomap in nearly all the tests in our study, contradicting the results of previous work in which Infomap was superior to Louvain. We find that although label propagation performs poorly when clusters are less clearly defined, it scales efficiently and accurately to large graphs with well-defined clusters.

  8. Analysis of Network Clustering Algorithms and Cluster Quality Metrics at Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Emmons

    Full Text Available Notions of community quality underlie the clustering of networks. While studies surrounding network clustering are increasingly common, a precise understanding of the realtionship between different cluster quality metrics is unknown. In this paper, we examine the relationship between stand-alone cluster quality metrics and information recovery metrics through a rigorous analysis of four widely-used network clustering algorithms-Louvain, Infomap, label propagation, and smart local moving. We consider the stand-alone quality metrics of modularity, conductance, and coverage, and we consider the information recovery metrics of adjusted Rand score, normalized mutual information, and a variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work. Our study includes both synthetic graphs and empirical data sets of sizes varying from 1,000 to 1,000,000 nodes.We find significant differences among the results of the different cluster quality metrics. For example, clustering algorithms can return a value of 0.4 out of 1 on modularity but score 0 out of 1 on information recovery. We find conductance, though imperfect, to be the stand-alone quality metric that best indicates performance on the information recovery metrics. Additionally, our study shows that the variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work cannot be assumed to differ only slightly from traditional normalized mutual information.Smart local moving is the overall best performing algorithm in our study, but discrepancies between cluster evaluation metrics prevent us from declaring it an absolutely superior algorithm. Interestingly, Louvain performed better than Infomap in nearly all the tests in our study, contradicting the results of previous work in which Infomap was superior to Louvain. We find that although label propagation performs poorly when clusters are less clearly defined, it scales efficiently and accurately to large graphs with well-defined clusters.

  9. Molecular heterogeneity at the network level: high-dimensional testing, clustering and a TCGA case study | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivation: Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging.

  10. Deep Neural Networks for No-Reference and Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Sebastian; Maniry, Dominique; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Wiegand, Thomas; Samek, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    We present a deep neural network-based approach to image quality assessment (IQA). The network is trained end-to-end and comprises ten convolutional layers and five pooling layers for feature extraction, and two fully connected layers for regression, which makes it significantly deeper than related IQA models. Unique features of the proposed architecture are that: 1) with slight adaptations it can be used in a no-reference (NR) as well as in a full-reference (FR) IQA setting and 2) it allows for joint learning of local quality and local weights, i.e., relative importance of local quality to the global quality estimate, in an unified framework. Our approach is purely data-driven and does not rely on hand-crafted features or other types of prior domain knowledge about the human visual system or image statistics. We evaluate the proposed approach on the LIVE, CISQ, and TID2013 databases as well as the LIVE In the wild image quality challenge database and show superior performance to state-of-the-art NR and FR IQA methods. Finally, cross-database evaluation shows a high ability to generalize between different databases, indicating a high robustness of the learned features.

  11. Feasibility study for the modernization of the air quality monitoring network in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The project is part of the Ministry of Environment and Recoverable Resources`s (MARNR) goal of establishing a consolidated and effective monitoring program nationwide, which would allow for evaluations of air quality, identification of pollution sources and provide a basis for future air quality management decisions. The bilingual Spanish/English report consists of: (1) work plan; (2) evaluation of current monitoring stations and recommendations for improvement; (3) field evaluation report for existing MARNR network; (4) institutional analysis, revenue requirements, selection of funding mechanism, and three sets of attachments.

  12. Enhancement of the Automated Quality Control Procedures for the International Soil Moisture Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Elsa; Xaver, Angelika; Dorigo, Wouter; Messner, Romina

    2017-04-01

    In-situ soil moisture observations are still trusted to be the most reliable data to validate remotely sensed soil moisture products. Thus, the quality of in-situ soil moisture observations is of high importance. The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://ismn.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) provides in-situ soil moisture data from all around the world. The data is collected from individual networks and data providers, measured by different sensors in various depths. The data sets which are delivered in different units, time zones and data formats are then transformed into homogeneous data sets. An erroneous behavior of soil moisture data is very difficult to detect, due to annual and daily changes and most significantly the high influence of precipitation and snow melting processes. Only few of the network providers have a quality assessment for their data sets. Therefore, advanced quality control procedures have been developed for the ISMN (Dorigo et al. 2013). Three categories of quality checks were introduced: exceeding boundary values, geophysical consistency checks and a spectrum based approach. The spectrum based quality control algorithms aim to detect erroneous measurements which occur within plausible geophysical ranges, e.g. a sudden drop in soil moisture caused by a sensor malfunction. By defining several conditions which have to be met by the original soil moisture time series and their first and second derivative, such error types can be detected. Since the development of these sophisticated methods many more data providers shared their data with the ISMN and new types of erroneous measurements were identified. Thus, an enhancement of the automated quality control procedures became necessary. In the present work, we introduce enhancements of the existing quality control algorithms. Additionally, six completely new quality checks have been developed, e.g. detection of suspicious values before or after NAN-values, constant values and values that lie in a

  13. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404

  14. Simulation of devices mobility to estimate wireless channel quality metrics in 5G networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Yu.; Fedorov, S.; Samuylov, A.; Gaidamaka, Yu.; Molchanov, D.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of channel quality estimation for devices in a wireless 5G network is formulated. As a performance metrics of interest we choose the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, which depends essentially on the distance between the communicating devices. A model with a plurality of moving devices in a bounded three-dimensional space and a simulation algorithm to determine the distances between the devices for a given motion model are devised.

  15. Design and Development of Water Quality Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingfei; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Lianzhi; Ma, Daokun; Ding, Qisheng

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a system framework taking the advantages of the WSN for the real-time monitoring on the water quality in aquaculture. We design the structure of the wireless sensor network to collect and continuously transmit data to the monitoring software. Then we accomplish the configuration model in the software that enhances the reuse and facility of the monitoring project. Moreover, the monitoring software developed to represent the monitoring hardware and da...

  16. Congestion prediction modeling for quality of service improvement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Sung-Young; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2014-04-30

    Information technology (IT) is pushing ahead with drastic reforms of modern life for improvement of human welfare. Objects constitute "Information Networks" through smart, self-regulated information gathering that also recognizes and controls current information states in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Information observed from sensor networks in real-time is used to increase quality of life (QoL) in various industries and daily life. One of the key challenges of the WSNs is how to achieve lossless data transmission. Although nowadays sensor nodes have enhanced capacities, it is hard to assure lossless and reliable end-to-end data transmission in WSNs due to the unstable wireless links and low hard ware resources to satisfy high quality of service (QoS) requirements. We propose a node and path traffic prediction model to predict and minimize the congestion. This solution includes prediction of packet generation due to network congestion from both periodic and event data generation. Simulation using NS-2 and Matlab is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  17. Campaign-level dynamic network modelling for spaceflight logistics for the flexible path concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Koki; de Weck, Olivier L.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Shishko, Robert

    2016-06-01

    This paper develops a network optimization formulation for dynamic campaign-level space mission planning. Although many past space missions have been designed mainly from a mission-level perspective, a campaign-level perspective will be important for future space exploration. In order to find the optimal campaign-level space transportation architecture, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation with a generalized multi-commodity flow and a time-expanded network is developed. Particularly, a new heuristics-based method, a partially static time-expanded network, is developed to provide a solution quickly. The developed method is applied to a case study containing human exploration of a near-Earth object (NEO) and Mars, related to the concept of the Flexible Path. The numerical results show that using the specific combinations of propulsion technologies, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and other space infrastructure elements can reduce the initial mass in low-Earth orbit (IMLEO) significantly. In addition, the case study results also show that we can achieve large IMLEO reduction by designing NEO and Mars missions together as a campaign compared with designing them separately owing to their common space infrastructure pre-deployment. This research will be an important step toward efficient and flexible campaign-level space mission planning.

  18. Assessment of the water quality monitoring network of the Piabanha River experimental watersheds in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using autoassociative neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Mariana D; Olivera, Francisco; de Azevedo, Jose Paulo S

    2017-09-01

    Water quality monitoring is a complex issue that requires support tools in order to provide information for water resource management. Budget constraints as well as an inadequate water quality network design call for the development of evaluation tools to provide efficient water quality monitoring. For this purpose, a nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) based on an autoassociative neural network was performed to assess the redundancy of the parameters and monitoring locations of the water quality network in the Piabanha River watershed. Oftentimes, a small number of variables contain the most relevant information, while the others add little or no interpretation to the variability of water quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for this purpose. However, conventional PCA is not able to capture the nonlinearities of water quality data, while neural networks can represent those nonlinear relationships. The results presented in this work demonstrate that NLPCA performs better than PCA in the reconstruction of the water quality data of Piabanha watershed, explaining most of data variance. From the results of NLPCA, the most relevant water quality parameter is fecal coliforms (FCs) and the least relevant is chemical oxygen demand (COD). Regarding the monitoring locations, the most relevant is Poço Tarzan (PT) and the least is Parque Petrópolis (PP).

  19. External quality assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2016-07-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operated five distinct programs to provide external quality assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s (NADP) National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network during 2013–14. The National Trends Network programs include (1) a field audit program to evaluate sample contamination and stability, (2) an interlaboratory comparison program to evaluate analytical laboratory performance, and (3) a colocated sampler program to evaluate bias from precipitation sampler upgrades. The Mercury Deposition Network programs include the (4) system blank program and (5) an interlaboratory comparison program. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends for chemical constituents in wet deposition.

  20. The Implementation of a Quality Management Standard in a Food SME: A Network Learning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zam-Zam Abdirahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern agrifood economies, the development of quality management standards is crucial, and food small and medium enterprises (SMEs usually face difficulties in implementing them. In this context, the aim of the article is two‐fold. Firstly it is to craft an original analytical framework in line with the literature on innovation networks and related learning effects specifically devoted to the study of quality management standards implementation. Secondly the objective of the article is to apply this framework to a specific food SME case in order to test it and to identify the key network learningeffects that occur during the implementation of a quality management standard, namely the ISO 22000 standard for food safety. From this research, the practical output will be to propose tools to enhance food SMEs’ innovative capacity, through an improvement of their insertion in active formal and/or informal innovation networks. These specific tools will be especially targeted towards the strengthening of learning processes between the SME and the partners involved in the implementation.

  1. Use of modeling to assess the scalability of Ethernet networks for the ATLAS second level trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, K; Dobinson, Robert W; Saka, F

    1999-01-01

    The second level trigger of LHC's ATLAS experiment has to perform real-time analyses on detector data at 10 GBytes/s. A switching network is required to connect more than thousand read-out buffers to about thousand processors that execute the trigger algorithm. We are investigating the use of Ethernet technology to build this large switching network. Ethernet is attractive because of the huge installed base, competitive prices, and recent introduction of the high-performance Gigabit version. Due to the network's size it has to be constructed as a layered structure of smaller units. To assess the scalability of such a structure we evaluated a single switch unit. (0 refs).

  2. Prediction ofWater Quality Parameters (NO3, CL in Karaj Riverby Usinga Combinationof Wavelet Neural Network, ANN and MLRModels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rajaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe water quality is an issue of ongoing concern. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of running waters is considerable in hydro-environmental management.The prediction and control of the quality of Karaj river water, as one of the important needed water supply sources of Tehran, possesses great importance. In this study, Performance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Wavelet Neural Network combination (WANN and multi linear regression (MLR models, to predict next month the Nitrate (NO3 and Chloride (CL ions of "gate ofBylaqan sluice" station located in Karaj River has been evaluated. Materials and MethodsIn this research two separate ANN models for prediction of NO3 and CL has been expanded. Each one of the parameters for prediction (NO3 / CL has been put related to the past amounts of the same time series (NO3 / CL and its amounts of Q in past months.From astatisticalperiod of10yearswas usedforthe input of the models. Hence 80% of entire data from (96 initial months of data as training set, next 10% of data (12 months and 10% of the end of time series (terminal 12 months were considered as for validation and test of the models, respectively. In WANNcombination model, the real monthly observed time series of river discharge (Q and mentioned qualityparameters(NO3 / CL were decomposed to some sub-time series at different levels by wavelet analysis.Then the decomposed quality parameters to predict and Q time series were used at different levels as inputs to the ANN technique for predicting one-step-ahead Nitrate and Chloride. These time series play various roles in the original time series and the behavior of each is distinct, so the contribution to the original time series varies from each other. In addition, prediction of high NO3 and CL values greater than mean of data that have great importancewere investigated by the models. The capability of the models was evaluated by Coefficient of Efficiency (E and the Root Mean Square

  3. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  4. EXPLORING THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA AT DIFFERENT TERRITORIAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the quality of employment at different territorial levels (national, macro-regional, regional, county and local level. The first section of the study approaches the quality of employment in terms of several perspectives (sociological, economic and geographical. Methodological aspects are discussed in the second section, with focus on the selection of statistical indicators by two main criteria: the relevance of the indicators and their availability for all the mentioned territorial levels. The largest part of the paper presents the analysis results, basically the typologies of the mentioned territorial levels in terms of selected indicators mirroring the quality of employment. The study shows that there exists a relationship between the situation of the quality of employment (weak, average or good and the different territorial levels analysed.

