WorldWideScience

Sample records for network productivity assessment

  1. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  2. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...... reductions compared to the traditional manual planning results of our industrial partner....

  3. Labour in Global Production Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita; Khara, Navjote; Xue, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global production networks. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This paper focuses on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands who manage dispersed global production networks. It assesses the work conditions for football stitchers engaged ...

  4. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  5. [The application of artificial neural network on the assessment of lexical tone production of pediatric cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y T; Chen, Z M; Xu, L

    2017-08-07

    Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the tone production ability of the Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CI) by using an artificial neural network model and to examine the potential contributing factors underlining their tone production performance. The results of this study might provide useful guidelines for post-operative rehabilitation processes of pediatric CI users. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight prelingually deafened children who received unilateral CI participated in this study. As controls, 170 similarly-aged children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited. A total of 36 Chinese monosyllabic words were selected as the tone production targets. Vocal production samples were recorded and the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of each syllable was extracted using an auto-correlation algorithm followed by manual correction. An artificial neural network was created in MATLAB to classify the tone production. The relationships between tone production and several demographic factors were evaluated. Results: Pediatric CI users produced Mandarin tones much less accurately than did the NH children (58.8% vs. 91.5% correct). Tremendous variability in tone production performance existed among the CI children. Tones 2 and 3 were produced less accurately than tones 1 and 4 for both groups. For the CI group, all tones when in error tended to be judged as tone 1. The tone production accuracy was negatively correlated with age at implantation and positively correlated with CI use duration with correlation coefficients (r) of -0.215 (P=0.003) and 0.203 (P=0.005), respectively. Age was one of the determinants of tonal ability for NH children. Conclusions: For children with severe to profound hearing loss, early implantation and persistent use of CI are beneficial to their tone production development. Artificial neural network is a convenient and reliable assessment tool for the development of tonal ability of hearing

  6. Labour in Global Production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita

    on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands who manage dispersed global production networks. It assesses the work conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organisation, factories, stitching centres, and home-based settings, in Pakistan, India......A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global production networks. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This paper focuses...... and local production contexts that influence work condition. In doing so, it argues that current debates on the role of labour in global production networks have to go beyond a narrow focus on labour standards and CSR compliance and engage with economic, technological and social upgrading as factors...

  7. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  8. Metabolic impact assessment for heterologous protein production in Streptomyces lividans based on genome-scale metabolic network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Ivan; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Anné, Jozef; Bernaerts, Kristel; Van Impe, Jan

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic impact exerted on a microorganism due to heterologous protein production is still poorly understood in Streptomyces lividans. In this present paper, based on exometabolomic data, a proposed genome-scale metabolic network model is used to assess this metabolic impact in S. lividans. Constraint-based modeling results obtained in this work revealed that the metabolic impact due to heterologous protein production is widely distributed in the genome of S. lividans, causing both slow substrate assimilation and a shift in active pathways. Exchange fluxes that are critical for model performance have been identified for metabolites of mouse tumor necrosis factor, histidine, valine and lysine, as well as biomass. Our results unravel the interaction of heterologous protein production with intracellular metabolism of S. lividans, thus, a possible basis for further studies in relieving the metabolic burden via metabolic or bioprocess engineering. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Roadway network productivity assessment : system-wide analysis under variant travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The analysis documented in this report examines the hypothesis that the system-wide productivity of a metropolitan freeway system in peak periods is higher in moderate travel demand conditions than in excessive travel demand conditions. The approach ...

  10. Modelling of virtual production networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, specialize in a limited field of production. It requires forming virtual production networks of cooperating enterprises to manufacture better, faster and cheaper. Apart from that, some production orders cannot be realized, because there is not a company of sufficient production potential. In this case the virtual production networks of cooperating companies can realize these production orders. These networks have larger production capacity and many different resources. Therefore it can realize many more production orders together than each of them separately. Such organization allows for executing high quality product. The maintenance costs of production capacity and used resources are not so high. In this paper a methodology of rapid prototyping of virtual production networks is proposed. It allows to execute production orders on time considered existing logistic constraints.

  11. Network structure of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Enghin; Hortaçsu, Ali; Roberts, James; Syverson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Complex social networks have received increasing attention from researchers. Recent work has focused on mechanisms that produce scale-free networks. We theoretically and empirically characterize the buyer–supplier network of the US economy and find that purely scale-free models have trouble matching key attributes of the network. We construct an alternative model that incorporates realistic features of firms’ buyer–supplier relationships and estimate the model’s parameters using microdata on firms’ self-reported customers. This alternative framework is better able to match the attributes of the actual economic network and aids in further understanding several important economic phenomena. PMID:21402924

  12. Brain networks underlying novel metaphor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J; Benedek, Mathias

    2017-02-01

    Metaphors are widely used to convey abstract concepts and emotions in the arts and everyday life. Neuroimaging research suggests that dynamic interactions among large-scale brain networks, including the default and executive control networks, support the production of such creative ideas. However, the extent to which these networks interact to support other forms of creative language production such as metaphor remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by assessing functional interactions between brain regions during novel metaphor production. Whole-brain functional connectivity analysis revealed a distributed network associated with metaphor production, including several nodes of the default (precuneus and left angular gyrus; AG) and executive control (right intraparietal sulcus; IPS) networks. Seed-based analyses showed increased connectivity between these network hubs, and temporal connectivity analysis found early coupling of default (left AG) and salience (right anterior insula) regions that preceded later coupling of the left AG and left DLPFC, pointing to a potential switching mechanism underlying default and executive network interaction. The results extend recent work on the cooperative role of large-scale networks in creative cognition, and suggest that metaphor production involves similar brain network dynamics as other forms of goal-directed, self-generated cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production, Innovation and Service Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2012-01-01

    Production, innovation and service networks of companies all over the world become increasingly decentralised, specialised and interdependent. These three characteristics combined inevitably lead to the formation of complex configurations of resources, crossing both national and organisational...... borders. The existing studies do not adequately address the complex interplay between co-evolving production, innovation and service networks. The widening geographical and cognitive gaps between these networks mean that coordinating them and managing their interfaces in a global operations context...... are becoming strategically important. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue and to develop a number of propositions about the development and organisation of these networks. The paper highlights the critical importance of engineering operations in this process. The propositions are developed...

  14. Assessing regulatory violations of disinfection by-products in water distribution networks using a non-compliance potential index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nilufar; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Legay, Christelle

    2016-05-01

    Inactivating pathogens is essential to eradicate waterborne diseases. However, disinfection forms undesirable disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of natural organic matter. Many regulations and guidelines exist to limit DBP exposure for eliminating possible health impacts such as bladder cancer, reproductive effects, and child development effects. In this paper, an index named non-compliance potential (NCP) index is proposed to evaluate regulatory violations by DBPs. The index can serve to evaluate water quality in distribution networks using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). BBN is a graphical model to represent contributing variables and their probabilistic relationships. Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids (HAA5), and free residual chlorine (FRC) are selected as the variables to predict the NCP index. A methodology has been proposed to implement the index using either monitored data, empirical model results (e.g., multiple linear regression), and disinfectant kinetics through EPANET simulations. The index's usefulness is demonstrated through two case studies on municipal distribution systems using both full-scale monitoring and modeled data. The proposed approach can be implemented for data-sparse conditions, making it especially useful for smaller municipal drinking water systems.

  15. Production, Innovation and Service Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Production, innovation and service networks of companies all over the world become increasingly decentralized, specialized and interdependent. The three characteristics combined inevitably lead to the formation of complex configurations of assets and capabilities crossing both national and organi......Production, innovation and service networks of companies all over the world become increasingly decentralized, specialized and interdependent. The three characteristics combined inevitably lead to the formation of complex configurations of assets and capabilities crossing both national...... and organisational borders. The existing studies do not adequately address the complex interplay between co-evolving production, innovation and service networks. The widening geographical and cognitive gap between these networks means that coordinating them and managing their interfaces in global operations context...... is becoming strategically important. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue and to develop a number of propositions about how companies can organize these networks and coordinate between them effectively. The propositions are developed by employing the design science approach based on a literature...

  16. Bayesian networks in educational assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Almond, Russell G; Steinberg, Linda S; Yan, Duanli; Williamson, David M

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian inference networks, a synthesis of statistics and expert systems, have advanced reasoning under uncertainty in medicine, business, and social sciences. This innovative volume is the first comprehensive treatment exploring how they can be applied to design and analyze innovative educational assessments. Part I develops Bayes nets’ foundations in assessment, statistics, and graph theory, and works through the real-time updating algorithm. Part II addresses parametric forms for use with assessment, model-checking techniques, and estimation with the EM algorithm and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). A unique feature is the volume’s grounding in Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) framework for assessment design. This “design forward” approach enables designers to take full advantage of Bayes nets’ modularity and ability to model complex evidentiary relationships that arise from performance in interactive, technology-rich assessments such as simulations. Part III describes ECD, situates Bayes nets as ...

  17. Information Product Quality in Network Centric Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Patrick J; Tortorella, Michael; Pohl, Edward

    2005-01-01

    This study introduces a pragmatic methodology for examining the effectiveness of decision support information systems for Network Centric Operations based on the concept of manufacturing information products...

  18. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  19. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change...... their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf...

  20. Collaboration networks and research productivity at IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Carlos Anisio; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: monteiro@ipen.br, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we investigate the IPEN's scientific collaboration network. Based on publications registered in IPEN's technical and scientific database was extracted a set of authors that developed technical and scientific work on the 2001 to 2010 period, using coauthorship to define the relationship between authors. From the data collected, we used degree centrality indicator in conjunction with two approaches to assess the relationship between collaboration and productivity: normal count, where for each publication that the author appears is added one for the author’s productivity indicator, and fractional count which is added a fractional value according to the total number of publication's authors. We concluded that collaboration for the development of a technical and scientific work has a positive correlation with the researchers productivity, that is, the greater the collaboration greater the productivity. We presented, also, a statistical summary to reveal the total number of publications and the number of IPEN's authors by publication, the average number of IPEN's authors per publication and the average number of publications by IPEN's author, the number of IPEN's authors that not published with no other author of the IPEN and, finally, the number of active and inactive (ex. retirees) researchers of the IPEN, as well as, the number of authors who do not have employment contract with the IPEN. (author)

  1. Using Social Network Analysis to Assess Mentorship and Collaboration in a Public Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Belza, Basia; Leith, Katherine; Allen, Peg; Coe, Norma B; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-08-20

    Addressing chronic disease burden requires the creation of collaborative networks to promote systemic changes and engage stakeholders. Although many such networks exist, they are rarely assessed with tools that account for their complexity. This study examined the structure of mentorship and collaboration relationships among members of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) using social network analysis (SNA). We invited 97 HAN members and partners to complete an online social network survey that included closed-ended questions about HAN-specific mentorship and collaboration during the previous 12 months. Collaboration was measured by examining the activity of the network on 6 types of products: published articles, in-progress manuscripts, grant applications, tools, research projects, and presentations. We computed network-level measures such as density, number of components, and centralization to assess the cohesiveness of the network. Sixty-three respondents completed the survey (response rate, 65%). Responses, which included information about collaboration with nonrespondents, suggested that 74% of HAN members were connected through mentorship ties and that all 97 members were connected through at least one form of collaboration. Mentorship and collaboration ties were present both within and across boundaries of HAN member organizations. SNA of public health collaborative networks provides understanding about the structure of relationships that are formed as a result of participation in network activities. This approach may offer members and funders a way to assess the impact of such networks that goes beyond simply measuring products and participation at the individual level.

  2. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  3. Evolution of the research collaboration network in a productive department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David

    2012-02-01

    Understanding collaboration networks can facilitate the research growth of new or developing departments. The purpose of this study was to use social network analysis to understand how the research collaboration network evolved within a productive department. Over a 13-year period, a departmental faculty completed an annual survey describing their research collaborations. Data were analyzed using social network analysis. Network measures focused on connectedness, distance, groupings and heterogeneity of distribution, while measures for the research director and external collaboration focused on centrality and roles within the network. Longitudinal patterns of network collaboration were assessed using Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis software (University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands). Based upon the number of active research projects, research development can be divided into three phases. The initial development phase was characterized by increasing centralization and collaboration focused within a single subject area. During the maintenance phase, measures went through cycles, possibly because of changes in faculty composition. While the research director was not a 'key player' within the network during the first several years, external collaboration played a central role during all phases. Longitudinal analysis found that forming ties was more likely when the opportunity for network closure existed and when those around you are principal investigators (PIs). Initial development of research relied heavily upon a centralized network involving external collaboration; a central position of the research director during research development was not important. Changes in collaboration depended upon faculty gender and tenure track as well as transitivity and the 'popularity of PIs'. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  5. Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.

  6. Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As use of the Internet and mobile technologies in the developing world continues to grow at a high rate, there is potential to provide real income opportunities to ... More specifically, the research team will: -examine how virtual production networks in Africa and Asia are structured; -assess their positive and negative effects ...

  7. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques...

  8. Modeling Diagnostic Assessments with Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.; DiBello, Louis V.; Moulder, Brad; Zapata-Rivera, Juan-Diego

    2007-01-01

    This paper defines Bayesian network models and examines their applications to IRT-based cognitive diagnostic modeling. These models are especially suited to building inference engines designed to be synchronous with the finer grained student models that arise in skills diagnostic assessment. Aspects of the theory and use of Bayesian network models…

  9. Automated Network Catalog Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Maurice J.

    1976-01-01

    Four categories of automated network catalog products and services are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of (1) the on-line cathode-ray-tube (CRT) display, (2) the line-printer produced card, (3) the photo-composed book catalog or catalog card, and (4) computer-based microforms are all reviewed. (Author)

  10. Accuracy Assessment of GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 LAI and FAPAR Essential Climate Variables Products over a Network of Cropland Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    camacho De Coca, F.; Sánchez, J.; Latorre, C.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work discuss the accuracy of the LAI and FAPAR essential climate variables derived from satellite observations over a network of cropland sites mostly located in Europe. Three different LAI and FAPAR products are evaluated: GEOV1 from Copernicus Global Land Service derived from SPOT/VEGETATION and PROBA-V observations at 1 km spatial resolution, and the MODIS collection 5 derived at 1 km spatial resolution and the new collection 6 derived at 500m spatial resolution. The ground database was generated during the FP7 ImagineS project over a network of cropland sites, including some JECAM sites, in collaboration with local teams. A total of 66 field campaigns were conducted over 23 sites from january 2013 to march 2016 around the world (21 of them corresponding to croplands), sampling more than 1700 Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs) of about 20x20m size (more than 2000 measurements including replications with different devices). Most of the ESUs were characterized using digital hemispherical photos (DHP), as well as LAI-2200 and AccuPAR LP-80 devices, during the growing or mature period of the vegetation avoiding senescent, to be close to the definition of satellite LAI and FAPAR related to green foliar elements. The spatial sampling protocol follows the VALERI recommendations, with an stratified sampling per cover types in the study area of about 3x3 km2. Multi-temporal campaigns were performed in some of the sites, where in others only one campaign was conducted. Ground measurements were up-scaled by EOLAB using high-resolution imagery (mainly Landsat-8 data and SPOT-4) and robust regression methods testing the best band combination to minimize cross-validation and weighted RMS errors. This efforts resulted in a consistent an unique database of ground measurements and ground-based reference maps (between 38 and 48 depending on variable) generated following the standards of the CEOS/WGCV Land Products Validation, suitable to be used as fiducial reference for

  11. USA National Phenology Network gridded products documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Marsh, R. Lee; Switzer, Jeff R.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2017-02-23

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to facilitate informed ecosystem stewardship and management by providing phenological information freely and openly. One way the USA-NPN is endeavoring to accomplish these goals is by providing data and data products in a wide range of formats, including gridded real-time, short-term forecasted, and historical maps of phenological events, patterns and trends. This document describes the suite of gridded phenologically relevant data products produced and provided by the USA National Phenology Network, which can be accessed at www.usanpn.org/data/phenology_maps and also through web services at geoserver.usanpn.org/geoserver/wms?request=GetCapabilities.

  12. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  13. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  14. Empirical generalization assessment of neural network models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the assessment of generalization performance of neural network models by use of empirical techniques. We suggest to use the cross-validation scheme combined with a resampling technique to obtain an estimate of the generalization performance distribution of a specific model...

  15. Networked Resources, Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Sue; Derry, Sebastian; Eggleston, Holly

    2004-01-01

    This project provides a critical evaluation of networked resources as they relate to the library's collection development policy, identifies areas of the curriculum not well represented, establishes a reliable method of assessing usage across all resources, and develops a framework of quantitative data for collection development decision making.

  16. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  17. Image quality assessment using deep convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yezhou; Ye, Xiang; Li, Yong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a method of accurately assessing image quality without a reference image by using a deep convolutional neural network. Existing training based methods usually utilize a compact set of linear filters for learning features of images captured by different sensors to assess their quality. These methods may not be able to learn the semantic features that are intimately related with the features used in human subject assessment. Observing this drawback, this work proposes training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) with labelled images for image quality assessment. The ReLU in the CNN allows non-linear transformations for extracting high-level image features, providing a more reliable assessment of image quality than linear filters. To enable the neural network to take images of any arbitrary size as input, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) is introduced connecting the top convolutional layer and the fully-connected layer. In addition, the SPP makes the CNN robust to object deformations to a certain extent. The proposed method taking an image as input carries out an end-to-end learning process, and outputs the quality of the image. It is tested on public datasets. Experimental results show that it outperforms existing methods by a large margin and can accurately assess the image quality on images taken by different sensors of varying sizes.

  18. Assessing the molecular genetics of attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaff Donald W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetic underpinnings of higher brain functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently, we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. Results In this study we have measured the efficiency of neural networks related to aspects of attention using the ANT in a population of 200 adult subjects. We then examined genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes (DRD4, DAT, COMT and MAOA that have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing various psychiatric disorders where attention is disrupted. We find modest associations of several polymorphisms with the efficiency of executive attention but not with overall performance measures such as reaction time. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation may underlie inter-subject variation in the efficiency of executive attention. This study also shows that genetic influences on executive attention may be specific to certain anatomical networks rather than affecting performance in a global or non-specific manner. Lastly, this study further validates the ANT as an endophenotypic assay suitable for assessing how genes influence certain anatomical networks that may be disrupted in various psychiatric disorders.

  19. Authenticity assessment of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  20. The CORS Network Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, G.; Snay, R.; Cline, M.; Don, H.

    2008-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is responsible for defining, providing access and maintaining the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) which is the legally binding reference frame for the civilian sector of the US Federal Government, and most of the public. With the increasing access to space geodetic data sources, especially GPS, NGS has been transitioning to a space based NSRS. In 1994 NGS created the Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network as a partnership with site operators of continuously operating GNSS sites who were willing to share their data with the public. The network currently contains ~1,200 stations, located mostly in the United States, and is growing at ~ 200 stations a year. The CORS network is particularly dense in the eastern United States, and its GPS observations are used extensively by researchers. NGS is taking a number of steps to improve its CORS related products and services including: 1) More stringent requirements for constructing new CORS as well as operating existing stations, 2) Investigating biases affecting GPS observations collected at CORS, in particular the effects of multipath, and 3) Improving processing software of GPS observables to compute orbits and coordinate computation. This effort has been emphasized because NGS is both an IGS analysis center and the current IGS analysis center coordinator. NGS is reprocessing all CORS data collected since 1994 with the goal of updating the current legally binding geometric reference frame known as NAD83. NGS has also improved and expanded its post-processing web service tools, including the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). Lastly NGS is now operating a prototype real time GNSS data-delivery service broadcasting in RTCM format via NTRIP.

  1. Shipboard Calibration Network Extension Utilizing COTS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    are generated by TCP when performing congestion control . TCP performs congestion control in the network, as defined in RFC 2581, to mitigate the...Available: https://www.wireshark.org/about.html. [22] Network Working Group. (1999, April). TCP congestion control . [Online]. Available: http...Identification TCP Transport Control Protocol VNC Virtual Network Computing WLAN Wireless Local Area Network xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  2. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    research on knowledge production, however, reveals that knowledge productive networks are significant for both the competitiveness and location of KIBS. Thus, to understand the urban location of industrial design, it is important to analyse how knowledge production is organized within the industry....... Industrial design is concentrated in urban locations, but most of its clients are located elsewhere. Hence, it seems that industrial design firms concentrate in urban locations mainly because their knowledge networks include specific types of formal and informal local social networks....

  3. Social networks for innovation and new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Dolfsma, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we first provide a brief introduction into social network analysis, focusing on the measures and approaches that are used in the empirical contributions in this special issue. Second, we discuss the role of social networks in new product development. Social networks are inherently

  4. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo

    A detailed introduction to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products, Danish acronym: UMIP) methodology on life cycle assessment (LCA) including toolbox, introduction to the use of LCA in product development and five comprehensive case studies on electromechanical products....

  5. Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of queueing networks called {\\it arrival first networks}. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production

  6. Training product unit neural networks with genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, D. J.; Frenzel, J. F.; Thelen, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The training of product neural networks using genetic algorithms is discussed. Two unusual neural network techniques are combined; product units are employed instead of the traditional summing units and genetic algorithms train the network rather than backpropagation. As an example, a neural netork is trained to calculate the optimum width of transistors in a CMOS switch. It is shown how local minima affect the performance of a genetic algorithm, and one method of overcoming this is presented.

  7. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  8. Statistical assessment of biosimilar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Liu, Jen-Pei

    2010-01-01

    Biological products or medicines are therapeutic agents that are produced using a living system or organism. Access to these life-saving biological products is limited because of their expensive costs. Patents on the early biological products will soon expire in the next few years. This allows other biopharmaceutical/biotech companies to manufacture the generic versions of the biological products, which are referred to as follow-on biological products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or as biosimilar medicinal products by the European Medicine Agency (EMEA) of the European Union (EU). Competition of cost-effective follow-on biological products with equivalent efficacy and safety can cut down the costs and hence increase patients' access to the much-needed biological pharmaceuticals. Unlike for the conventional pharmaceuticals of small molecules, the complexity and heterogeneity of the molecular structure, complicated manufacturing process, different analytical methods, and possibility of severe immunogenicity reactions make evaluation of equivalence (similarity) between the biosimilar products and their corresponding innovator product a great challenge for both the scientific community and regulatory agencies. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current regulatory requirements for approval of biosimilar products. A review of current criteria for evaluation of bioequivalence for the traditional chemical generic products is provided. A detailed description of the differences between the biosimilar and chemical generic products is given with respect to size and structure, immunogenicity, product quality attributed, and manufacturing processes. In addition, statistical considerations including design criteria, fundamental biosimilar assumptions, and statistical methods are proposed. The possibility of using genomic data in evaluation of biosimilar products is also explored.

  9. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    in the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products for two...

  10. Hierarchicality of trade flow networks reveals complexity of products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiteng Shi

    Full Text Available With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which amounts to at least 36 trillion dollars today. Interestingly, around 30-60 percents of exports consist of intermediate products in global. Therefore, the trade flow network of particular product with high added values can be regarded as value chains. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products from their unique flow network structure? This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent η can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains. Then, it is pointed out that the flow networks of products with higher added values and complexity like machinary, transport equipment etc. have larger exponents, meaning that their trade flow networks are more hierarchical. As a result, without the extra data like global input-output table, we can identify the product categories with higher complexity, and the relative importance of a country in the global value chain by the trading network solely.

  11. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  12. Climate Reference Network Hourly02 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  13. Risk and reliability assessment for telecommunications networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques to model network reliability for a wide variety of communications network architectures. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of current generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree PLM techniques. They have developed a ``plug-and-play`` fault tree analysis methodology that can be used to model connectivity and the provision of network services in a wide variety of current generation network architectures. They have also developed an efficient search algorithm that can be used to determine the minimal cut sets of an arbitrarily-interconnected (non-hierarchical) network without the construction of a fault tree model. This paper provides an overview of these modeling techniques and describes how they are applied to networks that exhibit hybrid network structures (i.e., a network in which some areas are hierarchical and some areas are not hierarchical).

  14. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model......We argue that in the presence of transaction costs, observed productivity measures may in many cases understate the true productivity, as production data seldom distinguish between resources entering the production process and resources of a similar type that are sacrificed for transaction costs....... Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...

  15. Network Centric Warfare Implementation and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunlinger, Thomas K

    2005-01-01

    ...) Are the military services implementing the network-centric warfare concept?, and (3) Is the network-centric warfare concept a new theory of warfare or rather a modification or extension of previous theories...

  16. Technology Licensing Strategy for Network Product in a Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology licensing has gained significant attention in literature and practice as a rapid and effective way to improve firm’s capability of technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate a duopolistic service provider competition market, where service providers develop and sell a kind of network product. In this setting, we analyze the innovating service provider’s four licensing strategies: no licensing, fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The literature suggests that when the network products can be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is the optimal strategy of the innovating service provider. We find that when the network products cannot be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is not always optimal. The degree of the product differentiation, the intensity of the network effects, and the R&D cost of the potential licensee play a key role in determining the innovating service provider’s optimal licensing strategies.

  17. Optical production systems using neural networks and symbolic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David; Barnard, Etienne

    1988-01-01

    Two optical implementations of production systems are advanced. The production systems operate on a knowledge base where facts and rules are encoded as formulas in propositional calculus. The first implementation is a binary neural network. An analog neural network is used to include reasoning with uncertainties. The second implementation uses a new optical symbolic substitution correlator. This implementation is useful when a set of similar situations has to be handled in parallel on one processor.

  18. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  19. Modeling and Analysis of New Products Diffusion on Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a heterogeneous networks model with the awareness stage and the decision-making stage to explain the process of new products diffusion. If mass media is neglected in the decision-making stage, there is a threshold whether the innovation diffusion is successful or not, or else it is proved that the network model has at least one positive equilibrium. For networks with the power-law degree distribution, numerical simulations confirm analytical results, and also at the same time, by numerical analysis of the influence of the network structure and persuasive advertisements on the density of adopters, we give two different products propagation strategies for two classes of nodes in scale-free networks.

  20. Sustainability impacts of building products: An assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article investigates sustainability impacts of building products during production stage in developing countries. An analysis of literature is undertaken in order to establish current building product assessment methodologies and their relevance to developing country contexts. The review finds that many of these ...

  1. Sustainability impacts of building products: An assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates sustainability impacts of building products during production stage in developing countries. An analysis of literature is undertaken in order to establish current building product assessment methodologies and their relevance to developing country contexts. The review finds that many of these ...

  2. A Dynamic Evolutionary Game Model of Modular Production Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new organization mode of production in the 21st century, modular production network is deemed extensively to be a source of competitiveness for lead firms in manufacturing industries. However, despite the abundant studies on the modular production network, there are very few studies from a dynamic perspective to discuss the conditions on which a modular production network develops. Based on the dynamic evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs a model, which incorporates several main factors influencing the development of modular production network. By calculating the replicator dynamics equations and analyzing the evolutionary stable strategies, this paper discusses the evolution process of cooperation strategies of member enterprises in a modular production network. Furthermore, by using NetLogo software to simulate the model, this paper verifies the effectiveness of the model. From the model, we can find that the final stable equilibrium strategy is related to such factors as the initial cost, the extra payoff, the cooperation willingness of both parties, the cooperation efforts, and the proportion each party can get from the extra payoff. To encourage the cooperation of production integrator and modular supplier, some suggestions are also provided.

  3. Artificial neural networks for static security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebur, D.; Fischl, R.

    1997-12-31

    A reliable, continuous supply of electric energy is essential for the functioning of today`s complex societies. Due to a combination of increasing energy consumption and impediments of various kinds to the extension of existing electric transmission networks, these power systems are operated closer and closer to their limits. This situation requires a significantly less conservative power system operation and control regime which, in turn, is possible only by monitoring the system state in much more detail than was necessary previously. Fortunately, the large quantity of information required can be provided in many cases through recent advances in telecommunications and computing techniques. There is, however, a lack of evaluation techniques required to extract the salient information and to use it for higher-order processing. Whilst the sheer quantity of available information is always a problem, this situation is aggravated in emergency situations when rapid decisions are required. Furthermore, the behaviour of power systems is highly non-linear. Monitoring and control involves several hundred variables which are only partly available by measurements. Load demands and dynamic loads are difficult to model. Therefore models appropriate for normal situations might become invalid in emergency situations. These problems provide important motivation to explore novel data processing and programming techniques from the vast pool of artificial intelligence techniques. The following section gives a short introduction to static security assessment. (Author)

  4. Departmental Assessment: Productive Endeavor or Painful Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth A.

    The spring of 1995 brought the onus of assessment to the Department of Communication Arts at Ohio Northern University (ONU). Often seen as a painful process, departmental assessments can become productive endeavors. Although, as a private institution, ONU is not subject to the dictates for assessment from the State Board of Education, assessment…

  5. Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By redescribing…

  6. Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and

  7. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  9. Product flow and price change in an agricultural distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Yang, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Kibum; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-01-01

    We use the structure of a real distribution network of agricultural product in Korea and investigate how the change in the supply may affect the price changes in agents across the distribution network. In particular, we focus on the real network structure of cabbage distribution composed of various types of agents, from farms to consumers, and apply a dynamic model to describe how each participant reacts upon the change of input and output flow of products through the adjustment of price. Our main result implies that the effect of fluctuation of production quantity in the supplying participant can be nontrivial and the consumer price responds to such changes. We believe that our results can be useful to predict what will happen if the agricultural production changes much in the future due to the climate changes.

  10. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    .... This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped...

  11. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-07

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Network marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China. The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce, the transformation of consumption concept, the change of live style and the features of Chinese agricultural production. The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights, includ...

  13. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  14. Dynamic robustness of knowledge collaboration network of open source product development community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-01

    As an emergent innovative design style, open source product development communities are characterized by a self-organizing, mass collaborative, networked structure. The robustness of the community is critical to its performance. Using the complex network modeling method, the knowledge collaboration network of the community is formulated, and the robustness of the network is systematically and dynamically studied. The characteristics of the network along the development period determine that its robustness should be studied from three time stages: the start-up, development and mature stages of the network. Five kinds of user-loss pattern are designed, to assess the network's robustness under different situations in each of these three time stages. Two indexes - the largest connected component and the network efficiency - are used to evaluate the robustness of the community. The proposed approach is applied in an existing open source car design community. The results indicate that the knowledge collaboration networks show different levels of robustness in different stages and different user loss patterns. Such analysis can be applied to provide protection strategies for the key users involved in knowledge dissemination and knowledge contribution at different stages of the network, thereby promoting the sustainable and stable development of the open source community.

