WorldWideScience

Sample records for network nclan consists

  1. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  2. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  3. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  4. Decentralized Consistent Network Updates in SDN with ez-Segway

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang; Chiesa, Marco; Canini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and black-holes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes

  5. Structural covariance networks across healthy young adults and their consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Taomei; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate structural covariance networks (SCNs) as measured by regional gray matter volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from healthy young adults, and to examine their consistency and stability. Two independent cohorts were included in this study: Group 1 (82 healthy subjects aged 18-28 years) and Group 2 (109 healthy subjects aged 20-28 years). Structural MRI data were acquired at 3.0T and 1.5T using a magnetization prepared rapid-acquisition gradient echo sequence for these two groups, respectively. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to construct SCNs and further applied the spatial overlap ratio and correlation coefficient to evaluate the spatial consistency of the SCNs between these two datasets. Seven and six independent components were identified for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Moreover, six SCNs including the posterior default mode network, the visual and auditory networks consistently existed across the two datasets. The overlap ratios and correlation coefficients of the visual network reached the maximums of 72% and 0.71. This study demonstrates the existence of consistent SCNs corresponding to general functional networks. These structural covariance findings may provide insight into the underlying organizational principles of brain anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Consistent Steering System using SCTP for Bluetooth Scatternet Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaya, R.; Sadasivam, V.; Kanthavel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wireless communication is the best way to convey information from source to destination with flexibility and mobility and Bluetooth is the wireless technology suitable for short distance. On the other hand a wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Using Bluetooth piconet wireless technique in sensor nodes creates limitation in network depth and placement. The introduction of Scatternet solves the network restrictions with lack of reliability in data transmission. When the depth of the network increases, it results in more difficulties in routing. No authors so far focused on the reliability factors of Scatternet sensor network's routing. This paper illustrates the proposed system architecture and routing mechanism to increase the reliability. The another objective is to use reliable transport protocol that uses the multi-homing concept and supports multiple streams to prevent head-of-line blocking. The results show that the Scatternet sensor network has lower packet loss even in the congestive environment than the existing system suitable for all surveillance applications.

  7. Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.

  8. Decentralized Consistent Network Updates in SDN with ez-Segway

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-03-06

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and black-holes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  9. Context-specific metabolic networks are consistent with experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Becker

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of cellular metabolism are publicly available for a variety of different microorganisms and some mammalian genomes. To date, these reconstructions are "genome-scale" and strive to include all reactions implied by the genome annotation, as well as those with direct experimental evidence. Clearly, many of the reactions in a genome-scale reconstruction will not be active under particular conditions or in a particular cell type. Methods to tailor these comprehensive genome-scale reconstructions into context-specific networks will aid predictive in silico modeling for a particular situation. We present a method called Gene Inactivity Moderated by Metabolism and Expression (GIMME to achieve this goal. The GIMME algorithm uses quantitative gene expression data and one or more presupposed metabolic objectives to produce the context-specific reconstruction that is most consistent with the available data. Furthermore, the algorithm provides a quantitative inconsistency score indicating how consistent a set of gene expression data is with a particular metabolic objective. We show that this algorithm produces results consistent with biological experiments and intuition for adaptive evolution of bacteria, rational design of metabolic engineering strains, and human skeletal muscle cells. This work represents progress towards producing constraint-based models of metabolism that are specific to the conditions where the expression profiling data is available.

  10. Consistent sensor, relay, and link selection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Valles, M.D.R.; Simonetto, A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, where energy is scarce, it is inefficient to have all nodes active because they consume a non-negligible amount of battery. In this paper we consider the problem of jointly selecting sensors, relays and links in a wireless sensor network where the active sensors need

  11. For a consistent policy in the struggle against proliferation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumberger, Guillaume; Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation networks operate like companies. They must be capable of coordinating a series of elementary logistics, financial and technical functions. Due to the increase in worldwide exchanges, the reinforcement of existing export control tools alone will not be sufficient to face the increase in proliferation flows. Despite widespread reporting in the media, interdiction operations also can only have limited effect on networks, due to their occasional nature, if they are undertaken independently of an approach targeting other functions. It also seems hardly realistic to wish to neutralize a proliferation network only by freezing part of its credits in the framework of a repressive approach. Setting up an overall policy provides a means of coordinating intelligence actions, repression tools and interdiction means both nationally and internationally, and therefore appears as the only viable solution in the struggle against proliferation networks. This is a complex task for it requires the organization of inter-ministerial (or interagency) responsibilities, and in particular it requires an equilibrium between long term and short term actions. Finally, it depends on the reinforcement of links between the administrations involved and private participants including service companies, financial institutions and enterprises. (authors)

  12. Rubber elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Kengo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation (EMA) for Hookian spring network to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1, G 0 , must be equal to G/G 0 = (p − 2/f)/(1 − 2/f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels

  13. Rubber elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Kengo, E-mail: kengo.nishi@phys.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: kengo.nishi@phys.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Sakai, Takamasa, E-mail: kengo.nishi@phys.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation (EMA) for Hookian spring network to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1, G{sub 0}, must be equal to G/G{sub 0} = (p − 2/f)/(1 − 2/f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels.