  5. Artificial neural networks for defining the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction in coastal aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallahem, S.; Hani, A.

    2017-02-01

    Water sustainability in the lower Seybouse River basin, eastern Algeria, must take into account the importance of water quantity and quality integration. So, there is a need for a better knowledge and understanding of the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction to meet the municipal and agricultural uses. In this paper, the artificial neural network (ANN) models were used to model and predict the relationship between groundwater abstraction and water quality determinants in the lower Seybouse River basin. The study area chosen is the lower Seybouse River basin and real data were collected from forty five wells for reference year 2006. Results indicate that the feed-forward multilayer perceptron models with back-propagation are useful tools to define and prioritize the important water quality parameters of groundwater abstraction and use. The model evaluation shows that the correlation coefficients are more than 95% for training, verification and testing data. The model aims to link the water quantity and quality with the objective to strengthen the Integrated Water Resources Management approach. It assists water planners and managers to better assess the water quality parameters and progress towards the provision of appropriate quantities of water of suitable quality.

  6. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  7. An adaptive failure detector based on quality of service in peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Decheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-09-05

    The failure detector is one of the fundamental components that maintain high availability of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Under different network conditions, the adaptive failure detector based on quality of service (QoS) can achieve the detection time and accuracy required by upper applications with lower detection overhead. In P2P systems, complexity of network and high churn lead to high message loss rate. To reduce the impact on detection accuracy, baseline detection strategy based on retransmission mechanism has been employed widely in many P2P applications; however, Chen's classic adaptive model cannot describe this kind of detection strategy. In order to provide an efficient service of failure detection in P2P systems, this paper establishes a novel QoS evaluation model for the baseline detection strategy. The relationship between the detection period and the QoS is discussed and on this basis, an adaptive failure detector (B-AFD) is proposed, which can meet the quantitative QoS metrics under changing network environment. Meanwhile, it is observed from the experimental analysis that B-AFD achieves better detection accuracy and time with lower detection overhead compared to the traditional baseline strategy and the adaptive detectors based on Chen's model. Moreover, B-AFD has better adaptability to P2P network.

  8. An Adaptive Failure Detector Based on Quality of Service in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The failure detector is one of the fundamental components that maintain high availability of Peer-to-Peer (P2P networks. Under different network conditions, the adaptive failure detector based on quality of service (QoS can achieve the detection time and accuracy required by upper applications with lower detection overhead. In P2P systems, complexity of network and high churn lead to high message loss rate. To reduce the impact on detection accuracy, baseline detection strategy based on retransmission mechanism has been employed widely in many P2P applications; however, Chen’s classic adaptive model cannot describe this kind of detection strategy. In order to provide an efficient service of failure detection in P2P systems, this paper establishes a novel QoS evaluation model for the baseline detection strategy. The relationship between the detection period and the QoS is discussed and on this basis, an adaptive failure detector (B-AFD is proposed, which can meet the quantitative QoS metrics under changing network environment. Meanwhile, it is observed from the experimental analysis that B-AFD achieves better detection accuracy and time with lower detection overhead compared to the traditional baseline strategy and the adaptive detectors based on Chen’s model. Moreover, B-AFD has better adaptability to P2P network.

  9. Efficient Execution of Networked MPSoC Models by Exploiting Multiple Platform Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Roth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel embedded applications are characterized by increasing requirements on processing performance as well as the demand for communication between several or many devices. Networked Multiprocessor System-on-Chips (MPSoCs are a possible solution to cope with this increasing complexity. Such systems require a detailed exploration on both architectures and system design. An approach that allows investigating interdependencies between system and network domain is the cooperative execution of system design tools with a network simulator. Within previous work, synchronization mechanisms have been developed for parallel system simulation and system/network co-simulation using the high level architecture (HLA. Within this contribution, a methodology is presented that extends previous work with further building blocks towards a construction kit for system/network co-simulation. The methodology facilitates flexible assembly of components and adaptation to the specific needs of use cases in terms of performance and accuracy. Underlying concepts and made extensions are discussed in detail. Benefits are substantiated by means of various benchmarks.

  10. Transcriptome networks in the mouse retina: An exon level BXD RI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rebecca; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Geisert, Eldon E

    2015-01-01

    Differences in gene expression provide diverse retina phenotypes and may also contribute to susceptibility to injury and disease. The present study defines the transcriptome of the retina in the BXD RI strain set, using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array to investigate all exons of traditional protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs. These data are presented in a highly interactive database on the GeneNetwork website. In the Normal Retina Database, the mRNA levels of the transcriptome from retinas was quantified using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array. This database consists of data from male and female mice. The data set includes a total of 52 BXD RI strains, the parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), and a reciprocal cross. In combination with GeneNetwork, the Department of Defense (DoD) Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) Normal Retina Database provides a large resource for mapping, graphing, analyzing, and testing complex genetic networks. Protein-coding and non-coding RNAs can be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to expression differences among the BXD strains and to establish links between classical ocular phenotypes associated with differences in the genomic sequence. Using this resource, we extracted transcriptome signatures for retinal cells and defined genetic networks associated with the maintenance of the normal retina. Furthermore, we examined differentially expressed exons within a single gene. The high level of variation in mRNA levels found among the BXD RI strains makes it possible to identify expression networks that underline differences in retina structure and function. Ultimately, we will use this database to define changes that occur following blast injury to the retina.

  11. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Dlamini, Sipho; Boulle, Andrew; White, Richard G; Badri, Motasim

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of individual-level risk factors have not been able to adequately explain why HIV has spread so extensively in southern Africa and why this has occurred especially within certain racial or ethnic groups. Using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of adolescents aged 14-22 living in Cape Town, South Africa, this article presents evidence of how differences in individual-level risk factors as well as sexual network structures between different racial or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. Particular emphasis is placed on how levels of partner concurrency, respondent concurrency, mutual concurrency, serial concurrency and numbers of sexual partners and an average early age of sexual debut combine in different ways in the different racial or ethnic groups to create networks of sexual partnerships that differ in the density of their interconnections and hence potential for HIV spread. These network-level differences offer a potential explanation for the observed generalised HIV epidemic seen among the population of black South Africans.

  12. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  13. A Bayesian network to predict vulnerability to sea-level rise: data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    During the 21st century, sea-level rise is projected to have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, development, and infrastructure. Consequently, there has been an increased focus on developing modeling or other analytical approaches to evaluate potential impacts to inform coastal management. This report provides the data that were used to develop and evaluate the performance of a Bayesian network designed to predict long-term shoreline change due to sea-level rise. The data include local rates of relative sea-level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline-change rate compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal Vulnerability Index for the U.S. Atlantic coast. In this project, the Bayesian network is used to define relationships among driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal responses. Using this information, the Bayesian network is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline change in response to different future sea-level-rise scenarios.

  14. Diffusion Imaging of Cerebral White Matter in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Network-Level Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing eCai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter (PWS. In the current study, we analyzed the results from probabilistic tractography between regions comprising the cortical speech network. An anatomical parcellation scheme was used to define 28 speech production-related ROIs in each hemisphere. We used network-based statistic (NBS and graph theory to analyze the connectivity patterns obtained from tractography. At the network level, the probabilistic corticocortical connectivity from the PWS group were significantly weaker that from persons with fluent speech (PFS. NBS analysis revealed significant components in the bilateral speech networks with negative correlations with stuttering severity. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, we also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and regional fractional anisotropy (FA averaging. Results from tractography, TBSS and regional FA averaging jointly highlight the importance of several regions in the left peri-Rolandic sensorimotor and premotor areas, most notably the left ventral premotor cortex and middle primary motor cortex, in the neuroanatomical basis of stuttering.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom levels and romantic relationship quality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association. The sample consisted of 189 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, relationship quality, and the proposed mediators were collected via online survey from May through August 2011. Participants who reported clinically significant levels of both hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness (consistent with ADHD-C) had lower relationship quality than those whose self-reported symptoms indicated no ADHD diagnosis. Further, for women only, both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptom levels were negatively associated with relationship quality. Emotion regulation problems and hostile relationship conflict mediated this association. Findings suggest that ADHD impairs relationship quality among young adults and suggest mechanisms through which this impairment might occur.

  16. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  17. Factors predicting quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, N; Akkadechanunt, T; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the level of quality of work life and predictability of years of education, monthly income, years of experience, job stress, organizational commitment and work environment on quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals in the People's Republic of Bangladesh. There is an acute shortage of nurses worldwide including Bangladesh. Quality of work life is important for quality of patient care and nurse retention. Nurses in Bangladesh are fighting to provide quality care for emerging health problems for the achievement of sustainable development goals. We collected data from 288 randomly selected registered nurses, from six tertiary-level hospitals. All nurses were requested to fill questionnaire consisted of Demographic Data Sheet, Quality of Nursing Work Life Survey, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale, Questionnaire of Organizational Commitment and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The quality of work life as perceived by nurses in Bangladesh was at moderate level. Monthly income was found as the best predictor followed by work environment, organizational commitment and job stress. A higher monthly income helps nurses to fulfil their personal needs; positive work environment helps to provide quality care to the patients. Quality of work life and predictors measured by self-report only may not reflect the original picture of the quality of work life among nurses. Findings provide information for nursing and health policymakers to develop policies to improve quality of work life among nurses that can contribute to quality of nursing care. This includes the working environment, commitment to the organization and measures to reduce job stress. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  18. The Non-Economic Quality of Life on a Sub-National Level in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Stephanie; Naude, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Most research on the non-economic quality of life have been (a) on a national level or performed on cross-country comparisons, and/or (b) used subjective indicators to measure how people perceive their non-economic quality of life. In this paper, our main contribution is to construct objective indicators of the non-economic quality of life for 354…

  19. Detection and classification of power quality disturbances using parallel neural networks based on discrete wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahmati Garousi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for the detection and classification of all types of power quality disturbances is presented. In addition to separating the disturbance signals, the proposed method is able to determine the type of disturbances. Disturbance waveforms are generated based on IEEE 1159 standard and they are de-noised using discrete wavelet transform. To detect the sinusoidal signals from disturbance signals, new criteria have been proposed. By introducing these new criteria, the classification algorithm is not active for non-disturbance signals. Therefore, the computation time is reduced. If a signal has disturbance, to extract the required information, it is analyzed using discrete wavelet transform. Using this information, the appropriate feature vectors are introduced. Parallel neural networks structures are proposed for the classification of disturbances. The inputs of these networks are the introduced feature vectors. The proposed method is done for all power quality disturbances including DC offset, flicker, interrupt, sag, swell, harmonic, notching, impulsive transient, oscillatory transient and eight combinations of these including the harmonics with transient, harmonic with flicker, harmonic with sag, harmonic with swell, sag with flicker, swell with flicker, transient with sag and transient with swell. The performance of this algorithm is compared with a single neural network structure. The results indicate using the parallel neural networks structure, computational time is much reduced and the accuracy of classification of power quality disturbances is significantly increased. Comparison the obtained results by the method with other methods, represents very high performance of the proposed method with precision %99.53.

  20. Sex differences in how social networks and relationship quality influence experimental pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Chouteau, Simone; Chavez, Alexandre; Jaramillo, Elisa; Neal, Michael; Waid, David

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to examine how both structural and functional components of individuals' social networks may moderate the association between biological sex and experimental pain sensitivity. One hundred and fifty-two healthy adults (mean age = 22yrs., 53% males) were measured for cold pressor task (CPT) pain sensitivity (i.e., intensity ratings) and core aspects of social networks (e.g., proportion of friends vs. family, affection, affirmation, and aid). Results showed consistent sex differences in how social network structures and intimate relationship functioning modulated pain sensitivity. Females showed higher pain sensitivity when their social networks consisted of a higher proportion of intimate types of relationship partners (e.g., kin vs. non kin), when they had known their network partners for a longer period of time, and when they reported higher levels of logistical support from their significant other (e.g., romantic partner). Conversely, males showed distinct patterns in the opposite direction, including an association between higher levels of logistical support from one's significant other and lower CPT pain intensity. These findings show for the first time that the direction of sex differences in exogenous pain sensitivity is likely dependent on fundamental components of the individual's social environment. The utility of a social-signaling perspective of pain behaviors for examining, comparing, and interpreting individual and group differences in experimental and clinical pain reports is discussed.