  15. Effect of online social networking on employee productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of social networking sites is relatively recent and the effect of online social networking (OSN on employee productivity has not received much scholarly attention. The reason most likely lies in the social nature of social networking sites and OSN, which is assumed to have a negative effect on employee productivity and not bear organisational benefit. This reseach investigated recent Internet developments as seen in the social Web and specifically investigated the effect of OSN on employee productivity and what some of the consequences would be if employees were allowed unrestricted access to these networks. The findings concerning the nature of employees' OSN activities, employees' attitude or perceptions with regard to OSN in the workplace and how OSN can contribute or affect the productivity of employees are discussed in this article. Some of the basic misconceptions regarding OSN are highlighted and it is concluded that this technology can be used to increase collaboration between individuals who share a common interest or goal. Increased collaboration will stimulate knowledge sharing between individuals, with the possible effect of increased productivity. However, the risks associated with OSN should be noted, such as loss of privacy, bandwidth and storage consumption, exposure to malware and lower employee productivity.

  16. Assessment of Human Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the human pharmaceutical products that have been registered in Kenya in order to determine the most common routes of administration and type of dosage forms that are used. Registered pharmaceutical products were categorized by route of administration and then sub-categorized by ...

  17. Product Cost Management Structures: a review and neural network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growth of approaches in product costing and draws synergies with information management and resource planning systems, to investigate potential application of state of the art modelling techniques of neural networks. Increasing demands on costing systems to serve multiple decision-making objectives, have made it essential to use better techniques for analysis of available data. This need is highlighted in the paper. The approach of neural networks, which have several analogous facets to complement and aid the information demands of modern product costing, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP structures and the dominant-computing environment (for information management in the object oriented paradigm form the domain for investigation. Simulated data is used in neural network applications across activities that consume resources and deliver products, to generate information for monitoring and control decisions. The results in application for feature extraction and variation detection and their implications are presented in the paper.

  18. Superstructure-based optimization of biorefinery networks: Production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Orsi, Albert; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    industrial system based on biomass, an inexpensive, abundant and renewable raw material, is being established with sustainability as the main driving force [1]. The processing facilities for the production of multiple products (including biofuels and chemicals) from biomass are referred as biorefineries [2......]. The optimal synthesis of biorefinery networks problem is defined as: given a set of biomass derived feedstock and a set of desired final products and specifications, determine a flexible, sustainable and innovative processing network with the targets of minimum cost and sustainable development taking...... into account the available technologies, geographical location, future technological developments and global market changes. The problem of optimal design of biorefinery networks is solved in this work through three different stages: (i) synthesis stage, (ii) design stage, and (iii) innovation stage...

  19. Music Signal Processing Using Vector Product Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z. C.; Chan, T. S.; Yang, Y. H.; Jang, J. S. R.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a novel neural network model for music signal processing using vector product neurons and dimensionality transformations. Here, the inputs are first mapped from real values into three-dimensional vectors then fed into a three-dimensional vector product neural network where the inputs, outputs, and weights are all three-dimensional values. Next, the final outputs are mapped back to the reals. Two methods for dimensionality transformation are proposed, one via context windows and the other via spectral coloring. Experimental results on the iKala dataset for blind singing voice separation confirm the efficacy of our model.

  20. Assessing Network Services and Security in Nigeria Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application ... The paper investigated sources of threats and vulnerabilities to Nigerian university computer networks and assessed the adequacy of security controls in place to ... This was with a view to enhancing the integrity of data transactions on the Universities' computer networks.

  1. Assessing Landslide Hazard Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, Farzad; Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    failure" which is main concentration of the current research and "liquefaction failure". Shear failures along shear planes occur when the shear stress along the sliding surfaces exceed the effective shear strength. These slides have been referred to as landslide. An expert system based on artificial...... neural network has been developed for use in the stability evaluation of slopes under various geological conditions and engineering requirements. The Artificial neural network model of this research uses slope characteristics as input and leads to the output in form of the probability of failure...

  2. Assigning the Appropriate Works for Review on Networked Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-I

    2017-01-01

    Peer assessment can expand the cognitive schemas of students, facilitate knowledge construction, and promote discussion and cooperative learning among students and their peers. In recent years, the application of the internet to conduct peer assessment activities has been widely implemented. The advantages of networked peer assessments over…

  3. Networks of Firms and the Ridge in the Production Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, Wataru

    We develop complex networks that represent activities in the economy. The network in this study is constructed from firms and the relationships between firms, i.e., shareholding, interlocking directors, transactions, and joint applications for patents. Thus, the network is regarded as a multigraph, and it is also regarded as a weighted network. By calculating various network indices, we clarify the characteristics of the network. We also consider the dynamics of firms in the production space that are characterized by capital stock, employment, and profit. Each firm moves within this space to maximize their profit by using controlling of capital stock and employment. We show that the dynamics of rational firms can be described using a ridge equation. We analytically solve this equation by assuming the extensive Cobb-Douglas production function, and thereby obtain a solution. By comparing the distribution of firms and this solution, we find that almost all of the 1,100 firms listed on the first section of the Tokyo stock exchange and belonging to the manufacturing sector are managed efficiently.

  4. Towards semen quality assessment using neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Christian; Salamon, P.; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology and results from a neural net based classification of human sperm head morphology. The methodology uses a preprocessing scheme in which invariant Fourier descriptors are lumped into “energy” bands. The resulting networks are pruned using optimal brain damage...

  5. South Florida Seagrass Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The South Florida Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN) is a monitoring project within the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). It is an...

  6. Conditions for Productive Learning in Network Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponti, M.; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lindström, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Kaleidoscope1 Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments is developing and elaborating conceptual understandings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) emphasizing the use of cross-cultural comparative......: Pedagogical design and the dialectics of the digital artefacts, the concept of collaboration, ethics/trust, identity and the role of scaffolding of networked learning environments.   The JEIRP is motivated by the fact that many networked learning environments in various European educational settings...... are designed without a deep understanding of the pedagogical, communicative and collaborative conditions embedded in networked learning. Despite the existence of good theoretical views pointing to a social understanding of learning, rather than a traditional individualistic and information processing approach...

  7. Assessing a Sport/Cultural Events Network: An Application of Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ziakas, V; Costa, CA

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the complexity of a sport/cultural events network. To that intent, a social network analysis was conducted in a small community in the US. The study had three main objectives: (1) Examine relationships among organisations involved in planning and implementing sport and cultural events based on their communication, exchange of resources, and assistance; (2) Identify the most important actors within the events network and their relationships; (3) Investig...

  8. Mass customization and build to order production - in manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    Mass Customization and Build to Order Production – In Manufacturing Networks Mass customization and globalization have radically changed the environment for manufacturers. A new context is emerging with intensified competition and accelerated technology development. In this environment evolution...... product models and the manufacturing system will be illuminated and the possibilities for a coherent specification system will be examined through literature studies combined with empirical studies at Nilpeter and other medium sized enterprises....

  9. Neural Networks for Approximating the Cost and Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsionas, Efthymios G.; Michaelides, Panayotis G.; Vouldis, Angelos

    2008-01-01

    Most business decisions depend on accurate approximations to the cost and production functions. Traditionally, the estimation of cost and production functions in economics relies on standard specifications which are less than satisfactory in numerous situations. However, instead of fitting the data with a pre-specified model, Artificial Neural Networks let the data itself serve as evidence to support the model’s estimation of the underlying process. In this context, the proposed approach c...

  10. Network Security Risk Assessment Based on Item Response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the traditional risk assessment method has one-sidedness and is difficult to reflect the real network situation, a risk assessment method based on Item Response Theory (IRT is put forward in network security. First of all, the novel algorithms of calculating the threat of attack and the successful probability of attack are proposed by the combination of IRT model and Service Security Level. Secondly, the service weight of importance is calculated by the three-demarcation analytic hierarchy process. Finally, the risk situation graph of service, host and network logic layer could be generated by the improved method. The simulation results show that this method can be more comprehensive consideration of factors which are affecting network security, and a more realistic network risk situation graph in real-time will be obtained.

  11. Impact assessment of extreme storm events using a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, C.(Kees); Knipping, Dirk T.J.A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; van Thiel de Vries, Jaap S. M.; Baart, Fedor; van Gelder, Pieter H. A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the usefulness of Bayesian Networks in the safety assessment of dune coasts. A network has been created that predicts the erosion volume based on hydraulic boundary conditions and a number of cross-shore profile indicators. Field measurement data along a large part of the Dutch coast has been used to train the network. Corresponding storm impact on the dunes was calculated with an empirical dune erosion model named duros+. Comparison between the Bayesian Network predictions and the original duros+ results, here considered as observations, results in a skill up to 0.88, provided that the training data covers the range of predictions. Hence, the predictions from a deterministic model (duros+) can be captured in a probabilistic model (Bayesian Network) such that both the process knowledge and uncertainties can be included in impact and vulnerability assessments.

  12. Self-Esteem, Networks, and Productivity in Academic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eleanor Vaile

    The effect of limited faculty openings in high-ranked science departments on the self-esteem of graduates of prestigious research institutions was studied. Attention was also focused on the faculty productivity and participation in professional networks of these highly-qualified, new faculty who failed to secure an appointment in an elite…

  13. Performance Measures of a Fuzzy Product Form Queueing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Mukeba Kanyinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the performance measures computation of a product form queueing network with fuzzy parameters. In this first study, we focus our objective to find the customers number and the customer sojourn time in the system at the stationary state. Values of these characteristics are provided. A didactical example is used to illustrate the process.

  14. Stochastic approaches for product recovery network design: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIncreased uncertainty is one of the characteristics of product recovery networks. In particular the strategic design of their logistic infrastructure has to take uncertain information into account. In this paper we present stochastic programming based approaches by which a deterministic

  15. Wintelism and Production Networks in the Electronics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with two interrelated elements of globalization: Wintelism and cross national production networks which have been underexposed in discussions about globalization.Wintelism refers to the shift in competition away from final assembly and vertical control of markets by final assemblers

  16. Portfolio assessment: Production and reduction of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems......, produces particular conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of observation of learning....... to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflexivity and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals...

  17. Assessing neuronal networks: understanding Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    Findings derived from neuroimaging of the structural and functional organization of the human brain have led to the widely supported hypothesis that neuronal networks of temporally coordinated brain activity across different regional brain structures underpin cognitive function. Failure of integration within a network leads to cognitive dysfunction. The current discussion on Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) argues that it presents in part a disconnection syndrome. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electroencephalography demonstrate that synchronicity of brain activity is altered in AD and correlates with cognitive deficits. Moreover, recent advances in diffusion tensor imaging have made it possible to track axonal projections across the brain, revealing substantial regional impairment in fiber-tract integrity in AD. Accumulating evidence points towards a network breakdown reflecting disconnection at both the structural and functional system level. The exact relationship among these multiple mechanistic variables and their contribution to cognitive alterations and ultimately decline is yet unknown. Focused research efforts aimed at the integration of both function and structure hold great promise not only in improving our understanding of cognition but also of its characteristic progressive metamorphosis in complex chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

  18. Stochastic and Deterministic Models for Agricultural Production Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-22

    Node 1), nurseries (Node 2), finishers (Node 3), and processing plants /slaughter houses (Node 4). At grower or sow farms (Node 1), the new piglets are...supply networks. In particular they would be useful in the assessment of risk of a food-borne pathogen (e.g., salmonella, listeria , etc.) entering the

  19. The production route selection algorithm in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.; Olender, M.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing requirements and competition in the global market are challenges for the companies profitability in production and supply chain management. This situation became the basis for construction of virtual organizations, which are created in response to temporary needs. The problem of the production flow planning in virtual manufacturing networks is considered. In the paper the algorithm of the production route selection from the set of admissible routes, which meets the technology and resource requirements and in the context of the criterion of minimum cost is proposed.

  20. Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity.

  1. A Random Dot Product Model for Weighted Networks

    CERN Document Server

    DeFord, Daryl R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the random dot product model for networks whose edge weights are drawn from a parametrized probability distribution. We focus on the case of integer weight edges and show that many previously studied models can be recovered as special cases of this generalization. Our model also determines a dimension--reducing embedding process that gives geometric interpretations of community structure and centrality. The dimension of the embedding has consequences for the derived community structure and we exhibit a stress function for determining appropriate dimensions. We use this approach to analyze a coauthorship network and voting data from the U.S. Senate.

  2. Assessment of sweetpotato farming systems, production constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato is an important food security crop in Tanzania. The crop is grown under diverse farming systems with very low yields. The objective of this study was to assess the present sweetpotato farming systems, farmers' preferences, production constraints and breeding priorities in eastern Tanzania. Participatory rural ...

  3. Assessing the Productivity of Human Service Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rex S.

    2003-01-01

    Applied an alternative strategy for assessing the extent of change clients undergo as a result of receiving human services. Used the approach in a survey of parents of 61 young children in an art program. Findings show the feasibility of the service productivity approach. Psychometric properties of the approach were promising. (SLD)

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  5. Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

  6. The Operational Risk Assessment for Distribution Network with Distributed Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xie; Yaqi, Wu; Yifan, Wang; Qian, Sun; Jianwei, Ma

    2017-05-01

    Distribution network is an important part of the power system and is connected to the consumers directly. Many distributed generations that have discontinuous output power are connected in the distribution networks, which may cause adverse impact to the distribution network. Therefore, to ensure the security and reliability of distribution network with numerous distributed generations, the risk analysis is necessary for this kind of distribution networks. After study of stochastic load flow algorithm, this paper applies it in the static security risk assessment. The wind and photovoltaic output probabilistic model are built. The voltage over-limit is chosen to calculate the risk indicators. As a case study, the IEEE 33 system is simulated for analyzing impact of distributed generations on system risk in the proposed method.

  7. A root cause analysis approach to risk assessment of a pipeline network for Kuwait Oil Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ray J.; Alfano, Tony D. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Waheed, Farrukh [Kuwait Oil Company, Ahmadi (Kuwait); Komulainen, Tiina [Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies, Sandvika (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    A large scale risk assessment was performed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the entire Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) pipeline network. This risk assessment was unique in that it incorporated the assessment of all major sources of process related risk faced by KOC and included root cause management system related risks in addition to technical risks related to more immediate causes. The assessment was conducted across the entire pipeline network with the scope divided into three major categories:1. Integrity Management 2. Operations 3. Management Systems Aspects of integrity management were ranked and prioritized using a custom algorithm based on critical data sets. A detailed quantitative risk assessment was then used to further evaluate those issues deemed unacceptable, and finally a cost benefit analysis approach was used to compare and select improvement options. The operations assessment involved computer modeling of the entire pipeline network to assess for bottlenecks, surge and erosion analysis, and to identify opportunities within the network that could potentially lead to increased production. The management system assessment was performed by conducting a gap analysis on the existing system and by prioritizing those improvement actions that best aligned with KOC's strategic goals for pipelines. Using a broad and three-pronged approach to their overall risk assessment, KOC achieved a thorough, root cause analysis-based understanding of risks to their system as well as a detailed list of recommended remediation measures that were merged into a 5-year improvement plan. (author)

  8. Energy recovery from waste incineration: assessing the importance of district heating networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Christensen, T H; Astrup, T

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO(2) accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO(2) saving of 48 kg CO(2)/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO(2)/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements and uncertainty assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaib, Nosherwan

    2017-01-01

    This book describes vector network analyzer measurements and uncertainty assessments, particularly in waveguide test-set environments, in order to establish their compatibility to the International System of Units (SI) for accurate and reliable characterization of communication networks. It proposes a fully analytical approach to measurement uncertainty evaluation, while also highlighting the interaction and the linear propagation of different uncertainty sources to compute the final uncertainties associated with the measurements. The book subsequently discusses the dimensional characterization of waveguide standards and the quality of the vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration techniques. The book concludes with an in-depth description of the novel verification artefacts used to assess the performance of the VNAs. It offers a comprehensive reference guide for beginners to experts, in both academia and industry, whose work involves the field of network analysis, instrumentation and measurements.

  10. Predicting product life cycle using fuzzy neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tasks of science in different fields is to find the relationships among various phenomena in order to predict future. Production and service organizations are not exceptions and they should predict future to survive. Predicting the life cycle of the organization's products is one of the most important prediction cases in an organization. Predicting the product life cycle provides an opportunity to identify the product position and help to get a better insight about competitors. This paper deals with the predictability of the product life cycle with Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The Population of this study was Pegah Fars products and the sample was this company's cheese products. In this regard, this paper attempts to model and predict the product life cycle of cheese products in Pegah Fars Company. In this due, a designed questionnaire was distributed among some experts, distributors and retailers and seven independent variables were selected. In this survey, ANFIS sales forecasting technique was employed and MATLAB software was used for data analysis. The results confirmed ANFIS as a good method to predict the product life cycle.

  11. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  12. Graph theory network function in Parkinson's disease assessed with electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utianski, Rene L; Caviness, John N; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Beach, Thomas G; Dugger, Brittany N; Shill, Holly A; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Mehta, Shyamal; Adler, Charles H; Hentz, Joseph G

    2016-05-01

    To determine what differences exist in graph theory network measures derived from electroencephalography (EEG), between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are cognitively normal (PD-CN) and matched healthy controls; and between PD-CN and PD dementia (PD-D). EEG recordings were analyzed via graph theory network analysis to quantify changes in global efficiency and local integration. This included minimal spanning tree analysis. T-tests and correlations were used to assess differences between groups and assess the relationship with cognitive performance. Network measures showed increased local integration across all frequency bands between control and PD-CN; in contrast, decreased local integration occurred in PD-D when compared to PD-CN in the alpha1 frequency band. Differences found in PD-MCI mirrored PD-D. Correlations were found between network measures and assessments of global cognitive performance in PD. Our results reveal distinct patterns of band and network measure type alteration and breakdown for PD, as well as with cognitive decline in PD. These patterns suggest specific ways that interaction between cortical areas becomes abnormal and contributes to PD symptoms at various stages. Graph theory analysis by EEG suggests that network alteration and breakdown are robust attributes of PD cortical dysfunction pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing state-level active living promotion using network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Taniguchi, Nicole; Iskandar, Livia; Maddock, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals. A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii's active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies. A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low. Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

  14. A Security Assessment Mechanism for Software-Defined Networking-Based Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Software-Defined Networking-based Mobile Networks (SDN-MNs are considered the future of 5G mobile network architecture. With the evolving cyber-attack threat, security assessments need to be performed in the network management. Due to the distinctive features of SDN-MNs, such as their dynamic nature and complexity, traditional network security assessment methodologies cannot be applied directly to SDN-MNs, and a novel security assessment methodology is needed. In this paper, an effective security assessment mechanism based on attack graphs and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is proposed for SDN-MNs. Firstly, this paper discusses the security assessment problem of SDN-MNs and proposes a methodology using attack graphs and AHP. Secondly, to address the diversity and complexity of SDN-MNs, a novel attack graph definition and attack graph generation algorithm are proposed. In order to quantify security levels, the Node Minimal Effort (NME is defined to quantify attack cost and derive system security levels based on NME. Thirdly, to calculate the NME of an attack graph that takes the dynamic factors of SDN-MN into consideration, we use AHP integrated with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS as the methodology. Finally, we offer a case study to validate the proposed methodology. The case study and evaluation show the advantages of the proposed security assessment mechanism.

  15. A Security Assessment Mechanism for Software-Defined Networking-Based Mobile Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shibo; Dong, Mianxiong; Ota, Kaoru; Wu, Jun; Li, Jianhua

    2015-12-17

    Software-Defined Networking-based Mobile Networks (SDN-MNs) are considered the future of 5G mobile network architecture. With the evolving cyber-attack threat, security assessments need to be performed in the network management. Due to the distinctive features of SDN-MNs, such as their dynamic nature and complexity, traditional network security assessment methodologies cannot be applied directly to SDN-MNs, and a novel security assessment methodology is needed. In this paper, an effective security assessment mechanism based on attack graphs and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed for SDN-MNs. Firstly, this paper discusses the security assessment problem of SDN-MNs and proposes a methodology using attack graphs and AHP. Secondly, to address the diversity and complexity of SDN-MNs, a novel attack graph definition and attack graph generation algorithm are proposed. In order to quantify security levels, the Node Minimal Effort (NME) is defined to quantify attack cost and derive system security levels based on NME. Thirdly, to calculate the NME of an attack graph that takes the dynamic factors of SDN-MN into consideration, we use AHP integrated with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as the methodology. Finally, we offer a case study to validate the proposed methodology. The case study and evaluation show the advantages of the proposed security assessment mechanism.

  16. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  17. Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M; Wanek, Justin; Felder, Anthony E; Camardo, Nicole; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-02-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation is accessible for direct visualization and quantitative assessment of microvascular hemodynamic properties. Currently available methods to assess hemodynamics in the conjunctival microvasculature use manual or semi-automated algorithms, which can be inefficient for application to a large number of microvessels within the microvascular network. We present an automated image analysis method for measurements of diameter and blood velocity in microvessels. The method was applied to conjunctival microcirculation images acquired in 15 healthy human subjects. Frangi filtering, thresholding, and morphological closing were applied to automatically segment microvessels, while variance filtering was used to detect blood flow. Diameter and blood velocity were measured in arterioles and venules within the conjunctival microvascular network, and blood flow and wall shear rate were calculated. Repeatability and validity of hemodynamic measurements were established. The automated image analysis method allows reliable, rapid and quantitative assessment of hemodynamics in the conjunctival microvascular network and can be potentially applied to microcirculation images of other tissues.

  18. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the specia...

  20. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  1. Production networks in Asia: A case study from the hard disk drive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hiratsuka, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Production networks have been extensively developed in East Asia. Previous studies on production networks used international trade data or input–output tables, but such aggregate data cannot explain how the networks actually operate. With the aim of understanding the features and characteristics of East Asian production networks, this paper examines the procurement system of a HDD assembler operating in Thailand. This micro-level case study found that this particular production networ...

  2. Assessment of a national network: the case of the French teacher training colleges' health education network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Jourdan, Didier

    2009-06-01

    The French teacher training colleges' health education (HE) network was set up in 2005 to encourage the inclusion of HE in courses for primary and secondary school teachers. A systematic process of monitoring the activity and the impact of this initiative was implemented. This analysis was systematically compared with the perceptions of teaching staff involved in the network. This paper assesses the network after 2 years using documents produced and interviews with 24 coordinators. Twenty-nine teacher training colleges out of a total of 31 are involved in the network. The network has helped to create links between teacher training colleges, extend HE training and encourage partnerships with other public health organizations. By 2007, HE was included in courses offered by 19 teacher training colleges as opposed to only 3 in 2005. This study not only showed the positive impact of the network but also revealed issues in its management and presented new challenges to ensure the effectiveness of the network. The network has succeeded in attracting and training trainers who were already providing or were interested in HE. Reaching other trainers who are not familiar with HE remains a challenge for the future.

  3. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Performance of Kettle Production: Product Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Zych, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach) where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4-year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g). The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste scenario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix) which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some improvements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  5. Evolution of coauthorship networks: worldwide scientific production on leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Gonzalez-Alcaide

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Collaboration is one of the defining features of contemporary scientific research, and it is particularly important with regard to neglected diseases that primarily affect developing countries. Methods The present study has identified publications on leishmaniasis in the Medline database from 1945 to 2010, analyzing them according to bibliometric indicators and statistics from social network analysis. Examining aspects such as scientific production, diachronic evolution, and collaboration and configuration of the research groups in the field, we have considered the different types of Leishmania studied and the institutional affiliation and nationality of the authors. Results Seven-hundred and thirty-five authors participate in 154 prominent research clusters or groups. Although the most predominant and consolidated collaborations are characterized by members from the same country studying the same type of Leishmania, there are also notable links between authors from different countries or who study different clinical strains of the disease. Brazil took the lead in this research, with numerous Brazilian researchers heading different clusters in the center of the collaboration network. Investigators from the USA, India, and European countries, such as France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Italy, also stand out within the network. Conclusions Research should be fostered in countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Ethiopia, where there is a high prevalence of different forms of the disease but limited research development with reference authors integrated into the collaboration networks.

  6. A shallow convolutional neural network for blind image sharpness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaode; Wu, Shibin; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Fan; Xie, Yaoqin; Li, Leida

    2017-01-01

    Blind image quality assessment can be modeled as feature extraction followed by score prediction. It necessitates considerable expertise and efforts to handcraft features for optimal representation of perceptual image quality. This paper addresses blind image sharpness assessment by using a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN). The network takes single feature layer to unearth intrinsic features for image sharpness representation and utilizes multilayer perceptron (MLP) to rate image quality. Different from traditional methods, CNN integrates feature extraction and score prediction into an optimization procedure and retrieves features automatically from raw images. Moreover, its prediction performance can be enhanced by replacing MLP with general regression neural network (GRNN) and support vector regression (SVR). Experiments on Gaussian blur images from LIVE-II, CSIQ, TID2008 and TID2013 demonstrate that CNN features with SVR achieves the best overall performance, indicating high correlation with human subjective judgment.

  7. Networked Print Production: Does JDF Provide a Perfect Workflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Zipper

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The "networked printing works" is a well-worn slogan used by many providers in the graphics industry and for the past number of years printing-works manufacturers have been working on the goal of achieving the "networked printing works". A turning point from the concept to real implementation can now be expected at drupa 2004: JDF (Job Definition Format and thus "networked production" will form the center of interest here. The first approaches towards a complete, networked workflow between prepress, print and postpress in production are already available - the products and solutions will now be presented publicly at drupa 2004. So, drupa 2004 will undoubtedly be the "JDF-drupa" - the drupa where machines learn to communicate with each other digitally - the drupa, where the dream of general system and job communication in the printing industry can be first realized. CIP3, which has since been renamed CIP4, is an international consortium of leading manufacturers from the printing and media industry who have taken on the task of integrating processes for prepress, print and postpress. The association, to which nearly all manufacturers in the graphics industry belong, has succeeded with CIP3 in developing a first international standard for the transmission of control data in the print workflow.Further development of the CIP4 standard now includes a more extensive "system language" called JDF, which will guarantee workflow communication beyond manufacturer boundaries. However, not only data for actual print production will be communicated with JDF (Job Definition Format: planning and calculation data for MIS (Management Information systems and calculation systems will also be prepared. The German printing specialist Hans-Georg Wenke defines JDF as follows: "JDF takes over data from MIS for machines, aggregates and their control desks, data exchange within office applications, and finally ensures that data can be incorporated in the technical workflow

  8. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  9. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  10. International Production Networks: The Role of East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gamilovna Mazitova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a concept of international production integration which considers international production networks (IPNs as multi-dimensional structures with relational links and consisting of chains (goods, value creation, etc., characterized by linear connections. Formation and functioning of IPNs are subject to economies of scale and are well described by the theory of fragmentation. When analyzing the functioning of IPNs considerable attention needs to be devoted to the relative composition of trade flows they generate with respect to inter- and intra-industry trade. The authors classify production networks by their spatial scale into two types: regional and global. Then the researchers verify the hypothesis that the majority of East Asian IPNs are global. This hypothesis is confirmed using the analysis of foreign trade and investment flows. The analysis of foreign trade statistics of individual countries (China, Cambodia and Vietnam and certain industries (textiles, clothing and leather using the regional trade intensity index (RTII shows that the prevailing part of IPNs in mentioned countries as well as in selected sectors are global IPNs, that is, the hypothesis is fully confirmed. At the same time RTII dynamics demonstrates that a growing number of China's IPNs are turning towards the global type; on the contrary, a growing number of Cambodia's IPNs are transforming to the regional type; and there are two opposite trends in Vietnam: a growing number of IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are tend towards the regional type but when considering the industry as a whole a growing number of IPNs are becoming global. The majority of East Asian IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are global due to the fact that these networks are controlled by global brands (mainly of European and American origin

  11. The significance of social network in a geriatric assessment population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brenda K; Magnuson, Thomas M; Cernin, Paul A; Stoner, Julie A; Potter, Jane F

    2003-12-01

    There has long been speculation that socially-involved individuals suffer less illness, overcome sickness more readily, and experience better health outcomes than more socially isolated persons. This study describes social network characteristics, and determines whether social network affects health outcomes in the geriatric population. Data from 1270 consecutive patients seen in the outpatient Geriatric Assessment Clinic (GAC) of the University of Nebraska Medical Center between August 1988 and May 1999 were analyzed. Social network was measured by the Social Network Index (SNI). Younger age, higher income and higher education were related to a broader social network. A larger social network was generally associated with lower caregiver burden, higher functional status and better cognition. Men with the smallest social networks were found to be at significantly higher risk of death than women with larger social networks (HR 4). After adjusting for age (HR 1.04, CI 1.03-1.06), income (HR 1.00, CI 1-1), education (HR, NS), IADL (HR 0.97, CI 0.95-0.99), CIRS (HR 1.08, CI 1.05-1.10) and informal service use (HR, NS), the risk of death for subjects based on SNI is only significant in the comparison between SNI III and SNI I (HR 0.67, CI 0.50-0.91). SNI I males are at significantly increased risk of death compared with all other groups. The average number of years from initial visit to death for SNI I males is only 2.8 years. These results are consistent with the literature, which suggests men are more affected by social isolation and have decreased survival compared with females. The influence of SNI on mortality in this frail, elderly group appears to be diluted by the presence of functional disability and a high degree of comorbid illness.

  12. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...

  13. The Innovation Network Scoreboard: Towards key Performance Indicators for the Assessment of Innovation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Holger; Cap, Jan-Patrick; Blaich, Erik; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Dameri, R.P.; Garelli, R.; Resta, M.; Beltrametti, L.

    2015-01-01

    This work operationalizes a framework for the assessment of innovation networks. While a theoretical framework provides value to scholars, practitioners require concrete methods and indicators that they can apply to their projects. Scholars face the same demand when conducting empirical research.

  14. Seeking the Important Nodes of Complex Networks in Product R&D Team Based on Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to seek the important nodes of complex networks in product research and development (R&D team is particularly important for companies engaged in creativity and innovation. The previous literature mainly uses several single indicators to assess the node importance; this paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making model to tentatively solve these problems. Firstly, choose eight indicators as the evaluation criteria, four from centralization of complex networks: degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and eigenvector centrality and four from structural holes of complex networks: effective size, efficiency, constraint, and hierarchy. Then, use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP to obtain the weights of these indicators and use technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS to assess the importance degree of each node of complex networks. Finally, taking a product R&D team of a game software company as a research example, test the effectiveness, operability, and efficiency of the method we established.