  14. Pulsed neural networks consisting of single-flux-quantum spiking neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Asai, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An inhibitory pulsed neural network was developed for brain-like information processing, by using single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits. It consists of spiking neuron devices that are coupled to each other through all-to-all inhibitory connections. The network selects neural activity. The operation of the neural network was confirmed by computer simulation. SFQ neuron devices can imitate the operation of the inhibition phenomenon of neural networks

  15. Synchronization in node of complex networks consist of complex chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qiang, E-mail: qiangweibeihua@163.com [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Xie, Cheng-jun [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Liu, Hong-jun [School of Information Engineering, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China); Li, Yan-hui [The Library, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China)

    2014-07-15

    A new synchronization method is investigated for node of complex networks consists of complex chaotic system. When complex networks realize synchronization, different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function by a designed complex feedback controller. This paper change synchronization scaling function from real field to complex field for synchronization in node of complex networks with complex chaotic system. Synchronization in constant delay and time-varying coupling delay complex networks are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Connectome-scale group-wise consistent resting-state network analysis in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the organizational architecture of human brain function and its alteration patterns in diseased brains such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD patients are of great interests. In-vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI offers a unique window to investigate the mechanism of brain function and to identify functional network components of the human brain. Previously, we have shown that multiple concurrent functional networks can be derived from fMRI signals using whole-brain sparse representation. Yet it is still an open question to derive group-wise consistent networks featured in ASD patients and controls. Here we proposed an effective volumetric network descriptor, named connectivity map, to compactly describe spatial patterns of brain network maps and implemented a fast framework in Apache Spark environment that can effectively identify group-wise consistent networks in big fMRI dataset. Our experiment results identified 144 group-wisely common intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs shared between ASD patients and healthy control subjects, where some ICNs are substantially different between the two groups. Moreover, further analysis on the functional connectivity and spatial overlap between these 144 common ICNs reveals connectomics signatures characterizing ASD patients and controls. In particular, the computing time of our Spark-enabled functional connectomics framework is significantly reduced from 240 hours (C++ code, single core to 20 hours, exhibiting a great potential to handle fMRI big data in the future.

  17. A Dynamic Linear Hashing Method for Redundancy Management in Train Ethernet Consist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive transportation systems like trains are considered critical systems because they use the communication network to control essential subsystems on board. Critical system requires zero recovery time when a failure occurs in a communication network. The newly published IEC62439-3 defines the high-availability seamless redundancy protocol, which fulfills this requirement and ensures no frame loss in the presence of an error. This paper adopts these for train Ethernet consist network. The challenge is management of the circulating frames, capable of dealing with real-time processing requirements, fast switching times, high throughout, and deterministic behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the in-depth analysis it makes of network parameters imposed by the application of the protocols to train control and monitoring system (TCMS and the redundant circulating frames discarding method based on a dynamic linear hashing, using the fastest method in order to resolve all the issues that are dealt with.

  18. Attractive target wave patterns in complex networks consisting of excitable nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li-Sheng; Mi Yuan-Yuan; Liao Xu-Hong; Qian Yu; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the investigations of oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes, focusing on the target wave patterns or say the target wave attractors. A method of dominant phase advanced driving (DPAD) is introduced to reveal the dynamic structures in the networks supporting oscillations, such as the oscillation sources and the main excitation propagation paths from the sources to the whole networks. The target center nodes and their drivers are regarded as the key nodes which can completely determine the corresponding target wave patterns. Therefore, the center (say node A) and its driver (say node B) of a target wave can be used as a label, (A,B), of the given target pattern. The label can give a clue to conveniently retrieve, suppress, and control the target waves. Statistical investigations, both theoretically from the label analysis and numerically from direct simulations of network dynamics, show that there exist huge numbers of target wave attractors in excitable complex networks if the system size is large, and all these attractors can be labeled and easily controlled based on the information given by the labels. The possible applications of the physical ideas and the mathematical methods about multiplicity and labelability of attractors to memory problems of neural networks are briefly discussed. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  19. Self-Consistent Scheme for Spike-Train Power Spectra in Heterogeneous Sparse Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodrigo F O; Vellmer, Sebastian; Bernardi, Davide; Roque, Antonio C; Lindner, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations) and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about. Previous work has explored how the single-cell correlations in a homogeneous network (excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons with nearly balanced mean recurrent input) can be determined numerically from an iterative single-neuron simulation. Such a scheme is based on the fact that every neuron is driven by the network noise (i.e., the input currents from all its presynaptic partners) but also contributes to the network noise, leading to a self-consistency condition for the input and output spectra. Here we first extend this scheme to homogeneous networks with strong recurrent inhibition and a synaptic filter, in which instabilities of the previous scheme are avoided by an averaging procedure. We then extend the scheme to heterogeneous networks in which (i) different neural subpopulations (e.g., excitatory and inhibitory neurons) have different cellular or connectivity parameters; (ii) the number and strength of the input connections are random (Erdős-Rényi topology) and thus different among neurons. In all heterogeneous cases, neurons are lumped in different classes each of which is represented by a single neuron in the iterative scheme; in addition, we make a Gaussian approximation of the input current to the neuron. These approximations seem to be justified over a broad range of parameters as