  1. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  2. Social networks and environmental management at multiple levels: soil conservation in Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Matous

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many agrarian communities in developing countries suffer from insufficient productivity and use farming practices that deteriorate the environment both locally and globally. Research suggests that social networks play a role in environmental management, different studies emphasize different aspects of network structures, and the implications of the scales at which networks operate are not explicitly discussed. Here, I ask what types of social structures in farmer networks are conducive to environmental protection and agricultural productivity enhancement, and I show that the answer depends on the scale of the investigation. Using original data representing 16 farmer groups comprising 315 households and 1575 information-sharing links, I analyzed the structure of farmers' social connections in relation to their soil conservation and productivity-enhancing practices, assessed through their usage of organic and chemical fertilizers. Furthermore, I conducted qualitative interviews with 25 stakeholders from different levels of the agricultural system to gain additional insights into the drivers of farmers' behaviors. The quantitative analysis distinguishes the effects of intra- and extra-group links and reciprocity at the household and group levels. Fixed-effects logistic regression was applied at the household level to examine farmers' soil management practices. At the collective level, I used linear regression to estimate the proportion of adopters for each soil management practice. A lack of education and a lack of extra-group links are associated with unproductive practices, and a lack of reciprocity is associated with a lack of conservation efforts at both the household and collective levels. Dense intra-group links have opposite effects at the two levels. Whereas links within the farmer groups are associated with unproductive soil management by households, these links are associated with productivity maximization at the collective level

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoci Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Chen, Shaoli; Zhu, Xiaomin

    2015-11-19

    Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  5. Further Examination of the Influence of Caregiver Staffing Levels on Nursing Home Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Weak empirical evidence exists showing that nursing home staffing levels influence quality of care. We propose that weak findings have resulted in many prior analyses because research models have underspecified the labor composition needed to influence care processes that, in turn, influence quality of care. In this analysis, we specified…

  6. A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.T.; Plant, N.G.; Thieler, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SECURITY – A PRESENT NATO PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU TATOMIR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A situation often met in the Romanian Armed Forces in recent years is the need for interconnecting two networks (domains with different levels of classification. Considering that the Romanian armed troops are involved in numerous missions with NATO partners, solutions, already implemented across the organization, are considered to be applied in domestic systems, also. This paper presents the solutions adopted by NATO in order to solve the problem of cross -domains interconnections. We present the maturity level reached by these solutions and the possibility of implementing these solutions in the Romanian Armed Forces, with or without specific adaptation to our own rules and regulations. The goal is to use a NATO already proved solution to our national classified networks.

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality.

  9. Anti-Makeup: Learning A Bi-Level Adversarial Network for Makeup-Invariant Face Verification

    OpenAIRE

    LI , Yi; Song, Lingxiao; Wu, Xiang; He, Ran; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-01-01

    Makeup is widely used to improve facial attractiveness and is well accepted by the public. However, different makeup styles will result in significant facial appearance changes. It remains a challenging problem to match makeup and non-makeup face images. This paper proposes a learning from generation approach for makeup-invariant face verification by introducing a bi-level adversarial network (BLAN). To alleviate the negative effects from makeup, we first generate non-makeup images from makeu...

  10. Watersheds for U.S Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sampling sites 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital representation of the watersheds of 43 sites on large river systems sampled by the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) of the U. S....

  11. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Three-level Z-source inverters are recent single-stage topological solutions proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with all favorable advantages of three-level switching retained. Despite their effectiveness in achieving voltage buck-boost conversion, existing three-level Z-source inverters use...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...... can function with the minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (similar to that needed by a traditional buck three-level NPC inverter), while producing the correct volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at their ac output terminals. Physically, the designed modulation scheme...

  12. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  13. Descriptive and social network analysis of pig transport data recorded by quality assured pig farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R P; Cook, A J C; Christley, R M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine farm-to-farm pig movement connections, and the usage of hauliers and abattoirs, for farms in the United Kingdom (UK), to determine the interconnectivity of the pig farm network and the implications this may have for the transmission and control of Salmonella, which was chosen as an example of an important endemic disease. Data were collected from three Quality Assurance Schemes on the use of abattoirs and livestock hauliers by commercial pig farms, and the supply of pigs to and from farms. The observed dataset had considerable variability in the number of direct (farm-to-farm) and indirect (via hauliers or abattoirs) connections between each farm over a 12-month period. The use of multiple hauliers and abattoirs by many farms resulted in considerable interconnectivity between farms due to these indirect routes. The network displayed a higher level of clustering, and short network distances between farms, than that shown by equivalent randomly generated datasets, indicating that infectious diseases might transmit quickly amongst farms but within certain clusters of farms, thus limiting the total number of farms affected. This structure and the occurrence of multiple indirect routes between many pairs of farms (via pig movements to other interconnected farms or from hauliers used by both farms), may indicate that targeting surveillance and controls on those farms with high network centrality characteristics (degree, betweenness) alone would not prove effective. Encouraging all farms within the network to reduce the number of connections might be a useful way of reducing Salmonella prevalence as it would reduce the effect of high prevalence on other farms within the network. The analysis also highlighted differences in the connections between geographical regions that were used to discuss the comparatively low Salmonella prevalence in Scotland detected by previous studies. Farms identified as belonging to large companies, as

  14. Biomonitoring of blood heavy metals and reproductive hormone level related to low semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Jen; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-12-30

    Reproductive hormones and exposure to environmental metals are correlated with low-quality semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals and reproductive hormones in the blood in addition to other relevant factors to clarify the relationship between these factors and semen quality. We recruited 154 male participants from a reproductive medical center. All participants were provided with a questionnaire on lifestyle implementation. The levels of metals in the blood were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The levels of hormones in the blood were determined using an automatic gamma counter. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the effects of statistically significant risk factors on semen quality by adjusting for relevant confounders and modifiers. After adjusting for the age, education level, and related factors in the multiple logistic regression analyses, we observed that the increased blood Pb levels were significantly and positively associated with low semen quality. High blood Pb levels (>50 μg/L) had an 11-fold risk of low semen quality. Our results suggest that progressive motility sperm may be a sensitive indicator of the semen quality among all the semen parameters in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-04-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors.

  17. Congestion Prediction Modeling for Quality of Service Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Won Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is pushing ahead with drastic reforms of modern life for improvement of human welfare. Objects constitute “Information Networks” through smart, self-regulated information gathering that also recognizes and controls current information states in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Information observed from sensor networks in real-time is used to increase quality of life (QoL in various industries and daily life. One of the key challenges of the WSNs is how to achieve lossless data transmission. Although nowadays sensor nodes have enhanced capacities, it is hard to assure lossless and reliable end-to-end data transmission in WSNs due to the unstable wireless links and low hard ware resources to satisfy high quality of service (QoS requirements. We propose a node and path traffic prediction model to predict and minimize the congestion. This solution includes prediction of packet generation due to network congestion from both periodic and event data generation. Simulation using NS-2 and Matlab is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  18. Energy Level Performance of Packet Delivery Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks in Shadowed Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab NANDI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates energy level performance of three packet delivery schemes in a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN in shadowed channel. Three different information delivery mechanisms are investigated using regenerative relays with or without error correction capability. Energy consumption for successful delivery of a data packet for each mechanism is evaluated and compared under several conditions of node density, bit rate, transmit power etc. Energy efficiency of different retransmission schemes is evaluated. Further an optimal packet length based on energy efficiency is derived. Impact of different level of severity of shadowing on energy consumption is also investigated. Further impact of fixed and optimal packet size on energy consumption is analyzed.

  19. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  20. Quality of life disparities between persons with schizophrenia and their professional caregivers: Network analysis in a National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Anat; Roe, David; Gelkopf, Marc; Shadmi, Efrat; Levine, Stephen Z

    2018-01-08

    Disparities between mental health patients and their professional caregivers in quality of life appraisals have been identified, however, the structure that such disparities assume is unknown. To examine the network structure of quality of life appraisals and disparities using network analysis. Participants were 1639 persons with schizophrenia using psychiatric rehabilitation services and their primary professional caregivers (N=582). Quality of life for persons with schizophrenia was measured based on an abbreviated version of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Appraisals were made self-reported and by professional caregivers. Disparities scores between the aforementioned were computed. Network analysis was performed on all quality of life appraisals. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. The self-appraised network significantly (pquality of life items) were health conditions and socioeconomic system, whereas caregiver-appraised network communities were social activities, and combined socioeconomic and health conditions. Strength centrality was highest for self-appraised social status and for caregiver-appraised residential status (Z=1.63, Z=1.12, respectively). The disparity scores network clustered into two communities: social relations and combined financial and health conditions. The most central appraisal disparities were in social status. Quality of life differed when self-appraised by persons with schizophrenia compared to when appraised by their professional caregivers, yet the salient role of social relations was shared. The latter may be an initial focus of discussion by persons with schizophrenia and their caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Quality Modeling in Reservoirs Using Multivariate Linear Regression and Two Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two artificial neural network models (i.e., a radial basis function neural network, RBFN, and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system approach, ANFIS and a multilinear regression (MLR model were developed to simulate the DO, TP, Chl a, and SD in the Mingder Reservoir of central Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network and the MLR models were determined using linear regression. The performances were evaluated using the RBFN, ANFIS, and MLR models based on statistical errors, including the mean absolute error, the root mean square error, and the correlation coefficient, computed from the measured and the model-simulated DO, TP, Chl a, and SD values. The results indicate that the performance of the ANFIS model is superior to those of the MLR and RBFN models. The study results show that the neural network using the ANFIS model is suitable for simulating the water quality variables with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that the ANFIS model can be used as a valuable tool for reservoir management in Taiwan.

  2. Path correlation considered prioritized burst segmentation for quality of service support in optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Changyue, Jiana; He, Tingting; Yu, Jianwei; Lei, Bo; Mao, Tengyue

    2013-04-01

    Burst segmentation (BS) is a high-efficiency contention resolution scheme in bufferless optical burst switching (OBS) networks. A prioritized BS scheme for quality of service (QoS) support is developed. Unlike the existing work on the BS scheme, the proposed BS model considers path-correlated factors, such as path length, the adjoining paths carrying traffic on a given path, and the multipriority traffic coming from all paths. Byte loss probability for high-priority and low-priority bursts under the time-based assembly approach and the length-based assembly approach to estimate the performance of the proposed BS scheme by comparing the cumulative distribution function of a burst length in an OBS ingress node (source) with that in an egress node (destination) is introduced. A preemptive BS policy for different priority bursts is proposed to support the QoS of the OBS network. Finally, a simulation is given to validate the proposed analytical model in an existing OBS network with two priority bursts. It is shown that the proposed BS scheme can realize the service differentiation for multipriority traffic under the consideration of network topology-dependent parameters.

  3. Testing and Modeling Ethernet Switches and Networks for Use in ATLAS High-level Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Dobinson, Robert W; Korcyl, K; Le Vine, M J; Lokier, J; Martin, B; Meirosu, C; Saka, F; Vella, K

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS second level trigger will use a multi-layered LAN network to transfer 5 Gbyte/s detector data from ~1500 buffers to a few hundred processors. A model of the network has been constructed to evaluate its performance. A key component of the network model is a model of an individual switch, reproducing the behavior measured in real devices. A small number of measurable parameters are used to model a variety of commercial Ethernet switches. Using parameters measured on real devices, the impact on the overall network performance is modeled. In the Atlas context, both 100 Mbit and Gigabit Ethernet links are required. A system is described which is capable of characterizing the behavior of commercial switches with the required number of nodes under traffic conditions resembling those to be encountered in the Atlas experiment. Fast Ethernet traffic is provided by a high density, custom built tester based on FPGAs, programmed in Handel-C and VHDL, while the Gigabit Ethernet traffic is generated using Alteon N...

  4. Mnemonic convergence in social networks: The emergent properties of cognition at a collective level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alin; Momennejad, Ida; Drach, Rae D; Geana, Andra

    2016-07-19

    The development of shared memories, beliefs, and norms is a fundamental characteristic of human communities. These emergent outcomes are thought to occur owing to a dynamic system of information sharing and memory updating, which fundamentally depends on communication. Here we report results on the formation of collective memories in laboratory-created communities. We manipulated conversational network structure in a series of real-time, computer-mediated interactions in fourteen 10-member communities. The results show that mnemonic convergence, measured as the degree of overlap among community members' memories, is influenced by both individual-level information-processing phenomena and by the conversational social network structure created during conversational recall. By studying laboratory-created social networks, we show how large-scale social phenomena (i.e., collective memory) can emerge out of microlevel local dynamics (i.e., mnemonic reinforcement and suppression effects). The social-interactionist approach proposed herein points to optimal strategies for spreading information in social networks and provides a framework for measuring and forging collective memories in communities of individuals.