  15. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January

  16. Exploring the locus of invention : The dynamics of network communities and firms’ invention productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Departing from prior research analyzing the implications of social structure for actors' outcomes by applying either an ego network or a global network perspective, this study examines the implications of network communities for the invention productivity of firms. Network communities represent

  17. Metabolic network architecture and carbon source determine metabolite production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschina, Silvio; D'Souza, Glen; Kost, Christian; Kaleta, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Metabolism is essential to organismal life, because it provides energy and building block metabolites. Even though it is known that the biosynthesis of metabolites consumes a significant proportion of the resources available to a cell, the factors that determine their production costs remain less well understood. In this context, it is especially unclear how the nutritional environment affects the costs of metabolite production. Here, we use the amino acid metabolism of Escherichia coli as a model to show that the point at which a carbon source enters central metabolic pathways is a major determinant of individual metabolite production costs. Growth rates of auxotrophic genotypes, which in the presence of the required amino acid save biosynthetic costs, were compared to the growth rates that prototrophic cells achieved under the same conditions. The experimental results showed a strong concordance with computationally estimated biosynthetic costs, which allowed us, for the first time, to systematically quantify carbon source-dependent metabolite production costs. Thus, we demonstrate that the nutritional environment in combination with network architecture is an important but hitherto underestimated factor influencing biosynthetic costs and thus microbial growth. Our observations are highly relevant for the optimization of biotechnological processes as well as for understanding the ecology of microorganisms in their natural environments. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Life cycle assessment of the Danish electricity distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Simonsen, Christian G.; Byriel, Inger P.

    2014-01-01

    and overhead) and 0.4 kV (copper and aluminum) were modeled. Results and discussion Electricity transmission and distribution provided nonnegligible impacts, related mainly to power losses. Impacts from electricity distribution were larger than those from transmission because of higher losses and higher......Purpose This article provides life cycle inventory data for electricity distribution networks and a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the Danish transmission and distribution networks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential importance of environmental impacts associated with distribution......, in current and future electricity systems. Methods The functional unit was delivery of 1 kWh of electricity in Denmark. The focus of the assessment was distribution of electricity, and the related impacts were compared to the generation and transmission of electricity, in order to evaluate the importance...

  19. Who collaborates and why: Assessment and diagnostic of governance network integration for salmon restoration in Puget Sound, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jesse S; Baggio, Jacopo A

    2017-01-15

    Governance silos are settings in which different organizations work in isolation and avoid sharing information and strategies. Siloes are a fundamental challenge for environmental planning and problem solving, which generally requires collaboration. Siloes can be overcome by creating governance networks. Studying the structure and function of these networks is important for understanding how to create institutional arrangements that can respond to the biophysical dynamics of a specific natural resource system (i.e., social-ecological, or institutional fit). Using the case of salmon restoration in a sub-basin of Puget Sound, USA, we assess network integration, considering three different reasons for network collaborations (i.e., mandated, funded, and shared interest relationships) and analyze how these different collaboration types relate to productivity based on practitioner's assessments. We also illustrate how specific and targeted network interventions might enhance the network. To do so, we use a mixed methods approach that combines quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interview analysis. Overall, the sub-basin's governance network is fairly well integrated, but several concerning gaps exist. Funded, mandated, and shared interest relationships lead to different network patterns. Mandated relationships are associated with lower productivity than shared interest relationships, highlighting the benefit of genuine collaboration in collaborative watershed governance. Lastly, quantitative and qualitative data comparisons strengthen recent calls to incorporate geographic space and the role of individual actors versus organizational culture into natural resource governance research using SNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  1. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  2. 48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental assessment tool. 23.705 Section 23.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... 23.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered electronic...

  3. Evidence for single top quark production using Bayesian neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kau, Daekwang [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a search for single top quark production in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions using a dataset of approximately 1 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector. This analysis considers the muon+jets and electron+jets final states and makes use of Bayesian neural networks to separate the expected signals from backgrounds. The observed excess is associated with a p-value of 0.081%, assuming the background-only hypothesis, which corresponds to an excess over background of 3.2 standard deviations for a Gaussian density. The p-value computed using the SM signal cross section of 2.9 pb is 1.6%, corresponding to an expected significance of 2.2 standard deviations. Assuming the observed excess is due to single top production, we measure a single top quark production cross section of σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.4 ± 1.5 pb.

  4. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes.

  5. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  6. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Cyntia M; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M; Baldenius, Kai; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2016-09-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed for reactions containing 10 mM alcohol and up to 280 mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1853-1861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  8. An Assessment of Contagion on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    ocial network influence has been recognized as an important determinant for consumer behaviour. Through a web-based survey using restaurant consumption as a research context, this study explores social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes: communication and comparison...... to competitionbased consumption. In other words, the more competitive the consumers are, the less they tend to follow others’ recommendation, the more they consume products and services to establish or maintain their status in the social network. Several managerial implications are provided........ The relationship between social interactions and social influence is moderated by opinion leadership and attitude towards status consumption, which are conceptualized to represent consumers’ competitiveness. Consumers’ status consumption contributes negatively to recommendation-based consumption, but positively...

  9. Assessment of network perturbation amplitudes by applying high-throughput data to causal biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Florian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput measurement technologies produce data sets that have the potential to elucidate the biological impact of disease, drug treatment, and environmental agents on humans. The scientific community faces an ongoing challenge in the analysis of these rich data sources to more accurately characterize biological processes that have been perturbed at the mechanistic level. Here, a new approach is built on previous methodologies in which high-throughput data was interpreted using prior biological knowledge of cause and effect relationships. These relationships are structured into network models that describe specific biological processes, such as inflammatory signaling or cell cycle progression. This enables quantitative assessment of network perturbation in response to a given stimulus. Results Four complementary methods were devised to quantify treatment-induced activity changes in processes described by network models. In addition, companion statistics were developed to qualify significance and specificity of the results. This approach is called Network Perturbation Amplitude (NPA scoring because the amplitudes of treatment-induced perturbations are computed for biological network models. The NPA methods were tested on two transcriptomic data sets: normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells treated with the pro-inflammatory signaling mediator TNFα, and HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with the CDK cell cycle inhibitor R547. Each data set was scored against network models representing different aspects of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle progression, and these scores were compared with independent measures of pathway activity in NHBE cells to verify the approach. The NPA scoring method successfully quantified the amplitude of TNFα-induced perturbation for each network model when compared against NF-κB nuclear localization and cell number. In addition, the degree and specificity to which CDK

  10. Integrated forward/reverse logistics network design under uncertainty with pricing for collection of used products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses design and planning of an integrated forward/reverse logistics network over a planning horizon with multiple tactical periods. In the network, demand for new products and potential return of used products are stochastic. Furthermore, collection amounts of used products...

  11. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  12. Power system cascading risk assessment based on complex network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoyang; Hill, David J.; Chen, Guo; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2017-09-01

    When a single failure occurs in a vulnerable part of a power system, this may cause a large area cascading event. Therefore, an advanced method that can assess the risks during cascading events is needed. In this paper, an improved complex network model for power system risk assessment is proposed. Risk is defined by consequence and probability of the failures in this model, which are affected by both power factors and network structure. Compared with existing risk assessment models, the proposed one can evaluate the risk of the system comprehensively during a cascading event by combining the topological and electrical information. A new cascading event simulation module is adopted to identify the power grid cascading chain from a system-level view. In addition, simulations are investigated on the IEEE 14 bus system and IEEE 39 bus system respectively to illustrate the performance of the proposed module. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in a power grid risk assessment during cascading event.

  13. Use of limited data to construct Bayesian networks for probabilistic risk assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina M.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2013-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a fundamental part of safety/quality assurance for nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Traditional PRA very effectively models complex hardware system risks using binary probabilistic models. However, traditional PRA models are not flexible enough to accommodate non-binary soft-causal factors, such as digital instrumentation&control, passive components, aging, common cause failure, and human errors. Bayesian Networks offer the opportunity to incorporate these risks into the PRA framework. This report describes the results of an early career LDRD project titled %E2%80%9CUse of Limited Data to Construct Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Risk Assessment%E2%80%9D. The goal of the work was to establish the capability to develop Bayesian Networks from sparse data, and to demonstrate this capability by producing a data-informed Bayesian Network for use in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) as part of nuclear power plant Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This report summarizes the research goal and major products of the research.

  14. Assessing the Exceptionality of Coloured Motifs in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of coloured motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a different definition of graph motifs that corresponds to coloured motifs. A coloured motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex colours but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of coloured motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a coloured motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a coloured motif, without spending time on simulations.

  15. Dynamic Security Assessment Of Computer Networks In Siem-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Doynikova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests an approach to the security assessment of computer networks. The approach is based on attack graphs and intended for Security Information and Events Management systems (SIEM-systems. Key feature of the approach consists in the application of the multilevel security metrics taxonomy. The taxonomy allows definition of the system profile according to the input data used for the metrics calculation and techniques of security metrics calculation. This allows specification of the security assessment in near real time, identification of previous and future attacker steps, identification of attackers goals and characteristics. A security assessment system prototype is implemented for the suggested approach. Analysis of its operation is conducted for several attack scenarios.

  16. Increased Modularity of Resting State Networks Supports Improved Narrative Production in Aphasia Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2016-09-01

    The networks that emerge in the analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data are believed to reflect the intrinsic organization of the brain. One key property of such complex biological networks is modularity, a measure of community structure. This topological characteristic changes in neurological disease and recovery. Nineteen subjects with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) underwent neuroimaging and behavioral assessment at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based therapy. Language was assessed with a narrative production task. Group independent component analysis was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks (RSNs). For each participant and each rsfMRI acquisition, we constructed a graph comprising all RSNs. We assigned nodal community based on a region's RSN membership, calculated the modularity score, and then correlated changes in modularity and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. We repeated this comparison controlling for pretherapy performance and using a community structure not based on RSN membership. Increased RSN modularity was positively correlated with improvement on the narrative task immediately post-therapy. This finding remained significant when controlling for pretherapy performance. There were no significant findings for network modularity and behavior when nodal community was assigned without consideration of RSN membership. We interpret these findings as support for the adaptive role of network segregation in behavioral improvement in aphasia therapy. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in poststroke remediation and suggests potential for further insight into the processes underlying such changes through computational modeling.

  17. Simple product-form bounds for queueing networks with finite clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.M.; van der Sluis, E.

    2001-01-01

    Queueing networks are studied with finite capacity constraints for clusters of stations. First, by an instructive tandem cluster example it is shown how a product-form modification method for networks with finite stations can be extended to networks with finite clusters. Next, a general result is

  18. Simple Product-Form Bounds for Queueing Networks with Finite Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.M.; van der Sluis, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Queueing networks are studied with finite capacities for clusters of stations, rather than for individual stations. First, an instructive tandem cluster example is studied to show that a product-form modification method for networks with finite stations can be extended to networks with finite

  19. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing

    Coupled with the continuous development in the field industrial operation management, the requirement for operation optimization in large scale manufacturing network has provoked more interest in the research field of engineering. Compared with the traditional way to take the remedial measure after the occurrence of the emergency event or abnormal situation, the current operation control calls for more proactive risk assessment to set up early warning system and comprehensive emergency response planning. Among all the industries, chemical industry and energy industry have higher opportunity to face with the abnormal and emergency situations due to their own industry characterization. Therefore the purpose of the study is to develop methodologies to give aid in emergency response planning and proactive risk assessment in the above two industries. The efficacy of the developed methodologies is demonstrated via two industrial real problems. The first case is to handle energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage under extreme conditions such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, which may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. The second case is a scheduling methodology to coordinate multiple chemical plants' start-ups in order to minimize regional air quality impacts under extreme meteorological conditions. The objective is to reschedule multi-plant start-up sequence to achieve the minimum sum of delay time compared to the expected start-up time of each plant. All these approaches can provide quantitative decision support for multiple stake holders, including government and environment agencies, chemical industry, energy industry and local

  20. Integrated AHP and network DEA for assessing the efficiency of Iranian handmade carpet industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Omid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method for measuring the efficiency of peer decision making units (DMUs. Traditional DEA models deal with measurements of relative efficiency of DMUs regarding multiple-inputs vs. multiple-outputs. One of the drawbacks of these models is the neglect of intermediate products or linking activities. Recently, DEA has been extended to examine the efficiency of network structures, where there are lots of sub-processes that are linked with intermediate parameters. These intermediate parameters can be considered as the outputs of the first stage and simultaneously as the inputs for the second stage. In contrast to the traditional DEA analysis, network DEA analysis aims to measure different sub-processes’ efficiencies in addition to the total efficiency. Lots of network DEA technique has been used recently, but none of them uses Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in network DEA for assessing a network’s efficiency. In this paper, AHP methodology is used for considering the importance of each sub-process and network DEA is used for measuring total and partial efficiencies based on the importance of each department measured from AHP methodology. In this regard, the case of Iranian Handmade Carpet Industry (IHCI is used.

  1. Health impact assessment in a network of European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Erica

    2013-10-01

    The methodology of health impact assessment (HIA) was introduced as one of four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN). Four objectives for HIA were set at the beginning of the phase. We report on the results of the evaluation of introducing and implementing this methodology in cities from countries across Europe with widely differing economies and sociopolitical contexts. Two main sources of data were used: a general questionnaire designed for the Phase IV evaluation and the annual reporting template for 2007-2008. Sources of bias included the proportion of non-responders and the requirement to communicate in English. Main barriers to the introduction and implementation of HIA were a lack of skill, knowledge and experience of HIA, the newness of the concept, the lack of a legal basis for implementation and a lack of political support. Main facilitating factors were political support, training in HIA, collaboration with an academic/public health institution or local health agency, a pre-existing culture of intersectoral working, a supportive national policy context, access to WHO materials about or expertise in HIA and membership of the WHO-EHCN, HIA Sub-Network or a National Network. The majority of respondents did not feel that they had had the resources, knowledge or experience to achieve all of the objectives set for HIA in Phase IV. The cities that appear to have been most successful at introducing and implementing HIA had pre-existing experience of HIA, came from a country with a history of applying HIA, were HIA Sub-Network members or had made a commitment to implementing HIA during successive years of Phase IV. Although HIA was recognised as an important component of Healthy Cities' work, the experience in the WHO-EHCN underscores the need for political buy-in, capacity building and adequate resourcing for the introduction and implementation of HIA to be successful.

  2. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Koshmak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.

  3. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records. To be presented to the NASA Science Mission Directorate Earth Science Division Applied Sciences Program at the NASA Water Resources PI Meeting. The meeting had over 65 attendees, including currently funded PIs, participants from Western States Water Council, UCAR, California Department of Water Resources, and Navajo Nation. Some highlights from the meeting included discussions around impact assessment, with a session moderated by VALUABLES as well as a water manager needs panel, lead by WWAO. Each PI presentation also included lessons learned about how to work in applied sciences, ensure partner engagement, and pave the path towards transition.

  4. Multicriteria benefit-risk assessment using network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Tervonen, Tommi; Zhao, Jing; de Brock, Bert; Hillege, Hans L; Postmus, Douwe

    2012-04-01

    To enable multicriteria benefit-risk (BR) assessment of any number of alternative treatments using all available evidence from a network of clinical trials. We design a general method for multicriteria decision aiding with criteria measurements from Mixed Treatment Comparison (MTC) analyses. To evaluate the method, we apply it to BR assessment of four second-generation antidepressants and placebo in the setting of a published peer-reviewed systematic review. The analysis without preference information shows that placebo is supported by a wide range of possible preferences. Preference information provided by a clinical expert showed that although treatment with antidepressants is warranted for severely depressed patients, for mildly depressed patients placebo is likely to be the best option. It is difficult to choose between the four antidepressants, and the results of the model indicate a high degree of uncertainty. The designed method enables quantitative BR analysis of alternative treatments using all available evidence from a network of clinical trials. The preference-free analysis can be useful in presenting the results of an MTC considering multiple outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ERT Conditions for Productive Learning in Networked Learning Environments: Leadership Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    This report provides a concluding account of the activities within the European Research Team: Conditions for Productive Learning in Networked Learning Environmentments......This report provides a concluding account of the activities within the European Research Team: Conditions for Productive Learning in Networked Learning Environmentments...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  7. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Vulnerability Assessment and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kessel, Adam; Goodwin, Shane

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of wireless computer equipment and Local Area Networks (LANs) create an increasingly common and growing threat to Marine Corps Network infrastructure and communication security (COMSEC...

  8. How democratic are Networks?- A framework for Assessing the Democratic Effects of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Löfgren, Karl

    by an underlying idea of enhancing public participation and mobilising the citizens, thereby strengthening local democracy. Even though much is written about these initiatives, the actual democratic effects of these activities have been notably overlooked in the literature. Both among scholars, as well......: How can we assess the democratic effects of formal network mobilisation?  The article will present a tentative framework deriving criteria from both traditional democratic theory, as well as new theories on democratic governance and collaborative planning, which can be deployed for empirical studies...

  9. Assessing wheat production futures in the Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryabchenko, O.; Nonhebel, S

    In future decades, the global demand for cereals will increase due to growing demand for food and feed and use of cereal crops as a source for biofuels. Some studies on cereal production within Europe have identified the Ukraine as a country with a large potential to increase production. However,

  10. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  11. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

    2009-07-01

    There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported

  12. Assessing the Importance of Design Through Product Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Karl T. Ulrich; Scott Pearson

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of design in determining product costs by measuring the variation in design performance among a set of competing design efforts. This assessment is completed for a set of functionally similar products in a single product category: automatic drip coffee makers. The approach of this study is to measure the manufacturing content---the attributes of the design that drive cost---through analysis of the physical products themselves, and to estimate how variation i...

  13. Detection and assessment of flood susceptible irrigation networks in Licab, Nueva Ecija, Philippines using LiDAR DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R. T.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.; Celestino, A. B.; Palado, G. C.; Camaso, E. E.; Damian, G. B.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors which includes water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, terrestrial ecosystems, coastal zones and biodiversity. Farmers are under pressure to the changing weather and increasing unpredictable water supply. Because of rainfall deficiencies, artificial application of water has been made through irrigation. Irrigation is a basic determinant of agriculture because its inadequacies are the most powerful constraints on the increase of agricultural production. Irrigation networks are permanent and temporary conduits that supply water to agricultural areas from an irrigation source. Detection of irrigation networks using LiDAR DTM, and flood susceptible assessment of irrigation networks could give baseline information on the development and management of sustainable agriculture. Map Gully Depth (MGD) in Whitebox GAT was used to generate the potential irrigation networks. The extracted MGD was overlaid in ArcGIS as guide in the digitization of potential irrigation networks. A flood hazard map was also used to identify the flood susceptible irrigation networks in the study area. The study was assessed through field validation of points which were generated using random sampling method. Results of the study showed that most of the detected irrigation networks have low to moderate susceptibility to flooding while the rest have high susceptibility to flooding which is due to shifting weather. These irrigation networks may cause flood when it overflows that could also bring huge damage to rice and other agricultural areas.

  14. Hybrid optimization and simulation to design a logistics network for distributing perishable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de M.; Haijema, R.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics in product quality complicate the design of logistics networks for perishable products, like flowers and other agricultural products. Complications especially arise when multiple products from different origins have to come together for processes like bundling. This paper presents a new

  15. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    Reviews the scientific background for the impact assessment phase of the EDIP methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) covering the impact categories: Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, human toxicity......, working environment and resource consumption. Also features background documentation of the valuation step and of the allocation principles adopted in the EDIP methodology....

  16. Assessment of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topically administered dosage forms included solutions, sprays, ointments, creams, shampoos and powders, while those delivered via the intrauterine route included pessaries, solutions and suspensions. Keywords: dosage forms, administration route, veterinary pharmaceutical products, animal species, drug delivery.

  17. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  18. INNOVATION NETWORKS AND MARKETING MIX: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON PRODUCT'S DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thel Augusto Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present how innovation networks can be used to develop a new product or service, using the marketing compound. The study methodology consists of an exploratory research from literature review on this subject. After an initial discussion of the characteristics of innovation networks and marketing functions, the study presents proposals that allow adequately addressing the main difficulties in the management of marketing in innovation networks. Through this study it can be stated that these networks have been identified as an attractive alternative for the development of new products, when using the marketing mix, given the dynamics of the contemporary market. Innovation networks bring a lot of benefits to companies that embrace the relationship between these networks and marketing. The discussion reveals that the structure in the form of innovation networks can bring effective results in the organization which adopt it, providing competitiveness and adaptability in the face of its target market.

  19. Assessment of Data Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network for Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a focal point of biotechnology, bioinformatics integrates knowledge from biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer science and information science. It generally deals with genome informatics, protein structure and drug design. However, the data or information thus acquired from the main areas of bioinformatics may not be effective. Some researchers combined bioinformatics with wireless sensor network (WSN into biosensor and other tools, and applied them to such areas as fermentation, environmental monitoring, food engineering, clinical medicine and military. In the combination, the WSN is used to collect data and information. The reliability of the WSN in bioinformatics is the prerequisite to effective utilization of information. It is greatly influenced by factors like quality, benefits, service, timeliness and stability, some of them are qualitative and some are quantitative. Hence, it is necessary to develop a method that can handle both qualitative and quantitative assessment of information. A viable option is the fuzzy linguistic method, especially 2-tuple linguistic model, which has been extensively used to cope with such issues. As a result, this paper introduces 2-tuple linguistic representation to assist experts in giving their opinions on different WSNs in bioinformatics that involve multiple factors. Moreover, the author proposes a novel way to determine attribute weights and uses the method to weigh the relative importance of different influencing factors which can be considered as attributes in the assessment of the WSN in bioinformatics. Finally, an illustrative example is given to provide a reasonable solution for the assessment.

  20. Assessment on thermoelectric power factor in silicon nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Thermoelectric devices based on three-dimensional networks of highly interconnected silicon nanowires were fabricated and the parameters that contribute to the power factor, namely the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were assessed. The large area (2 cm x 2 cm) devices were fabricated at low cost utilizing a highly scalable process involving silicon nanowires grown on steel substrates. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient was found to be weak over the range of 20-80 C at approximately -400 {mu}V/K for unintentionally doped devices and {+-}50 {mu}V/K for p-type and n-type devices, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Assessing Requirements Volatility and Risk Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that affect the level of requirements volatility a system experiences over its lifecycle and the risk that volatility imparts. Improper requirements generation, undocumented user expectations, conflicting design decisions, and anticipated / unanticipated world states are representative of these volatility factors. Combined, these volatility factors can increase programmatic risk and adversely affect successful system development. This paper proposes that a Bayesian Network can be used to support reasonable judgments concerning the most likely sources and types of requirements volatility a developing system will experience prior to starting development and by doing so it is possible to predict the level of requirements volatility the system will experience over its lifecycle. This assessment offers valuable insight to the system's developers, particularly by providing a starting point for risk mitigation planning and execution.

  2. Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarve, Antaram; Sonawane, Shriram S; Varma, Mahesh N

    2015-09-01

    The present study estimates the prediction capability of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models for biodiesel synthesis from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil under ultrasonication (20 kHz and 1.2 kW) using barium hydroxide as a basic heterogeneous catalyst. RSM based on a five level, four factor central composite design, was employed to obtain the best possible combination of catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and reaction time for maximum FAME content. Experimental data were evaluated by applying RSM integrating with desirability function approach. The importance of each independent variable on the response was investigated by using sensitivity analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be catalyst concentration (1.79 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (6.69:1), temperature (31.92°C), and reaction time (40.30 min). For these conditions, experimental FAME content of 98.6% was obtained, which was in reasonable agreement with predicted one. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that catalyst concentration was the main factors affecting the FAME content with the relative importance of 36.93%. The lower values of correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.781), root mean square error (RMSE=4.81), standard error of prediction (SEP=6.03) and relative percent deviation (RPD=4.92) for ANN compared to those R(2) (0.596), RMSE (6.79), SEP (8.54) and RPD (6.48) for RSM proved better prediction capability of ANN in predicting the FAME content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  4. Participatory impact assessment of ticks on cattle milk production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory impact assessment of ticks on Borana cattle milk production was conducted from January 2010 to July 2010. The objectives of this study were to assess the status of tick infestation in relation to climate change, teats blinding and milk production and to estimate the economic losses caused as a result of the effect.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  6. Biology Needs a Modern Assessment System for Professional Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Lucinda A.; Maddison, David R.; Guralnick, Robert; Piwowar, Heather A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Hill, Andrew; Vis, Morgan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated in large part by the advent of the Internet, research productivity in many academic disciplines has changed dramatically over the last two decades. However, the assessment system that governs professional success has not kept pace, creating a mismatch between modes of scholarly productivity and academic assessment criteria. In this…

  7. The influence of network characteristics on costs in pharmaceutical new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonansegna, Erika; Schultz, Carsten; Stargardt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model relating prior experiences, network stability, exclusive partnership, geographical distance, and intermediation in inter-firm R&D networks to new product development (NPD) costs. The developed hypotheses are tested with unique multilevel R&D partnership data from 33...... becomes relevant for non-exclusive partnerships and dispersed networks. NPD costs also increase in more stable networks, reflecting the relevance of structural holes for control and information advantages. This study contributes to the network management literature by understanding the relation between...

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    manage effort to improve agricultural labor management and develop effective actions to addressed agricultural productivity goals. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 no.4 (Suppl.1) 2012 ..... climate change risk, more effort should be done to vulnerable areas in extreme event ...

  9. Assessing carbon footprints of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The farm-gate carbon footprint of milk quantifies the net greenhouse gas emissions of a dairy production system. Published values vary widely depending upon farm management practices and the calculation method used. Standard procedures for calculating the carbon footprint of milk are now established...

  10. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  11. ESA fire_cci product assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Ramo Sanchez, Ruben; Kaiser, Johannes W.

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project has computed a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the ENVISAT-MERIS archive. The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.25 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64 Collection 6, MCD45, GFED4, GFED4s and GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2005-2011 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to the increased spatial resolution of the MERIS sensor (333 m compared to 500 in MODIS). This is illustrated in detail using the example of the extreme 2006 spring fires in Eastern Europe.

  12. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, Oxnard, CA; CalAmp Wireless Networks... Networks Corporation (CWNC), and that the manufacturing of wireless networking products was transferred...

  13. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures for...

  14. A conceptual model for assessing risks in a Mediterranean Natura 2000 Network site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Sousa, Joaquim A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tarazona, José V

    2009-01-15

    Every year millions of tons of chemical products are disposed to the environment as a result of human activities, with deleterious consequences to biodiversity. In Europe the biodiversity policy basis for action is provided by the Birds and the Habitats Directives. According to these directives a network of protected areas is being built across EU countries encompassing the Natura 2000 Network. But the management plans of these protected areas do not require an ecotoxicological assessment of chemicals used within its limits. As for risk assessment protocols described in EC pieces of legislation and technical guidance documents, they are generic guidelines that not take into consideration regional particularities, e.g. the Mediterranean ecoregion specificities, and its local ecological values. Herewith we present a conceptual model for the assessment of risks posed by agriculture to bird species of conservationist concern from Natura 2000 Network sites; an example is set in a cereal steppe of the Iberian Peninsula. Hazards identified are related to the utilization of herbicides, disposal of sewage sludge to be used as fertilizer, and the input of veterinary pharmaceuticals that can be found in livestock dung and urine. This innovative model, to be used in high tier risk assessment, takes into account the biotic parameters of the protected bird species: great bustard (Otis tarda), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni), and montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). The transfer of chemicals is considered to occur mainly through a realistic trophic chain scenario according to the different feeding behaviour among different species and even within the same species when having different feeding habits (e.g. adults and juveniles). Moreover, the probabilistic approach is proposed in order to perform a transparent risk assessment and clearer risk communication.

  15. phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    In this research, the phytochemical and bioethanol content of Cymbopogon schoenanthus was assessed under three different pH. ... of the bioethanol produced shows the presence of Ethyl alcohol (bioethanol) in all the treatments at different pH. ... food security, water use efficiency of the biomass, land use efficiency etc. To.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the phytochemical and bioethanol content of Cymbopogon schoenanthus was assessed under three different pH. The phytochemical screening and proximate analysis was carried out according to standard qualitative and quantitative methods. Where alkaloids, balsam, flavonoids, glycosides, saponin, ...

  17. Analysis of the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production using graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Sholeh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Masoudi Nejad, Ali; Nasiri, Mohammad; Asgari, Yazdan

    2015-06-01

    Understanding cattle metabolism and its relationship with milk products is important in bovine breeding. A systemic view could lead to consequences that will result in a better understanding of existing concepts. Topological indices and quantitative characterizations mostly result from the application of graph theory on biological data. In the present work, the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production was reconstructed and analyzed based on available bovine genome information using several public datasets (NCBI, Uniprot, KEGG, and Brenda). The reconstructed network consisted of 3605 reactions named by KEGG compound numbers and 646 enzymes that catalyzed the corresponding reactions. The characteristics of the directed and undirected network were analyzed using Graph Theory. The mean path length was calculated to be4.39 and 5.41 for directed and undirected networks, respectively. The top 11 hub enzymes whose abnormality could harm bovine health and reduce milk production were determined. Therefore, the aim of constructing the enzyme centric network was twofold; first to find out whether such network followed the same properties of other biological networks, and second, to find the key enzymes. The results of the present study can improve our understanding of milk production in cattle. Also, analysis of the enzyme network can help improve the modeling and simulation of biological systems and help design desired phenotypes to increase milk production quality or quantity.

  18. Wind Resource Assessment and Forecast Planning with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolus K. Rotich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we built three types of artificial neural networks, namely: Feed forward networks, Elman networks and Cascade forward networks, for forecasting wind speeds and directions. A similar network topology was used for all the forecast horizons, regardless of the model type. All the models were then trained with real data of collected wind speeds and directions over a period of two years in the municipal of Puumala, Finland. Up to 70th percentile of the data was used for training, validation and testing, while 71–85th percentile was presented to the trained models for validation. The model outputs were then compared to the last 15% of the original data, by measuring the statistical errors between them. The feed forward networks returned the lowest errors for wind speeds. Cascade forward networks gave the lowest errors for wind directions; Elman networks returned the lowest errors when used for short term forecasting.