  20. Self-Consistent Scheme for Spike-Train Power Spectra in Heterogeneous Sparse Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. O. Pena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about. Previous work has explored how the single-cell correlations in a homogeneous network (excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons with nearly balanced mean recurrent input can be determined numerically from an iterative single-neuron simulation. Such a scheme is based on the fact that every neuron is driven by the network noise (i.e., the input currents from all its presynaptic partners but also contributes to the network noise, leading to a self-consistency condition for the input and output spectra. Here we first extend this scheme to homogeneous networks with strong recurrent inhibition and a synaptic filter, in which instabilities of the previous scheme are avoided by an averaging procedure. We then extend the scheme to heterogeneous networks in which (i different neural subpopulations (e.g., excitatory and inhibitory neurons have different cellular or connectivity parameters; (ii the number and strength of the input connections are random (Erdős-Rényi topology and thus different among neurons. In all heterogeneous cases, neurons are lumped in different classes each of which is represented by a single neuron in the iterative scheme; in addition, we make a Gaussian approximation of the input current to the neuron. These approximations seem to be justified over a broad range of

  1. Using complex networks to quantify consistency in the use of words

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, D R; Oliveira Jr, O N; Costa, L da F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have quantified the consistency of word usage in written texts represented by complex networks, where words were taken as nodes, by measuring the degree of preservation of the node neighborhood. Words were considered highly consistent if the authors used them with the same neighborhood. When ranked according to the consistency of use, the words obeyed a log-normal distribution, in contrast to Zipf's law that applies to the frequency of use. Consistency correlated positively with the familiarity and frequency of use, and negatively with ambiguity and age of acquisition. An inspection of some highly consistent words confirmed that they are used in very limited semantic contexts. A comparison of consistency indices for eight authors indicated that these indices may be employed for author recognition. Indeed, as expected, authors of novels could be distinguished from those who wrote scientific texts. Our analysis demonstrated the suitability of the consistency indices, which can now be applied in other tasks, such as emotion recognition

  2. Consistent initial conditions for the Saint-Venant equations in river network modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Initial conditions for flows and depths (cross-sectional areas throughout a river network are required for any time-marching (unsteady solution of the one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic Saint-Venant equations. For a river network modeled with several Strahler orders of tributaries, comprehensive and consistent synoptic data are typically lacking and synthetic starting conditions are needed. Because of underlying nonlinearity, poorly defined or inconsistent initial conditions can lead to convergence problems and long spin-up times in an unsteady solver. Two new approaches are defined and demonstrated herein for computing flows and cross-sectional areas (or depths. These methods can produce an initial condition data set that is consistent with modeled landscape runoff and river geometry boundary conditions at the initial time. These new methods are (1 the pseudo time-marching method (PTM that iterates toward a steady-state initial condition using an unsteady Saint-Venant solver and (2 the steady-solution method (SSM that makes use of graph theory for initial flow rates and solution of a steady-state 1-D momentum equation for the channel cross-sectional areas. The PTM is shown to be adequate for short river reaches but is significantly slower and has occasional non-convergent behavior for large river networks. The SSM approach is shown to provide a rapid solution of consistent initial conditions for both small and large networks, albeit with the requirement that additional code must be written rather than applying an existing unsteady Saint-Venant solver.

  3. Neural network consistent empirical physical formula construction for neutron–gamma discrimination in gamma ray tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, Nihat; Akkoyun, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detector responses in neutron–gamma discrimination were estimated by neural networks. ► Novel consistent neural network empirical physical formulas (EPFs) were constructed for detector responses. ► The EPFs are of explicit mathematical functional form. ► The EPFs can be used to derive various physical functions relevant to neutron–gamma discrimination in gamma ray tracking. -- Abstract: Gamma ray tracking is an efficient detection technique in studying exotic nuclei which lies far from beta stability line. To achieve very powerful and extraordinary resolution ability, new detectors based on gamma ray tracking are currently being developed. To reach this achievement, the neutron–gamma discrimination in these detectors is also an important task. In this paper, by suitable layered feedforward neural networks (LFNNs), we have constructed novel and consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) for some highly nonlinear detector counts measured in neutron–gamma discrimination. The detector counts data used in the discrimination was actually borrowed from our previous paper. The counts used here had been originally measured versus the following parameters: energy deposited in the first interaction points, difference in the incoming direction of initial gamma rays, and finally figure of merit values of the clusters determined by tracking. The LFNN–EPFs are of explicit mathematical functional form. Therefore, by various suitable operations of mathematical analysis, these LFNN–EPFs can be used to derivate further physical functions which might be potentially relevant to neutron–gamma discrimination performance of gamma ray tracking.