  5. A two-level multimodality imaging Bayesian network approach for classification of partial epilepsy: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Susanne G; Young, Karl; Hartig, Miriam; Barakos, Jerome; Garcia, Paul; Laxer, Kenneth D

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative neuroimaging analyses have demonstrated gray and white matter abnormalities in group comparisons of different types of non-lesional partial epilepsy. It is unknown to what degree these type-specific patterns exist in individual patients and if they could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. In this study, a two-level multi-modality imaging Bayesian network approach is proposed that uses information about individual gray matter volume loss and white matter integrity to classify non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) mesial-temporal sclerosis and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). 25 controls, 19 TLE-MTS, 22 TLE-no and 14 FLE were studied on a 4T MRI and T1 weighted structural and DTI images acquired. Spatially normalized gray matter (GM) and fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormality maps (binary maps with voxels 1 SD below control mean) were calculated for each subject. At the first level, each group's abnormality maps were compared with those from all the other groups using Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis (GAMMA). GAMMA uses a Bayesian network and a Markov random field based contextual clustering method to produce maps of voxels that provide the maximal distinction between two groups and calculates a probability distribution and a group assignment based on this information. The information was then combined in a second level Bayesian network and the probability of each subject to belong to one of the three epilepsy types calculated. The specificities of the two level Bayesian network to distinguish between the three patient groups were 0.87 for TLE-MTS and TLE-no and 0.86 for FLE, the corresponding sensitivities were 0.84 for TLE-MTS, 0.72 for TLE-no and 0.64 for FLE. The two-level multi-modality Bayesian network approach was able to distinguish between the three epilepsy types with a reasonably high accuracy even though the majority of the images were completely normal on visual inspection. Copyright © 2013

  6. A distributed monitoring system for photovoltaic arrays based on a two-level wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, F. P.; Chen, Z. C.; Zhou, H. F.; Wu, L. J.; Lin, P. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a distributed on-line monitoring system based on a two-level wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed for real time status monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to support the fine management and maintenance of PV power plants. The system includes the sensing nodes installed on PV modules (PVM), sensing and routing nodes installed on combiner boxes of PV sub-arrays (PVA), a sink node and a data management centre (DMC) running on a host computer. The first level WSN is implemented by the low-cost wireless transceiver nRF24L01, and it is used to achieve single hop communication between the PVM nodes and their corresponding PVA nodes. The second level WSN is realized by the CC2530 based ZigBee network for multi-hop communication among PVA nodes and the sink node. The PVM nodes are used to monitor the PVM working voltage and backplane temperature, and they send the acquired data to their PVA node via the nRF24L01 based first level WSN. The PVA nodes are used to monitor the array voltage, PV string current and environment irradiance, and they send the acquired and received data to the DMC via the ZigBee based second level WSN. The DMC is designed using the MATLAB GUIDE and MySQL database. Laboratory experiment results show that the system can effectively acquire, display, store and manage the operating and environment parameters of PVA in real time.

  7. Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. RESULTS: The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02 or PHS score (OR=6.90. Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.

  8. System-Aware Smart Network Management for Nano-Enriched Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive water quality monitoring system that employs a smart network management, nano-enriched sensing framework, and intelligent and efficient data analysis and forwarding protocols for smart and system-aware decision making. The presented system comprises two main subsystems, a data sensing and forwarding subsystem (DSFS, and Operation Management Subsystem (OMS. The OMS operates based on real-time learned patterns and rules of system operations projected from the DSFS to manage the entire network of sensors. The main tasks of OMS are to enable real-time data visualization, managed system control, and secure system operation. The DSFS employs a Hybrid Intelligence (HI scheme which is proposed through integrating an association rule learning algorithm with fuzzy logic and weighted decision trees. The DSFS operation is based on profiling and registering raw data readings, generated from a set of optical nanosensors, as profiles of attribute-value pairs. As a case study, we evaluate our implemented test bed via simulation scenarios in a water quality monitoring framework. The monitoring processes are simulated based on measuring the percentage of dissolved oxygen and potential hydrogen (PH in fresh water. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed HI-based methodology at learning different water quality classes.

  9. Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual

  10. Quality-of-service control in GRAMS for ATM local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Joseph Y.; Zhang, Junbiao; Li, Jun

    1995-05-01

    Gopher-style real-time ATM multimedia services (GRAMS) is a system designed for an ATM local area network, with the server providing multimedia services to multiple users in real-time, while the network bandwidth and the host capacity are fully exploited. Therefore, a server that can determine the service rates, and successfully multiplex media transmissions according to the quality-of-service (QoS) requirement of each request is a key component of this system. Proposed in this paper is a simple yet effective way to measure QoS in the GRAMS system. Experimental results are also presented, showing the feasibility of simultaneously providing tens of video and image transfer sessions using low-cost workstation technology.

  11. An efficient Quality of Service (QoS) scheme for all optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit Kumar; Kaler, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of providing Quality of Service (QoS) for optical burst switching (OBS) systems. In this paper, an efficient QoS oriented integrated scheme based on Optical Burst/Circuit Switching network architecture has been proposed. The proposed scheme utilizes the modified Just-Enough-Time (JET) protocol and advanced reservation based on Linear Predictive Filter (LPF), which can provide differentiated services for optical burst switching (OBS) network. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is reasonably better than a First Come First Served (FCFS) protocol in guaranteeing QoS of real-time traffic. Also, the results yield significant delay reduction for time-critical traffic, while maintaining the bandwidth overhead within limits. As a result, the proposed scheme has achieved QoS differentiation in terms of burst loss rate in comparison to conventional schemes.

  12. Quality of Life, Anxiety and Depression Levels in Patients with Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aksoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Seborrheic dermatitis is a common disease characterized by the presence of erythematous plaques with oily-yellow desquamation. Due to its chronic course with remission and exacerbation periods, seborrheic dermatitis can give rise to impaired quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of anxiety and depression and quality of life in patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Material and Method: This study was conducted with 50 consecutive patients admitted to our clinic, who have been diagnosed with seborrheic dermatitis without any other systemic or psychiatric illnesses (patient group, and 50 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics (control group. Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI was administered to patient group; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered to both patient and the control groups. Results: In one half (%50 of the patients, quality of life was found to be slightly affected or not affected at all, in the other half (%50, the quality of life was affected reasonably or greatly. Anxiety and depression levels were higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients with distortion in quality of life. Also, there was a positive correlation between the levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: This study showed that the quality of life was affected by the seborrheic dermatitis negatively, and anxiety and depression levels were higher as much as the impairment of quality of life. According to these results, identifying the psychological symptoms of illness and dealing with these symptoms are important for both in increasing quality of life of patients and getting a well response to the treatment.

  13. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  14. Network-level architecture and the evolutionary potential of underground metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Szappanos, Balázs; Kintses, Bálint; Pál, Ferenc; Györkei, Ádám; Bogos, Balázs; Lázár, Viktória; Spohn, Réka; Csörgő, Bálint; Wagner, Allon; Ruppin, Eytan; Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs

    2014-08-12

    A central unresolved issue in evolutionary biology is how metabolic innovations emerge. Low-level enzymatic side activities are frequent and can potentially be recruited for new biochemical functions. However, the role of such underground reactions in adaptation toward novel environments has remained largely unknown and out of reach of computational predictions, not least because these issues demand analyses at the level of the entire metabolic network. Here, we provide a comprehensive computational model of the underground metabolism in Escherichia coli. Most underground reactions are not isolated and 45% of them can be fully wired into the existing network and form novel pathways that produce key precursors for cell growth. This observation allowed us to conduct an integrated genome-wide in silico and experimental survey to characterize the evolutionary potential of E. coli to adapt to hundreds of nutrient conditions. We revealed that underground reactions allow growth in new environments when their activity is increased. We estimate that at least ∼20% of the underground reactions that can be connected to the existing network confer a fitness advantage under specific environments. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations via underground metabolism is computationally predictable. The approach used here has potential for various application areas from bioengineering to medical genetics.

  15. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  16. Theoretical model for mesoscopic-level scale-free self-organization of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersa, Jaroslaw; Piekniewski, Filip; Schreiber, Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we provide theoretical and numerical analysis of a geometric activity flow network model which is aimed at explaining mathematically the scale-free functional graph self-organization phenomena emerging in complex nervous systems at a mesoscale level. In our model, each unit corresponds to a large number of neurons and may be roughly seen as abstracting the functional behavior exhibited by a single voxel under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the course of the dynamics, the units exchange portions of formal charge, which correspond to waves of activity in the underlying microscale neuronal circuit. The geometric model abstracts away the neuronal complexity and is mathematically tractable, which allows us to establish explicit results on its ground states and the resulting charge transfer graph modeling functional graph of the network. We show that, for a wide choice of parameters and geometrical setups, our model yields a scale-free functional connectivity with the exponent approaching 2, which is in agreement with previous empirical studies based on fMRI. The level of universality of the presented theory allows us to claim that the model does shed light on mesoscale functional self-organization phenomena of the nervous system, even without resorting to closer details of brain connectivity geometry which often remain unknown. The material presented here significantly extends our previous work where a simplified mean-field model in a similar spirit was constructed, ignoring the underlying network geometry.

  17. Evaluation of physical, chemical and microbial quality of distribution network drinkingwater in Bushehr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shabankareh fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical, chemical and microbial properties of water are the criteria to consider it as drinking water quality. Unfavorable changes in such parameters may threat consumers' health. The aim of this study is to give a clear view of physical, chemical and microbial quality of distribution network drinking water in Bushehr and compare with national and EPA standards. Materials and Methods: This descriptive sectional study was done during Sep 2012 to Feb 2013 (6 months. 50 Samples were collected directly from distribution network drinking water in Bushehr. Physical and chemical analyses were done according to standard methods. Multiple tube fermentation method was used to determine fecal and total coliform bacteria and spread plate method was used to measure heterotrophic bacteria. Results: The mean values of measured parameters were as follow: electrical conductivity 1155.5 µs/cm, turbidity 0.27 NTU, pH 7.12, alkalinity 171.5, total hardness 458.96, calcium hardness 390.96, magnesium hardness 68 mg/L as CaCO3, calcium 156.38, magnesium 16.95, residual chlorine 0.61, chloride 83.26, TDS 577.7, iron 0.115, fluoride 0.48, phosphate 0.059, nitrate 3.08, nitrite 0.003 and sulphate 728.38 mg/L. Total coliform (0, fecal coliform (0 MPN/100 ml and HPC 309.8 CFU/mL. Except TDS and sulphate, all cited results met the national and EPA standards. Conclusion: Quality of water from distribution network in Bushehr was not problematical from health point of view. However, high TDS and sulphate content may increase diarrhea risk in consumer as well as corrosive effect of water.

  18. A Method for Evaluation of Quality of Service in Computer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Hald, Sara Ligaard; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructures is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. The backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing...... was to collect and to provide to C5.0 high-quality training data divided into groups, which correspond to different types of applications. It was found that the currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources...

  19. Systems level analysis and identification of pathways and networks associated with liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Diwan M AbdulHameed

    Full Text Available Toxic liver injury causes necrosis and fibrosis, which may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Despite recent progress in understanding the mechanism of liver fibrosis, our knowledge of the molecular-level details of this disease is still incomplete. The elucidation of networks and pathways associated with liver fibrosis can provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease, as well as identify potential diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Towards this end, we analyzed rat gene expression data from a range of chemical exposures that produced observable periportal liver fibrosis as documented in DrugMatrix, a publicly available toxicogenomics database. We identified genes relevant to liver fibrosis using standard differential expression and co-expression analyses, and then used these genes in pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI network analyses. We identified a PPI network module associated with liver fibrosis that includes known liver fibrosis-relevant genes, such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, galectin-3, connective tissue growth factor, and lipocalin-2. We also identified several new genes, such as perilipin-3, legumain, and myocilin, which were associated with liver fibrosis. We further analyzed the expression pattern of the genes in the PPI network module across a wide range of 640 chemical exposure conditions in DrugMatrix and identified early indications of liver fibrosis for carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide exposures. Although it is well known that carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide can cause liver fibrosis, our network analysis was able to link these compounds to potential fibrotic damage before histopathological changes associated with liver fibrosis appeared. These results demonstrated that our approach is capable of identifying early-stage indicators of liver fibrosis and underscore its potential to aid in predictive toxicity, biomarker identification, and to

  20. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen

    2013-07-01

    To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for assessing the sleep quality. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's Correlation Analysis were used for analyzing the data. The study group consisted of 296 (51.4%) females and 208 (48.6%) males. The mean age was 20.83 ± 1.90 years (min:17, max:28). The addiction level was determined to be higher in the second-year students, those with poor family income, those with type A personality, those whose age for first mobile phone is 13 and below and those whose duration of daily mobile phone use is above 5 hours (p < 0.05 for each). The sleep quality worsens with increasing mobile phone addiction level (p < 0.05). The sleep quality worsens with increasing addiction level. It was concluded that referring the students with suspected addiction to advanced healthcare facilities, performing occasional scans for early diagnosis and informing the students about controlled mobile phone use would be useful.