  19. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  20. Potential denitrification and nitrous oxide production in the sediments of the Seine River Drainage Network (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette A; Mounier, Emmanuelle M; Laverman, Anniet M; Billen, Gilles F

    2010-01-01

    To investigate bottom sediment denitrification at the scale of the Seine drainage network, a semi-potential denitrification assay was used in which river sediments (and riparian soils) were incubated for a few hours under anaerobic conditions with non limiting nitrate concentrations. This method allowed the nitrous oxide (N(2)O) concentration in the headspace, as well as the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations to be determined during incubation. The rates at which nitrate decreased and N(2)O increased were then used to assess the potential denitrification activity and associated N(2)O production in the Seine River Basin. We observed a longitudinal pattern characterized by a significant increase of the potential rate of denitrification from upstream sectors to large downstream rivers (orders 7-8), from approximately 3.3 to 9.1 microg NO(3)(-)-N g(-1) h(-1), respectively, while the N(2)O production rates was the highest both in headwaters and in large order rivers (0.14 and 0.09 N(2)O-N g(-1) h(-1), respectively) and significantly lower in the intermediate sectors (0.01 and 0.03 N(2)O-N g(-1) h(-1)). Consequently, the ratio N(2)O production:NO(3) reduction was found to reach 5% in headstreams, whereas it averaged 1.2% in the rest of the drainage network, an intermediate percentage being found for the riparian soils. Finally, the ignition loss of sediments, together with other redundant variables (particulate organic carbon content: g C 100 g(-1) dry weight [dw], moisture: g water 100 g(-1) dw, sediment size <50 mum: g material size <50 mum 100 g(-1) dw) were found to control these activities. However, the biodegradability of organic matter must be measured to better understand the factor controlling denitrification and its associated N(2)O production.

  1. A Bayesian Network approach for flash flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhamouine, Brahim; Roux, Hélène; Pérès, François

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is contributing to the increase of natural disasters such as extreme weather events. Sometimes, these events lead to sudden flash floods causing devastating effects on life and property. Most recently, many regions of the French Mediterranean perimeter have endured such catastrophic flood events; Var (October 2015), Ardèche (November 2014), Nîmes (October 2014), Hérault, Gard and Languedoc (September 2014), and Pyrenees mountains (Jun 2013). Altogether, it resulted in dozens of victims and property damages amounting to millions of euros. With this heavy loss in mind, development of hydrological forecasting and warning systems is becoming an essential element in regional and national strategies. Flash flood forecasting but also monitoring is a difficult task because small ungauged catchments ( 10 km2) are often the most destructive ones as for the extreme flash flood event of September 2002 in the Cévennes region (France) (Ruin et al., 2008). The problem of measurement/prediction uncertainty is particularly crucial when attempting to develop operational flash-flood forecasting methods. Taking into account the uncertainty related to the model structure itself, to the model parametrization or to the model forcing (spatio-temporal rainfall, initial conditions) is crucial in hydrological modelling. Quantifying these uncertainties is of primary importance for risk assessment and decision making. Although significant improvements have been made in computational power and distributed hydrologic modelling, the issue dealing with integration of uncertainties into flood forecasting remains up-to-date and challenging. In order to develop a framework which could handle these uncertainties and explain their propagation through the model, we propose to explore the potential of graphical models (GMs) and, more precisely, Bayesian Networks (BNs). These networks are Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) in which knowledge of a certain phenomenon is represented by

  2. The Influence of Spillback Modelling when Assessing Consequences of Blockings in a Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.; Van Zuylen, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.

    2008-01-01

    Robustness of a network is a main objective for road network managers these days, and has therefore become an important study area for transportation scientists. This article discusses one specific aspect in assessing road network robustness: the consequences of the closure of a link. These

  3. Mathematical Approaches to WMD Defense and Vulnerability Assessments of Dynamic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective function in (25) aims to minimize the number of people waiting to be evacuated in the transportation network, either waiting in one of...Assessments of Dynamic Networks Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July...telecommunications, transportation , and electricity grids. More importantly, we analyze network dynamics that include cascading failures due to

  4. The role of personal social networks in risk assessment and management of forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, L.; Spreen, M.; Boegarts, S.; Völker, B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Social network factors are usually not accounted for in the clinical practice of risk assessment/management.This article introduces a social network analysis as an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients. During the period 2005 to

  5. Cisco Networking Academy: Next-Generation Assessments and Their Implications for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the possibilities for next-generation assessments in K-12 schools, this case study profiles the Cisco Networking Academy, which creates comprehensive online training curriculum to teach networking skills. Since 1997, the Cisco Networking Academy has served more than five million high school and college students and now delivers…

  6. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  7. Integrating large-scale functional genomics data to dissect metabolic networks for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-12-17

    The goal of this project is to identify gene networks that are critical for efficient biohydrogen production by leveraging variation in gene content and gene expression in independently isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains. Coexpression methods were applied to large data sets that we have collected to define probabilistic causal gene networks. To our knowledge this a first systems level approach that takes advantage of strain-to strain variability to computationally define networks critical for a particular bacterial phenotypic trait.

  8. Assessment of social network change in a national longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Schumm, L Philip; Laumann, Edward O; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-11-01

    This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults' egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents' networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents' confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Analytic network process (ANP approach for product mix planning in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the competitive environment in the global market in recent years, organizations need to plan for increased profitability and optimize their performance. Planning for an appropriate product mix plays essential role for the success of most production units. This paper applies analytical network process (ANP approach for product mix planning for a part supplier in Iran. The proposed method uses four criteria including cost of production, sales figures, supply of raw materials and quality of products. In addition, the study proposes different set of products as alternatives for production planning. The preliminary results have indicated that that the proposed study of this paper could increase productivity, significantly.

  10. Company competencies as a network: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bove, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    investigate these matters in a survey with top managers in 513 Danish production companies. Ten areas important for achieving company objectives are identified. These are product development, market intelligence, production management, strategy and vision, sales, market responsiveness, promotion, internal co......-operation, image, and finally supply management. Product development is rated a fairly important competence as it ranks four with sales, market responsiveness, and production management as numbers one to three. Yet a distressing negative impact on overall company success is found for product development...

  11. Network Security Risk Assessment System Based on Attack Graph and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fuxiong; Pi, Juntao; Lv, Jin; Cao, Tian

    2017-10-01

    Network security risk assessment technology can be found in advance of the network problems and related vulnerabilities, it has become an important means to solve the problem of network security. Based on attack graph and Markov chain, this paper provides a Network Security Risk Assessment Model (NSRAM). Based on the network infiltration tests, NSRAM generates the attack graph by the breadth traversal algorithm. Combines with the international standard CVSS, the attack probability of atomic nodes are counted, and then the attack transition probabilities of ones are calculated by Markov chain. NSRAM selects the optimal attack path after comprehensive measurement to assessment network security risk. The simulation results show that NSRAM can reflect the actual situation of network security objectively.

  12. Networking for Innovation in South Wales. Experiences in Developing Productive Links between University and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Haydn; Jenkins, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    To develop productive links between industry and university, the style and ethos of networks focused on innovation are crucial. Cardiff University (Wales) has an innovation network that stimulates collaborative work and technology transfer through its informal open nature that encourages partnership. (SK)

  13. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  14. The role of personal social networks in risk assessment and management of forensic psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pomp, L.; Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.; Völkel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Social network factors are usually not accounted for in the clinical practice of risk assessment/management.This article introduces a social network analysis as an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients. During the period 2005 to 2007, the so-called Forensic Social Network Analysis (FSNA) was developed in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital. A case study describes the FSNA concepts and shows the benefits of using FSNA as a...

  15. System of Systems Engineering and Integration Process for Network Transport Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    through the process to ensure oversight of design and tradeoff decisions for network throughput analyses. 14. SUBJECT TERMS network transport , SoS... Distribution is unlimited. SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION PROCESS FOR NETWORK TRANSPORT ASSESSMENT Matthew B. Rambo Civilian...engineering processes to utilize to address network transport design and testing? 2. How can SoS data throughput requirements be identified and

  16. ‘Down-Stream’ Network Characteristics, Broker Functions and New Product Development Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Li, Ying

    2011-01-01

    knowledge sharing as main motivator for engaging in cooperative network or alliance efforts. Extending this perspective, not the least the user-driven innovation research has emphasized the important input to new product development provided by users. While integration with this ‘down-stream’ partner can...... discuss how recent developments of management practice, with respect to integrating broker functions in network and alliance management, alter the relationships between network characteristics and new product development and performance, and (3) We focus ‘down-stream networks’ and, thus, develop research......Success of product development measured by new product introductions to the market is a key performance indicator for business today. Often internal processes are mentioned in relation to product development optimization. However, the external environment is also critical for product development...

  17. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  18. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...... as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken...... skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input...

  19. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical network effectiveness at

  1. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Frances C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical

  2. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether

    OpenAIRE

    Obie Farobie; Nur Hasanah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time) were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict b...

  3. Automatic Publication of a MIS Product to GeoNetwork: Case of the AIS Indexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    problem, then the MEF file is available for manual import to GeoNetwork. The output of this operation is the absolute path of the created MEF file. 2.3...computation. Since the AIS reception index application is implemented in Java, a Java interface was required to launch the GNP. The Publisher constructor ...product on GeoNetwork. This would reduce the overhead associated to the production of metadata at each manual publication. The following sections

  4. Economic and social upgrading in tourism global production networks: findings from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Christian; Francis Mwaura

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, Uganda has re-emerged as a global tourism destination after years of instability. The growth of Uganda’s tourism global production network, however, is slow and is characterized by a few elite firms and highly controlled travel through tightly coordinated distribution channels. Capturing the Gains research asked how and if economic upgrading in the tourism global production network was happening in Uganda, and if social upgrading followed, by exploring one touri...

  5. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shujin; Yang, Qiangxian

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed, showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain. 3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain. Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PL...

  6. Architecture of the Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.J.; Carlson, R.A.; Foster, I.T. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The research and education (R&E) community requires persistent and scaleable network infrastructure to concurrently support production and research applications as well as network research. In the past, the R&E community has relied on supporting parallel network and end-node infrastructures, which can be very expensive and inefficient for network service managers and application programmers. The grand challenge in networking is to provide support for multiple, concurrent, multi-layer views of the network for the applications and the network researchers, and to satisfy the sometimes conflicting requirements of both while ensuring one type of traffic does not adversely affect the other. Internet and telecommunications service providers will also benefit from a multi-modal infrastructure, which can provide smoother transitions to new technologies and allow for testing of these technologies with real user traffic while they are still in the pre-production mode. The authors proposed approach requires the use of as much of the same network and end system infrastructure as possible to reduce the costs needed to support both classes of activities (i.e., production and research). Breaking the infrastructure into segments and objects (e.g., routers, switches, multiplexors, circuits, paths, etc.) gives the capability to dynamically construct and configure the virtual active networks to address these requirements. These capabilities must be supported at the campus, regional, and wide-area network levels to allow for collaboration by geographically dispersed groups. The Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet) described in this report is an initial architecture and framework designed to identify and support the capabilities needed for the proposed combined infrastructure and to address related research issues.

  7. Measuring Personal Networks and Their Relationship with Scientific Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of social networks has remained a crucial and yet understudied aspect of the efforts to measure Triple Helix linkages. The Triple Helix model aims to explain, among other aspects of knowledge-based societies, "the current research system in its social context" (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 2000:109). This paper develops a novel…

  8. Interactive neural-network-assisted screening. An economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radensky, P W; Mango, L J

    1998-01-01

    To apply clinical effectiveness estimates of interactive, neural network-assisted (INNA) screening to economic cervical cancer screening models to assess the economic impact of using this technology. Estimates of the sensitivity of INNA screening were drawn from a recently completed comprehensive synthesis of the INNA literature and applied to the Computer Model for Designing CANcer ConTROL Programs-based Cervical Cancer Screen economic model. The economic analysis was conducted from a modified payer perspective using costs borne by payers combined with patient deductibles and copayments. Costs of treating cervical cancer were updated to 1997 values using the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index. The model was run for a cohort of women starting at age 20 and screened on a triennial schedule through age 75. In the primary analysis (sensitivity of unassisted manual examination assumed to be 85%), the ratios found in this investigation varied from approximately $35,000 to $80,000 per life year saved, with the preponderance of ratios sensitive to estimates of sensitivity of unassisted manual screening but not to estimates of treatment costs. This investigation applied accuracy data on INNA rescreening to a model of the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening. The results support the use of INNA rescreening as an appropriate expenditure of resources to identify missed cases of cervical epithelial abnormalities and potential cervical cancer.

  9. Product Configurators as a means to support the Exchange of Knowledge in Company Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2002-01-01

    as regards customer service orientation and customization. There are several ways in which this can be obtained. In this paper one of the essential means to reach these demands will be described. Research has been carried out at the Centre for Product Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark in order...... to develop and implement a structured procedure for building product models. In the following focus will be on the adaption of product modelling techniques when dealing with companies in a network. Four different network types will be introduced. They will be used to describe different product model...

  10. Efficient Optimization Methods for Communication Network Planning and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kiese, Moritz

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we develop efficient mathematical planning methods to design communication networks. First, we examine future technologies for optical backbone networks. As new, more intelligent nodes cause higher dynamics in the transport networks, fast planning methods are required. To this end, we develop a heuristic planning algorithm. The evaluation of the cost-efficiency of new, adapative transmission techniques comprises the second topic of this section. In the second part of this work, ...

  11. Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Cribben, Ivor; Luu, Connie; Kim, Esther; Bahktiari, Reyhaneh; Georgiou, George; Boliek, Carol A

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuitry associated with language processing is complex and dynamic. Graphical models are useful for studying complex neural networks as this method provides information about unique connectivity between regions within the context of the entire network of interest. Here, the authors explored the neural networks during covert reading to determine the role of feedforward and feedback loops in covert speech production. Brain activity of skilled adult readers was assessed in real word and pseudoword reading tasks with functional MRI (fMRI). The authors provide evidence for activity coherence in the feedforward system (inferior frontal gyrus-supplementary motor area) during real word reading and in the feedback system (supramarginal gyrus-precentral gyrus) during pseudoword reading. Graphical models provided evidence of an extensive, highly connected, neural network when individuals read real words that relied on coordination of the feedforward system. In contrast, when individuals read pseudowords the authors found a limited/restricted network that relied on coordination of the feedback system. Together, these results underscore the importance of considering multiple pathways and articulatory loops during language tasks and provide evidence for a print-to-speech neural network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Assessment of Production and Distribution of Printed Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Production and Distribution of Printed Information Education Communication (IEC) Materials in Ethiopia and Utilization in the Case of Jimma Zone, Oromiya National Regional State: A Cross Sectional Study.

  13. Risk Assessment of the Naval Postgraduate School Gigabit Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowlands, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    This research thoroughly examines the current Naval Postgraduate School Gigabit Network security posture, identifies any possible threats or vulnerabilities, and recommends any appropriate safeguards...

  14. A data driven network approach to rank countries production diversity and food specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Chengyi; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use to country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country's fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing that food product weighted on their fitness...

  15. Social Media as Seismic Networks for the Earthquake Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletti, C.; Cresci, S.; La Polla, M. N.; Marchetti, A.; Tesconi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The growing popularity of online platforms, based on user-generated content, is gradually creating a digital world that mirrors the physical world. In the paradigm of crowdsensing, the crowd becomes a distributed network of sensors that allows us to understand real life events at a quasi-real-time rate. The SoS-Social Sensing project [http://socialsensing.it/] exploits the opportunistic crowdsensing, involving users in the sensing process in a minimal way, for social media emergency management purposes in order to obtain a very fast, but still reliable, detection of emergency dimension to face. First of all we designed and implemented a decision support system for the detection and the damage assessment of earthquakes. Our system exploits the messages shared in real-time on Twitter. In the detection phase, data mining and natural language processing techniques are firstly adopted to select meaningful and comprehensive sets of tweets. Then we applied a burst detection algorithm in order to promptly identify outbreaking seismic events. Using georeferenced tweets and reported locality names, a rough epicentral determination is also possible. The results, compared to Italian INGV official reports, show that the system is able to detect, within seconds, events of a magnitude in the region of 3.5 with a precision of 75% and a recall of 81,82%. We then focused our attention on damage assessment phase. We investigated the possibility to exploit social media data to estimate earthquake intensity. We designed a set of predictive linear models and evaluated their ability to map the intensity of worldwide earthquakes. The models build on a dataset of almost 5 million tweets exploited to compute our earthquake features, and more than 7,000 globally distributed earthquakes data, acquired in a semi-automatic way from USGS, serving as ground truth. We extracted 45 distinct features falling into four categories: profile, tweet, time and linguistic. We run diagnostic tests and

  16. Market and product assessment of probiotic/prebioticcontaining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market and product assessment of probiotic/prebioticcontaining functional foods and supplements manufactured in South Africa. M Brink, M Senekal, IMT Dicks. Abstract. Objectives. Probiotic and prebiotic products manufactured in South Africa were identified and health and content claims stated on the labels were ...

  17. Assessment of Charcoal Production and Impact of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, plant species currently used for charcoal production were identified in major charcoal production centres or supply basins (SBs) in Togo. Impact of environmental policies on this activity were also assessed. Therefore, a sample of 310 charcoal producers in four SBs in different ecological areas throughout Togo, ...

  18. Assessment of ecosystem productivity damage due to land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaenchan, Piyanon; Guinée, Jeroen; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2017-10-18

    Land use can affect ecosystems on land and their services. Because land use has mainly local effects, damage to ecosystem productivity due to land use should be modelled spatially dependent. Unfortunately, even though land use of impacts are particular importance for countries whose economies are highly agriculture-based, ecosystem productivity damage due to land use has not yet been assessed in Thailand so far. This study presents the method for assessing the damage to ecosystem productivity due to land use (land occupation and land transformation) in Thailand. Ecosystem productivity damage is expressed through net primary production (NPP). To convert the damage into monetary units, this study performs an economic valuation of NPP using the production function approach. The results show that the value of marginal product of NPP is around 10-15 Thai baht (THB) (1 USD≈36 THB), per tonne dry weight biomass. The results are applied to the case of biodiesel production. The method presented in this paper could be a guideline for future land use impact assessment research. In addition, converting the NPP damage results into monetary units facilitates integration of impact assessment and economic analysis results for supporting decision support tools such as cost benefit analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...

  20. Autocorrelation in queuing network-type production systems - revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2007-01-01

    In managing production systems, a strong emphasis is placed on the reduction of variance in specific transformation processes (e.g. for quality control purposes) and on controlling the level of variability in general, as for instance with the Bullwhip effect. However, the possible disturbing......, either production managers are missing important aspects in production planning, or the 'realistic' autocorrelation patterns inherent in actual production setups are not like those considered in the literature. In this paper, relevant and 'realistic' types of autocorrelation schemes are characterised...

  1. Autocorrelation in queuing network type production systems - revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    Abstract When discussing flow-control matters with production managers , it is noteworthy that whereas there is normally great emphasis on the reduction of variance of specific transformation processes (quality control) as well as on level variability in general, as for instance represented......-production systems (Takahashi and Nakamura, 1998) establishes that autocorrelation plays definitely a non-negligible role in relation to the dimensioning as well as functioning of Kanban-controlled production flow lines . This must logically either imply that production managers are missing an important aspect...

  2. Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Hahn, Axel

    2005-09-01

    Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses.

  3. Transformations of rural production landscapes in the global network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaffield, Simon; Primdahl, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The concept of the global network society provides a basis for examination of current trends and policy issues in rural landscape change across a range of developed countries. Drivers of change include the demand for food and fibre to support the growing urban populations in developing conutries......, the rationalization and centralisation of supply chains under the open market angenda, and the global integration of information and control systems. These dynamics frequently conflict with place specific socio-cultural values and environmental integrity. The regional and local institutions through which...... the influence of new technologies and global network. Key research questions that emerge include how to conceptualise and investigate the relationships between local landscapes that are functionally linked but geographically widely separated; how to shape policy frameworks that enable commodity based quality...

  4. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunović, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  5. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  6. On Directed Edge-Disjoint Spanning Trees in Product Networks, An Algorithmic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Touzene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In (Ku et al. 2003, the authors have proposed a construction of edge-disjoint spanning trees EDSTs in undirected product networks. Their construction method focuses more on showing the existence of a maximum number (n1+n2-1 of EDSTs in product network of two graphs, where factor graphs have respectively n1 and n2 EDSTs. In this paper, we propose a new systematic and algorithmic approach to construct (n1+n2 directed routed EDST in the product networks. The direction of an edge is added to support bidirectional links in interconnection networks. Our EDSTs can be used straightforward to develop efficient collective communication algorithms for both models store-and-forward and wormhole.

  7. Assessment of Consumers' Satisfaction with the Automotive Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amineh, Hadi; Kosach, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of article is caused by the fact that customer's satisfaction currently serves as the mechanism allowing the carmakers to be competitive in the market. The paper describes issues of assessment of the quality of products manufactured by automobile companies. The assessment is based on widely applicable complex characteristics of the…

  8. Living Language: Self-Assessment, Oral Production, and Domestic Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolosic, Haley N.; Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Hogrebe, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    With 24 adolescent students enrolled in a French language summer camp, the present study examines the relationship between self-assessment and oral production in French, interpreting results through a framework of individual learning variables. Participants were surrounded by French inside and outside the classroom. Self-assessment was measured…

  9. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  10. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelman, Ilan; Luthe, Tobias; Wyss, Romano; Tørnblad, Silje H; Evers, Yvette; Curran, Marina Martin; Williams, Richard J; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics...

  11. Weighted Association Rule Mining for Item Groups with Different Properties and Risk Assessment for Networked Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungja; Ceong, Heetaek; Won, Yonggwan

    In market-basket analysis, weighted association rule (WAR) discovery can mine the rules that include more beneficial information by reflecting item importance for special products. In the point-of-sale database, each transaction is composed of items with similar properties, and item weights are pre-defined and fixed by a factor such as the profit. However, when items are divided into more than one group and the item importance must be measured independently for each group, traditional weighted association rule discovery cannot be used. To solve this problem, we propose a new weighted association rule mining methodology. The items should be first divided into subgroups according to their properties, and the item importance, i.e. item weight, is defined or calculated only with the items included in the subgroup. Then, transaction weight is measured by appropriately summing the item weights from each subgroup, and the weighted support is computed as the fraction of the transaction weights that contains the candidate items relative to the weight of all transactions. As an example, our proposed methodology is applied to assess the vulnerability to threats of computer systems that provide networked services. Our algorithm provides both quantitative risk-level values and qualitative risk rules for the security assessment of networked computer systems using WAR discovery. Also, it can be widely used for new applications with many data sets in which the data items are distinctly separated.

  12. To Capture Dynamic Shop Floor Knowledge in Global Production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2007-01-01

    industrial companies with plans to transfer production units to an­other location, this paper addresses  the initial steps of pursuing this issue by presenting and testing a model for identification of the activities, task and  knowledge on the shop floor jobs. This has provided a broader understand­ing......In recent years industrial companies have entered a new era of global dis­tributed production through outsourcing and offshoring. A key issue is knowledge sharing and knowledge development in and between production units geographically spread around the world. Based on three case studies in two...

  13. Assessing dynamics, spatial scale, and uncertainty in task-related brain network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Emily P; Lepage, Kyle Q; Eden, Uri T; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Brumberg, Jonathan S; Guenther, Frank H; Kramer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a complex network of interconnected elements, whose interactions evolve dynamically in time to cooperatively perform specific functions. A common technique to probe these interactions involves multi-sensor recordings of brain activity during a repeated task. Many techniques exist to characterize the resulting task-related activity, including establishing functional networks, which represent the statistical associations between brain areas. Although functional network inference is commonly employed to analyze neural time series data, techniques to assess the uncertainty-both in the functional network edges and the corresponding aggregate measures of network topology-are lacking. To address this, we describe a statistically principled approach for computing uncertainty in functional networks and aggregate network measures in task-related data. The approach is based on a resampling procedure that utilizes the trial structure common in experimental recordings. We show in simulations that this approach successfully identifies functional networks and associated measures of confidence emergent during a task in a variety of scenarios, including dynamically evolving networks. In addition, we describe a principled technique for establishing functional networks based on predetermined regions of interest using canonical correlation. Doing so provides additional robustness to the functional network inference. Finally, we illustrate the use of these methods on example invasive brain voltage recordings collected during an overt speech task. The general strategy described here-appropriate for static and dynamic network inference and different statistical measures of coupling-permits the evaluation of confidence in network measures in a variety of settings common to neuroscience.

  14. Combined application of Artificial Neural Networks and life cycle assessment in lentil farming in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Elhami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was applied to model yield and environmental emissions from lentil cultivation in Esfahan province of Iran. Data was gathered from lentil farmers using face to face questionnaire method during 2014–2015 cropping season. Life cycle assessment (LCA was applied to investigate the environmental impact categories associated with lentil production. Based on the results, total energy input, energy output to input ratio and energy productivity were determined to be 32,970.10 MJ ha−1, 0.902 and 0.06 kg MJ−1, respectively. The greatest amount of energy consumption was attributed to chemical fertilizer (42.76%. Environmental analysis indicated that the acidification potential was higher than other environmental impact categories in lentil production system. Also results showed that the production of agricultural machinery was the main hotspot in abiotic depletion, eutrophication, global warming, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity impact categories, while direct emissions associated with lentil cultivation was the main hotspot in acidification potential and photochemical oxidation potential. In addition, diesel fuel was the main hotspot only in ozone layer depletion. The ANN model with 9-10-6-11 structure was identified as the most appropriate network for predicting yield and related environmental impact categories of lentil cultivation. Overall, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that farmyard manure had the greatest effect on the most of the environmental impacts, while machinery was the most affecting parameter on the yield of the crop.

  15. Design of coupling parameters for inducing amplitude death in Cartesian product networks of delayed coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigates amplitude death in Cartesian product networks of two subnetworks, where each subnetwork has a different coupling delay. The property of the Cartesian product helps us to analyze the stability of amplitude death. Our analysis reveals that amplitude death can occur for long coupling delays if there is a suitable difference in the coupling delays in the two subnetworks. Furthermore, based on the edge theorem in robust control theory, we propose two design procedures of coupling parameters for inducing amplitude death in the Cartesian product networks. Our procedures do not require any information of topologies of the subnetworks. The validity of these procedures is numerically confirmed.

  16. Creative constraints: Brain activity and network dynamics underlying semantic interference during idea production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Christensen, Alexander P; Benedek, Mathias; Silvia, Paul J; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has recently revealed brain network interactions during performance on creative thinking tasks-particularly among regions of the default and executive control networks-but the cognitive mechanisms related to these interactions remain poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that the executive control network can interact with the default network to inhibit salient conceptual knowledge (i.e., pre-potent responses) elicited from memory during creative idea production. Participants studied common noun-verb pairs and were given a cued-recall test with corrective feedback to strengthen the paired association in memory. They then completed a verb generation task that presented either a previously studied noun (high-constraint) or an unstudied noun (low-constraint), and were asked to "think creatively" while searching for a novel verb to relate to the presented noun. Latent Semantic Analysis of verbal responses showed decreased semantic distance values in the high-constraint (i.e., interference) condition, which corresponded to increased neural activity within regions of the default (posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral angular gyri), salience (right anterior insula), and executive control (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks. Independent component analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity networks extended this finding by revealing differential interactions among these large-scale networks across the task conditions. The results suggest that interactions between the default and executive control networks underlie response inhibition during constrained idea production, providing insight into specific neurocognitive mechanisms supporting creative cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Network Modeling and Assessment of Ecosystem Health by a Multi-Population Swarm Optimized Neural Network Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is more and more interested in developing mathematical models to assess and forecast the environmental and biological health conditions of our planet. However, most existing models cannot determine the long-range impacts of potential policies without considering the complex global factors and their cross effects in biological systems. In this paper, the Markov property and Neural Network Ensemble (NNE are utilized to construct an estimated matrix that combines the interaction of the different local factors. With such an estimation matrix, we could obtain estimated variables that could reflect the global influence. The ensemble weights are trained by multiple population algorithms. Our prediction could fit the real trend of the two predicted measures, namely Morbidity Rate and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. It could be an effective method of reflecting the relationship between input factors and predicted measures of the health of ecosystems. The method can perform a sensitivity analysis, which could help determine the critical factors that could be adjusted to move the ecosystem in a sustainable direction.

  18. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... network in which the functions produce and utilize sticky and fastchanging information production and markets respectively. The long-standng success of the Danish agro-industrial complex is explained in terms of the activities of those of its companies which interface with the external market, namely...

  19. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  20. Assessing Partnership Alternatives in an IT Network Employing Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Salamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main critical success factors for the companies is their ability to build and maintain an effective collaborative network. This is more critical in the IT industry where the development of sustainable competitive advantage requires an integration of various resources, platforms, and capabilities provided by various actors. Employing such a collaborative network will dramatically change the operations management and promote flexibility and agility. Despite its importance, there is a lack of an analytical tool on collaborative network building process. In this paper, we propose an optimization model employing AHP and multiobjective programming for collaborative network building process based on two interorganizational relationships’ theories, namely, (i transaction cost theory and (ii resource-based view, which are representative of short-term and long-term considerations. The five different methods were employed to solve the formulation and their performances were compared. The model is implemented in an IT company who was in process of developing a large-scale enterprise resource planning (ERP system. The results show that the collaborative network formed through this selection process was more efficient in terms of cost, time, and development speed. The framework offers novel theoretical underpinning and analytical solutions and can be used as an effective tool in selecting network alternatives.

  1. Assessing Routing Strategies for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S.; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area. PMID:24077319

  2. Assessing routing strategies for cognitive radio sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-09-26

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area.