  4. A network architecture supporting consistent rich behavior in collaborative interactive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James; Glencross, Mashhuda; Pettifer, Steve; Hubbold, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Network architectures for collaborative virtual reality have traditionally been dominated by client-server and peer-to-peer approaches, with peer-to-peer strategies typically being favored where minimizing latency is a priority, and client-server where consistency is key. With increasingly sophisticated behavior models and the demand for better support for haptics, we argue that neither approach provides sufficient support for these scenarios and, thus, a hybrid architecture is required. We discuss the relative performance of different distribution strategies in the face of real network conditions and illustrate the problems they face. Finally, we present an architecture that successfully meets many of these challenges and demonstrate its use in a distributed virtual prototyping application which supports simultaneous collaboration for assembly, maintenance, and training applications utilizing haptics.

  5. The pairwise phase consistency in cortical network and its relationship with neuronal activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-band neuronal oscillation and synchronization with the range of 30-90 Hz are ubiquitous phenomenon across numerous brain areas and various species, and correlated with plenty of cognitive functions. The phase of the oscillation, as one aspect of CTC (Communication through Coherence hypothesis, underlies various functions for feature coding, memory processing and behaviour performing. The PPC (Pairwise Phase Consistency, an improved coherence measure, statistically quantifies the strength of phase synchronization. In order to evaluate the PPC and its relationships with input stimulus, neuronal activation and firing rate, a simplified spiking neuronal network is constructed to simulate orientation columns in primary visual cortex. If the input orientation stimulus is preferred for a certain orientation column, neurons within this corresponding column will obtain higher firing rate and stronger neuronal activation, which consequently engender higher PPC values, with higher PPC corresponding to higher firing rate. In addition, we investigate the PPC in time resolved analysis with a sliding window.

  6. Consistent robustness analysis (CRA) identifies biologically relevant properties of regulatory network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithong, Treenut; Painter, Kevin J; Millar, Andrew J

    2010-12-16

    A number of studies have previously demonstrated that "goodness of fit" is insufficient in reliably classifying the credibility of a biological model. Robustness and/or sensitivity analysis is commonly employed as a secondary method for evaluating the suitability of a particular model. The results of such analyses invariably depend on the particular parameter set tested, yet many parameter values for biological models are uncertain. Here, we propose a novel robustness analysis that aims to determine the "common robustness" of the model with multiple, biologically plausible parameter sets, rather than the local robustness for a particular parameter set. Our method is applied to two published models of the Arabidopsis circadian clock (the one-loop [1] and two-loop [2] models). The results reinforce current findings suggesting the greater reliability of the two-loop model and pinpoint the crucial role of TOC1 in the circadian network. Consistent Robustness Analysis can indicate both the relative plausibility of different models and also the critical components and processes controlling each model.

  7. Worst-case optimal approximation algorithms for maximizing triplet consistency within phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Byrka (Jaroslaw); K.T. Huber; S.M. Kelk (Steven); P. Gawrychowski

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of phylogenetic networks is of great interest to computational evolutionary biology and numerous different types of such structures are known. This article addresses the following question concerning rooted versions of phylogenetic networks. What is the maximum value of pset

  8. A Network-Based Impact Measure for Propagated Losses in a Supply Chain Network Consisting of Resilient Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Felix Bayta Valenzuela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology of a supply chain network affects the impacts of disruptions in it. We formulate a network-based measure of the impact of a disruption loss in a supply chain propagating downstream from an originating node. The measure takes into account the loss profile of the originating node, the structure of the supply network, and the resilience of the network components. We obtain an analytical expression for the impact measure under a beta-distributed initial loss (generalizable to any continuous distribution supported on the interval 0,1, under a breakthrough scenario (in which a fraction of the initial production loss reaches a focal company downstream as opposed to containment upstream or at the originating point. Furthermore, we obtain a closed-form solution for a supply chain network with a k-ary tree topology; a numerical study is performed for a scale-free network and a random network. Our proposed approach enables the evaluation of potential losses for a focal company considering its supply chain network structure, which may help the company to plan or redesign a robust and resilient network in response to different types of disruptions.

  9. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bum Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jee Wook [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Woong [College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  10. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  11. An Analysis of Weakly Consistent Replication Systems in an Active Distributed Network

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Chougule; Pravin Ghewari

    2011-01-01

    With the sudden increase in heterogeneity and distribution of data in wide-area networks, more flexible, efficient and autonomous approaches for management and data distribution are needed. In recent years, the proliferation of inter-networks and distributed applications has increased the demand for geographically-distributed replicated databases. The architecture of Bayou provides features that address the needs of database storage of world-wide applications. Key is the use of weak consisten...