  1. Quality of Antenatal Services at the Primary Care Level in Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of ...

  2. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian

    2015-09-01

    .Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  3. Educational Level and the Quality of Life of Heart Failure Patients : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbareschi, Giorgio; Sanderman, Robbert; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Jaarsma, Tiny

    Background: Lower education in heart failure (HF) patients is associated with high levels of anxiety, limited physical functioning, and an increased risk of hospitalization. We examined whether educational level is related to longitudinal differences in quality of life (QoL) in HF patients. Methods

  4. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  5. Mining Community-Level Influence in Microblogging Network: A Case Study on Sina Weibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social influence analysis is important for many social network applications, including recommendation and cybersecurity analysis. We observe that the influence of community including multiple users outweighs the individual influence. Existing models focus on the individual influence analysis, but few studies estimate the community influence that is ubiquitous in online social network. A major challenge lies in that researchers need to take into account many factors, such as user influence, social trust, and user relationship, to model community-level influence. In this paper, aiming to assess the community-level influence effectively and accurately, we formulate the problem of modeling community influence and construct a community-level influence analysis model. It first eliminates the zombie fans and then calculates the user influence. Next, it calculates the user final influence by combining the user influence and the willingness of diffusing theme information. Finally, it evaluates the community influence by comprehensively studying the user final influence, social trust, and relationship tightness between intrausers of communities. To handle real-world applications, we propose a community-level influence analysis algorithm called CIAA. Empirical studies on a real-world dataset from Sina Weibo demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model.

  6. Application of RBFN network and GM (1, 1) for groundwater level simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijun; Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a prominent resource of drinking and domestic water in the world. In this context, a feasible water resources management plan necessitates acceptable predictions of groundwater table depth fluctuations, which can help ensure the sustainable use of a watershed's aquifers for urban and rural water supply. Due to the difficulties of identifying non-linear model structure and estimating the associated parameters, in this study radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and GM (1, 1) models are used for the prediction of monthly groundwater level fluctuations in the city of Longyan, Fujian Province (South China). The monthly groundwater level data monitored from January 2003 to December 2011 are used in both models. The error criteria are estimated using the coefficient of determination ( R 2), mean absolute error (E) and root mean squared error (RMSE). The results show that both the models can forecast the groundwater level with fairly high accuracy, but the RBFN network model can be a promising tool to simulate and forecast groundwater level since it has a relatively smaller RMSE and MAE.

  7. Modeling the altered expression levels of genes on signaling pathways in tumors as causal bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neapolitan, Richard; Xue, Diyang; Jiang, Xia

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns a study indicating that the expression levels of genes in signaling pathways can be modeled using a causal Bayesian network (BN) that is altered in tumorous tissue. These results open up promising areas of future research that can help identify driver genes and therapeutic targets. So, it is most appropriate for the cancer informatics community. Our central hypothesis is that the expression levels of genes that code for proteins on a signal transduction network (STP) are causally related and that this causal structure is altered when the STP is involved in cancer. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed 5 STPs associated with breast cancer, 7 STPs associated with other cancers, and 10 randomly chosen pathways, using a breast cancer gene expression level dataset containing 529 cases and 61 controls. We identified all the genes related to each of the 22 pathways and developed separate gene expression datasets for each pathway. We obtained significant results indicating that the causal structure of the expression levels of genes coding for proteins on STPs, which are believed to be implicated in both breast cancer and in all cancers, is more altered in the cases relative to the controls than the causal structure of the randomly chosen pathways.

  8. Quantifying the Impact of Feedstock Quality on the Design of Bioenergy Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Logging residues, which refer to the unused portions of trees cut during logging, are important sources of biomass for the emerging biofuel industry and are critical feedstocks for the first-type biofuel facilities (e.g., corn-ethanol facilities. Logging residues are under-utilized sources of biomass for energetic purposes. To support the scaling-up of the bioenergy industry, it is essential to design cost-effective biofuel supply chains that not only minimize costs, but also consider the biomass quality characteristics. The biomass quality is heavily dependent upon the moisture and the ash contents. Ignoring the biomass quality characteristics and its intrinsic costs may yield substantial economic losses that will only be discovered after operations at a biorefinery have begun. This paper proposes a novel bioenergy supply chain network design model that minimizes operational costs and includes the biomass quality-related costs. The proposed model is unique in the sense that it supports decisions where quality is not unrealistically assumed to be perfect. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is proven by assessing a case study in the state of Tennessee, USA. The results demonstrate that the ash and moisture contents of logging residues affect the performance of the supply chain (in monetary terms. Higher-than-target moisture and ash contents incur in additional quality-related costs. The quality-related costs in the optimal solution (with final ash content of 1% and final moisture of 50% account for 27% of overall supply chain cost. Based on the numeral experimentation, the total supply chain cost increased 7%, on average, for each additional percent in the final ash content.

  9. Automatic welding quality classification for the spot welding based on the Hopfield associative memory neural network and Chernoff face description of the electrode displacement signal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Hou, Yanyan; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Lijing; Xi, Tao; Li, Yafeng

    2017-02-01

    To develop an automatic welding quality classification method for the spot welding based on the Chernoff face image created by the electrode displacement signal features, an effective pattern feature extraction method was proposed by which the Chernoff face images were converted to binary ones, and each binary image could be characterized by a binary matrix. According to expression categories on the Chernoff face images, welding quality was classified into five levels and each level just corresponded to a kind of expression. The Hopfield associative memory neural network was used to build a welding quality classifier in which the pattern feature matrices of some weld samples with different welding quality levels were remembered as the stable states. When the pattern feature matrix of a test weld is input into the classifier, it can be converged to the most similar stable state through associative memory, thus, welding quality corresponding to this finally locked stable state can represent the welding quality of the test weld. The classification performance test results show that the proposed method significantly improves the applicability and efficiency of the Chernoff faces technique for spot welding quality evaluation and it is feasible, effective and reliable.

  10. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2016-12-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  11. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2017-11-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Peer Communication during Job Transfers: The Impact of Frequency, Quality, and Network Multiplexity on Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the impact of peer communication on transferees within organizations. Uses uncertainty reduction theory to examine the impact of the frequency of peer communication, the quality of peer communication, and network multiplexity on transferees' adjustment to their new positions. Suggests that quality of peer communication is associated with…

  13. Comparisons process-to-bay level peer-to-peer network delay in IEC 61850 substation communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hasan Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of IEC 61850 protocol in electrical power engineering industry for data communication systems between substations. This IEC 61850 protocol presents new challenges for real-time communication performance between Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs within substation because of the Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE messages. The analyses of substation Ethernet and WLAN (wireless LAN communication delay, its impact factors, various methods and different network topologies which can improve the real-time performance are discussed. For basic analysis of data flow within a substation, the Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET software is used. The process-to-bay level network simulation model is performed by using the OPNET software. The Ethernet delay and WLAN peer-to-peer performance of the process-to-bay level network simulation results are analyzed which is based on AP (access point, switched, shared Ethernet network or peer-to-peer network.

  14. Impact of weak social ties and networks on poor sleep quality: A case study of Iranian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    The poor sleep quality is one of the major risk factors of somatic, psychiatric and social disorders and conditions as well as the major predictors of quality of employees' performance. The previous studies in Iran had neglected the impacts of social factors including social networks and ties on adults sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between social networks and adult employees' sleep quality. This study was conducted with a correlational and descriptive design. Data were collected from 360 participants (183 males and 177 females) who were employed in Yazd public organizations in June and July of 2014. These samples were selected based on random sampling method. In addition, the measuring tools were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Social Relations Inventory (SRI). Based on the results, the prevalence rate of sleep disorder among Iranian adult employees was 63.1% (total PSQI>5). And, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, there was significant difference between individuals with strong and poor social network and ties in terms of overall sleep quality (psocial network and ties had better overall sleep quality, had the most habitual sleep efficiency, and less daytime dysfunction than employees with poor social network and ties. It can be implied that the weak social network and ties serve as a risk factor for sleep disorders or poor sleep quality for adult employees. Therefore, the social and behavioral interventions seem essential to improve the adult's quality sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Video Signal Transmission Through DWDM Network Based on a Quality Check Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Markovic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the multiplexed video signal transmission through the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM network based on a quality check algorithm, which determines where the interruption of the transmission quality starts. On the basis of this algorithm, simulations of transmission for specific values of fiber parameters ​​ are executed. The analysis of the results shows how the BER and Q-factor change depends on the length of the fiber, i.e. on the number of amplifiers, and what kind of an effect the number of multiplexed channels and the flow rate per channel have on a transmited signals. Analysis of DWDM systems is performed in the software package OptiSystem 7.0, which is designed for systems with flow rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per channel.

  16. Energy-Constrained Quality Optimization for Secure Image Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation for multimedia selective encryption and energy efficient transmission has not been fully investigated in literature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this article, we propose a new cross-layer approach to optimize selectively encrypted image transmission quality in WSNs with strict energy constraint. A new selective image encryption approach favorable for unequal error protection (UEP is proposed, which reduces encryption overhead considerably by controlling the structure of image bitstreams. Also, a novel cross-layer UEP scheme based on cipher-plain-text diversity is studied. In this UEP scheme, resources are unequally and optimally allocated in the encrypted bitstream structure, including data position information and magnitude value information. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach can simultaneously achieve improved image quality and assured energy efficiency with secure transmissions over WSNs.

  17. Association of social network and social support with health-related quality of life and fatigue in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A; Biasoli, I; Scheliga, A; Baptista, R L; Brabo, E P; Morais, J C; Werneck, G L; Spector, N

    2013-08-01

    As the number of survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) increases, there has been a growing interest in long-term treatment-related side effects and their impact on the quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the association of social network and social support with the QoL and fatigue among long-term HL survivors. A total of 200 HL survivors were included. The generic Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire, the QoL cancer survivor's questionnaire (QOL-CS), and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory were used to assess QoL and fatigue. Social network and social support were evaluated with the Social Support Survey. Social network and all social support measures were favorably associated with two or more SF-12 scales, mainly with physical functioning and the mental health scales. Social network and social support dimensions were also associated with better QOL-CS scores. Affective support, informational support, positive interaction, and emotional support were associated with less fatigue. Both social network and social support are associated with better QoL and lower levels of fatigue in HL survivors. This information may be useful to health professionals and community organizations in implementing effective interventions to improve these patients' quality of life.

  18. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  20. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh ...

  1. Association of urinary metal levels with human semen quality: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Sun, Yang; Feng, Wei; Wang, Peng; Yang, Pan; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; Chen, Ying-Jun; Liu, Chong; Sun, Li; Yue, Jing; Gu, Long-Jie; Zeng, Qiang; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to metals, including essential and nonessential elements, has been linked to male reproductive health in animals. However, findings from human studies are inconsistent. To examine the associations between metal exposure at environmental levels and semen quality in a Chinese population by performing repeated measurements of urinary metals to estimate individual-level exposure. From March to June 2013, 1052 men seeking semen evaluation were recruited from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Each man provided one semen sample and two urine sample. Semen quality parameters and urinary levels of 18 metals were determined. Associations between the urinary metal levels and semen quality parameters were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to assess dose-response relationships between continuous metal measurements and outcomes. Urinary levels of cadmium were significantly inversely associated with progressive sperm motility and total motility (both Psemen quality parameters observed in the logistic models (both Pmetals, and curves of restricted cubic spline showed clear dose-response relationships. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to cadmium, molybdenum and lead may contribute to a decline in human semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Support Networks and Quality of Life of Rural Men in a Context of Marriage Squeeze in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sasa; Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    A significant number of rural Chinese men are facing difficulties in finding a spouse and may fail to ever marry due to a relative scarcity of women in the adult population. Research has indicated that marriage squeeze is a stressful event which is harmful to men's quality of life, and also weakens their social support networks. Using data collected in rural Chaohu city, Anhui, China, this study explores the effects of social support networks on quality of life of rural men who experience a marriage squeeze. The results indicate that the size of social contact networks is directly and positively associated with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and moderate the negative effect of age on quality of life. Having no or limited instrumental support network and social contact network are double-edged swords, which have direct negative associations with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and have moderate effects on the relationship between marriage squeeze and quality of life.

  3. Comprehensive Transportation Logistics Network Level Layout Based on Principal Component Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingrong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive Transportation Logistics Network (CTLN acts as a crucial prop and fundamental carrier for regional economic and social development. Firstly, an index system for evaluating the development of regional Comprehensive Transportation Logistics (CTL nodes is established; then regional CTLN nodes are ranked according to their importance by the method of Principal Component Analysis(PCA, and main factors affecting the development of regional CTL nodes are analyzed by applying factor analysis, and regional CTL nodes are classified according to their feature similarities by applying cluster analysis; and then level structure of constructing regional CTLN is proposed. Finally, combined with geographic locations of different nodes, level layout model of CTLN of the whole region is obtained. Taking Henan province this region as an instance, level layout model of hub-and-spoke CTLN taking Zhengzhou at its core is proposed after analysis, providing a reference basis for constructing CTLN in whole province scientifically and reasonably.