  3. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  4. Assessment of network inference methods: how to cope with an underdetermined problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siegenthaler

    Full Text Available The inference of biological networks is an active research area in the field of systems biology. The number of network inference algorithms has grown tremendously in the last decade, underlining the importance of a fair assessment and comparison among these methods. Current assessments of the performance of an inference method typically involve the application of the algorithm to benchmark datasets and the comparison of the network predictions against the gold standard or reference networks. While the network inference problem is often deemed underdetermined, implying that the inference problem does not have a (unique solution, the consequences of such an attribute have not been rigorously taken into consideration. Here, we propose a new procedure for assessing the performance of gene regulatory network (GRN inference methods. The procedure takes into account the underdetermined nature of the inference problem, in which gene regulatory interactions that are inferable or non-inferable are determined based on causal inference. The assessment relies on a new definition of the confusion matrix, which excludes errors associated with non-inferable gene regulations. For demonstration purposes, the proposed assessment procedure is applied to the DREAM 4 In Silico Network Challenge. The results show a marked change in the ranking of participating methods when taking network inferability into account.

  5. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-18

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  6. An urban flood risk assessment method using the Bayesian Network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra

    the Bayesian Network (BN) approach is developed, and the method is exemplified in an urban catchment. BNs have become an increasingly popular method for describing complex systems and aiding decision-making under uncertainty. In environmental management, BNs have mainly been utilized in ecological assessments...... circulation influences local and regional climate and is considered an important factor when aiming at improving our understanding of local weather conditions and the occurrence of extreme events. Hence, this thesis presents a study that explores the relationship between flood generating hazards and large......-scale atmospheric circulation. This thesis concludes that IDs can serve as a good approach for describing the complex system in which flood risk occurs. The final product is a spatiotemporal FRA approach that can include the impacts from multiple hazards....

  7. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  8. A state of the art of metabolic networks of unicellular microalgae and cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The most promising and yet challenging application of microalgae and cyanobacteria is the production of renewable energy: biodiesel from microalgae triacylglycerols and bioethanol from cyanobacteria carbohydrates. A thorough understanding of microalgal and cyanobacterial metabolism is necessary to master and optimize biofuel production yields. To this end, systems biology and metabolic modeling have proven to be very efficient tools if supported by an accurate knowledge of the metabolic network. However, unlike heterotrophic microorganisms that utilize the same substrate for energy and as carbon source, microalgae and cyanobacteria require light for energy and inorganic carbon (CO2 or bicarbonate) as carbon source. This double specificity, together with the complex mechanisms of light capture, makes the representation of metabolic network nonstandard. Here, we review the existing metabolic networks of photoautotrophic microalgae and cyanobacteria. We highlight how these networks have been useful for gaining insight on photoautotrophic metabolism. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF A DIRECT SELLING NETWORK FOR AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placido Rapisarda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has become a food and wine area of great interest. However, conflicts within the supply chains have caused the selling process to become long and complex to the disadvantage of farmers, thereby leading to an information asymmetry between producers and consumers.In order to meet the new needs of the agrifood sector, we developed a theoretical model of organized direct selling that goes beyond regional boundaries, which is an alternative model to farmers’ markets and that helps to promote the creation of a network among the operators of Sicilian agrifood supply chains. The aims of this study was to verify the potential of the proposed theoretical model based on a SWOT analysis, which was achieved by collecting data from interviews with the producers involved in the Sicilian agrifood supply chains, and with the main stakeholders involved.

  10. Assessing citation networks for dissemination and implementation research frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Lehmann, Todd; Tabak, Rachel G; Harris, Jenine; Lecy, Jesse; Sales, Anne E

    2017-07-28

    A recent review of frameworks used in dissemination and implementation (D&I) science described 61 judged to be related either to dissemination, implementation, or both. The current use of these frameworks and their contributions to D&I science more broadly has yet to be reviewed. For these reasons, our objective was to determine the role of these frameworks in the development of D&I science. We used the Web of Science™ Core Collection and Google Scholar™ to conduct a citation network analysis for the key frameworks described in a recent systematic review of D&I frameworks (Am J Prev Med 43(3):337-350, 2012). From January to August 2016, we collected framework data including title, reference, publication year, and citations per year and conducted descriptive and main path network analyses to identify those most important in holding the current citation network for D&I frameworks together. The source article contained 119 cited references, with 50 published articles and 11 documents identified as a primary framework reference. The average citations per year for the 61 frameworks reviewed ranged from 0.7 to 103.3 among articles published from 1985 to 2012. Citation rates from all frameworks are reported with citation network analyses for the framework review article and ten highly cited framework seed articles. The main path for the D&I framework citation network is presented. We examined citation rates and the main paths through the citation network to delineate the current landscape of D&I framework research, and opportunities for advancing framework development and use. Dissemination and implementation researchers and practitioners may consider frequency of framework citation and our network findings when planning implementation efforts to build upon this foundation and promote systematic advances in D&I science.

  11. E-commerce System Security Assessment based on Bayesian Network Algorithm Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of e-commerce network security is based on assessment method Bayesian networks, and it first defines the vulnerability status of e-commerce system evaluation index and the vulnerability of the state model of e-commerce systems, and after the principle of the Bayesian network reliability of e-commerce system and the criticality of the vulnerabilities were analyzed, experiments show that the change method is a good evaluation of the security of e-commerce systems.

  12. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Research Productivity and Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Akers, Kathryn S.; Lybarger, Melanie A.; Zakrajsek, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity and collaborations are essential aspects of advancing academia. Publishing is a critical mechanism in higher education to allow faculty members to share new information in all disciplinary fields. Due to its importance, scholarly work is often heavily considered for promotion, tenure, compensation, and other merit decisions.…

  13. Global production networks and linkages: a new development perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsavari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to bring together advances in literature on industrial economics and marketing, development economics, complexity (evolutionary theory), international business and geography of global production in order to illustrate an emerging paradigm of development which I call linkage promotion (LP).

  14. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...... assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when...... assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure...

  15. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  16. Integrated production-distribution planning optimization models: A review in collaborative networks context

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Andres; Raquel Sanchis; Jaques Lamothe; Leila Saari; Frederic Hauser

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in the area of collaborative networks are more and more aware of proposing collaborative approaches to address planning processes, due to the advantages associated when enterprises perform integrated planning models. Collaborative production-distribution planning, among the supply network actors, is considered a proper mechanism to support enterprises on dealing with uncertainties and dynamicity associated to the current markets. Enterprises, and especially SMEs, should be able to...

  17. A grid-based tropospheric product for China using a GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Baocheng; Ou, Jikun

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric delay accounts for one source of error in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). To better characterize the tropospheric delays in the temporal and spatial domain and facilitate the safety-critical use of GNSS across China, a method is proposed to generate a grid-based tropospheric product (GTP) using the GNSS network with an empirical tropospheric model, known as IGGtrop. The prototype system generates the GTPs in post-processing and real-time modes and is based on the undifferenced and uncombined precise point positioning (UU-PPP) technique. GTPs are constructed for a grid form (2.0{°}× 2.5{°} latitude-longitude) over China with a time resolution of 5 min. The real-time GTP messages are encoded in a self-defined RTCM3 format and broadcast to users using NTRIP (networked transport of RTCM via internet protocol), which enables efficient and safe transmission to real-time users. Our approach for GTP generation consists of three sequential steps. In the first step, GNSS-derived zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs) for a network of GNSS stations are estimated using UU-PPP. In the second step, vertical adjustments for the GNSS-derived ZTDs are applied to address the height differences between the GNSS stations and grid points. The ZTD height corrections are provided by the IGGtrop model. Finally, an inverse distance weighting method is used to interpolate the GNSS-derived ZTDs from the surrounding GNSS stations to the location of the grid point. A total of 210 global positioning system (GPS) stations from the crustal movement observation network of China are used to generate the GTPs in both post-processing and real-time modes. The accuracies of the GTPs are assessed against with ERA-Interim-derived ZTDs and the GPS-derived ZTDs at 12 test GPS stations, respectively. The results show that the post-processing and real-time GTPs can provide the ZTDs with accuracies of 1.4 and 1.8 cm, respectively. We also apply the GTPs in real-time kinematic GPS PPP

  18. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...... their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...... environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...

  19. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic...... in creativity research, while the role of consumer’s knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer’s perception of product creativity...... about the form of storytelling needed. An absolute minimal form was chosen here, displaying the need for investigating other, more elaborate forms. Additionally, the analysis showed that creativity was an important driver for the assessment of other product attributes such as purchasability, portraying...

  20. A SIMULATION OF THE PENICILLIN G PRODUCTION BIOPROCESS APPLYING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G. da Cruz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of penicillin G by Penicillium chrysogenum IFO 8644 was simulated employing a feedforward neural network with three layers. The neural network training procedure used an algorithm combining two procedures: random search and backpropagation. The results of this approach were very promising, and it was observed that the neural network was able to accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of the process. Besides, the results showed that this technique can be successfully applied to control process algorithms due to its long processing time and its flexibility in the incorporation of new data

  1. The nature and types of network relations in distribution of metallurgical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the motives for establishing cooperation within a company supply network as division points in a supplies chain of metallurgical products. The division points were defined and identified at the level of service centres in the investigated chain. The analysis took into consideration various types of inter-organisational bonds, which are placed in the network relations classification matrix. The study concerns a complex distribution system. The analysed distribution network combines flows characteristic for both flexible and narrow supply chains.

  2. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant....... This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show...... that although the reconfiguration is performed to achieve a single objective, the overall network performance is improved. In addition, the value achieved by reconfiguration can be very sensitive to the reconfiguration frequency and the associated cost....

  3. Updating of U.S. Wood Product Life-Cycle Assessment Data for Environmental Product Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Maureen Puettmann; Ivan Eastin; Indroneil Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace has an increasing desire for credible and transparent product eco-labels based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data, especially involving international trade. Over the past several years, stakeholders in the U.S. wood products industry have developed many such “eco-labels” under the ISO standard of LCA-based environmental product declarations (EPDs). The...

  4. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Process Eco-Innovations in an SME Automotive Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simboli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study presented in this article is to assess, from an environmental standpoint, a set of eco-innovations applied to the production process of an automotive component. The eco-innovations were developed by a supply network of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the framework of a project named “Hi-reach”. The component considered is a motorcycle rear wheel spindle. The conventional version is obtained by machining a single forged steel part. The Hi-reach version is indeed manufactured by joining a shaft to a flange; in addition, conventional surface treatments are replaced by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD treatment and other machining steps are improved. This process was conceived with the aim of maintaining (or enhancing the technical performance of the spindle and reducing production costs. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was carried out to compare the two scenarios described. Those eco-innovations resulted in significant improvements of the environmental performance of the analysed component, ranging, on average, between 50% and 70% for the impact indicators considered. Our results also highlight the role of SMEs in promoting process eco-innovations and the increasing relevance of LCA as a tool to support decision making in manufacturing.

  6. PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT IN THE LIFECYCLE OF PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kulczycka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of the European Commission (EC activities is to introduce uniform rules for the environmental performance assessment based on the life cycle assessment method (LCA, which can be widely used e.g. in eco-labeling, assessment of goods, services, technology, etc. Therefore, from 1 November 2013 the European Commission implemented a pilot phase of the project on developing common methods for measuring the environmental performance of the product and organisation, aims to develop guidance documents in this field. The pilot phase includes development of the Category Rules relating to the calculation, verification and communication for environmental footprint of the 25 categories of products and two organizations. Therefore, the article presents the principle of environmental performance based on life cycle assessment in relation to the objectives of the proposed methodology of environmental footprint.

  7. Assessing Social Networks in Patients with Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review of Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siette, Joyce; Gulea, Claudia; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social networks of patients with psychotic disorders influence symptoms, quality of life and treatment outcomes. It is therefore important to assess social networks for which appropriate and preferably established instruments should be used. To identify instruments assessing social networks in studies of patients with psychotic disorders and explore their properties. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to identify studies that used a measure of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders. Eight instruments were identified, all of which had been developed before 1991. They have been used in 65 studies (total N of patients = 8,522). They assess one or more aspects of social networks such as their size, structure, dimensionality and quality. Most instruments have various shortcomings, including questionable inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The assessment of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders is characterized by a variety of approaches which may reflect the complexity of the construct. Further research on social networks in patients with psychotic disorders would benefit from advanced and more precise instruments using comparable definitions of and timescales for social networks across studies.

  8. Vibration Based Damage Assessment of a Civil Engineering Structures using a Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with the Backpropagation Algorith as a non-destructive damage assessment technique to locate and quantify a damage in Civil Engineering structures is investigated. Since artificial neural networks are proving...

  9. Teaching Students How to Integrate and Assess Social Networking Tools in Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2013-01-01

    This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…

  10. Risk assessment of logistics outsourcing based on BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Tian, Zi-you

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the risk of the enterprises logistics outsourcing. To get this goal, the paper first analysed he main risks existing in the logistics outsourcing, and then set up a risk evaluation index system of the logistics outsourcing; second applied BP neural network into the logistics outsourcing risk evaluation and used MATLAB to the simulation. It proved that the network error is small and has strong practicability. And this method can be used by enterprises to evaluate the risks of logistics outsourcing.

  11. Quality Assessment of Collection 6 MODIS Atmospheric Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, V. S.; Ridgway, B.; Platnick, S. E.; Devadiga, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the launch of the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively, atmosphere and land data acquired by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor on-board these satellites have been reprocessed five times at the MODAPS (MODIS Adaptive Processing System) located at NASA GSFC. The global land and atmosphere products use science algorithms developed by the NASA MODIS science team investigators. MODAPS completed Collection 6 reprocessing of MODIS Atmosphere science data products in April 2015 and is currently generating the Collection 6 products using the latest version of the science algorithms. This reprocessing has generated one of the longest time series of consistent data records for understanding cloud, aerosol, and other constituents in the earth's atmosphere. It is important to carefully evaluate and assess the quality of this data and remove any artifacts to maintain a useful climate data record. Quality Assessment (QA) is an integral part of the processing chain at MODAPS. This presentation will describe the QA approaches and tools adopted by the MODIS Land/Atmosphere Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team to assess the quality of MODIS operational Atmospheric products produced at MODAPS. Some of the tools include global high resolution images, time series analysis and statistical QA metrics. The new high resolution global browse images with pan and zoom have provided the ability to perform QA of products in real time through synoptic QA on the web. This global browse generation has been useful in identifying production error, data loss, and data quality issues from calibration error, geolocation error and algorithm performance. A time series analysis for various science datasets in the Level-3 monthly product was recently developed for assessing any long term drifts in the data arising from instrument errors or other artifacts. This presentation will describe and discuss some test cases from the

  12. Performance assessment of Beijing Lightning Network (BLNET) and comparison with other lightning location networks across Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhay; Tian, Ye; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Dongfang; Sun, Zhuling; Yuan, Shanfeng; Wang, Yu; Chen, Zhixiong; Xu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Rubin; Su, Debin

    2017-11-01

    The performances of Beijing Lightning Network (BLNET) operated in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban cluster area have been evaluated in terms of detection efficiency and relative location accuracy. A self-reference method has been used to show the detection efficiency of BLNET, for which fast antenna waveforms have been manually examined. Based on the fast antenna verification, the average detection efficiency of BLNET is 97.4% for intracloud (IC) flashes, 73.9% for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and 93.2% for the total flashes. Result suggests the CG detection of regional dense network is highly precise when the thunderstorm passes over the network; however it changes day to day when the thunderstorms are outside the network. Further, the CG stroke data from three different lightning location networks across Beijing are compared. The relative detection efficiency of World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and Chinese Meteorology Administration - Lightning Detection Network (CMA-LDN, also known as ADTD) are approximately 12.4% (16.8%) and 36.5% (49.4%), respectively, comparing with fast antenna (BLNET). The location of BLNET is in middle, while WWLLN and CMA-LDN average locations are southeast and northwest, respectively. Finally, the IC pulses and CG return stroke pulses have been compared with the S-band Doppler radar. This type of study is useful to know the approximate situation in a region and improve the performance of lightning location networks in the absence of ground truth. Two lightning flashes occurred on tower in the coverage of BLNET show that the horizontal location error was 52.9 m and 250 m, respectively.

  13. Hydrograph variances over different timescales in hydropower production networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders

    2016-08-01

    The operation of water reservoirs involves a spectrum of timescales based on the distribution of stream flow travel times between reservoirs, as well as the technical, environmental, and social constraints imposed on the operation. In this research, a hydrodynamically based description of the flow between hydropower stations was implemented to study the relative importance of wave diffusion on the spectrum of hydrograph variance in a regulated watershed. Using spectral decomposition of the effluence hydrograph of a watershed, an exact expression of the variance in the outflow response was derived, as a function of the trends of hydraulic and geomorphologic dispersion and management of production and reservoirs. We show that the power spectra of involved time-series follow nearly fractal patterns, which facilitates examination of the relative importance of wave diffusion and possible changes in production demand on the outflow spectrum. The exact spectral solution can also identify statistical bounds of future demand patterns due to limitations in storage capacity. The impact of the hydraulic description of the stream flow on the reservoir discharge was examined for a given power demand in River Dalälven, Sweden, as function of a stream flow Peclet number. The regulation of hydropower production on the River Dalälven generally increased the short-term variance in the effluence hydrograph, whereas wave diffusion decreased the short-term variance over periods of <1 week, depending on the Peclet number (Pe) of the stream reach. This implies that flow variance becomes more erratic (closer to white noise) as a result of current production objectives.

  14. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  15. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva: scientific production analysis and collaborative research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Norma; Provedel, Attilio; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this metric and descriptive study was to identify the most productive authors and their collaborative research networks from articles published in Ciência & Saúde Coletiva between, 2005, and 2014. Authors meeting the cutoff criteria of at least 10 articles were considered the most productive authors. VOSviewer and Network Workbench technologies were applied for visual representations of collaborative research networks involving the most productive authors in the period. Initial analysis recovered 2511 distinct articles, with 8920 total authors with an average of 3.55 authors per article. Author analysis revealed 6288 distinct authors, 24 of these authors were identified as the most productive. These 24 authors generated 287 articles with an average of 4.31 authors per article, and represented 8 separate collaborative partnerships, the largest of which had 14 authors, indicating a significant degree of collaboration among these authors. This analysis provides a visual representation of networks of knowledge development in public health and demonstrates the usefulness of VOSviewer and Network Workbench technologies in future research.

  16. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    , comprised of the evaluation of the feedstock cultivation and of a biorefinery producing liquid fuels, methanol, steam, electricity and other by products, i.e., high purity CO2, sulfur. The emergy results revealed that the bio-based products depend mostly on non-renewable resources used in both biomass......The industrial production of chemicals and energy carriers has grown enormously with the support of new technologies. A proper assessment is needed to provide broader aspects for long-term sustainability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental sustainability of a biorefinery...

  17. Transformation products in the life cycle impact assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van de Meent, Dik

    2010-02-01

    The current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of chemicals focuses only on the fate and effects of the parent compound, neglecting the potential impact of transformation products. Here, we assess the importance of including the potential impact of transformation products in the calculation of characterization factors (CF). The developed method is applied to freshwater ecotoxicity for 15 pesticides and perchloroethylene, which are all known to have potentially persistent transformation products. The inclusion of transformation products resulted in a median increase in CF that varied from negligible to more than 5 orders of magnitude. This increase, however, can be highly uncertain, particularly due to a lack of toxicity data for transformation products and a lack of mode of action-specific data. We show in a case study that replacement of atrazine with other pesticides for application on corn results in a median impact score of 2 orders of magnitude lower when the fate and effects of only the parent compounds are included. When transformation products are included, the reduction in median impact score would likely be lower (less than 1 order of magnitude). An uncertainty analysis showed that the difference in impact scores of atrazine and the atrazine replacements was not statistically significant when only the parent chemical was considered. When transformation products were included, the uncertainty in impact scores was even greater.

  18. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  19. Simulated Annealing in Optimization of Energy Production in a Water Supply Network

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Samora, Irene; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton; Helena M. Ramos

    2016-01-01

    In water supply systems, the potential exists for micro-hydropower that uses the pressure excess in the networks to produce electricity. However, because urban drinking water networks are complex systems in which flows and pressure vary constantly, identification of the ideal locations for turbines is not straightforward, and assessment implies the need for simulation. In this paper, an optimization algorithm is proposed to provide a selection of optimal locations for the installation of a gi...

  20. Assessment of neural networks performance in modeling rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the evaluation of performance of Neural Network (NN) model in predicting the behavioral pattern of rainfall depths of some locations in the North Central zones of Nigeria. The input to the model is the consecutive rainfall depths data obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological (NiMET) Agency. The neural ...

  1. A Methodology for Assessing Eco-efficiency in Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João); G. Walther; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); T. Spengler

    2006-01-01

    textabstractRecent literature on sustainable logistics networks points to two important questions: (i) How to spot the preferred solution(s) balancing environmental and business concerns? (ii) How to improve the understanding of the trade-offs between these two dimensions? We posit that a complete

  2. A Methodology for Assessing Eco-Efficiency in Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João); G. Walther; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); T. Spengler

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent literature on sustainable logistics networks points to two important questions: (i) How to spot the preferred solution(s) balancing environmental and business concerns? (ii) How to improve the understanding of the trade-offs between these two dimensions? We posit that a complete

  3. A Methodology for Assessing Eco-Efficiency in Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quariguasi Frota Neto, J.; Walther, G.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Nunen, van J.A.E.E.; Spengler, T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature on sustainable logistics networks points to two important questions: (i) How to spot the preferred solution(s) balancing environmental and business concerns? (ii) How to improve the understanding of the trade-offs between these two dimensions? We posit that a visual exploration of

  4. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  5. Assessing Security-Critical Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Dulman, S.O.; Etalle, Sandro; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In the EYES project (http://eyes.eu.org), we are investigating self-organizing, collaborative, energy-efficient sensor networks. This study is devoted to the security aspects of the project. Our contribution is three-fold: firstly, we present a survey, where we discuss the dominant issues of

  6. Assessing Security in Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Etalle, Sandro; Dulman, S.O.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Gritzalis, D.; De Capitani di Vimercati, S.; Samarati, P.; Katsikas, S.K.

    In the EYES project, we are investigating self-organizing, collaborative, energy-efficient sensor networks. This study is devoted to the security aspects of the project. Our contribution is three-fold: firstly, we present a survey, where we discuss the dominant issues of energy-security trade-off in

  7. Performance Assessment of Network Intrusion-Alert Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    through honeypots, machines explicitly designated solely to learn the methods used by black-hats to probe and hack a system so that a network...Maintaining access Miscellanous Reverse engineering RFID tools Table 3. BackTrack Intrusion-detection System/Intrusion-prevention System Penetration

  8. Assessing the value of mediators in collaborative business networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensmann, B.; Weigand, H; Zhao, Z.; Dignum, M.V.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Hiel, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic mechanisms of collaborative business networks is mediation. A literature review is presented that identifies meanings and roles of mediators. Based on the literature a framework is developed that can be used to describe and distinguish different types of mediator services. Core

  9. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia

    2017-11-07

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of energy potential from wetland plants along the minor channel network on an agricultural floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Tarolli, Paolo; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Renewable energy sources such as biomasses can play a pivotal role to ensure security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gases through the substitution of fossil fuels. At present, bioenergy is mainly derived from cultivated crops that mirror the environmental impacts from the intensification of agricultural systems for food production. Instead, biomass from perennial herbaceous species growing in wetland ecosystems and marginal lands has recently aroused interest as bioenergy for electricity and heat, methane and 2nd-generation bioethanol. The aim of this paper is to assess, at local scale, the energy potential of wetland vegetation growing along the minor hydrographic network of a reclamation area in Northeast Italy, by performing energy scenarios for combustion, methane and 2nd-generation ethanol. The research is based on a cross-methodology that combines survey analyses in the field with a GIS-based approach: the former consists of direct measurements and biomass sampling, the latter of spatial analyses and scaling up simulations at the minor channel network level. Results highlight that biomass from riparian zones could represent a significant source of bioenergy for combustion transformation, turning the disposal problem to cut and store in situ wetland vegetation into an opportunity to produce sustainable renewable energy at local scale.

  11. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  12. Vibration Based Damage Assessment of a Cantilever using a Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with with the Backpropagation Algorithm as a non-destructive damage assessment technique to locate and quantify a damage in structures is investigated.......In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with with the Backpropagation Algorithm as a non-destructive damage assessment technique to locate and quantify a damage in structures is investigated....

  13. Mobile Phone Assessment in Egocentric Networks: A Pilot Study on Gay Men and Their Peers.

    OpenAIRE

    Comulada, WS

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and inter...

  14. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  15. Implementasi Life Cycle Assessment (LCA dan Pendekatan Analytical Network Process (ANP untuk Pengembangan Produk Hetric Lamp yang Ramah Lingkungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Aditya Pringgajaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mempertimbangkan produk ramah lingkungan yang menjadi isu lingkungan belakangan ini, product hetric lamp telah dicitrakan sebagai produk yang ramah lingkungan dilihat dari material penyusun produk serta fungsi produk. Tetapi, perusahaan dalam mencitrakan produknya sebagai green product tidak memperhatikan perspektif ramah lingkungan dari sisi life cycle produk yang dihasilkan.  Pada penelitian ini akan diidentifikasi apakah produk hetric lamp benar-benar memiliki kriteria ramah lingkungan dilihat dari sisi life cycle produk dengan menggunakan pendekatan Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Dari hasil Life Cycle Assessment (LCA diketahui bahwa bagian proses produksi memiliki dampak terbesar yaitu sebesar 60.2 Pt. Dari hasil Life Cycle Assessment (LCA tersebut kemudian ditemukan empat alternatif utama yang akan dipilih untuk mengurangi dampak lingkungan pada proses produksi dengan menggunakan metode Analytical Network Process (ANP. Metode ANP digunakan pada penelitian ini dikarenakan data-data yang ada memiliki hubungan keterkaitan antara satu elemen kriteria dengan elemen kriteria lainnya dan hubungan keterkaitan antara kriteria dengan subkriterianya.

  16. Tracking socioeconomic vulnerability using network analysis: insights from an avian influenza outbreak in an ostrich production network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The focus of management in many complex systems is shifting towards facilitation, adaptation, building resilience, and reducing vulnerability. Resilience management requires the development and application of general heuristics and methods for tracking changes in both resilience and vulnerability. We explored the emergence of vulnerability in the South African domestic ostrich industry, an animal production system which typically involves 3-4 movements of each bird during its lifetime. This system has experienced several disease outbreaks, and the aim of this study was to investigate whether these movements have contributed to the vulnerability of this system to large disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ostrich production system requires numerous movements of birds between different farm types associated with growth (i.e. Hatchery to juvenile rearing farm to adult rearing farm. We used 5 years of movement records between 2005 and 2011 prior to an outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. These data were analyzed using a network analysis in which the farms were represented as nodes and the movements of birds as links. We tested the hypothesis that increasing economic efficiency in the domestic ostrich industry in South Africa made the system more vulnerable to outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. Our results indicated that as time progressed, the network became increasingly vulnerable to pathogen outbreaks. The farms that became infected during the outbreak displayed network qualities, such as significantly higher connectivity and centrality, which predisposed them to be more vulnerable to disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken in the context of previous research, our results provide strong support for the application of network analysis to track vulnerability, while also providing useful practical implications for system monitoring and management.

  17. Production and quality assessment of probiotic yoghurt | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic yoghurts were produced using lactic acid bacteria (probiotic) isolates code named CHC (probiotic) and HM7 (L. fermentum). Products were stored at different temperatures and evaluated for quality. Control yoghurt and probiotic yoghurts were assessed for changes in pH, taste and yoghurt flavour during storage at ...

  18. Potential Errors and Test Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Lackner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product lines (SPL are a method for the development of variant-rich software systems. Compared to non-variable systems, testing SPLs is extensive due to an increasingly amount of possible products. Different approaches exist for testing SPLs, but there is less research for assessing the quality of these tests by means of error detection capability. Such test assessment is based on error injection into correct version of the system under test. However to our knowledge, potential errors in SPL engineering have never been systematically identified before. This article presents an overview over existing paradigms for specifying software product lines and the errors that can occur during the respective specification processes. For assessment of test quality, we leverage mutation testing techniques to SPL engineering and implement the identified errors as mutation operators. This allows us to run existing tests against defective products for the purpose of test assessment. From the results, we draw conclusions about the error-proneness of the surveyed SPL design paradigms and how quality of SPL tests can be improved.

  19. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  20. An assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess hygiene level in the 20 local animal product processing plants. Questionnaire based interviews with managers and food handlers gave an overview of perception of hygiene and practices related to it. Checklists using a scoring system, were designed for objective hygiene inspection.

  1. Assessment of labour roles by gender in cassava production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the labour roles played by different gender in cassava production in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 cassava farmers purposively selected from three (3) communities with the aid of questionnaire validated by expert judgment. Data collected were ...

  2. Assessment of Combustion and Potash Production as Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed combustion and potash production as options for management of wood waste. The percentage reduction in volume by combustion and potash generation potential of wood waste from nine different common species of wood obtained from a wood factory in Ibadan were evaluated. Potash from the ashes ...

  3. Assessing Visibility of Individual Transmission Errors in Networked Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, subjective video quality is assessed by user experiments involving quality ratings, pairwise comparisons, or rank ordering, based on the overall impression of quality. Less attention has been paid on assessing the visibility of individual defects. However, many practical applications...

  4. Systems chemistry : using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saggiomo, Vittorio; Hristova, Yana R.; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Otto, Sijbren

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of mol. similarity is a key step in the drug discovery process that has thus far relied almost exclusively on computational approaches. We now report an exptl. method for similarity assessment based on dynamic combinatorial chem. Results: In order to assess mol. similarity

  5. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack; Alting, Leo

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP...... the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current...... to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting...

  6. A New Procedure for Damage Assessment of Prestressed Concrete Beams Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sumangala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A damage assessment procedure has been developed using artificial neural network (ANN for prestressed concrete beams. The methodology had been formulated using the results obtained from an experimental study conducted in the laboratory. Prestressed concrete (PSC rectangular beams were cast, and pitting corrosion was introduced in the prestressing wires and was allowed to be snapped using accelerated corrosion process. Both static and dynamic tests were conducted to study the behaviour of perfect and damaged beams. The measured output from both static and dynamic tests was taken as input to train the neural network. Back propagation network was chosen for this purpose, which was written using the programming package MATLAB. The trained network was tested using separate test data obtained from the tests. A damage assessment procedure was developed using the trained network, it was validated using the data available in literature, and the outcome is presented in this paper.