  12. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eDummer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, J. Comp. Neurosci. 2000 and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  13. Texture synthesis using convolutional neural networks with long-range consistency and spectral constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, Shaun; Geldenhuys, Jaco; Villiers, De Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Procedural texture generation enables the creation of more rich and detailed virtual environments without the help of an artist. However, finding a flexible generative model of real world textures remains an open problem. We present a novel Convolutional Neural Network based texture model

  14. Orthogonal Operation of Constitutional Dynamic Networks Consisting of DNA-Tweezer Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Cecconello, Alessandro; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Willner, Itamar

    2017-12-26

    Overexpression or down-regulation of cellular processes are often controlled by dynamic chemical networks. Bioinspired by nature, we introduce constitutional dynamic networks (CDNs) as systems that emulate the principle of the nature processes. The CDNs comprise dynamically interconvertible equilibrated constituents that respond to external triggers by adapting the composition of the dynamic mixture to the energetic stabilization of the constituents. We introduce a nucleic acid-based CDN that includes four interconvertible and mechanically triggered tweezers, AA', BB', AB' and BA', existing in closed, closed, open, and open configurations, respectively. By subjecting the CDN to auxiliary triggers, the guided stabilization of one of the network constituents dictates the dynamic reconfiguration of the structures of the tweezers constituents. The orthogonal and reversible operations of the CDN DNA tweezers are demonstrated, using T-A·T triplex or K + -stabilized G-quadruplex as structural motifs that control the stabilities of the constituents. The implications of the study rest on the possible applications of input-guided CDN assemblies for sensing, logic gate operations, and programmed activation of molecular machines.

  15. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko, E-mail: mparis@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kunieda, Satoshi [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the {sup 9}B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of {sup 7}Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the {sup 9}B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He){sup 6}Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 8}Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 9}B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  16. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B.; Kunieda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the 9 B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of 7 Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the 9 B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic 6 Li( 3 He, 3 He) 6 Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,p) 8 Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 7 Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 9 B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  17. Disruption of a regulatory network consisting of neutrophils and platelets fosters persisting inflammation in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma eMaugeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A network of cellular interactions that involve blood leukocytes and platelets maintains vessel homeostasis. It plays a critical role in the response to invading microbes by recruiting intravascular immunity and through the generation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs and immunothrombosis. Moreover it enables immune cells to respond to remote chemoattractants by crossing the endothelial barrier and reaching sites of infection. Once the network operating under physiological conditions is disrupted, the reciprocal activation of cells in the blood and the vessel walls determines the vascular remodelling via inflammatory signals delivered to stem/progenitor cells. A deregulated leukocyte/mural cell interaction is an early critical event in the natural history of systemic inflammation. Despite intense efforts, the signals that initiate and sustain the immune-mediated vessel injury, or those that enforce the often-prolonged phases of clinical quiescence in patients with vasculitis, have only been partially elucidated. Here we discuss recent evidence that implicates the prototypic Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern/ alarmin, the High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 protein in systemic vasculitis and in the vascular inflammation associated to systemic sclerosis. HMGB1 could represent a player in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases and an attractive target for molecular interventions.

  18. Disruption of a Regulatory Network Consisting of Neutrophils and Platelets Fosters Persisting Inflammation in Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Norma; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2016-01-01

    A network of cellular interactions that involve blood leukocytes and platelets maintains vessel homeostasis. It plays a critical role in the response to invading microbes by recruiting intravascular immunity and through the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and immunothrombosis. Moreover, it enables immune cells to respond to remote chemoattractants by crossing the endothelial barrier and reaching sites of infection. Once the network operating under physiological conditions is disrupted, the reciprocal activation of cells in the blood and the vessel walls determines the vascular remodeling via inflammatory signals delivered to stem/progenitor cells. A deregulated leukocyte/mural cell interaction is an early critical event in the natural history of systemic inflammation. Despite intense efforts, the signals that initiate and sustain the immune-mediated vessel injury, or those that enforce the often-prolonged phases of clinical quiescence in patients with vasculitis, have only been partially elucidated. Here, we discuss recent evidence that implicates the prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern/alarmin, the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in systemic vasculitis and in the vascular inflammation associated with systemic sclerosis. HMGB1 could represent a player in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases and an attractive target for molecular interventions.

  19. Using network screening methods to determine locations with specific safety issues: A design consistency case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsick, Andrew J; Wood, Jonathan S; Jovanis, Paul P

    2017-09-01

    The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs). This method is applied to identifying SWiPs with geometric design consistency issues. Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to develop two SPFs using 5 years of crash data and over 8754km of two-lane rural roadway. The first SPF contained typical roadway elements while the second contained additional geometric design consistency parameters. After empirical Bayes adjustments, sites with promise (SWiPs) were identified. The disparity between SWiPs identified by the two SPFs was evident; 40 unique sites were identified by each model out of the top 220 segments. By comparing sites across the two models, candidate road segments can be identified where a lack design consistency may be contributing to an increase in expected crashes. Practitioners can use this method to more effectively identify roadway segments suffering from reduced safety performance due to geometric design inconsistency, with detailed engineering studies of identified sites required to confirm the initial assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consistent individual differences and population plasticity in network-derived sociality: An experimental manipulation of density in a gregarious ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Paul P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In many taxa, individual social traits appear to be consistent across time and context, thus meeting the criteria for animal personality. How these differences are maintained in response to changes in population density is unknown, particularly in large mammals, such as ungulates. Using a behavioral reaction norm (BRN) framework, we examined how among- and within-individual variation in social connectedness, measured using social network analyses, change as a function of population density. We studied a captive herd of elk (Cervus canadensis) separated into a group of male elk and a group of female elk. Males and females were exposed to three different density treatments and we recorded social associations between individuals with proximity-detecting radio-collars fitted to elk. We constructed social networks using dyadic association data and calculated three social network metrics reflective of social connectedness: eigenvector centrality, graph strength, and degree. Elk exhibited consistent individual differences in social connectedness across densities; however, they showed little individual variation in their response to changes in density, i.e., individuals oftentimes responded plastically, but in the same manner to changes in density. Female elk had highest connectedness at an intermediate density. In contrast, male elk increased connectedness with increasing density. Whereas this may suggest that the benefits of social connectedness outweigh the costs of increased competition at higher density for males, females appear to exhibit a threshold in social benefits (e.g. predator detection and forage information). Our study illustrates the importance of viewing social connectedness as a density-dependent trait, particularly in the context of plasticity. Moreover, we highlight the need to revisit our understanding of density dependence as a population-level phenomenon by accounting for consistent individual differences not only in social connectedness, but likely