  4. Application of Artificial Neural Network into the Water Level Modeling and Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dangerous sea and river water level increase does not only destroy the human lives, but also generate the severe flooding in coastal areas. The rapidly changes in the direction and velocity of wind and associated with them sea level changes could be the severe threat for navigation, especially on the fairways of small fishery harbors located in the river mouth. There is the area of activity of two external forcing: storm surges and flood wave. The aim of the work was the description of an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN methodology into the water level forecast in the case study field in Swibno harbor located is located at 938.7 km of the Wisla River and at a distance of about 3 km up the mouth (Gulf of Gdansk - Baltic Sea.

  5. Pollution level predictor using artificial neural networks trained with galactic swarm optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nilay; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    Pollutant Level Predicator is a system which helps in predicting the amount of pollutants in a specific region. The system uses historic data in order to predict the value for the new input. The prediction system uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with different optimization algorithms to classify the pollution level into several classes. This research paper assesses and analyses various techniques which can be used to predict the level of pollutant in Delhi. This study uses daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and concentration of PM2.5 in Anand Vihar area of Delhi for a period of 2 years (2015 to 2016). Experimental results show that a ANN trained with Galactic swarm optimization algorithm produces a more accurate predication compared to other optimization algorithms.

  6. Determination of temperate bird-flower interactions as entangled mutualistic and antagonistic sub-networks: characterization at the network and species levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsuro; Isagi, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    Most network studies on biological interactions consider only a single interaction type. However, individual species are simultaneously positioned in various types of interactions. The ways in which different network types are merged and entangled, and the variations in network structures between different sympatric networks, require full elucidation. Incorporating interaction types and disentangling complex networks is crucial, because the integration of various network architectures has the potential to alter the stability and co-evolutionary dynamics of the whole network. To reveal how different types of interaction networks are entangled, we focused on the interaction between birds and flowers of temperate plants in Japan, where flower-feeding birds are mainly generalist passerines, acting as pollinators and predators of flowers. Using long-term monitoring data, we investigated the flower-feeding episodes of birds. We constructed the whole network (WN) between birds and plants, separating the network into mutualistic and antagonistic sub-networks (MS and AS, respectively). We investigated structural properties of the three quantified networks and species-level characteristics of the main bird species. For bird species, we evaluated dietary similarity, dietary specialization and shifts of feeding behaviour relative to plant traits. Our results indicate that WN comprises entangled MS and AS, sharing considerable proportions of bird and plant assemblages. We observed distinctive differences in the network structural properties between the two sub-networks. In comparison with AS, MS had lower numbers of bird and plant species, showed lower specialization and modularity and exhibited higher nestedness. At the species level, the Japanese white-eye acted as pollinator, while the brown-eared bulbul acted as both pollinator and predator for large numbers of flowers, based on its behavioural plasticity. Overall, the pattern of avian feeding behaviour was influenced by

  7. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  8. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P quality foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P quality food choice (P quality food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  9. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  10. Manycast routing, modulation level and spectrum assignment over elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Huitao; Wang, Taili

    2017-07-01

    Manycast is a point to multi-point transmission framework that requires a subset of destination nodes successfully reached. It is particularly applicable for dealing with large amounts of data simultaneously in bandwidth-hungry, dynamic and cloud-based applications. As rapid increasing of traffics in these applications, the elastic optical networks (EONs) may be relied on to achieve high throughput manycast. In terms of finer spectrum granularity, the EONs could reach flexible accessing to network spectrum and efficient providing exact spectrum resource to demands. In this paper, we focus on the manycast routing, modulation level and spectrum assignment (MA-RMLSA) problem in EONs. Both EONs planning with static manycast traffic and EONs provisioning with dynamic manycast traffic are investigated. An integer linear programming (ILP) model is formulated to derive MA-RMLSA problem in static manycast scenario. Then corresponding heuristic algorithm called manycast routing, modulation level and spectrum assignment genetic algorithm (MA-RMLSA-GA) is proposed to adapt for both static and dynamic manycast scenarios. The MA-RMLSA-GA optimizes MA-RMLSA problem in destination nodes selection, routing light-tree constitution, modulation level allocation and spectrum resource assignment jointly, to achieve an effective improvement in network performance. Simulation results reveal that MA-RMLSA strategies offered by MA-RMLSA-GA have slightly disparity from the optimal solutions provided by ILP model in static scenario. Moreover, the results demonstrate that MA-RMLSA-GA realizes a highly efficient MA-RMLSA strategy with the lowest blocking probability in dynamic scenario compared with benchmark algorithms.

  11. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-09-02

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown.

  12. Subspace projection approaches to classification and visualization of neural network-level encoding patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Oşan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in large-scale ensemble recordings allow monitoring of activity patterns of several hundreds of neurons in freely behaving animals. The emergence of such high-dimensional datasets poses challenges for the identification and analysis of dynamical network patterns. While several types of multivariate statistical methods have been used for integrating responses from multiple neurons, their effectiveness in pattern classification and predictive power has not been compared in a direct and systematic manner. Here we systematically employed a series of projection methods, such as Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA, Principal Components Analysis (PCA and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, and compared them with non-projection multivariate statistical methods such as Multivariate Gaussian Distributions (MGD. Our analyses of hippocampal data recorded during episodic memory events and cortical data simulated during face perception or arm movements illustrate how low-dimensional encoding subspaces can reveal the existence of network-level ensemble representations. We show how the use of regularization methods can prevent these statistical methods from over-fitting of training data sets when the trial numbers are much smaller than the number of recorded units. Moreover, we investigated the extent to which the computations implemented by the projection methods reflect the underlying hierarchical properties of the neural populations. Based on their ability to extract the essential features for pattern classification, we conclude that the typical performance ranking of these methods on under-sampled neural data of large dimension is MDA>PCA>ANN>MGD.

  13. Fairness problems at the media access level for high-speed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Kurt J.; Zhang, L.; Game, David

    1990-01-01

    Most lower speed (approx. 10 Mbps) local area networks use adaptive or random access protocols like Ethernet. Others at higher speed use demand assignment like token or slotted rings. These include Cambridge ring and electronic token ring systems. Fairness issues in representatives of such protocols are discussed. In particular, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) was selected as a demand access protocol using tokens, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) a random access protocol, and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) a demand access protocol using reservations. Fairness at the media access level was the focus, i.e., attaining access or being excessively delayed when a message is queued to be sent as a function of network location. Within that framework, the essential fairness of FDDI was observed along with severe fairness problems in DQDB and some problems for CSMA/RN. Several modifications were investigated and their ameliorative effect is shown. Finally, a unified presentation which allows comparisons of the three protocols' fairness when normalized to their capacity is given.

  14. A local average connectivity-based method for identifying essential proteins from the network level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Huan; Pan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Identifying essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements of cellular survival and development. Fast growth in the amount of available protein-protein interactions has produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting protein essentiality from the network level. Essential proteins have been found to be more abundant among those highly connected proteins. However, there exist a number of highly connected proteins which are not essential. By analyzing these proteins, we find that few of their neighbors interact with each other. Thus, we propose a new local method, named LAC, to determine a protein's essentiality by evaluating the relationship between a protein and its neighbors. The performance of LAC is validated based on the yeast protein interaction networks obtained from two different databases: DIP and BioGRID. The experimental results of the two networks show that the number of essential proteins predicted by LAC clearly exceeds that explored by Degree Centrality (DC). More over, LAC is also compared with other seven measures of protein centrality (Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Bottle Neck (BN), Information Centrality (IC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), and Subgraph Centrality (SC)) in identifying essential proteins. The comparison results based on the validations of sensitivity, specificity, F-measure, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy consistently show that LAC outweighs these seven previous methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Intrusion Detection System Based on Multi-Level Clustering for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butun, Ismail; Ra, In-Ho; Sankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an intrusion detection system (IDS) framework based on multi-level clustering for hierarchical wireless sensor networks is proposed. The framework employs two types of intrusion detection approaches: (1) “downward-IDS (D-IDS)” to detect the abnormal behavior (intrusion) of the subordinate (member) nodes; and (2) “upward-IDS (U-IDS)” to detect the abnormal behavior of the cluster heads. By using analytical calculations, the optimum parameters for the D-IDS (number of maximum hops) and U-IDS (monitoring group size) of the framework are evaluated and presented. PMID:26593915

  16. The top-level global research system, 1997-99: Centres, networks and nodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, C. W.; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2002-01-01

    of the global research centres. The data are records in the Science Catation Index 1997-99 of papers produced by authors from the 40 largest `greater' urban regions of the world as measured by research output. The network of research co-operation depends on nationality, distance and other factors. The top......The importance of the knowledge-base in regional and urban competition is generally recognised, although causal relations between urban and regional economic growth and knowledge level are far from clear. This paper presents the first analysis of the strength, interrelations and nodality...

  17. Synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 2. Multiple steam levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Majozi_2010-ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1539 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Majozi_2010-ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Industrial... & Engineering Chemistry Research Vol. 49(19), pp. 9154–9164 Synthesis and Optimization of Steam System Networks. 2. Multiple Steam Levels Tim Price† and Thokozani Majozi*,†,‡ Department of Chemical Engineering, UniVersity of Pretoria, South Africa...

  18. An Intrusion Detection System Based on Multi-Level Clustering for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butun, Ismail; Ra, In-Ho; Sankar, Ravi

    2015-11-17

    In this work, an intrusion detection system (IDS) framework based on multi-level clustering for hierarchical wireless sensor networks is proposed. The framework employs two types of intrusion detection approaches: (1) "downward-IDS (D-IDS)" to detect the abnormal behavior (intrusion) of the subordinate (member) nodes; and (2) "upward-IDS (U-IDS)" to detect the abnormal behavior of the cluster heads. By using analytical calculations, the optimum parameters for the D-IDS (number of maximum hops) and U-IDS (monitoring group size) of the framework are evaluated and presented.

  19. An Intrusion Detection System Based on Multi-Level Clustering for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Butun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an intrusion detection system (IDS framework based on multi-level clustering for hierarchical wireless sensor networks is proposed. The framework employs two types of intrusion detection approaches: (1 “downward-IDS (D-IDS” to detect the abnormal behavior (intrusion of the subordinate (member nodes; and (2 “upward-IDS (U-IDS” to detect the abnormal behavior of the cluster heads. By using analytical calculations, the optimum parameters for the D-IDS (number of maximum hops and U-IDS (monitoring group size of the framework are evaluated and presented.

  20. A Reaction-Based River/Stream Water Quality Model: Reaction Network Decomposition and Model Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes details of an automatic matrix decomposition approach for a reaction-based stream water quality model. The method yields a set of equilibrium equations, a set of kinetic-variable transport equations involving kinetic reactions only, and a set of component transport equations involving no reactions. Partial decomposition of the system of water quality constituent transport equations is performed via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network by pivoting on equilibrium reactions to decouple equilibrium and kinetic reactions. This approach minimizes the number of partial differential advective-dispersive transport equations and enables robust numerical integration. Complete matrix decomposition by further pivoting on linearly independent kinetic reactions allows some rate equations to be formulated individually and explicitly enforces conservation of component species when component transport equations are solved. The methodology is demonstrated for a case study involving eutrophication reactions in the Des Moines River in Iowa, USA and for two hypothetical examples to illustrate the ability of the model to simulate sediment and chemical transport with both mobile and immobile water phases and with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  1. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment.

  2. Comparison of Groundwater Level Models Based on Artificial Neural Networks and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Djurovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table forecasting plays an important role in the management of groundwater resources in agricultural regions where there are drainage systems in river valleys. The results presented in this paper pertain to an area along the left bank of the Danube River, in the Province of Vojvodina, which is the northern part of Serbia. Two soft computing techniques were used in this research: an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS and an artificial neural network (ANN model for one-month water table forecasts at several wells located at different distances from the river. The results suggest that both these techniques represent useful tools for modeling hydrological processes in agriculture, with similar computing and memory capabilities, such that they constitute an exceptionally good numerical framework for generating high-quality models.

  3. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  4. Changes induced by sea level rise on network properties of restoration areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Mirian; Castanedo, Sonia; Zhou, Zeng; Coco, Giovanni; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    are quantified with the new approach (Jiménez et al.,2014), which allows to highlight the changes that induce deep behavioral changes in the system. The importance of sea level rise in these behavioral changes is also assessed in the study. References: Jiménez, M., S. Castanedo, Z. Zhou, G.Coco, R. Medina, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (2014). Scaling properties of tidal networks, Water Resources Research., 50, doi:10.1002/2013WR015006.