  7. Assessing the bibliometric productivity of forest scientists in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giannetti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Italian Ministry of University and Research issued new evaluation protocols to select candidates for University professorships and assess the bibliometric productivity of Universities and Research Institutes based on bibliometric indicators, i.e. scientific paper and citation numbers and the h-index. Under this framework, the objective of this study was to quantify the bibliometric productivity of the Italian forest research community during the 2002-2012 period. We examined the following productivity parameters: (i the bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category at the global level; (ii compared the aggregated bibliometric productivity of Italian forest scientists with scientists from other countries; (iii analyzed publication and citation temporal trends of Italian forest scientists and their international collaborations; and (iv characterized productivity distribution among Italian forest scientists at different career levels. Results indicated the following: (i the UK is the most efficient country based on the ratio between Gross Domestic Spending (GDS on Research and Development (R&D and bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category, followed by Italy; (ii Italian forest scientist productivity exhibited a significant positive time trend, but was characterized by high inequality across authors; (iii one-half of the Italian forest scientist publications were written in collaboration with foreign scientists; (iv a strong relationship exists between bibliometric indicators calculated by WOS and SCOPUS, suggesting these two databases have the same potential to evaluate the forestry research community; and (v self-citations did not significantly affect the rank of Italian forest scientists.

  8. Assessment of application of selected waste for production of biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlita-Posmyk, Monika; Wzorek, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the idea of biogas production has become a popular topic in Poland. Biogas is a valuable source of renewable energy with a potential application in electricity and heat production. Numerous types of technological solutions of biogas production are closely linked to the availability of substrates in the area, as well as their quantity and their properties. The paper presents the assessment of application in biogas production selected wastes such as communal and household sewage sludge and waste from a paper production in Opole region (Poland). The annual productions of methane, biogas and electricity were estimated. Chosen physico-chemical properties important in fermentation process were taken into consideration in the assessment. The highest value of potential energy was obtained using waste from the paper industry but the most appropriate parameters for this process has sewage sludge from the municipal sewage treatment plant. The use of sewage sludge from domestic and municipal sewage and waste from the paper industry creates the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste materials.

  9. Morphological brain network assessed using graph theory and network filtration in deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyung; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Suh, Myung-Whan; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ha; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-09-01

    Prolonged deprivation of auditory input can change brain networks in pre- and postlingual deaf adults by brain-wide reorganization. To investigate morphological changes in these brains voxel-based morphometry, voxel-wise correlation with the primary auditory cortex, and whole brain network analyses using morphological covariance were performed in eight prelingual deaf, eleven postlingual deaf, and eleven hearing adults. Network characteristics based on graph theory and network filtration based on persistent homology were examined. Gray matter density in the primary auditor cortex was preserved in prelingual deafness, while it tended to decrease in postlingual deafness. Unlike postlingual, prelingual deafness showed increased bilateral temporal connectivity of the primary auditory cortex compared to the hearing adults. Of the graph theory-based characteristics, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality, and nodal efficiency all increased in prelingual deafness, while all the parameters of postlingual deafness were similar to the hearing adults. Patterns of connected components changing during network filtration were different between prelingual deafness and hearing adults according to the barcode, dendrogram, and single linkage matrix representations, while these were the same in postlingual deafness. Nodes in fronto-limbic and left temporal components were closely coupled, and nodes in the temporo-parietal component were loosely coupled, in prelingual deafness. Patterns of connected components changing in postlingual deafness were the same as hearing adults. We propose that the preserved density of auditory cortex associated with increased connectivity in prelingual deafness, and closer coupling between certain brain areas, represent distinctive reorganization of auditory and related cortices compared with hearing or postlingual deaf adults. The differential network reorganization in the prelingual deaf adults could be related to the absence of auditory speech

  10. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  11. Setting up the speech production network: How oscillations contribute to lateralized information routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGehrig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech production involves widely distributed brain regions. This study focuses on the spectro-temporal dynamics that contribute to the setup of this network. 26 participants performed a cue-target reading paradigm during MEG. We analyzed local oscillations during preparation for overt and covert reading in the time-frequency domain and localized sources using beamforming. Network dynamics were studied by comparing different dynamic causal models of beta phase coupling. While a broadband low frequency effect was found for any task preparation in bilateral prefrontal cortices, preparation for overt speech production was specifically associated with left-lateralized alpha and beta suppression in temporal cortices and beta suppression in motor-related brain regions. Beta phase coupling in the entire network was modulated by anticipation of overt reading.We propose that the cognitive processes underlying the intention to speak group brain regions belonging to the speech production network by means of beta synchronization and prepare the network for left-lateralized routing of information by suppression of inhibitory alpha and beta oscillations.

  12. Heterogeneous Epidemic Model for Assessing Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozanova, Liudmila; Alekseev, Vadim; Temerev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    that amount of data transferred between network nodes possesses a Pareto distribution, implying scale-free properties. In this context, more heterogeneity in susceptibility means the less severe epidemic progression, and, on the contrary, more heterogeneity in infectivity leads to more severe epidemics...... — assuming that the other parameter (either heterogeneity or susceptibility) stays fixed. The results are general enough to be useful for estimating the epidemic progression with no significant acquired immunity — in the cases where Pareto distribution holds....

  13. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de

    2014-10-15

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.

  14. Modeling and simulation of xylitol production in bioreactor by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 using unstructured and artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, J Sharon Mano; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the use of unstructured kinetic model and artificial neural networks as predictive tools for xylitol production by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 in bioreactor. An unstructured kinetic model was proposed in order to assess the influence of pH (4, 5 and 6), temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient kLa (0.14h(-1), 0.28h(-1) and 0.56h(-1)) on growth and xylitol production. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to investigate the effect of process condition on xylitol production. ANN configuration of 6-10-3 layers was selected and trained with 339 experimental data points from bioreactor studies. Results showed that simulation and prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently higher when compared to unstructured mechanistic model under varying operational conditions. ANN was found to be an efficient data-driven tool to predict the optimal harvest time in xylitol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disinfection with chlorine is a common practice to ensure secured drinking water, but results in potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs), when excess chlorination is done. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has established Stage 1 and Stage 2 disinfection by-product Rules (DBP rules) to control ...

  16. A common functional neural network for overt production of speech and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marstaller, L; Burianová, H

    2015-01-22

    The perception of co-speech gestures, i.e., hand movements that co-occur with speech, has been investigated by several studies. The results show that the perception of co-speech gestures engages a core set of frontal, temporal, and parietal areas. However, no study has yet investigated the neural processes underlying the production of co-speech gestures. Specifically, it remains an open question whether Broca's area is central to the coordination of speech and gestures as has been suggested previously. The objective of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to (i) investigate the regional activations underlying overt production of speech, gestures, and co-speech gestures, and (ii) examine functional connectivity with Broca's area. We hypothesized that co-speech gesture production would activate frontal, temporal, and parietal regions that are similar to areas previously found during co-speech gesture perception and that both speech and gesture as well as co-speech gesture production would engage a neural network connected to Broca's area. Whole-brain analysis confirmed our hypothesis and showed that co-speech gesturing did engage brain areas that form part of networks known to subserve language and gesture. Functional connectivity analysis further revealed a functional network connected to Broca's area that is common to speech, gesture, and co-speech gesture production. This network consists of brain areas that play essential roles in motor control, suggesting that the coordination of speech and gesture is mediated by a shared motor control network. Our findings thus lend support to the idea that speech can influence co-speech gesture production on a motoric level. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  18. Production of Insecticide Degradates in Juices: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2016-06-08

    This study was designed to observe the production of degradates of two organophosphorus insecticides and one pyrethroid insecticide in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, apple juice, and red grape juice were fortified with 500 ng/g malathion, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, and aliquots were extracted for malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) several times over a 15 day period of being stored in the dark at 2.5 °C. Overall, first-order kinetics were observed for production of MDA, and statistically significant production of TCPy was also observed. Statistically significant production of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was not observed. Results indicate that insecticides degrade in food and beverages, and this degradation may lead to preexisting insecticide metabolites in the beverages. Therefore, it is suggested that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk.

  19. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  20. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae in ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter K; Beer, Tom; Batten, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential environmental impacts and economic viability of producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in ponds. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of a notional production system designed for Australian conditions was conducted to compare biodiesel production from algae (with three different scenarios for carbon dioxide supplementation and two different production rates) with canola and ULS (ultra-low sulfur) diesel. Comparisons of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions (g CO(2)-e/tkm) and costs (¢/tkm) are given. Algae GHG emissions (-27.6 to 18.2) compare very favourably with canola (35.9) and ULS diesel (81.2). Costs are not so favourable, with algae ranging from 2.2 to 4.8, compared with canola (4.2) and ULS diesel (3.8). This highlights the need for a high production rate to make algal biodiesel economically attractive. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Search for Single Top Quark Production at the D0 Experiment using Bayesian Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tanasijczuk, Andres J

    2009-01-01

    We present the methodology used to measure the single top quark production cross section in the D0 experiment, and show as an example the results that led to the first evidence of single top quark production in D0 at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The selected events are mostly backgrounds, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques, one of them being Bayesian neural networks, which we will describe here.

  2. Research networks and scientific production in Economics: The recent spanish experience (WP)

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Juan Carlos; Ramos Lobo, Raúl; Royuela Mora, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies Spanish scientific production in Economics from 1994 to 2004. It focuses on aspects that have received little attention in other bibliometric studies, such as the impact of research and the role of scientific collaborations in the publications produced by Spanish universities. Our results show that national research networks have played a fundamental role in the increase in Spanish scientific production in this discipline.

  3. Research networks and scientific production in Economics, The recent Spanish Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Ramos; Vicente Royuela; Juan Carlos Duque

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies Spanish scientific production in Economics from 1994 to 2004. It focuses on aspects that have received little attention in other bibliometric studies, such as the impact of research and the role of scientific collaborations in the publications produced by Spanish universities. Our results show that national research networks have played a fundamental role in the increase in Spanish scientific production in this discipline. The outcome of this research is an invitation to un...

  4. Neural network-based survey analysis of risk management practices in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampianakis, Andreas N.; Oehmen, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the applicability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to analyse survey data on the effectiveness of risk management practices in product development (PD) projects, and its ability to forecast project outcomes. Moreover, this study presents the relations between risk...... Neural Networks. Dataset used is a filtered survey of 291 product development programs. Answers of this survey are used as training input and target output, in pattern recognition two-layer feed forward networks, using various transfer functions. Using this method, relations among 6 project practices...... and 13 outcome metrics were revealed. Results of this analysis are compared with existent results made through statistical analysis in prior work of one of the authors. Future investigation is needed in order to tackle the lack of data and create an easy to use platform for industrial use....

  5. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan; Luthe, Tobias; Wyss, Romano; Tørnblad, Silje H; Evers, Yvette; Curran, Marina Martin; Williams, Richard J; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  6. Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Interviews for Assessing Geographic Characteristics of Tourism Business Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    Full Text Available This study integrates quantitative social network analysis (SNA and qualitative interviews for understanding tourism business links in isolated communities through analysing spatial characteristics. Two case studies are used, the Surselva-Gotthard region in the Swiss Alps and Longyearbyen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, to test the spatial characteristics of physical proximity, isolation, and smallness for understanding tourism business links. In the larger Surselva-Gotthard region, we found a strong relationship between geographic separation of the three communities on compartmentalization of the collaboration network. A small set of businesses played a central role in steering collaborative decisions for this community, while a group of structurally 'peripheral' actors were less influential. By contrast, the business community in Svalbard showed compartmentalization that was independent of geographic distance between actors. Within towns of similar size and governance scale, Svalbard is more compartmentalized, and those compartments are not driven by geographic separation of the collaboration clusters. This compartmentalization in Svalbard was reflected in a lower density of formal business collaboration ties compared to the communities of the Alps. We infer that the difference is due to Svalbard having higher cultural diversity and population turnover than the Alps communities. We propose that integrating quantitative network analysis from simple surveys with qualitative interviews targeted from the network results is an efficient general approach to identify regionally specific constraints and opportunities for effective governance.

  7. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Tu

    Full Text Available The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1 transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2 identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3 used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness. Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities.

  8. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities. PMID:27832118

  9. Towards 'ecological coherence': Assessing larval dispersal within a network of existing Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rebecca E.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Howell, Kerry L.

    2017-08-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity mandates the establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks worldwide, with recommendations stating the importance of 'ecological coherence,' a responsibility to support and perpetuate the existing ecosystem, implying the need to sustain population connectivity. While recommendations exist for integrating connectivity data into MPA planning, little advice exists on how to assess the connectivity of existing networks. This study makes use of recently observed larval characteristics and freely available models to demonstrate how such an assessment could be undertaken. The cold water coral (CWC) Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) is used as a model species, as much of the NE Atlantic MPA network has been designated for CWC reef protection, but the ecological coherence of the network has yet to be assessed. Simulations are run for different behavioural null models allowing a comparison of 'passive' (current driven) and 'active' (currents + vertical migration) dispersal, while an average prediction is used for MPA assessment. This model suggests that the network may support widespread larval exchange and has good local retention rates but still has room for improvement. The best performing MPAs were large and central to the network facilitating transport across local dispersal barriers. On average, passive and active dispersal simulations gave statistically similar results, providing encouragement to future local dispersal assessments where active characteristics are unknown.

  10. Effects of social network on production output of maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social is as a veritable factor for getting access to resources. Thus, the effect of social network on productivity of maize farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria was investigated. Primary data were collected from one hundred and fifty maize farmers using a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were analysed using ...

  11. [Scientific production in clinical medicine and international collaboration networks in South American countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; González A, Gregorio; Curioso, Walter H; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2012-04-01

    International collaboration is increasingly used in biomedical research. To describe the characteristics of scientific production in Latin America and the main international collaboration networks for the period 2000 to 2009. Search for papers generated in Latin American countries in the Clinical Medicine database of ISI Web of Knowledge v.4.10 - Current Contents Connect. The country of origin of the corresponding author was considered the producing country of the paper. International collaboration was analyzed calculating the number of countries that contributed to the generation of a particular paper. Collaboration networks were graphed to determine the centrality of each network. Twelve Latin American countries participated in the production of 253,362 papers. The corresponding author was South American in 79% of these papers. Sixteen percent of papers were on clinical medicine and 36% of these were carried out in collaboration. Brazil had the highest production (22,442 papers) and the lower percentage of international collaboration (31%). North America accounts for 63% of collaborating countries. Only 8% of collaboration is between South American countries. Brazil has the highest tendency to collaborate with other South American countries. Brazil is the South American country with the highest scientific production and indicators of centrality in South America. The most common collaboration networks are with North American countries.

  12. Analysis and control of Boolean networks a semi-tensor product approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks, using the semi-tensor product (STP), which can express a logical function as a conventional discrete-time linear system. This makes it possible to analyze basic control problems.

  13. Governmentalizing Gramsci : Topologies of power and passive revolution in Cambodia’s garment production network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, D.; Hess, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a fresh look at the multiple power relations between state, capital and labor in global production networks. Moving beyond debates about public vs. private governance, it brings together Antonio Gramsci’s concepts of hegemony and the integral state with Michel Foucault’s concepts

  14. Global production networks, offshore services and the branch-plant syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibert, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article combines the global production network (GPN) framework with the branch-plant economy literature to generate a set of indicators for a more nuanced understanding of the outcomes of foreign direct investment attraction for recipient regions. It adapts both literatures to the case of

  15. Soft sensing of product quality in the debutanizer column with principal component analysis and feed-forward artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaya Kumar Pani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, data-driven soft sensors are developed for the debutanizer column for online monitoring of butane content in the debutanizer column bottom product. The data set consists of data for seven process inputs and one process output. The total process data were equally divided into a training set and a validation set using the Kennard–Stone maximal intra distance criterion. The training set was used to develop multiple linear regression, principal component regression and back propagation neural network models for the debutanizer column. Performances of the developed models were assessed by simulation with the validation data set. Results show that the neural network model designed using Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is capable of estimating the product quality with nearly 95% accuracy. The performance of the neural network model reported in this article is found to be better than the performances of least square support vector regression and standard support vector regression models reported in the literature earlier.

  16. Assessing dynamics, spatial scale, and uncertainty in task-related brain network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Patricia Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a complex network of interconnected elements, whose interactions evolve dynamically in time to cooperatively perform specific functions. A common technique to probe these interactions involves multi-sensor recordings of brain activity during a repeated task. Many techniques exist to characterize the resulting task-related activity, including establishing functional networks, which represent the statistical associations between brain areas. Although functional network inference is commonly employed to analyze neural time series data, techniques to assess the uncertainty – both in the functional network edges and the corresponding aggregate measures of network topology – are lacking. To address this, we describe a statistically principled approach for computing uncertainty in functional networks and aggregate network measures in task-related data. The approach is based on a resampling procedure that utilizes the trial structure common in experimental recordings. We show in simulations that this approach successfully identifies functional networks and associated measures of confidence emergent during a task in a variety of scenarios, including dynamically evolving networks. In addition, we describe a principled technique to establish functional networks based on predetermined regions of interest using canonical correlation. Doing so provides additional robustness to the functional network inference. Finally, we illustrate the use of these methods on example invasive brain voltage recordings collected during an overt speech task. The general strategy described here – appropriate for static and dynamic network inference and different statistical measures of coupling – permits the evaluation of confidence in network measures in a variety of settings common to neuroscience.

  17. Kinetic products in coordination networks: ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Rujas, Javier; Kawano, Masaki

    2013-02-19

    Porous coordination networks are materials that maintain their crystal structure as molecular "guests" enter and exit their pores. They are of great research interest with applications in areas such as catalysis, gas adsorption, proton conductivity, and drug release. As with zeolite preparation, the kinetic states in coordination network preparation play a crucial role in determining the final products. Controlling the kinetic state during self-assembly of coordination networks is a fundamental aspect of developing further functionalization of this class of materials. However, unlike for zeolites, there are few structural studies reporting the kinetic products made during self-assembly of coordination networks. Synthetic routes that produce the necessary selectivity are complex. The structural knowledge obtained from X-ray crystallography has been crucial for developing rational strategies for design of organic-inorganic hybrid networks. However, despite the explosive progress in the solid-state study of coordination networks during the last 15 years, researchers still do not understand many chemical reaction processes because of the difficulties in growing single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction: Fast precipitation can lead to kinetic (metastable) products, but in microcrystalline form, unsuitable for single crystal X-ray analysis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) routinely is used to check phase purity, crystallinity, and to monitor the stability of frameworks upon guest removal/inclusion under various conditions, but rarely is used for structure elucidation. Recent advances in structure determination of microcrystalline solids from ab initio XRPD have allowed three-dimensional structure determination when single crystals are not available. Thus, ab initio XRPD structure determination is becoming a powerful method for structure determination of microcrystalline solids, including porous coordination networks. Because of the great interest across scientific

  18. Smartphone technologies and Bayesian networks to assess shorebird habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara; Thieler, E. Robert; Gutierrez, Ben; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hines, Megan K.; Fraser, James D.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Karpanty, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding patterns of habitat selection across a species’ geographic distribution can be critical for adequately managing populations and planning for habitat loss and related threats. However, studies of habitat selection can be time consuming and expensive over broad spatial scales, and a lack of standardized monitoring targets or methods can impede the generalization of site-based studies. Our objective was to collaborate with natural resource managers to define available nesting habitat for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) throughout their U.S. Atlantic coast distribution from Maine to North Carolina, with a goal of providing science that could inform habitat management in response to sea-level rise. We characterized a data collection and analysis approach as being effective if it provided low-cost collection of standardized habitat-selection data across the species’ breeding range within 1–2 nesting seasons and accurate nesting location predictions. In the method developed, >30 managers and conservation practitioners from government agencies and private organizations used a smartphone application, “iPlover,” to collect data on landcover characteristics at piping plover nest locations and random points on 83 beaches and barrier islands in 2014 and 2015. We analyzed these data with a Bayesian network that predicted the probability a specific combination of landcover variables would be associated with a nesting site. Although we focused on a shorebird, our approach can be modified for other taxa. Results showed that the Bayesian network performed well in predicting habitat availability and confirmed predicted habitat preferences across the Atlantic coast breeding range of the piping plover. We used the Bayesian network to map areas with a high probability of containing nesting habitat on the Rockaway Peninsula in New York, USA, as an example application. Our approach facilitated the collation of evidence-based information on habitat selection

  19. Retinal Microvascular Network and Microcirculation Assessments in High Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yang, Ye; Jiang, Hong; Gregori, Giovanni; Roisman, Luiz; Zheng, Fang; Ke, Bilian; Qu, Dongyi; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the changes of the retinal microvascular network and microcirculation in high myopia. A cross-sectional, matched, comparative clinical study. Twenty eyes of 20 subjects with nonpathological high myopia (28 ± 5 years of age) with a refractive error of -6.31 ± 1.23 D (mean ± SD) and 20 eyes of 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects (30 ± 6 years of age) with a refractive error of -1.40 ± 1.00 D were recruited. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to image the retinal microvascular network, which was later quantified by fractal analysis (box counting [Dbox], representing vessel density) in both superficial and deep vascular plexuses. The Retinal Function Imager was used to image the retinal microvessel blood flow velocity (BFV). The BFV and microvascular density in the myopia group were corrected for ocular magnification using Bennett's formula. The density of both superficial and deep microvascular plexuses was significantly decreased in the myopia group in comparison to the controls (P  .05). Microvascular densities in both superficial (r = -0.45, P = .047) and deep (r = -0.54, P = .01) vascular plexuses were negatively correlated with the axial lengths in the myopic eye. No correlations were observed between BFV and vessel density (P > .05). Retinal microvascular decrease was observed in the high myopia subjects, whereas the retinal microvessel BFV remained unchanged. The retinal microvascular network alteration may be attributed to ocular elongation that occurs with the progression of myopia. The novel quantitative analyses of the retinal microvasculature may help to characterize the underlying pathophysiology of myopia and enable early detection and prevention of myopic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Assessment of Alumina Production Waste Impact on Natural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the issue of assessment of alumina (red mud production waste on natural water. The growth of the number of aluminium-producing facilities leads to the expansion of exclusion areas to store the production waste – sludge dumps. A considerable part of research on red mud utilisation is focused on its use in the iron-and-steel industry. Furthermore, the technologies of red mud usage in the construction industry gain substantial significance for land reclamation, isolation of polluted industrial and agricultural lands as well as the effluent and industrial emissions treatment.

  1. Network design assessment for greenhouse gas observing systems using Lagrangian footprint simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, C.; Pillai, D.; Kretschmer, R.; Karstens, U.; Koch, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    Deriving greenhouse gas balances at regional scales can be done via two approaches: up-scaling of local information such as from inventories for emissions and natural processes ("bottom-up"), or independently via combined atmospheric observations and inverse transport modeling ("top-down"). For the top-down approach, a dense coverage of the atmosphere with an observing network that enables a precise estimation of surface fluxes is associated with considerable costs. The European infrastructure project ICOS, (Integrated Carbon Observation System), together with Earth Networks, a US based Company, will largely increase the density of the atmospheric network within the next years. To facilitate decision-making with respect to the number and location of observing stations to be deployed, a quantitative network design tool is required that allows balancing cost and benefit. Here we assess different aspects of network design using the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. We present sensitivities of mixing ratio observations from various potential networks to surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes (footprints), and assess impact from transport model uncertainties. Footprint analysis on specific temporal and spatial scales is used to assess the ability of a given network to detect spatial and temporal patterns and trends, and to investigate the impact of different a-priori assumptions for flux distributions on the potential to retrieve fluxes at reduced uncertainty bounds.

  2. Structural Organization of the Laryngeal Motor Cortical Network and Its Implication for Evolution of Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Veena; Croxson, Paula L; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-04-13

    The laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) is essential for the production of learned vocal behaviors because bilateral damage to this area renders humans unable to speak but has no apparent effect on innate vocalizations such as human laughing and crying or monkey calls. Several hypotheses have been put forward attempting to explain the evolutionary changes from monkeys to humans that potentially led to enhanced LMC functionality for finer motor control of speech production. These views, however, remain limited to the position of the larynx area within the motor cortex, as well as its connections with the phonatory brainstem regions responsible for the direct control of laryngeal muscles. Using probabilistic diffusion tractography in healthy humans and rhesus monkeys, we show that, whereas the LMC structural network is largely comparable in both species, the LMC establishes nearly 7-fold stronger connectivity with the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortices in humans than in macaques. These findings suggest that important "hard-wired" components of the human LMC network controlling the laryngeal component of speech motor output evolved from an already existing, similar network in nonhuman primates. However, the evolution of enhanced LMC-parietal connections likely allowed for more complex synchrony of higher-order sensorimotor coordination, proprioceptive and tactile feedback, and modulation of learned voice for speech production. The role of the primary motor cortex in the formation of a comprehensive network controlling speech and language has been long underestimated and poorly studied. Here, we provide comparative and quantitative evidence for the significance of this region in the control of a highly learned and uniquely human behavior: speech production. From the viewpoint of structural network organization, we discuss potential evolutionary advances of enhanced temporoparietal cortical connections with the laryngeal motor cortex in humans compared with nonhuman

  3. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad

  4. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  5. Network Physics anounces first product to provide business-level management of the most complex and dynamic networks

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Network Physics, provider of business-level, traffic flow-based network management solutions, today announced the introduction of the Network Physics NP/BizFlow-1000. With the NP/BizFlow-1000, Fortune 1000 companies with complex and dynamic networks can analyze the flows that link business groups, critical applications, and network software and hardware (1 page).

  6. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  7. Functional MRI for Assessment of the Default Mode Network in Acute Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Fisher, Patrick M.; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment of the default mode network (DMN) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may improve assessment of the level of consciousness in chronic brain injury, and therefore, fMRI may also have prognostic value in acute brain injury. However, fMRI is much m...

  8. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A J; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M; Heitz, Thomas R; Young, Larry J; Parr, Lisa A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species.

  9. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A. J.; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M.; Heitz, Thomas R.; Young, Larry J.; Parr, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species. PMID:26392632

  10. Determination Bounds for Intermediate Products in a Two-Stage Network DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Bagherzadeh Valami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The internal structure of decision making unit (DMU is the key element at extension of network DEA. In general considering internal performance evaluation of system is a better criterion than the conventional DEA-models, essentially based on the initial inputs and final outputs of the system. The internal performance of a system is dependent on the relation between sub-DMUs and intermediate products. Since the intermediate measures are consumed by some sub-DMUs produced by the others, it is possible to produce systems; the role of intermediate production is twice output and input. That's why they can be analyzed based on conventional mathematical modeling. In this paper we introduce a new method for determining bounds for intermediate product in a two stage network DEA structure.

  11. Research networks and scientific production in Economics: The recent Spanish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Royuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Spanish scientific production in Economics from 1994 to 2004. It focuses on aspects that have received little attention in other bibliometric studies, such as the impact of research and the role of scientific collaborations in the publications produced by Spanish universities. Our results show that national research networks have played a fundamental role in the increase in Spanish scientific production in this discipline. The outcome of this research is an invitation to universities in developing countries to encourage and stimulate the practice of academic co-authorships since they increase the level, quality, impact and diffusion of scientific production.

  12. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  13. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country

  14. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  15. Integrated production-distribution planning optimization models: A review in collaborative networks context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Andres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the area of collaborative networks are more and more aware of proposing collaborative approaches to address planning processes, due to the advantages associated when enterprises perform integrated planning models. Collaborative production-distribution planning, among the supply network actors, is considered a proper mechanism to support enterprises on dealing with uncertainties and dynamicity associated to the current markets. Enterprises, and especially SMEs, should be able to overcome the continuous changes of the market by increasing their agility. Carrying out collaborative planning allows enterprises to enhance their readiness and agility for facing the market turbulences. However, SMEs have limited access when incorporating optimization tools to deal with collaborative planning, reducing their ability to respond to the competition. The problem to solve is to provide SMEs affordable solutions to support collaborative planning. In this regard, new optimisation algorithms are required in order to improve the collaboration within the supply network partners. As part of the H2020 Cloud Collaborative Manufacturing Networks (C2NET research project, this paper presents a study on integrated production and distribution plans. The main objective of the research is to identify gaps in current optimization models, proposed to address integrated planning, taking into account the requirements and needs of the industry. Thus, the needs of the companies belonging to the industrial pilots, defined in the C2NET project, are identified; analysing how these needs are covered by the optimization models proposed in the literature, to deal with the integrated production-distribution planning.

  16. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  17. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  18. Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingxun; Carver, Jeremy J.; Pevzner, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization...... and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations...

  19. Security Situation Assessment of All-Optical Network Based on Evidential Reasoning Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Nan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the security situations of the all-optical network (AON, which is more vulnerable to hacker attacks and faults than other networks in some cases. A new approach of the security situation assessment to the all-optical network is developed in this paper. In the new assessment approach, the evidential reasoning (ER rule is used to integrate various evidences of the security factors including the optical faults and the special attacks in the AON. Furthermore, a new quantification method of the security situation is also proposed. A case study of an all-optical network is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and the practicability of the new proposed approach.

  20. European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Neikter, Susanna Allgurin; Rehnqvist, Nina; Håheim, Lise Lund; Mørland, Berit; Milne, Ruairidh; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Busse, Reinhard; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; Wild, Claudia; Espallargues, Mireia; Chamova, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The European network on Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) aimed to produce tangible and practical results to be used in the various phases of health technology assessment and to establish a framework and processes to support this. This article presents the background, objectives, and organization of EUnetHTA, which involved a total of sixty-four partner organizations. Establishing an effective and sustainable structure for a transnational network involved many managerial, policy, and methodological tools, according to the objective of each task or Work Package. Transparency in organization, financial transactions, and decision making was a key principle in the management of the Project as was the commitment to appropriately involve stakeholders. EUnetHTA activities resulted in a clear management and governance structure, efficient partnership, and transnational cooperation. The Project developed a model for sustainable continuation of the EUnetHTA Collaboration. The EUnetHTA Project achieved its goals by producing a suite of practical tools, a strong network, and plans for continuing the work in a sustainable EUnetHTA Collaboration that facilitates and promotes the use of HTA at national and regional levels. Responsiveness to political developments in Europe should be balanced with maintaining a high level of ambition to promote independent, evidence-based information and well-tested tools for best practice based on a strong network of HTA institutions.