  1. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consistent empirical physical formula construction for recoil energy distribution in HPGe detectors by using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Yildiz, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking technique is a highly efficient detection method in experimental nuclear structure physics. On the basis of this method, two gamma-ray tracking arrays, AGATA in Europe and GRETA in the USA, are currently being tested. The interactions of neutrons in these detectors lead to an unwanted background in the gamma-ray spectra. Thus, the interaction points of neutrons in these detectors have to be determined in the gamma-ray tracking process in order to improve photo-peak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios of the gamma-ray peaks. In this paper, the recoil energy distributions of germanium nuclei due to inelastic scatterings of 1–5 MeV neutrons were first obtained by simulation experiments. Secondly, as a novel approach, for these highly nonlinear detector responses of recoiling germanium nuclei, consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) were constructed by appropriate feedforward neural networks (LFNNs). The LFNN-EPFs are of explicit mathematical functional form. Therefore, the LFNN-EPFs can be used to derive further physical functions which could be potentially relevant for the determination of neutron interactions in gamma-ray tracking process.

  3. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  4. The elastic network model reveals a consistent picture on intrinsic functional dynamics of type II restriction endonucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, A; Kurkcuoglu, O; Doruker, P; Nilsson, L

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational dynamics of various type II restriction endonucleases, in complex with cognate/non-cognate DNA and in the apo form, are investigated with the elastic network model in order to reveal common functional mechanisms in this enzyme family. Scissor-like and tong-like motions observed in the slowest modes of all enzymes and their complexes point to common DNA recognition and cleavage mechanisms. Normal mode analysis further points out that the scissor-like motion has an important role in differentiating between cognate and non-cognate sequences at the recognition site, thus implying its catalytic relevance. Flexible regions observed around the DNA-binding site of the enzyme usually concentrate on the highly conserved β-strands, especially after DNA binding. These β-strands may have a structurally stabilizing role in functional dynamics for target site recognition and cleavage. In addition, hot spot residues based on high-frequency modes reveal possible communication pathways between the two distant cleavage sites in the enzyme family. Some of these hot spots also exist on the shortest path between the catalytic sites and are highly conserved

  5. Statistical mechanics of stochastic neural networks: Relationship between the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis, Thouless-Anderson-Palmer equation, and replica symmetric calculation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiino, Masatoshi; Yamana, Michiko

    2004-01-01

    We study the statistical mechanical aspects of stochastic analog neural network models for associative memory with correlation type learning. We take three approaches to derive the set of the order parameter equations for investigating statistical properties of retrieval states: the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA), the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) equation, and the replica symmetric calculation. On the basis of the cavity method the SCSNA can be generalized to deal with stochastic networks. We establish the close connection between the TAP equation and the SCSNA to elucidate the relationship between the Onsager reaction term of the TAP equation and the output proportional term of the SCSNA that appear in the expressions for the local fields

  6. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  7. Self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis of the statistical behavior of analog neural networks and enhancement of the storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Masatoshi; Fukai, Tomoki

    1993-08-01

    Based on the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA) capable of dealing with analog neural networks with a wide class of transfer functions, enhancement of the storage capacity of associative memory and the related statistical properties of neural networks are studied for random memory patterns. Two types of transfer functions with the threshold parameter θ are considered, which are derived from the sigmoidal one to represent the output of three-state neurons. Neural networks having a monotonically increasing transfer function FM, FM(u)=sgnu (||u||>θ), FM(u)=0 (||u||memory patterns), implying the reduction of the number of spurious states. The behavior of the storage capacity with changing θ is qualitatively the same as that of the Ising spin neural networks with varying temperature. On the other hand, the nonmonotonic transfer function FNM, FNM(u)=sgnu (||u||=θ) gives rise to remarkable features in several respects. First, it yields a large enhancement of the storage capacity compared with the Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky (AGS) value: with decreasing θ from θ=∞, the storage capacity αc of such a network is increased from the AGS value (~=0.14) to attain its maximum value of ~=0.42 at θ~=0.7 and afterwards is decreased to vanish at θ=0. Whereas for θ>~1 the storage capacity αc coincides with the value αc~ determined by the SCSNA as the upper bound of α ensuring the existence of retrieval solutions, for θr≠0 (i.e., finite width of the local field distribution), which is implied by the order-parameter equations of the SCSNA, disappears at a certain critical loading rate α0, and for αr=0+). As a consequence, memory retrieval without errors becomes possible even in the saturation limit α≠0. Results of the computer simulations on the statistical properties of the novel phase with αstorage capacity is also analyzed for the two types of networks. It is conspicuous for the networks with FNM, where the self-couplings increase the stability of