  5. A Data-Driven Customer Quality of Experience System for a Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunglok Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving customer-perceived service quality is a critical mission of telecommunication service providers. Using 35 billion call records, we develop a call quality score model to predict customer complaint calls. The score model consists of two components: service quality score and connectivity score models. It also incorporates human psychological impacts such as the peak and end effects. We implement a large-sized data processing system that manages real-time service logs to generate quality scores at the customer level using big data processing technology and analysis techniques. The experimental results confirm the validity of the developed model in distinguishing probable complaint callers. With the adoption of the system, the first call resolution rate of the call center increased from 45% to 73%, and the field engineer dispatch rate from 46% to 25%.

  6. Game-Theoretic Optimal Power-Link Quality Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos D. SPYROU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problems in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployment is the generation of topologies that maximize transmission reliability and guarantee network connectivity while also maximizing the network’s lifetime. Transmission power settings have a large impact on the aforementioned factors. Increasing transmission power to provide coverage is the intuitive solution yet with it may come with lower packet reception and shorter network lifetime. However, decreasing the transmission power may result in the network being disconnected. To balance these trade-offs we propose a discrete strategy game-theoretic solution, which we call TopGame that aims to maximize the reliability between nodes while using the most appropriate level of transmission power that guarantees connectivity. In this paper, we provide the conditions for the convergence of our algorithm to a pure Nash equilibrium as well as experimental results. Here we show, using the Indriya WSN testbed, that TopGame is more energy-efficient and approaches a similar packet reception ratio with the current closest state of the art protocol ART. Finally, we provide a methodology for further optimization of our work using an indicator function to distinguish between satisfactory and poor links.

  7. Electric Sensors for Express-Method Checking of Liquid Quality Level Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro STOLYARCHUK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The research covered in the suggested article is meant for ecological monitoring in the broad sense. The express-method of water solution quality level estimation and the technique of fast response to the quality level of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewaters along with food products are proposed. The novelty of the proposed technique roots in the implementation of suggested methods and means of electric parameter measurement aimed at the quality index controlling of nonelectric qualimetry objects. Relevant research includes the exploration of water-solutions as well as different-level purification of industrial and domestic spillage waters, colloid solutions (cream, milk with the known contaminants, mixtures of superficially active substances and chlorine-containing substances.

  8. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (pprotein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (pChickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (pmeat increased significantly (pmeat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-02-01

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  10. Quality of research and level of evidence in foot and ankle publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barske, Heather L; Baumhauer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The quality of research and evidence to support medical treatments is under scrutiny from the medical profession and the public. This study examined the current quality of research and level of evidence (LOE) of foot and ankle surgery papers published in orthopedic and podiatric medical journals. Two independent evaluators performed a blinded assessment of all foot and ankle clinical research articles (January 2010 to June 2010) from seven North American orthopedic and podiatric journals. JBJS-A grading system was used for LOE. Articles were assessed for indicators of study quality. The data was stratified by journal and medical credentials. A total of 245 articles were published, 128 were excluded based on study design, leaving 117 clinical research articles. Seven (6%) were Level I, 14 (12%) Level II, 18 (15%) Level III, and 78 (67%) Level IV. The orthopedic journals published 78 studies on foot and ankle topics. Of the podiatric journals, the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association (JAPMA) published 12 clinical studies and the Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery (JFAS) published 27, 21 (78%) of which were Level IV studies. When the quality of research was examined, few therapeutic studies used validated outcome measures and only 38 of 96 (40%) gathered data prospectively. Thirty (31%) studies used a comparison group. Eighty-seven articles (74%) were authored by a MD and 22 (19%) by a DPM. Foot & Ankle International (FAI) published higher quality studies with a higher LOE as compared to podiatry journals. Regardless of the journal, MDs produced the majority of published clinical foot and ankle research. Although improvements have been made in the quality of some clinical research, this study highlights the need for continued improvement in methodology within foot and ankle literature.

  11. Multiscale River Hydraulic and Water Quality Observations Combining Stationary and Mobile Sensor Network Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Fisher, J. C.; Kaiser, W. J.

    2006-05-01

    Increasing demands on water supplies, non-point source pollution, and water quality-based ecological concerns all point to the need for observing stream flow perturbations and pollutant discharges at higher resolution than was practical in the past. This work presents the results from a test of a rapidly deployable river observational approach consisting of four components: (1) existing geospatial data and federal, state, and private river gauging infrastructure for identifying key river reaches and critical sampling times, (2) human- actuated sensor deployments for broad spatial characterization of the targeted river reach, (3) stationary sensors embedded in the river and its sediments for longer term spatiotemporal observations within the targeted reach, and (4) the robotic Networked Infomechanical System (NIMS RD) for high resolution scanning of spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties at specific points along the reach. The approach is demonstrated for a test bed deployment at the confluence of the Merced and San Joaquin Rivers in Central California. After identifying a suitable reach for the test deployment, a network of on-line gauging stations, accessed through the California Data Exchange Center (CDEC), is used to coordinate the timing of the subsequent three deployment aspects based on flow and river stage forecasts. Kayak-mounted sonar and water quality sensors are used to rapidly survey the test zone bathymetry and basic water quality parameters (temperature, salinity). Results from the rapid survey are then used to guide locations of the sediment- anchored sensor arrays (javelins) which include temperature, water pressure (depth) and water quality sensors distributed vertically at screened intervals. The NIMS RD is comprised of two supporting towers and a suspension cable delivering power and Internet connectivity for controlling and actuating the tram-like NIMS unit. The NIMS unit is capable of raising and lowering a payload of sensors

  12. Parametric Analysis of Surveillance Quality and Level and Quality of Intent Information and Their Impact on Conflict Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    A loss-of-separation (LOS) is said to occur when two aircraft are spatially too close to one another. A LOS is the fundamental unsafe event to be avoided in air traffic management and conflict detection (CD) is the function that attempts to predict these LOS events. In general, the effectiveness of conflict detection relates to the overall safety and performance of an air traffic management concept. An abstract, parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of surveillance quality, level of intent information, and quality of intent information on conflict detection performance. The data collected in this analysis can be used to estimate the conflict detection performance under alternative future scenarios or alternative allocations of the conflict detection function, based on the quality of the surveillance and intent information under those conditions.Alternatively, this data could also be used to estimate the surveillance and intent information quality required to achieve some desired CD performance as part of the design of a new separation assurance system.

  13. Overlapping sea level time series measured using different technologies: an example from the REDMAR Spanish network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, B.; Payo, A.; López, D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper addresses the problems of overlapping sea level time series measured using different technologies and sometimes from different locations inside a harbour. The renovation of the Spanish REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos) sea level network is taken here as an example of the difficulties encountered: up to seventeen old tide gauge stations have been replaced by radar tide gauges all around the Spanish coast, in order to fulfil the new international requirements on tsunami detection. Overlapping periods between old and new stations have allowed the comparison of records in different frequency ranges and the determination of the impact of this change of instrumentation on the long-term sea level products such as tides, surges and mean sea levels. The differences encountered are generally within the values expected, taking into account the characteristics of the different sensors, the different sampling strategies and sometimes the different locations inside the harbours. However, our analysis has also revealed in some cases the presence of significant scale errors that, overlapping with datum differences and uncertainties, as well as with hardware problems in many new radar gauges, may hinder the generation of coherent and continuous sea level time series. Comparisons with nearby stations have been combined with comparisons with altimetry time series close to each station in order to better determine the sources of error and to guarantee the precise relationships between the sea level time series from the old and the new tide gauges.

  14. Relationship between intercultural friendship networks and homesickness level of international degree students at a Finnish university

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchma, Anna

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of international students are coming to Finland due to a high quality and tuition free education. International students form the second biggest group of immigrants in Finland. Universities see international students as important for establishing international contacts and developing the country’s economy and, therefore, are concerned about their well-being. The current thesis explores the relationship between intercultural friendship and homesickness levels among interna...

  15. Data Verification Tools for Minimizing Management Costs of Dense Air-Quality Monitoring Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Alavi-Shoshtari, Maryam; Bart, Mark; Ainslie, Bruce; Grange, Stuart; McKendry, Ian G; Henshaw, Geoff S; Williams, David E

    2016-01-19

    Aiming at minimizing the costs, both of capital expenditure and maintenance, of an extensive air-quality measurement network, we present simple statistical methods that do not require extensive training data sets for automated real-time verification of the reliability of data delivered by a spatially dense hybrid network of both low-cost and reference ozone measurement instruments. Ozone is a pollutant that has a relatively smooth spatial spread over a large scale although there can be significant small-scale variations. We take advantage of these characteristics and demonstrate detection of instrument calibration drift within a few days using a rolling 72 h comparison of hourly averaged data from the test instrument with that from suitably defined proxies. We define the required characteristics of the proxy measurements by working from a definition of the network purpose and specification, in this case reliable determination of the proportion of hourly averaged ozone measurements that are above a threshold in any given day, and detection of calibration drift of greater than ±30% in slope or ±5 parts-per-billion in offset. By analyzing results of a study of an extensive deployment of low-cost instruments in the Lower Fraser Valley, we demonstrate that proxies can be established using land-use criteria and that simple statistical comparisons can identify low-cost instruments that are not stable and therefore need replacing. We propose that a minimal set of compliant reference instruments can be used to verify the reliability of data from a much more extensive network of low-cost devices.

  16. Typology of Regions by Level and Dynamics of the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mikhailovich Grinchel’

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methodology and algorithm for the construction of typologies of regions in a two-dimensional space “level of development – dynamics of development” taking into account the quality of life, which is one of the most relevant competitiveness factors at the present stage of Russia’s development. The authors analyze the concept of “quality of life” and propose their own variant of the concept, on the basis of which they make a list of indicators for measuring and assessing the “quality of life” factor. In the implementation of the algorithm it is proposed to transform specific indicators, which assess the level and dynamics of the quality of life, into nonmetric numerical scores, normalized to the weighted average values of indicators for the Russian regions. The method of transformation of indicators into scores was tested on the example of the Northwestern Federal District regions, and the typologies in a two-dimensional space “level – dynamics” of the quality of life were made for 80 regions of Russia; the level of the quality of life was assessed according to official statistics for 2013, and the dynamics of the quality of life was assessed with the use of official statistics for 2011–2013. A detailed analysis is provided for each of the proposed typological groups and characteristics of this typology are highlighted. The proposed methodology and algorithm make it possible to compare and analyze not only the level and dynamics of development of different factors promoting competitive attractiveness, but also the interaction b etween the factors, for example, such as economy and the quality of life, economy and innovation, innovation and human resources, quality of life and innovation, etc. The typology provides a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of both federal and local social policy for regional strategic development and helps justify the need and the focus of territorial

  17. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  18. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sa-Yoon; Park, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Su; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Chang-Eop

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng, a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Beal

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry.To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50% and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks.Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  20. Diagnosis of embankment dam distresses using Bayesian networks. Part I. Global-level characteristics based on a dam distress database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, L. M; Xu, Y; Jia, J. S; Zhao, C

    2011-01-01

    .... The main objective of this paper is to develop a robust probability-based tool using Bayesian networks for the diagnosis of embankment dam distresses at the global level based on past dam distress data...

  1. Design of a Sea-level Tsunami Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, raised the question for scientists of how to forecast a tsunami threat. In 2005, the IOC-UNESCO XXIII assembly decided to implement a global tsunami warning system to cover the regions that were not yet protected, namely the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean and the North East Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (the NEAM region. Within NEAM, the Gulf of Cadiz is the more sensitive area, with an important record of devastating historical events. The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary design for a reliable tsunami detection network for the Gulf of Cadiz, based on a network of sea-level observatories. The tsunamigenic potential of this region has been revised in order to define the active tectonic structures. Tsunami hydrodynamic modeling and GIS technology have been used to identify the appropriate locations for the minimum number of sea-level stations. Results show that 3 tsunameters are required as the minimum number of stations necessary to assure an acceptable protection to the large coastal population in the Gulf of Cadiz. In addition, 29 tide gauge stations could be necessary to fully assess the effects of a tsunami along the affected coasts of Portugal, Spain and Morocco.

  2. Classification of a Driver's cognitive workload levels using artificial neural network on ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjolleng, Amir; Jung, Kihyo; Hong, Wongi; Lee, Wonsup; Lee, Baekhee; You, Heecheon; Son, Joonwoo; Park, Seikwon

    2017-03-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated. To compensate for individual differences in heart response during the driving tasks, a three-step data processing procedure was performed to ECG signals of each participant: (1) selection of two most sensitive ECG measures, (2) definition of three (low, medium, and high) cognitive workload levels, and (3) normalization of the selected ECG measures. An ANN model was constructed using a feed-forward network and scaled conjugate gradient as a back-propagation learning rule. The accuracy of the ANN classification model was found satisfactory for learning data (95%) and testing data (82%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CASPIAN SEA LEVEL PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Makarenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of using nonlinear modeling for prediction of the Caspian Sea level. Phase space geometry of the of a model can be reconstructed by the embedology methods. Dynamical invariants, such as the Lyapunov exponents, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and the prediction horizon were estimated from reconstruction. Fractal and multifractal analyses were carried out for various time intervals of the Caspian Sea level and multifractal spectra were calculated. Then, historical data resolution was improved with the help of fractal approximation. The EMD method was used to reduce noise of the time series. Global nonlinear predictions were made with the help of Artificial Neural Network for combinations of different empirical modes.