  1. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  2. Assessment of testicular testosterone production and Leydig cell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Zirkin, B R; Chubb, C

    1981-01-01

    Advances in two techniques have made the problem of assessing the acute and/or chronic effects of toxic agents on Leydig cell structure and testosterone synthesis and secretion amenable to study. First, in vitro testicular perfusion has been perfected to a point where it closely resembles in situ testosterone secretion. Second, now it is possible to quantify the proportion of Leydig cell cytoplasm occupied by the cellular organelles which contain steroidogenic enzymes. Herein, we report that inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes is reflected by reduced testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused rat and rabbit testes. Moreover, the activity of specific steroidogenic reactions can be monitored by measuring the secretion of reaction substrate(s) and product(s) from in vitro perfused testes. Testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused testes from five species is highly and positively correlated with the volume density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cell cytoplasm. Exploitation of these findings will allow toxicologists to quantitatively assess the effect of toxicants on Leydig cell testosterone biosynthesis and secretion, to identify the specific steroidogenic enzymes affected, to assess whether the membranous environment of the steroidogenic enzymes is compromised, and perhaps even to predict the deleterious effect of a toxic agent on Leydig cell steroidogenic function from a stereological assessment of Leydig cell ultrastructure. PMID:7238445

  3. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Lifeline Networks Using Vulnerability Factor : In Application to Water Distribution Lines

    OpenAIRE

    能島, 暢呂; Nobuoto, NOJIMA; 岐阜大学工学部社会基盤工学科; Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University

    2008-01-01

    A simple index is proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment of lifeline network facilities. The proposed index, "V-factor," is evaluated using the correction factors representing relative vulnerability corresponding to a variety of pipe diameters, pipe materials, and joint types in statistical models used widely for estimation of number of pipe breaks in the event of earthquakes. Such correction factors are averaged over the entire networks on the basis of extended length of pipelines cla...

  4. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  5. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  6. Drought monitoring and assessment: Remote sensing and modeling approaches for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Budde, Michael; Young, Claudia; Rowland, James; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    Drought monitoring is an essential component of drought risk management. It is usually carried out using drought indices/indicators that are continuous functions of rainfall and other hydrometeorological variables. This chapter presents a few examples of how remote sensing and hydrologic modeling techniques are being used to generate a suite of drought monitoring indicators at dekadal (10-day), monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales for several selected regions around the world. Satellite-based rainfall estimates are being used to produce drought indicators such as standardized precipitation index, dryness indicators, and start of season analysis. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is being used to monitor vegetation condition. Several satellite data products are combined using agrohydrologic models to produce multiple short- and long-term indicators of droughts. All the data sets are being produced and updated in near-real time to provide information about the onset, progression, extent, and intensity of drought conditions. The data and products produced are available for download from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) data portal at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov. The availability of timely information and products support the decision-making processes in drought-related hazard assessment, monitoring, and management with the FEWS NET. The drought-hazard monitoring approach perfected by the U.S. Geological Survey for FEWS NET through the integration of satellite data and hydrologic modeling can form the basis for similar decision support systems. Such systems can operationally produce reliable and useful regional information that is relevant for local, district-level decision making.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF LIBRARY USERS’ FEEDBACK USING MODIFIED MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K G Nandha Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to evaluate the feedbacks of library users of four different libraries by using neural network based data mining techniques. This paper presents the results of a survey of users’ satisfactory level on four different libraries. The survey has been conducted among the users of four libraries of educational institutions of Kovai Medical Center Research and Educational Trust. Data were collected through questionnaires. Artificial neural network based data mining techniques are proposed and applied to assess the libraries in terms of level of satisfaction of users. In order to assess the users’ satisfaction level, two neural network techniques: Modified Multilayer Perceptron Network-Supervised and Modified Multilayer Perceptron Network-Unsupervised are proposed. The proposed techniques are compared with the conventional classification algorithm Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network and found better in overall performance. It is found that the quality of service provided by the libraries is highly good and users are highly satisfied with various aspects of library service. The Arts and Science College Library secured the maximum percent in terms of user satisfaction. This shows that the users’ satisfaction of ASCL is better than the other libraries. This study provides an insight into the actual quality and satisfactory level of users of libraries after proper assessment. It is strongly expected that the results will help library authorities to enhance services and quality in the near future.

  8. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Comparative evaluation by lifecycle and risk assessment of agrobiological and technological routes of production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    The application of lifecycle and risk assessment methodologies for environmental assessment of agricultural products is growing and produces interesting results. This allows comparisons between agricultural and technological routes of production. An evaluation of such assessments provides increased

  10. Reverse Logistics: Network Design Based on Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Daaboul, Joanna; Le Duigou, Julien; Penciuc, Diana; Eynard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Sustainable Supply Chains; International audience; When aiming to a more sustainable world, enterprises such as aircraft and automobile industries are highly interested in light weight components and solutions. Of these solutions are aluminum wrought alloys that offer high potentials for dramatic weight reduction of structural parts. Nevertheless, the production of virgin aluminum is, however, highly energy consuming. Hence, and in SuPLight project, we are interested in recycled alumi...

  11. Typical investigational medicinal products follow relatively uniform regulations in 10 European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to facilitate multinational clinical research, regulatory requirements need to become international and harmonised. The EU introduced the Directive 2001/20/EC in 2004, regulating investigational medicinal products in Europe. Methods We conducted a survey in order to identify the national regulatory requirements for major categories of clinical research in ten European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries-Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom-covering approximately 70% of the EU population. Here we describe the results for regulatory requirements for typical investigational medicinal products, in the ten countries. Results Our results show that the ten countries have fairly harmonised definitions of typical investigational medicinal products. Clinical trials assessing typical investigational medicinal products require authorisation from a national competent authority in each of the countries surveyed. The opinion of the competent authorities is communicated to the trial sponsor within the same timelines, i.e., no more than 60 days, in all ten countries. The authority to which the application has to be sent to in the different countries is not fully harmonised. Conclusion The Directive 2001/20/EC defined the term 'investigational medicinal product' and all regulatory requirements described therein are applicable to investigational medicinal products. Our survey showed, however, that those requirements had been adopted in ten European countries, not for investigational medicinal products overall, but rather a narrower category which we term 'typical' investigational medicinal products. The result is partial EU harmonisation of requirements and a relatively navigable landscape for the sponsor regarding typical investigational medicinal products.

  12. One-dimensional Arterial Network Model for Bypass Grafts Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Ghigo, Arthur; Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose an arterial network model based on 1D blood hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in case of an arterial occlusive pathology: an obliteration or stenosis of the iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obliteration of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in all cases the normal hemodynamics in the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation. We analyze in particular the Axillo-Femoral bypass graft by performing hundreds of simulations by varying the values of the Young's modulus [0.1--50 MPa] and the radius [0.01--5 cm] of the bypass graft. We show that the Young's modulus and radius of commercial bypass grafts are optimal in terms of hemodynamic considerations. The numerical findings prove that this approach could be used to optimize or pl...

  13. Assessment of Nutrition Information System Using Health Metrics Network Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Iqbal Nurmansyah

    2015-08-01

    Sistem informasi gizi (Sigizi dikembangkan oleh Direktorat Bina Gizi Kementerian Kesehatan sejak 2011. Data Sigizi mencakup data penimbangan balita di posyandu, kasus gizi buruk, cakupan pemberian tablet Fe pada ibu hamil, konsumsi garam beryodium, pemberian vitamin A, dan ASI eksklusif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kinerja pengelolaan Sigizi di Dinas Kesehatan Kota Tangerang Selatan menggunakan kerangka Health Metrics Network yang dikeluarkan oleh WHO tahun 2008. Sigizi merupakan sistem informasi yang diaplikasikan pada tingkat nasional dengan mekanisme pelaporan berjenjang, dari 508 kabupaten/kota menuju 34 provinsi dan bermuara di tingkat nasional. Di Provinsi Banten, terdapat delapan kabupaten/kota yang menjalankan Sigizi. Informan penelitian berjumlah enam orang, yaitu seksi gizi, seksi sumber daya kesehatan dan sistem informasi kesehatan, dua tenaga pelaksana gizi, dan dua kader posyandu. Pengumpulan data dilakukan Januari – April 2013 menggunakan pedoman wawancara, observasi, dan telaah dokumen. Analisis interpretasi digunakan dalam menganalisis data. Hasil penelitian menunjukan belum ada kebijakan serta pelatihan mengenai pengawasan gizi. Kegiatan pemantauan telah dilakukan. Sarana dinilai cukup, namun terdapat kekurangan dalam upaya perawatannya. Terdapat enam indikator dalam pembinaan gizi yang mengacu pada MDGs. Terdapat pengelompokan dan kamus data. Pelaporan data dilakukan setiap bulan. Grafik dan peta digunakan untuk menyajikan data. Data yang tersedia digunakan untuk pemonitoran dan pengambilan keputusan dalam kegiatan pembinaan gizi, baik di tingkat posyandu, puskesmas maupun dinkes. Secara umum, pelaksanaan Sigizi di Dinas Kesehatan Kota Tangerang Selatan telah memadai.

  14. Effects of Integration on the Cost Reduction in Distribution Network Design for Perishable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Firoozi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perishable products, which include medical and pharmaceutical items as well as food products, are quite common in commerce and industries. Developing efficient network designs for storage and distribution of perishable products plays a prominent role in the cost and quality of these products. This paper aims to investigate and analyze the impact of applying an integrated approach for network design of perishable products. For this purpose, the problem has been formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear mathematical model that integrates inventory control and facility location decisions. To solve the integrated model, a memetic algorithm (MA is developed in this study. For verification of the proposed algorithm, its results are compared with the results of an adapted Lagrangian relaxation heuristic algorithm from the literature. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the main parameters of the model is conducted to compare the results of the integrated approach with a decoupled method. The results show that as the products become more perishable, application of an integrated method becomes more reasonable in comparison with the decoupled one.

  15. Estimation of hydrogen production in genetically modified E. coli fermentations using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; De Leon Rodriguez, Antonio [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Garcia, Raul Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an active research area due to the importance of this gas as an energy carrier and the advantages of using biological systems to produce it. A cheap and practical on-line hydrogen determination is desired in those processes. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to estimate the hydrogen production in fermentative processes. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) of one hidden layer with 12 nodes was selected. The BPNN training was done using the conjugated gradient algorithm and on-line measurements of dissolved CO{sub 2}, pH and oxidation-reduction potential during the fermentations of cheese whey by Escherichia coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI (WDHL) strain with or without pH control. The correlation coefficient between the hydrogen production determined by gas chromatography and the hydrogen production estimated by the BPNN was 0.955. Results showed that the BPNN successfully estimated the hydrogen production using only on-line parameters in genetically modified E. coli fermentations either with or without pH control. This approach could be used for other hydrogen production systems. (author)

  16. Risk Assessment and Management in the Networked Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Omar K; Hussain, Farookh K; Chang, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Risk and reward are always foremost in the determination of investment decisions and business transactions. Advances in the area of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) have enabled the development of new business paradigms. Such paradigms involve transactions taking place between loosely connected parties, often totally or partially unknown to one another. One important concept required to ensure such transactions are successful is transactional risk. The importance of doing this has been demonstrated in recent financial crisis. This book is unique in simultaneously taking into account the likelihood of an event occurring and its financial impact and provides an integrated discussion of the process of transactional risk identification, assessment, evaluation, management and recording in these emerging domains. It provides a detailed and clear exposition of the importance of transactional risk before detailing for its assessment and evaluation.   The scope of the book is theoretical and practical and...

  17. Cyber security risk assessment for SCADA and DCS networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, P A S; Graham, J H; Hieb, J L

    2007-10-01

    The growing dependence of critical infrastructures and industrial automation on interconnected physical and cyber-based control systems has resulted in a growing and previously unforeseen cyber security threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCSs). It is critical that engineers and managers understand these issues and know how to locate the information they need. This paper provides a broad overview of cyber security and risk assessment for SCADA and DCS, introduces the main industry organizations and government groups working in this area, and gives a comprehensive review of the literature to date. Major concepts related to the risk assessment methods are introduced with references cited for more detail. Included are risk assessment methods such as HHM, IIM, and RFRM which have been applied successfully to SCADA systems with many interdependencies and have highlighted the need for quantifiable metrics. Presented in broad terms is probability risk analysis (PRA) which includes methods such as FTA, ETA, and FEMA. The paper concludes with a general discussion of two recent methods (one based on compromise graphs and one on augmented vulnerability trees) that quantitatively determine the probability of an attack, the impact of the attack, and the reduction in risk associated with a particular countermeasure.

  18. Artificial neural networks in analysis of indinavir and its degradation products retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancić-Stojanović, B; Ivanović, D; Malenović, A; Medenica, M

    2009-04-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are biologically inspired computer programs designed to simulate the way in which the human brain processes the information. In the past few years, coupling of experimental design (ED) and ANN became useful tool in the method optimization. This paper presents the application of ED-ANN in analysis of chromatographic behavior of indinavir and its degradation products. According to preliminary study, full factorial design 2(4) was chosen to set input variables for network training. Experimental data (inputs) and results for retention factors from experiments (outputs) were used to train the ANN with aim to define correlation among variables. For networks training multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with back propagation (BP) algorithm was used. Network with the lowest root mean square (RMS) had 4-8-3 topology. Predicted data were in good agreement with experimental data (correlation was higher than 0.9713 for training set). Regression statistics confirmed good ability of trained network to predict compounds retention.

  19. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  20. Production of transgenic rice with agronomically useful genes: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C C; Vijaya Laxmi, G

    2000-12-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high yielding varieties, however; it is associated with its own limitations. It is envisaged that recent trends in biotechnology can contribute to the agronomic improvement of rice in terms of yield and nutritional quality as a supplement to traditional breeding methods. Genetic transformation of rice has demonstrated numerous important opportunities resulting in the genetic improvement of existing elite rice varieties and production of new plant types. Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plant production in the late 1980s. Several gene transfer protocols have been employed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes to rice. In more than 60 rice cultivars belonging to indica, japonica, javanica, and elite African cultivars, the protocol has been standardized for transgenic rice production. Selection and use of appropriate promoters, selectable markers, and reporter genes has been helpful for development of efficient protocols for transgenic rice in a number of rice cultivars. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in transgenic rice for the transfer of agronomically useful genes, emphasizing the application and future prospects of transgenic rice production for the genetic improvement of this food crop.

  1. Social Network Analysis on Lean Production and World Class Manufacturing: how are associated in the literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antiqueira Goes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR to identify how to configure the publications that relate WCM and Lean Production issues. Therefore, a search on the Brazilian metasearch portal called CAPES Periodicals was conducted focusing on articles of the last five years. They were identified after screening and filtering a total of 42 articles, which were analyzed. The construction of the network analysis has identified that the issues are still in an initial phase of association, with the characteristic part of decentralizes networks, with some points of greatest association. It was also identified that the theme Lean Production has greater representation between the two topics due its higher use by authors.

  2. Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingxun; Carver, Jeremy J.; Pevzner, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques...... are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization...... and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations...

  3. Network Insights for Partner Selection in Inter-Organisational New Product Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pedro Parraguez; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Selecting partners for new product development (NPD) is an important yet under-supported task. Thispaper focuses on decision-making support for the NPD collaboration stages of partner exploration andsearch. We provide a conceptual framework for a network-based platform to identify potential......: technologicalcloseness, relational closeness, geographical closeness and a set of organisational variables. In order toidentify a subset of new product development partners and aid the selection process, three characteristicsof NPD projects are considered as mediators of those success factors: the desired degree...... and illustrate with examples the networkbasedplatform to explore NPD partners. The developed framework and platform are part of Net-Sights,an ongoing research project to develop open-source decision-support tools for network insights. Thefirst version of this tool will soon be available as an online platform...

  4. Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adesola Obafemi; Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin; Dozie Richard Opara

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road ju...

  5. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  6. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  7. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  8. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping industrial networks as an approach to identify inter-organisational collaborative potential in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Increased industrial complexity and specialization is pushing organizations to participate more proactively in collaborative networks. These networks enable them to create new products and services requiring a pool of knowledge and capabilities going beyond the traditional organizational boundaries....... Consequently, identifying and selecting potential partners to establish collaboration agreements can be a key activity in the new product development process. This paper explores the implications of mapping industrial networks with the purpose of identifying inter-organisational collaborative potential....... The analysis is contextualized mapping the Danish Cleantech industry and depict the uses of the visualization and analysis of industrial networks in the selection of co-developing partners....

  10. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  11. Making connections: global production networks, standards, and embeddedness in the mobile-telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hess; Coe, Neil M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigate the contemporary restructuring of the mobile-telecommunications industry with the use of a global production networks (GPNs) perspective. After a brief conceptual discussion of GPN, standard setting and embeddedness, their analysis proceeds in four further stages. First, they consider how technological change has driven the development of complex mobile telecommunications GPNs in a sector previously characterised by relatively linear and simple value chains. Second, th...

  12. Coalbed Methane Production System Simulation and Deliverability Forecasting: Coupled Surface Network/Wellbore/Reservoir Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an unconventional energy, coalbed methane (CBM mainly exists in coal bed with adsorption, whose productivity is different from conventional gas reservoir. This paper explains the wellbore pressure drop, surface pipeline network simulation, and reservoir calculation model of CBM. A coupled surface/wellbore/reservoir calculation architecture was presented, to coordinate the gas production in each calculation period until the balance of surface/wellbore/reservoir. This coupled calculation method was applied to a CBM field for predicting production. The daily gas production increased year by year at the first time and then decreased gradually after several years, while the daily water production was reduced all the time with the successive decline of the formation pressure. The production of gas and water in each well is almost the same when the structure is a star. When system structure is a dendritic surface system, the daily gas production ranked highest at the well which is the nearest to the surface system collection point and lowest at the well which is the farthest to the surface system collection point. This coupled calculation method could be used to predict the water production, gas production, and formation pressure of a CBM field during a period of time.

  13. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  14. Assessing the user experience of older adults using a neural network trained to recognize emotions from brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Kubo, Victoria; Morán, Alberto L; Carrillo, Ivan; Galindo, Gilberto; García-Canseco, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    The use of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies as a means to cope with problems that arise due to an increasing and aging population is becoming usual. AAL technologies are used to prevent, cure and improve the wellness and health conditions of the elderly. However, their adoption and use by older adults is still a major challenge. User Experience (UX) evaluations aim at aiding on this task, by identifying the experience that a user has while interacting with an AAL technology under particular conditions. This may help designing better products and improve user engagement and adoption of AAL solutions. However, evaluating the UX of AAL technologies is a difficult task, due to the inherent limitations of their subjects and of the evaluation methods. In this study, we validated the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults while they use a cognitive stimulation application using a neural network trained to recognize pleasant and unpleasant emotions from electroencephalography (EEG) signals by contrasting our results with those of additional self-report and qualitative analysis UX evaluations. Our study results provide evidence about the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults using a neural network that take as input the EEG signals; the classification accuracy of our neural network ranges from 60.87% to 82.61%. As future work we will conduct additional UX evaluation studies using the three different methods, in order to appropriately validate these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  16. Strategic Simulation - Support of Innovation and Operation in Distribution and production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne

    of the project was carried out as a case in GN Resound which is a Danish manufacturer of hearing aids. The project looked into how the supply chain could be further developed within distribution and production. Three new scenarios and strategies for the future distribution were examined in order to determine......Today’s business environment is characterized by global competition, changing conditions, and uncertainty. Many Western companies have responded by developing global distribution and production networks. The increasingly challenging business environment and the more complex structure of companies...

  17. Towards a multidisciplinary understanding of product innovation: the Synopsis network project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    a set of "images of innovation" which describe the subject from each our viewpoints. The ultimate goals of the network project are to produce: 1. A framework/reference system describing companies´ innovation activities, based upon national and international research findings 2. A vocabulary with which...... to be able to describe product innovation from one industry type to the next 3. A map of Denmark, showing the significant stakeholders connected to product innovation 4. A transfer of knowledge gathered from the project into teaching material and case studies, both for academia and industry. This paper...

  18. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  19. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Berthier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent, stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca’s aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense. Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba’s accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico´s accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires’s accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g.,

  20. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  1. The integrated network model of pipeline, sea and road distribution of petroleum product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria ranks high among the community of oil producers both in the world. It is, therefore, paradoxical that Nigeria, with such profile in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC statistics finds it difficult to optimize its supply distribution while spending so much money on transportation and distribution. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country. Thus, we develop a single period, single product deterministic mathematical model to effectively distribute the product to the end user through the most effective channel to the interest of the economy of the country. In our model, we first consider a perfect condition in the petroleum industry irrespective of the production crises and conflicts like pipeline vandalism, communal instability. We then consider different scnearios that presumes several breakdown cases in pipeline connection to anaylze the survivability of the network of petroleum distribution.

  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  3. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  4. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  5. Vulnerability assessment in social networks under cascade-based node departures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2015-06-01

    In social networks, new users decide to become members, but also current users depart from the network or stop being active in the activities of their community. The departure of a user may affect the engagement of its neighbors in the graph, that successively may also decide to leave, leading to a disengagement epidemic. We propose a model to capture this cascading effect, based on recent studies about the engagement dynamics of social networks. We introduce a new concept of vulnerability assessment under cascades triggered by the departure of nodes based on their engagement level. Our results indicate that social networks are robust under cascades triggered by randomly selected nodes but highly vulnerable in cascades caused by targeted departures of nodes with high engagement level.

  6. Assessment of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria and shrimp production in ponds treated with biological products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of biological products on the levels of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal, India. Methods: The pond water and sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as per standard methods. The bacteria involved in ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation were enumerated by most probable number technique. Results: The semi-intensive and modified extensive shrimp farms used a variety of biological products during various stages of production. No biological products were used in traditional farms. The water and sediment samples of modified extensive system recorded significantly higher mean heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts of ammonia, nitrite and sulphur oxidizers, and nitrate and sulphate reducers varied among the systems. The cycling of nitrogen and sulphur appeared to be affected with the intensification of culture practices. Conclusions: The application of biological products in certain systems helped to maintain the bacteria involved in nitrogen and sulphur cycles and safe levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. An assessment of these metabolically active bacteria in shrimp culture ponds and the application of right kind microbial products would help ameliorate the organic pollution in shrimp aquaculture.

  7. An assessment of the effect of human faeces and urine on maize production and water productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzha, Edward; Nhapi, Innocent; Rockstrom, Johan

    The key challenge facing many catchment authorities in Zimbabwe and elsewhere is the challenge of feeding the growing populations within their catchment boundaries. Modern agricultural practices continue to mine valuable crop nutrients through increased food production to satisfy ever-increasing food demand. In recent diagnostic survey of smallholder agricultural sector in the Manyame catchments of Zimbabwe it was revealed that exhausted soils depleted of their natural mineral and organic constituents by many years of cropping with little fertilization or manuring were the major factors contributing to low yields and poor food security in this sector in Zimbabwe. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of using sanitized human excreta on maize production and water productivity. The study involved six volunteer farmers with four 10 m × 10 m trial plots each with the following treatments the control, commercial fertilizer treatment urine only plot, and the feacal matter and urine plot. Harvest determination was carried by weighing the yield from each of the treatment plots and comparisons done. Water productivity was computed by calculating the amount of water used to produce a tone of maize per ha. The study showed that human excreta improves maize crop production and water productivity in rain-fed agriculture. The study recommends that the ecological sanitation concept and the reuse of human excreta both humanure and (ecofert) urine can be considered as alternative excreta management options in catchment areas.

  8. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  9. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products in the Philippine Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. D.; Tendencia, E.; Espana, K.; Sabido, J.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (2) the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) of NOAA and (3) the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) and (4) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC) for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN) values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  11. Marine Food Provision Ecosystem Services Assessment Using EO Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Emiliana; Filipponi, Federico; Nguyen Xuan, Alessandra; Taramelli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of seawaters are primary descriptors to assess the spatial and temporal dimensions of ecopotential productivity performances in terms of fish vitality, growth and stress. Among these characteristics, temperature can be considered the key descriptor, i.e. the Essential Variable (EV) to characterize fish vitality and thus marine food provision potential, because it influences the variation of many other parameters and as consequence the entire life cycle of marine organisms.We developed a method to identify suitable fish growth conditions sites scenario in the Mediterranean Sea and, among these sites, to estimate the potential fish growth rate. For the assessment of fish growth conditions from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) products, we consider the spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables derived from satellite , such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration, together with other modeled variables like currents, dissolved oxygen (DO), etc.The final result is an integrated toolbox oriented towards the development of an EO downstreaming service, that collects the workflows of processing procedures to support the planning of maritime uses.

  12. [Assessment model of townlet eco-environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Hai-tao

    2008-12-01

    Aiming at the problems in the townlet eco-environmental quality assessment in China, a comprehensive assessment model of townlet ecological environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network was set up, which contained 20 cryptic layer nodes and 3 layers. The rank classification criterion of eco-environmental quality's assessment indicator system were chosen as the training sample of the model, the 10% of training sample as well as the middle and critical values were regarded as examining sample, and the monitoring values of assessment region were treated as test sample. Choosing the Dushan Town in Ezhou City as an example, the training and prediction were made by using MATLAB software. The results showed that BP-artificial neural network was not only feasible and dependable, but also couldprovide acceptable results in accord with the regional realistic eco-environmental feature.

  13. Assessing GPM products quality on extreme rainfall event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Jean Claude

    2017-04-01

    Global Precipitation Mission brings major improvement to rainfall measurement system. Related precipitation products are delivered with a temporal and spatial resolution compliant with flash floods modeling. However assessing the accuracy of these products on extreme rainfall events is still an open issue. Two kinds of significant events are presented: Sahelian squall lines and orographic enhanced convective systems on Maghreb. The 2016 rainy season on Sahel has been above normal and the retrieval quality of two huge precipitation systems (14th June and 13th July) is investigated. On end of September 2016 northern Tunisia experimented severe floods produced by two series of local convective systems. Although IMERG products are globally consistent some discrepancies appear. The mean bias seem linked with orographic lifting. It is obvious in Tunisia case but should not be neglected even in Sahelian squall line. On an other side, at the high temporal resolution scale, IMERG estimation does not match perfectly with geostationary IR data. These observations raise the issue of defining a proper downscaling process from the full flow of GPM data.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment modeling of milk production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Soltanali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock units are known as one of the most influential sectors in the environment pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impacts of milk production in Guilan province of Iran through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The primary data were collected from 45 units of milk production through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and was estimated an acceptable value of 0.91. The consumption of resources and emissions were allocated to a functional unit (FU of one ton of milk. Impacts of emissions in five impact categories of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and depletion of resources were investigated. The results showed that the characterization index for these impact categories were 1831 kg CO2 eq, 7.97 kg SO2 eq, 3.42 kg PO4−3 eq, 0.21 kg C2H4 eq and 838.39 MJ, respectively. Final indices for these impact categories were calculated as 0.24, 0.28, 0.076, 0.017 and 0.046, respectively. Environmental index (EcoX and resources depletion index (RDI were obtained 0.61 and 0.04, respectively. In this study, the highest potential for environmental impacts of production revealed for acidification and followed by global warming impact category.

  15. Application of Bayesian networks for hazard ranking of nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, Hans J.P.; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Janssen, Esmée M.; Zande, van der Meike; Murphy, Finbarr; Sheehan, Barry; Mullins, Martin; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a Bayesian Network (BN) was developed for the prediction of the hazard potential and biological effects with the focus on metal- and metal-oxide nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment. The developed BN captures the (inter) relationships between the exposure route, the

  16. Statistical Classification for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark; Guo, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to describe how the artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to interpret student performance on cognitive diagnostic assessments (CDAs) and evaluate the performances of ANNs using simulation results. CDAs are designed to measure student performance on problem-solving tasks and provide useful…

  17. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  18. Friends in the classroom : a comparison between two methods for the assessment of students' friendship networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Koster, Marloes; Hannink, Anne; Stratingh, Anna

    2011-01-01

    One of the methods used most often to assess students' friendships and friendship networks is the reciprocal nomination method. However, an often heard complaint is that this technique produces rather negative outcomes. This study compares the reciprocal nomination method with another method to

  19. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both ...

  20. Trustworthiness assessment of cow behaviour data collected in a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, L.; Mol, de R.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks can be used for automated cow monitoring, e.g. for behaviour and locomotion monitoring. Sensor data should only be used when they can be trusted. The trustworthiness of sensor data can be assessed in a framework, from the acquisition at the node to their delivery to business

  1. Are Imaging and Lesioning Convergent Methods for Assessing Functional Specialisation? Investigations Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Purser, Harry R. M.; Tomlinson, Simon; Mareschal, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an investigation of the relationship between lesioning and neuroimaging methods of assessing functional specialisation, using synthetic brain imaging (SBI) and lesioning of a connectionist network of past-tense formation. The model comprised two processing "routes": one was a direct route between layers of input and output…

  2. Formal assessment instrument for ensuring the security of NASA's networks, systems and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Powell, J. D.; Sherif, J.

    2002-01-01

    To address the problem of security for NASA's networks, systems and software, NASA has funded the Jet Propulsion Lab in conjunction with UC Davis to begin work on developing a software security assessment instrument for use in the software development and maintenance life cycle.

  3. Bayesian networks improve causal environmental assessments for evidence-based policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule-based weight of evidence approaches to ecological risk assessment may not account for uncertainties and generally lack probabilistic integration of lines of evidence. Bayesian networks allow causal inferences to be made from evidence by including causal knowledge about the p...

  4. A Bayesian network approach for causal inferences in pesticide risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide risk assessment and management must balance societal benefits and ecosystem protection, based on quantified risks and the strength of the causal linkages between uses of the pesticide and socioeconomic and ecological endpoints of concern. A Bayesian network (BN) is a gr...

  5. Dynamic Bayesian Network Modeling of Game Based Diagnostic Assessments. CRESST Report 837

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Digital games offer an appealing environment for assessing student proficiencies, including skills and misconceptions in a diagnostic setting. This paper proposes a dynamic Bayesian network modeling approach for observations of student performance from an educational video game. A Bayesian approach to model construction, calibration, and use in…

  6. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA Water Resources PI Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records.