  8. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  9. Quantifying sources of elemental carbon over the Guanzhong Basin of China: A consistent network of measurements and WRF-Chem modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; He, Qingyang; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Liu, Suixin; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Huang, Rujin; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a year-long WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Chemical) model simulation of elemental carbon (EC) aerosol and compared the modeling results to the surface EC measurements in the Guanzhong (GZ) Basin of China. The main goals of this study were to quantify the individual contributions of different EC sources to EC pollution, and to find the major cause of the EC pollution in this region. The EC measurements were simultaneously conducted at 10 urban, rural, and background sites over the GZ Basin from May 2013 to April 2014, and provided a good base against which to evaluate model simulation. The model evaluation showed that the calculated annual mean EC concentration was 5.1 μgC m −3 , which was consistent with the observed value of 5.3 μgC m −3 . Moreover, the model result also reproduced the magnitude of measured EC in all seasons (regression slope = 0.98–1.03), as well as the spatial and temporal variations (r = 0.55–0.78). We conducted several sensitivity studies to quantify the individual contributions of EC sources to EC pollution. The sensitivity simulations showed that the local and outside sources contributed about 60% and 40% to the annual mean EC concentration, respectively, implying that local sources were the major EC pollution contributors in the GZ Basin. Among the local sources, residential sources contributed the most, followed by industry and transportation sources. A further analysis suggested that a 50% reduction of industry or transportation emissions only caused a 6% decrease in the annual mean EC concentration, while a 50% reduction of residential emissions reduced the winter surface EC concentration by up to 25%. In respect to the serious air pollution problems (including EC pollution) in the GZ Basin, our findings can provide an insightful view on local air pollution control strategies. - Highlights: • A yearlong WRF-Chem simulation is conducted to identify sources of the EC pollution. • A network of

  10. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  11. Consistent workforce management cuts the cost incurred for network maintenance, fault clearance, and other utility services; Konsequentes Einsatzmanagement senkt die Kosten im Servicebereich. Mehr Leistungen fuer weniger Geld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M. [Deneg GmbH, Garbsen (Germany); Hillmann, G. [Tema Technologie Marketing AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-02-10

    The electric utilities and grid operators have to cope with a wide range of difficult, new challenges since the onset of electricity market liberalisation in 1998. The sometimes contradictory requirements of the customers or the legal regime can be managed only by a consistent optimization of procedures and operational processes in the service environment, as for example workforce management, order processing and execution. Workforce management is the particularly efficient approach at the organizational and service leve, which is demonstrated in the article. (orig./CB) [German] Alle Netzbetreiber sehen sich als Folge der Liberalisierung des Strommarktes seit 1998 erhoehten Anforderungen ausgesetzt. Diese sich teilweise widersprechenden Anforderungen sind aber nur durch eine Optimierung der Ablaeufe im Servicebereich bei Einsatzplanung, Auftragserfassung und -abwicklung zu bewaeltigen. Workforce Management ist das geeignete Hilfsmittel, um organisatorisch und technisch die Folgen der erforderlichen Einsparungen abzufangen und trotzdem die Qualitaet der Versorgung aufrecht zu erhalten, auch mit weniger Mitarbeitern. (orig./CB)

  12. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  13. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  14. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  15. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  16. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  17. Geodetic Networks, This is udated by the use of GPS and updated weekely. It consist of interstate highways, state highways, major roads and local roads as well as private streets with address range, speed limit and elevation data associated to each segement., Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Networks dataset current as of 2007. This is udated by the use of GPS and updated weekely. It consist of interstate highways, state highways, major roads...

  18. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  19. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  20. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  1. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  3. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  4. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  5. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  6. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  7. Assessment of the accuracy and consistency in the application of standardized surveillance definitions: A summary of the American Journal of Infection Control and National Healthcare Safety Network case studies, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marc-Oliver; Allen-Bridson, Katherine; Hebden, Joan N