  4. A system-level bandwidth design method for wormhole network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yubai; Liao, Changjun

    2016-11-01

    To improve the Network-on-Chip (NoC) performance, we propose a system-level bandwidth design method customising the bandwidths of the NoC links. In details, we first built a mathematical model to catch the relationship between the NoC commutation latency and the NoC link bandwidth, and then develop a bandwidth allocation algorithm to automatically optimise the bandwidth for each NoC link. The experimental results show that our bandwidth-customising method improves the NoC performance compared to the traditional uniform bandwidth allocation method. Besides, it can also make our NoC to achieve the same communication performance level as the uniform bandwidth NoC but using fewer bandwidth resources, which is beneficial to save the NoC area and power.

  5. Risk assessment of water quality using Monte Carlo simulation and artificial neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunchao; Nan, Zhongren; Yang, Sucai

    2013-06-15

    There is always uncertainty in any water quality risk assessment. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is regarded as a flexible, efficient method for characterizing such uncertainties. However, the required computational effort for MCS-based risk assessment is great, particularly when the number of random variables is large and the complicated water quality models have to be calculated by a computationally expensive numerical method, such as the finite element method (FEM). To address this issue, this paper presents an improved method that incorporates an artificial neural network (ANN) into the MCS to enhance the computational efficiency of conventional risk assessment. The conventional risk assessment uses the FEM to create multiple water quality models, which can be time consuming or cumbersome. In this paper, an ANN model was used as a substitute for the iterative FEM runs, and thus, the number of water quality models that must be calculated can be dramatically reduced. A case study on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution risks in the Lanzhou section of the Yellow River in China was taken as a reference. Compared with the conventional risk assessment method, the ANN-MCS-based method can save much computational effort without a loss of accuracy. The results show that the proposed method in this paper is more applicable to assess water quality risks. Because the characteristics of this ANN-MCS-based technique are quite general, it is hoped that the technique can also be applied to other MCS-based uncertainty analysis in the environmental field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE SERVICES QUALITY LEVEL ASSESSESMENT IN THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY WITH SERVQUAL METHOD APPLYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STASIAK-BETLEJEWSKA, Renata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary universities services quality level concerns mainly the education efficiency evaluation that results from the learning outcomes realization and innovative features of the teaching programs that differ universities offers. Technical universities attention is focused on ministerial requirements fulfillment which are strictly concentrated on the students skills obtaining in the relation to the employers’ market. The university services quality analysis ignores common expectations of students and candidates for students related to the technical or functional quality, such as university facilities and administrative workers empathy. The aim of this study is to identify the expectations of both students and candidates for studies at technical universities, what allows to identify university services quality level and areas needs improvement in terms of not only the educational services but also technical university facilities. Results show significant importance of the all examined service quality aspects in the context of expectations of candidates and students’ perception. Research findings allow not only to identify the technical university services quality, but also to support the university development within the scientific research process assistance.

  7. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela de Oliveira Nascimento Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of fibromyalgia (FM is a condition of chronic pain, general, difficult to treat and contributes to the decline of cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the association between physical activity and quality of life of women with FM. Was characterized as cross-sectional study and the population consisted 22 women with FM care in the city of Itabuna - BA. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to criteria to American College of Rheumatology. The data collection instrument was established by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Atividade física e qualidade de vida For data analysis, we used the procedure descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage and inferential (Chi-square test and Fisher's test, significance level of p≤0.05. The average age of respondents was 41.05 (SD = 6.543 years, ranging between 27 and 56 years. In general physical activity, 45.5% were considered physically active. By analyzing the dimensions of physical activity as a means transportation, only 31.8% are active and in the dimension of leisure, only 27.3%. The assessment of the level of quality of life of the subjects revealed that 72.7% had negative quality of life, while only 27.3% reported having a positive quality of life. The present study showed that fibromyalgia affects mainly women and that this syndrome interfere with the patients' quality of life.

  8. Exploring trade-offs between VMAT dose quality and delivery efficiency using a network optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ehsan; Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David

    2012-09-01

    To formulate and solve the fluence-map merging procedure of the recently-published VMAT treatment-plan optimization method, called vmerge, as a bi-criteria optimization problem. Using an exact merging method rather than the previously-used heuristic, we are able to better characterize the trade-off between the delivery efficiency and dose quality. vmerge begins with a solution of the fluence-map optimization problem with 180 equi-spaced beams that yields the ‘ideal’ dose distribution. Neighboring fluence maps are then successively merged, meaning that they are added together and delivered as a single map. The merging process improves the delivery efficiency at the expense of deviating from the initial high-quality dose distribution. We replace the original merging heuristic by considering the merging problem as a discrete bi-criteria optimization problem with the objectives of maximizing the treatment efficiency and minimizing the deviation from the ideal dose. We formulate this using a network-flow model that represents the merging problem. Since the problem is discrete and thus non-convex, we employ a customized box algorithm to characterize the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier is then used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the standard vmerge algorithm as well as two other similar heuristics. We test the exact and heuristic merging approaches on a pancreas and a prostate cancer case. For both cases, the shape of the Pareto frontier suggests that starting from a high-quality plan, we can obtain efficient VMAT plans through merging neighboring fluence maps without substantially deviating from the initial dose distribution. The trade-off curves obtained by the various heuristics are contrasted and shown to all be equally capable of initial plan simplifications, but to deviate in quality for more drastic efficiency improvements. This work presents a network optimization approach to the merging problem. Contrasting the trade-off curves of the

  9. SLIDE: automatic spine level identification system using a deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Jorden; Lessoway, Victoria; Gunka, Vit; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous spinal needle insertion procedures often require proper identification of the vertebral level to effectively and safely deliver analgesic agents. The current clinical method involves "blind" identification of the vertebral level through manual palpation of the spine, which has only 30% reported accuracy. Therefore, there is a need for better anatomical identification prior to needle insertion. A real-time system was developed to identify the vertebral level from a sequence of ultrasound images, following a clinical imaging protocol. The system uses a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify transverse images of the lower spine. Several existing CNN architectures were implemented, utilizing transfer learning, and compared for adequacy in a real-time system. In the system, the CNN output is processed, using a novel state machine, to automatically identify vertebral levels as the transducer moves up the spine. Additionally, a graphical display was developed and integrated within 3D Slicer. Finally, an augmented reality display, projecting the level onto the patient's back, was also designed. A small feasibility study [Formula: see text] evaluated performance. The proposed CNN successfully discriminates ultrasound images of the sacrum, intervertebral gaps, and vertebral bones, achieving 88% 20-fold cross-validation accuracy. Seventeen of 20 test ultrasound scans had successful identification of all vertebral levels, processed at real-time speed (40 frames/s). A machine learning system is presented that successfully identifies lumbar vertebral levels. The small study on human subjects demonstrated real-time performance. A projection-based augmented reality display was used to show the vertebral level directly on the subject adjacent to the puncture site.

  10. Quality evaluation of cancer study Common Data Elements using the UMLS Semantic Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-12-01

    The binding of controlled terminology has been regarded as important for standardization of Common Data Elements (CDEs) in cancer research. However, the potential of such binding has not yet been fully explored, especially its quality assurance aspect. The objective of this study is to explore whether there is a relationship between terminological annotations and the UMLS Semantic Network (SN) that can be exploited to improve those annotations. We profiled the terminological concepts associated with the standard structure of the CDEs of the NCI Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR) using the UMLS SN. We processed 17798 data elements and extracted 17526 primary object class/property concept pairs. We identified dominant semantic types for the categories "object class" and "property" and determined that the preponderance of the instances were disjoint (i.e. the intersection of semantic types between the two categories is empty). We then performed a preliminary evaluation on the data elements whose asserted primary object class/property concept pairs conflict with this observation - where the semantic type of the object class fell into a SN category typically used by property or visa-versa. In conclusion, the UMLS SN based profiling approach is feasible for the quality assurance and accessibility of the cancer study CDEs. This approach could provide useful insight about how to build mechanisms of quality assurance in a meta-data repository. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilizing multiobjective analysis to determine an air quality monitoring network in an industrial district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jehng-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Ru

    An industrial district with polluting factories operating inside poses a potential threat to the air quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, establishing a proper air quality monitoring network (AQMN) is essential for assessing the effectiveness of imposed pollution controls, strategies, and facilities in reducing pollutants. The geographic layout of such an AQMN should assure the quality of the monitored data. Monitoring stations located at inappropriate sites will likely affect data validity. In this study, a multiobjective approach was explored for configuring an AQMN for an industrial district. A dispersion model was employed to simulate hourly distribution of pollutant concentrations in the study area. Models optimizing pollution detection, dosage, coverage, and population protection were established. Alternative AQMNs with varied station numbers and spatial distributions were obtained using the models. The resulting AQMNs were compared and evaluated for effectiveness in monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of pollutants. Discussion of the differences among the AQMNs is provided. This multiobjective analysis is expected to facilitate a decision-making process for determining an appropriate AQMN.

  12. Study the indoor air quality level inside governmental elementary schools of Dammam City in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Fathy Mohamed El-Sharkawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to study the indoor air quality (IAQ levels inside the governmental elementary schools of Dammam City in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and study factors affecting these levels. Materials and Methods: Sixteen schools were selected for this study; 12 of them were representing governmental constructed buildings, while the other 4 schools were representing rental buildings. Levels of dust or total suspended particulates (TSP, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 , nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 , sulfur dioxide (SO 2 , and benzene; in addition to temperature degree and relative humidity percent were measured during this study at four selected locations inside each school and one location outside it. Results: The highest levels of all pollutants were found inside classrooms that were located directly on the moderate traffic streets compared with low or very low traffic activity ones. Levels of most air pollutants inside the governmental constructed buildings were higher than those inside the rental type of schools. Conclusion: The average levels of TSP, NO 2 and CO inside all selected schools were lower than the air quality guidelines (AQGs. In contrary, all mean levels of CO 2 and nearly 50% of SO 2 and benzene levels were higher than their AQGs. Increasing the efficiency of the mechanical and air condition systems inside classrooms is important for appropriate ventilation and improving IAQ level.

  13. Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Kayani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for which the consumer pays. In thecase of education, the Consumer is the student as well as society. Therefore, quality education is the standard of education that satisfies the students and society both. The main objectives of this study were to identify the indicators of Total Quality Management(T.Q.M in classroom to study the efforts of teachers to ensure TQM in classroom and to identify the ways to improve the quality of education at higher level.From the findings of the study it was revealed that the teachers did not covered the five standards of TQM elements completely, students were not completely satisfied by the teaching methodology during knowledge transitory process. Most of the teachers were not prepared before delivering there lectures, teacher showed biasness that discouraged the students. Teacher also ignored the daily assessment of the students, and use of the audio visual (AV aids in classroom, obsolete teaching material, and ineffective material caused failure to produce total quality education, and failed to produce skilled workforce. Based upon the conclusion of the study it is recommended that teacher may be punctual, teacher should use AV aids for teaching in classroom, teachers may be prepared well before delivering the lecture, teacher may encourage the classroom discussion, andteacher may treat equally in classroom.

  14. Evaluation of the meat quality Yankasa rams fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty Yankasa rams aged between 10 and 12 months with average weight of 12.15kg were used to evaluate the effect of different levels of biscuit waste and Leucaena leucocephala meal inclusion in diets on the quality of their meat samples. The rams were randomly assigned to five treatment diets of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% ...

  15. Assessing reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure levels from data of variable quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Drooge, H. van; Groenewold, M.; Hemmen, J. van

    2001-01-01

    Exposure assessors involved in regulatory risk assessments often need to estimate a reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure level from very limited exposure information. Full-shift exposure data of very high quality are rare. A full-shift value can also be calculated from (short term) task-based

  16. The Level of Quality of Work Life to Predict Work Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The current research aims to determine the level of elementary school teachers' quality of work life (QWL) to predict work alienation. The study was designed using the relational survey model. The research population consisted of 1096 teachers employed at 25 elementary schools within the city of Van in the academic year 2010- 2011, and 346…

  17. Evidence-Based Dental Practice: Part II. Levels And Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For questions related to diagnosis, prognosis or causation, other study designs such as longitudinal studies, cohort studies or case-control studies are more appropriate. The present article discusses the levels and quality of evidence, and basic concepts of clinical research design in evidence-based dental practice based ...

  18. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…

  19. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different drip irrigation methods and different irrigation levels on yield, quality and water use characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia cv. Lital) cultivated in a solar greenhouse from 07 October 2009 to 03 December 2009 in the Eastern Mediterranean region ...

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…