  7. Simultaneous characterization of elemental segregation and cementite networks in high carbon steel products by spatially-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué-Bigne, Fabienne

    2014-06-01

    The reliable characterization of the level of elemental segregation and of the extent of grain-boundary cementite networks in high carbon steel products is a prerequisite for checking product quality, for the purpose of product release to customers, and to investigate the presence of defects that may have led to mechanical property failure of the product. Current methods for the characterization of segregation and cementite networks rely on two different methods of sample etching followed by visual observation, where quality scores are given based on human perception and judgment. With the continuous demand on increasing quality, some of the conventional characterization methods and their associated scoring boards have lost relevance for the precision of characterization that is required today to distinguish between a product that will perform well and one that will not. In order to move away from a qualitative, human perception based situation for the scoring of the severity of segregation and cementite networks, a new method of data evaluation based on spatially-resolved LIBS measurements was developed to provide quantitative and simultaneous characterization of both types of defects. The quantitative assessment of segregation and cementite networks is based on the acquisition of carbon concentration maps. The ability to produce rapid scanning measurements of micro and macro-scale features with adequate spatial resolution makes LIBS the measurement method of preference for this purpose. The characterization of both different defects is extracted simultaneously and from the same carbon concentration map following a series of statistical treatment and data extraction rules. LIBS results were validated against recognized methods and were applied to a significant number of routine samples. The new LIBS method offers a step change improvement in reliability for the characterization of segregation and cementite networks in steel products over the conventional methods

  8. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  9. Real-Time Structural Damage Assessment Using Artificial Neural Networks and Antiresonant Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meruane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in damage assessment is the determination of how to ascertain the presence, location, and severity of structural damage given the structure's dynamic characteristics. The most successful applications of vibration-based damage assessment are model updating methods based on global optimization algorithms. However, these algorithms run quite slowly, and the damage assessment process is achieved via a costly and time-consuming inverse process, which presents an obstacle for real-time health monitoring applications. Artificial neural networks (ANN have recently been introduced as an alternative to model updating methods. Once a neural network has been properly trained, it can potentially detect, locate, and quantify structural damage in a short period of time and can therefore be applied for real-time damage assessment. The primary contribution of this research is the development of a real-time damage assessment algorithm using ANN and antiresonant frequencies. Antiresonant frequencies can be identified more easily and more accurately than mode shapes, and they provide the same information. This research addresses the setup of the neural network parameters and provides guidelines for the selection of these parameters in similar damage assessment problems. Two experimental cases validate this approach: an 8-DOF mass-spring system and a beam with multiple damage scenarios.

  10. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  11. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  12. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  13. Practical application of game theory based production flow planning method in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.

  14. Energy Production by Means of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Venturini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different characteristics are investigated to estimate the producible yearly electric energy. The performance curves of Pumps As Turbines (PATs, which relate head, power, and efficiency to the volume flow rate over the entire PAT operation range, were derived by using published experimental data. The four considered water distribution networks, for which experimental data taken during one year were available, are characterized by significantly different hydraulic features (average flow rate in the range 10–116 L/s; average pressure reduction in the range 12–53 m. Therefore, energy production accounts for actual flow rate and head variability over the year. The conversion efficiency is also estimated, for both the whole water distribution network and the PAT alone.

  15. Networks, resources and agencies: on the character and production of enabling places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The study of therapeutic landscapes, restorative places and enabling environments - what might collectively be referred to as enabling places - has revealed much of the relationship between place and health promotion. However, it is arguable that this work has only partially accounted for the diverse therapeutic features of enabling places and the various means of their production. Drawing on Bruno Latour, this paper introduces a conceptual logic of enabling places grounded in the analysis of enabling resources. Three categories of enabling resources will be considered: social, affective and material resources. It will be argued that enabling places are composed in diverse actor-networks, facilitating access to enabling resources and supporting the development of novel agencies or capacities. This draws attention to the various networks and associations that promote health and wellbeing, as well as the resources and agencies necessary to maintain these states. The paper concludes that the analysis of enabling resources, and the networks and agencies that comprise them, provides a novel basis for describing the character and production of enabling places, as well as the diverse benefits associated with them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Production Skill Acquisition and Strategy for Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Production of shoe polish. 2.90. 4. Production of soap. 2.61. 5. Production of alkanate for perfumes. 1.82. 6. Production of alkanoates for food flavouring. 1.70. 7. Production of water treatment chemicals. 0.94. 8. Production slaked lime from limestone. 1.76. 9. Product of chalk from gypsum salt. 1.93. 10. Product of tooth paste.

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_SM Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf Helmut; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Chen, Fan; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public Version 2 validated release scheduled for 29 April 2016. The assessment of the Version 2 L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to up-scaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the wide geographic range of the sparse network sites, and the global assessment of the assimilation diagnostics, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 2 validation and supports the validated release of the data. An analysis of the time average surface and root zone soil moisture shows that the global pattern of arid and humid regions are captured by the L4_SM estimates. Results from the

  18. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  19. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  20. Optimization and Simulation of Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Production and Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, Giacomo; Kaihara, Toshiya; Stecca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Complex and delocalized manufacturing industries require high levels of integration between production and transportation in order to effectively implement lean and agile operations. There are, however, limitations in research and applications simultaneously embodying further sustainability...... dimensions. This paper presents a methodological framework based on optimization and simulation to integrate aggregate optimized plans for production and multimodal transportation with detailed dynamic distribution plans affected by demand uncertainty. The objective function of the optimization model...... considers supply, production, transportation, and CO2 emission costs, as well as collaboration over the multimodal network. Bill-of-materials and capacity constraints are included. A feedback between simulation and optimization is used to plan requirements for materials and components. Computational...

  1. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sande Marianne AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs. Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of electronic medical records for monitoring the incidence of chlamydia cases diagnosed in primary care in the Netherlands. Methods In the electronic records of two regional and two national networks, we identified chlamydia diagnoses by means of ICPC codes (International Classification of Primary Care, laboratory results in free text and the prescription of antibiotics. The year of study was 2007 for the two regional networks and one national network, for the other national network the year of study was 2005. We calculated the incidence of diagnosed chlamydia cases per sex, age group and degree of urbanization. Results A large diversity was observed in the way chlamydia episodes were coded in the four different GP networks and how easily information concerning chlamydia diagnoses could be extracted. The overall incidence ranged from 103.2/100,000 to 590.2/100,000. Differences were partly related to differences between patient populations. Nevertheless, we observed similar trends in the incidence of chlamydia diagnoses in all networks and findings were in line with earlier reports. Conclusions Electronic patient records, originally intended for individual patient care in general practice, can be an additional source of data for monitoring chlamydia incidence in primary care and can be of use in assessing the future impact of population-based chlamydia screening programs. To increase the usefulness of data we recommend more efforts to standardize registration by (specific ICPC code and laboratory results across the existing GP networks.

  2. Integrating a flexible modeling framework (FMF) with the network security assessment instrument to reduce software security risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Powell, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a portion of an overall research project on the generation of the network security assessment instrument to aid developers in assessing and assuring the security of software in the development and maintenance lifecycles.

  3. Revealing dynamics and consequences of fit and misfit between formal and informal networks in multi-institutional product development collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratzer, J.; Gemuenden, Hans G.; Lettl, Christopher

    The study presents a longitudinal examination about dynamics and consequences of fit and misfit between formally ascribed design interfaces and informal communication networks in two large multi-institutional product development collaborations in space industry. Findings: (1) formally ascribed

  4. Revealing dynamics and consequences of fit and misfit between formal and informal networks in multi-institutional product development collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, Jan; Gemünden, Hans Georg; Lettl, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The study presents a longitudinal examination about dynamics and consequences of fit and misfit between formally ascribed design interfaces and informal communication networks in two large multi-institutional product development collaborations in space industry. Findings: (1) formally ascribed...

  5. Expanding Global Production Networks: The emergence, evolution and the developmental impact of the offshore service sector in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibert, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary globalisation is characterised by an expansion of global production networks in services. Developments in information and communications technology have enabled the relocation of services across national borders, or, the offshoring of services. This has had profound implications for

  6. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obie Farobie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE. The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition. The result shows that artificial neural network is a powerful tool for modeling and predicting biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition that was proven by a high value of coefficient of determination (R of 0.9969, 0.9899, and 0.9658 for training, validation, and testing, respectively. Using this approach, the highest biodiesel yield was determined of 0.93 mol/mol (corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 0.94 mol/mol that was achieved at 400 °C, under the reactor pressure of 10 MPa, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio of 1:40 within 15 min of reaction time.

  7. Information-theoretic versus thermodynamic entropy production in autonomous sensory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, A. C.; Hartich, D.; Seifert, U.

    2013-04-01

    For sensory networks, we determine the rate with which they acquire information about the changing external conditions. Comparing this rate with the thermodynamic entropy production that quantifies the cost of maintaining the network, we find that there is no universal bound restricting the rate of obtaining information to be less than this thermodynamic cost. These results are obtained within a general bipartite model consisting of a stochastically changing environment that affects the instantaneous transition rates within the system. Moreover, they are illustrated with a simple four-states model motivated by cellular sensing. On the technical level, we obtain an upper bound on the rate of mutual information analytically and calculate this rate with a numerical method that estimates the entropy of a time series generated with a simulation.

  8. Assessment of environment impacts of egg production chain using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Atena; Ahmadi, Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have to deal with the assessment of environment impacts of laying hen in the Alborz province, Iran. This assessment was carried out for one kg of egg during a period of 420 days for 1000 chickens. Then due to significant consumption of diet during period of question, three main products including corn, soybean and wheat which are consist of 80 percent of the combination of laying chicken diet, also collected the information about their production and it has been evaluated the indicators of their environment individually and eventually, the results has been considered as a title for inputs of poultry. Data for production of inputs were taken from EcoInvent 2.0 database, and SimaPro software was used for analysis. Ten classification impacts including Abiotic Depletion potential, Acidification potential, Eutrophication potential, Global Warming potential for time horizon 100 years, Ozone Depletion potential, Human Toxicity potential, Freshwater and Marine Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential, Terrestrial Eco-toxicity potential, and Photochemical Oxidation potential were selected based on the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method. Due to the results, for each kilograms of egg, 30/09 MJ and also the value of greenhouse gas emissions is 4/07 Kg CO 2 eq was calculated. According to the obtained results, the production of diet has made the most negative charge of environment among the inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  10. Risk Assessment of Distribution Network Based on Random set Theory and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sh; Bai, C. X.; Liang, J.; Jiao, L.; Hou, Z.; Liu, B. Zh

    2017-05-01

    Considering the complexity and uncertainty of operating information in distribution network, this paper introduces the use of random set for risk assessment. The proposed method is based on the operating conditions defined in the random set framework to obtain the upper and lower cumulative probability functions of risk indices. Moreover, the sensitivity of risk indices can effectually reflect information about system reliability and operating conditions, and by use of these information the bottlenecks that suppress system reliability can be found. The analysis about a typical radial distribution network shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF SATELLITE PRECIPITATION PRODUCTS IN THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (2 the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH of NOAA and (3 the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP and (4 Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN. Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  12. Production Supervision Incorporated With Network Technology-A Solution For Controlling In-Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In context to the manufacturing management in medium scale production floor, work-in-process (WIP management or the inprocess inventory and control as the inevitable result of the production process has become a vital link of production plan. Due to the growing production requirements and the potential economic benefits of manufacturing process flow, enterprises have been pushed to integrate work-in-process management with their manufacturing process and the larger the company the larger the list of in-process inventory and this all are typically hard to manage so for the same respect the author in this paper has lighted on the integration of sophisticated electronics and networking technologies with the W.I.P with an native and low cost solution for managing the same, specially for the medium scaled company dealing with large number of product or with the customized product with reference to study of present scenario of a multinational company’s plant engineering department.

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of pistachio, almond and apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bartzas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA, with the use of GaBi 6 software and specific related databases, of three water intensive tree cultivation systems was conducted in order to evaluate environmental impacts and energy consumption. The tree crops are traditionally cultivated in two representative areas in Greece, namely Aegina island, Attica region, for pistachios and Agia, East Thessaly region, central Greece, for apples and almonds. The impact categories considered include global warming potential (GWP, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP and cumulative energy demand (CED. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pistachios and almonds show minor differences for all impact categories considered, while apples exhibit the best environmental profile. The phases of fertilizers production, irrigation system and field management were identified as the main “hot-spots” for all crops, exhibiting the highest environmental impacts and energy consumption. A sensitivity analysis was performed to explore actions that can be considered at farm scale, such as water desalination for irrigation purposes, transition to organic production and use of renewable energy, in order to reduce water requirements and promote energy conservation, especially in semi-arid and arid Mediterranean regions which suffer from water shortage and are prone to salinization. Finally, the results of this study were compared with the results derived from other relevant LCA studies.

  14. Novorossiysk agglomeration landscapes and cement production: geochemical impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, A. V.; Pashkevich, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with assessing the environmental impact of marl mining and cement production in Novorossiysk city (Krasnodar krai, Russia). The existing methods of studying the environmental effects caused by the cement industry have been reviewed. Soil and aquatic vegetation sampling has been carried out and the gross concentration of metals in the samples has been defined. The research has been conducted in the certified and accredited laboratory using emission spectral analysis. The external control has been carried out via X-ray fluorescence analysis. Based on the collected data, main chemical pollutants in soil cover and water area near the cement plant have been identified. The contaminants released by urban enterprises and motor vehicle emissions, as well as fugitive dust from dumps and the cement factory, lead to multi-element lithogeochemical anomaly at geochemical barriers in soils. Accumulation of pollutants in soil depends on the type of land use and the area relief. The most contaminated aquatic landscapes have been identified in the inner bay. According to this information, the technical proposals can be prepared for environmental safety management in strongly polluted city areas, as well as for the reclamation design in the areas currently experiencing the negative impact of cement production.

  15. Dynamics of Virus Distribution in a Defined Swine Production Network Using Enteric Viruses as Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Virginie; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe; Brassard, Julie; L'Homme, Yvan

    2017-02-15

    Modern swine production systems represent complex and dynamic networks involving numerous stakeholders. For instance, livestock transporters carry live animals between fattening sites, abattoirs, and other premises on a daily basis. This interconnected system may increase the risk of microbial spread within and between networks, although little information is available in that regard. In the present study, a swine network composed of 10 finishing farms, one abattoir, and three types of stakeholders (veterinarians, livestock transporters, and nutritional technicians) in Quebec, Canada, was selected to investigate specific vectors and reservoirs of enteric viruses. Environmental samples were collected from the premises over a 12-month period. Samples were screened using targeted reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of two selected viral markers, group A rotaviruses (RVA) and porcine astroviruses (PoAstV), both prevalent and genetically heterogeneous swine enteric viruses. The results revealed frequent contamination of farm sites (21.4 to 100%), livestock transporter vehicles (30.6 to 68.8%) and, most importantly, the abattoir yard (46.7 to 94.1%), depending on the sample types. Although high levels of strain diversity for both viruses were found, identical PoAstV and RVA strains were detected in specific samples from farms, the abattoir yard, and the livestock transporter vehicle, suggesting interconnections between these premises and transporters. Overall, the results from this study underscore the potential role of abattoirs and livestock transport as a reservoir and transmission route for enteric viruses within and between animal production networks, respectively. Using rotaviruses and astroviruses as markers of enteric contamination in a swine network has revealed the potential role of abattoirs and livestock transporters as a reservoir and vectors of enteric pathogens. The results from this study highlight the importance of tightening biosecurity measures

  16. Study of t$\\bar{t}$ production in tau jets channel at CDFII using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerio, Silvia [Univ. of Trento (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) is a particle detector located at Fermi National Laboratories, near Chicago. it allows to study decay products of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. During its first period of data taking (RunI), CDF observed for the first time the top quark (1995). The current period of data taking (RunII) is devoted to precise measurements of top properties and to search for new physics. This thesis work is about the top decay channel named τ + jets. A t$\\bar{t}$ pair decays in two W bosons and two b quarks. In a τ + jets event, one out of the two W decays into two jets of hadrons, while the other produces a τ lepton and a neutrino; the τ decays semileptonically in one or more charged and neutral pions while b quarks hadronize producing two jets of particles. Thus the final state of a τ + jets event has this specific signature: five jets, one τ-like, i.e. narrow and with low track multiplicity, two from b quarks, two from a W boson and a large amount of missing energy from two τ neutrinos. They search for this signal in 311 pb-1 of data collected with TOP{_}MULTIJET trigger. They use neural networks to separate signal from background and on the selected sample they perform a t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section measurement. The thesis is structured as follows: in Chapter 1 they outline the physics of top and τ, concentrating on their discovery, production mechanisms and current physics results involving them. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the experimental setup: the accelerator complex first and CDF detector then. The trigger system is described in Chapter 3, while Chapter 4 shows how particles are reconstructed exploiting information from different CDF subdetectors. With Chapter 5 they begin to present their analysis: we use a feed forward neural network based on a minimization algorithm developed in Trento University, called Reactive Taboo Search (RTS), especially designed to rapidly

  17. Bibliometric Assessment of the Global Scientific Production of Nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Muñoz-Urbano, Marcela; Gómez-Suta, Daniela; Sánchez-Duque, Jorge A; Machado-Alba, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Nitazoxanide is a member of a new class of drug, thiazolides, and it was discovered in 1984 with antimicrobial activity effect against anaerobic bacteria, Hepatitis virus, protozoa, and helminths. A bibliometric study on four databases (1984-2016) - Medline, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO - characterizing the global scientific production of nitazoxanide. We determined the quantity, quality (number of citations), and types of studies developed by each country, characterizing them by years, international cooperation, development, place of publication, authors (with its H-index), and groups with higher impact. There were 512 articles in Medline - the higher scientific production is from the USA (19.71%), Switzerland (7.51%), and Mexico (7.27%). There were 1,440 articles in Scopus - from the USA (8.98%), Mexico (2.13%), and India (1.65%). There were 405 articles in LILACS - from Mexico (4.69%), the USA (4.2%), and Peru (2.47%). There were 47 articles in SciELO - from Brazil (34.04%), Venezuela (21.28%), and Colombia (14.89%). The H-index of nitazoxanide is 75 - the USA (26), Egypt (12), and Canada (10) were the countries contributing more with that. Nitazoxanide research has been highly important. Nevertheless, it is relatively limited when compared with other drugs. Its research has been led by the USA, as revealed in this bibliometric assessment. Although some developing countries, where it is used especially for protozoa and helminths, probably have its influence, and this explains the fact that Mexico and India, among others, are the top countries in the scientific production of this anti-infective agent. This bibliometric study evidenced a relatively low number of publications, however, it has been increased in recent years.

  18. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  19. Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-30

    In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

  20. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  1. Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2014-02-01

    As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-α is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-α production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A global experimental dataset for assessing grain legume production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Pelzer, Elise; Makowski, David

    2016-09-01

    Grain legume crops are a significant component of the human diet and animal feed and have an important role in the environment, but the global diversity of agricultural legume species is currently underexploited. Experimental assessments of grain legume performances are required, to identify potential species with high yields. Here, we introduce a dataset including results of field experiments published in 173 articles. The selected experiments were carried out over five continents on 39 grain legume species. The dataset includes measurements of grain yield, aerial biomass, crop nitrogen content, residual soil nitrogen content and water use. When available, yields for cereals and oilseeds grown after grain legumes in the crop sequence are also included. The dataset is arranged into a relational database with nine structured tables and 198 standardized attributes. Tillage, fertilization, pest and irrigation management are systematically recorded for each of the 8,581 crop*field site*growing season*treatment combinations. The dataset is freely reusable and easy to update. We anticipate that it will provide valuable information for assessing grain legume production worldwide.

  3. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of modeling to assess the scalability of Ethernet networks for the ATLAS second level trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, K; Dobinson, Robert W; Saka, F

    1999-01-01

    The second level trigger of LHC's ATLAS experiment has to perform real-time analyses on detector data at 10 GBytes/s. A switching network is required to connect more than thousand read-out buffers to about thousand processors that execute the trigger algorithm. We are investigating the use of Ethernet technology to build this large switching network. Ethernet is attractive because of the huge installed base, competitive prices, and recent introduction of the high-performance Gigabit version. Due to the network's size it has to be constructed as a layered structure of smaller units. To assess the scalability of such a structure we evaluated a single switch unit. (0 refs).

  5. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  6. Social network analysis aided product development project management: IC Substrates case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Min Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the social network analysis (SNA, to study interaction among various activities in a product development process (PDP. The implementation of SNA helps to measure the properties of information flow and identifies PDP activities and limitations. The findings of an exploratory research project which explores the potential of SNA, as an improve tool for visually mapping and analyzing the stakeholders relationships found across the IC substrates design/manufacturing’s PDP of the Unimicron Technology Corp. From the findings, the authors prescribe the necessary SNA recommendations to improve the social conditions within the PDP.

  7. Production of thin film networks which utilize chrome-gold conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    Thin film networks (TFNs), designed by Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, are manufactured by the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City Division, for DOE programs. The majority of the TFNs fabricated at this division utilize gold films 3 to 9 ..mu..m thick evaporated over a chromium film. The chromium film is evaporated over sputtered tantalum nitride film, and the substrate material is 0.027 in. (0.686 mm) thick alumina. The TFNs must have high film adhesion characteristics, meet high bondability requirements, and allow stable electrical parameters. Various production techniques ensure these high reliability TFNs.

  8. Global production networks and local suppliers: Sonora’s entrepreneurs facing automotive expansion growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Bracamonte Sierra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the severe crisis faced by the U.S. based automotive firms, one of their strategies has been the relocation of the assembly plants in Mexico. This article analyzes the case of the automotive cluster led by Ford in Hermosillo, in the Mexican state of Sonora, showing that this type of clusters led by transnational corporations create technological spillovers and stimulate the accumulation of local capabilities. Particular attention is given to the process of creation of local small and medium enterprises linked to global production networks.

  9. Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Saby, N. P. A.; Jones, A.; Louwagie, G.; Micheli, E.; Rutgers, M.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Spiegel, H.; Toth, G.; Creamer, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the most important natural resource for life on Earth after water. Given its fundamental role in sustaining the human population, both the availability and quality of soil must be managed sustainably and protected. To ensure sustainable management we need to understand the intrinsic functional capacity of different soils across Europe and how it changes over time. Soil monitoring is needed to support evidence-based policies to incentivise sustainable soil management. To this aim, we assessed which soil attributes can be used as potential indicators of five soil functions; (1) primary production, (2) water purification and regulation, (3) carbon sequestration and climate regulation, (4) soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning and (5) recycling of nutrients. We compared this list of attributes to existing national (regional) and EU-wide soil monitoring networks. The overall picture highlighted a clearly unbalanced dataset, in which predominantly chemical soil parameters were included, and soil biological and physical attributes were severely under represented. Methods applied across countries for indicators also varied. At a European scale, the LUCAS-soil survey was evaluated and again confirmed a lack of important soil biological parameters, such as C mineralisation rate, microbial biomass and earthworm community, and soil physical measures such as bulk density. In summary, no current national or European monitoring system exists which has the capacity to quantify the five soil functions and therefore evaluate multi-functional capacity of a soil and in many countries no data exists at all. This paper calls for the addition of soil biological and some physical parameters within the LUCAS-soil survey at European scale and for further development of national soil monitoring schemes.

  10. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  11. A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Xiong, Daxi; Guo, Liquan; Wang, Jiping

    2016-02-05

    Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1) they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2) they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information.

  12. A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Xiong, Daxi; Guo, Liquan; Wang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1) they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2) they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information. PMID:26861337

  13. A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1 they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2 they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information.

  14. An extensive assessment of network alignment algorithms for comparison of brain connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianna; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Tymofieva, Olga; Xu, Duan; Hess, Christofer; Veltri, Pierangelo; Cannataro, Mario

    2017-06-06

    Recently the study of the complex system of connections in neural systems, i.e. the connectome, has gained a central role in neurosciences. The modeling and analysis of connectomes are therefore a growing area. Here we focus on the representation of connectomes by using graph theory formalisms. Macroscopic human brain connectomes are usually derived from neuroimages; the analyzed brains are co-registered in the image domain and brought to a common anatomical space. An atlas is then applied in order to define anatomically meaningful regions that will serve as the nodes of the network - this process is referred to as parcellation. The atlas-based parcellations present some known limitations in cases of early brain development and abnormal anatomy. Consequently, it has been recently proposed to perform atlas-free random brain parcellation into nodes and align brains in the network space instead of the anatomical image space, as a way to deal with the unknown correspondences of the parcels. Such process requires modeling of the brain using graph theory and the subsequent comparison of the structure of graphs. The latter step may be modeled as a network alignment (NA) problem. In this work, we first define the problem formally, then we test six existing state of the art of network aligners on diffusion MRI-derived brain networks. We compare the performances of algorithms by assessing six topological measures. We also evaluated the robustness of algorithms to alterations of the dataset. The results confirm that NA algorithms may be applied in cases of atlas-free parcellation for a fully network-driven comparison of connectomes. The analysis shows MAGNA++ is the best global alignment algorithm. The paper presented a new analysis methodology that uses network alignment for validating atlas-free parcellation brain connectomes. The methodology has been experimented on several brain datasets.

  15. Briefer assessment of social network drinking: A test of the Important People Instrument-5 (IP-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-12-01

    The Important People instrument (IP; Longabaugh et al., 2010) is one of the most commonly used measures of social network drinking. Although its reliability and validity are well-supported, the length of the instrument may limit its use in many settings. The present study evaluated whether a briefer, 5-person version of the IP (IP-5) adequately reproduces scores from the full IP. College freshmen (N = 1,053) reported their own past-month drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and information about drinking in their close social networks at baseline and 1 year later. From this we derived network members' drinking frequency, percentage of drinkers, and percentage of heavy drinkers, assessed for up to 10 (full IP) or 5 (IP-5) network members. We first modeled the expected concordance between full-IP scores and scores from simulated shorter IP instruments by sampling smaller subsets of network members from full IP data. Then, using quasi-experimental methods, we administered the full IP and IP-5 and compared the 2 instruments' score distributions and concurrent and year-lagged associations with participants' alcohol consumption and consequences. Most of the full-IP variance was reproduced from simulated shorter versions of the IP (ICCs ≥ 0.80). The full IP and IP-5 yielded similar score distributions, concurrent associations with drinking (r = 0.22 to 0.52), and year-lagged associations with drinking. The IP-5 retains most of the information about social network drinking from the full IP. The shorter instrument may be useful in clinical and research settings that require frequent measure administration, yielding greater temporal resolution for monitoring social network drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Network Theory Integrated Life Cycle Assessment for an Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we allocate Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of electricity transmission to the consumers. As an allocation basis, we introduce energy distance. Energy distance takes the transmission load on the electricity energy system into account in addition to the amount of electricity consumption. As a case study, we estimate regional GHG emissions of electricity transmission loss in Chile. Life cycle assessment (LCA is used to estimate the total GHG emissions of the Chilean electric power system. The regional GHG emission of transmission loss is calculated from the total GHG emissions. We construct the network model of Chilean electric power grid as an undirected network with 466 nodes and 543 edges holding the topology of the power grid based on the statistical record. We analyze the total annual GHG emissions of the Chilean electricity energy system as 23.07 Mt CO2-eq. and 1.61 Mt CO2-eq. for the transmission loss, respectively. The total energy distance for the electricity transmission accounts for 12,842.10 TWh km based on network analysis. We argue that when the GHG emission of electricity transmission loss is estimated, the electricity transmission load should be separately considered. We propose network theory as a useful complement to LCA analysis for the complex allocation. Energy distance is especially useful on a very large-scale electric power grid such as an intercontinental transmission network.

  17. Coupling ecological and social network models to assess "transmission" and "contagion" of an aquatic invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M; Fath, Brian D; Forbes, Valery E; Martin, Dustin R; Pope, Kevin L

    2017-04-01

    Network analysis is used to address diverse ecological, social, economic, and epidemiological questions, but few efforts have been made to combine these field-specific analyses into interdisciplinary approaches that effectively address how complex systems are interdependent and connected to one another. Identifying and understanding these cross-boundary connections improves natural resource management and promotes proactive, rather than reactive, decisions. This research had two main objectives; first, adapt the framework and approach of infectious disease network modeling so that it may be applied to the socio-ecological problem of spreading aquatic invasive species, and second, use this new coupled model to simulate the spread of the invasive Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a reservoir network in Southeastern Nebraska, USA. The coupled model integrates an existing social network model of how anglers move on the landscape with new reservoir-specific ecological network models. This approach allowed us to identify 1) how angler movement among reservoirs aids in the spread of B. chinensis, 2) how B. chinensis alters energy flows within individual-reservoir food webs, and 3) a new method for assessing the spread of any number of non-native or invasive species within complex, social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  19. Assessing Gaps in the U.S. Geological Survey Streamgage Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Julie; Archfield, Stacey; Stewart, David; Eng, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Streamgages are widely used for a variety of purposes ranging from operational support of water management facilities to flood monitoring to scientific analysis of streamflow and ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates the largest streamgage network in the U.S., with nearly 8,000 gages currently in operation. This study assesses the spatial and temporal extent of the network, with particular attention to the adequacy of the network for estimating streamflows and streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. There are clear regional differences in the availability of streamgage information and in the transferability of that information to ungaged locations. In particular, arid and semi-arid regions tend to have the poorest network coverage, and the high interannual variability in streamflow in these regions leads to large uncertainty in streamflow statistics calculated at gaged locations using short records. USGS streamgages are also particularly sparse in Alaska and Hawaii. At ungaged locations, information can be transferred from nearby streamgages if there is sufficient similarity between the gaged watersheds and the ungaged watersheds of interest. The correlation between streamflow records at existing streamgages was used to assess the likely transferability of streamflow information. The highest correlations were found in mountainous areas of the U.S., while the lowest correlations were found in the central U.S. and coastal areas of the southeastern U.S.

  20. Quick Vegas: Improving Performance of TCP Vegas for High Bandwidth-Delay Product Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Liang; Ho, Cheng-Yuan

    An important issue in designing a TCP congestion control algorithm is that it should allow the protocol to quickly adjust the end-to-end communication rate to the bandwidth on the bottleneck link. However, the TCP congestion control may function poorly in high bandwidth-delay product networks because of its slow response with large congestion windows. In this paper, we propose an enhanced version of TCP Vegas called Quick Vegas, in which we present an efficient congestion window control algorithm for a TCP source. Our algorithm improves the slow-start and congestion avoidance techniques of original Vegas. Simulation results show that Quick Vegas significantly improves the performance of connections as well as remaining fair when the bandwidth-delay product increases.