    2017-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definitions are the most widely used criteria for health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance. NHSN participants agree to conduct surveillance in accordance with the NHSN protocol and criteria. To assess the application of these standardized surveillance specifications and offer infection preventionists (IPs) opportunities for ongoing education, a series of case studies, with questions related to NHSN definitions and criteria were published. Beginning in 2010, case studies with multiple-choice questions based on standard surveillance criteria and protocols were written and published in the American Journal of Infection Control with a link to an online survey. Participants anonymously submitted their responses before receiving the correct answers. The 22 case studies had 7,950 respondents who provided 27,790 responses to 75 questions during the first 6 years. Correct responses were selected 62.5% of the time (17,376 out of 27,290), but ranged widely (16%-87%). In a subset analysis, 93% of participants self-identified as IPs (3,387 out of 3,640), 4.5% were public health professionals (163 out of 3,640), and 2.5% were physicians (90 out of 3,640). IPs responded correctly (62%) more often than physicians (55%) (P = .006). Among a cohort of voluntary participants, accurate application of surveillance criteria to case studies was suboptimal, highlighting the need for continuing education, competency development, and auditing. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consistency Checking in Hypothesis Generation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    In a semantic network model of memory (Col l ins and Loftu s , 1975) , concepts are repr~~ented as nodes inter connected by re lational pathw ays...fornia 90007 Defense Dooinentation Center: C~ neron Stat ion , Bldg . 5 Dr. Kenneth I lain~ondAlexandria , Vi rg ir& a 22314 (i~ c>r ;) Institt~to of

  9. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  10. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  11. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  12. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  13. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  14. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  15. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  16. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  17. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  18. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  19. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  20. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  1. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  2. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  3. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  4. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  5. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  6. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  7. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  8. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  9. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  10. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  11. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  12. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling , or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses.

  13. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  14. On the Consistent Migration of Unsplittable Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    in an inherently asynchronous system, the switches distributed over the network. To this end, a multitude of scheduling systems have been proposed since the initial papers of Reitblatt et al. (Abstractions for Network Update, SIGCOMM ’12) and Hong et al. (SWAN, SIGCOMM ’13). While the the complexity...

  15. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  16. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  17. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  18. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  19. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  20. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  1. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  2. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  3. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  4. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  6. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against wormhole attacks, which includes three phases of wormhole attack detection, valid locators identification and self-localization. The theoretical model is further formulated to analyze the proposed secure localization scheme. The simulation results validate the theoretical results and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  7. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  8. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  9. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  10. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  11. Optimal Network-Topology Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Victor O. K.; Yuen, Joseph H.; Hou, Ting-Chao; Lam, Yuen Fung

    1987-01-01

    Candidate network designs tested for acceptability and cost. Optimal Network Topology Design computer program developed as part of study on topology design and analysis of performance of Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. Uses efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs consisting of subsets of set of all network components, in increasing order of total costs and checks each design to see whether it forms acceptable network. Technique gives true cost-optimal network and particularly useful when network has many constraints and not too many components. Program written in PASCAL.

  12. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  13. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  14. Stabilizing weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification

  15. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  16. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  17. Toward a consistent RHA-RPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the RPA based on a relativistic Hartree approximation description for nuclear ground states. This model includes contributions from the negative energy sea at the 1-loop level. They emphasize consistency between the treatment of the ground state and the RPA. This consistency is important in the description of low-lying collective levels but less important for the longitudinal (e, e') quasi-elastic response. They also study the effect of imposing a 3-momentum cutoff on negative energy sea contributions. A cutoff of twice the nucleon mass improves agreement with observed spin orbit splittings in nuclei compared to the standard infinite cutoff results, an effect traceable to the fact that imposing the cutoff reduces m*/m. The cutoff is much less important than consistency in the description of low-lying collective levels. The cutoff model provides excellent agreement with quasi-elastic (e, e') data

  18. Financial model calibration using consistency hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a technique for forcing the calibration of a financial model to produce valid parameters. The technique is based on learning from hints. It converts simple curve fitting into genuine calibration, where broad conclusions can be inferred from parameter values. The technique augments the error function of curve fitting with consistency hint error functions based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. We introduce an efficient EM-type optimization algorithm tailored to this technique. We also introduce other consistency hints, and balance their weights using canonical errors. We calibrate the correlated multifactor Vasicek model of interest rates, and apply it successfully to Japanese Yen swaps market and US dollar yield market.

  19. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  20. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...

  1. Image recognition and consistency of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image. Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize. Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  2. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  3. Guided color consistency optimization for image mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Yao, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of color consistency correction for sequential images with diverse color characteristics. Existing algorithms try to adjust all images to minimize color differences among images under a unified energy framework, however, the results are prone to presenting a consistent but unnatural appearance when the color difference between images is large and diverse. In our approach, this problem is addressed effectively by providing a guided initial solution for the global consistency optimization, which avoids converging to a meaningless integrated solution. First of all, to obtain the reliable intensity correspondences in overlapping regions between image pairs, we creatively propose the histogram extreme point matching algorithm which is robust to image geometrical misalignment to some extents. In the absence of the extra reference information, the guided initial solution is learned from the major tone of the original images by searching some image subset as the reference, whose color characteristics will be transferred to the others via the paths of graph analysis. Thus, the final results via global adjustment will take on a consistent color similar to the appearance of the reference image subset. Several groups of convincing experiments on both the synthetic dataset and the challenging real ones sufficiently demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve as good or even better results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  4. Consistent application of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  5. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  6. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  7. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...

  8. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  9. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  10. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  11. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  12. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, Roland

    1990-01-01

    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  13. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  14. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  15. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  16. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  17. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  18. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  19. Self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hideo; Kammuri, Tetsuo; Kishimoto, Teruo.

    1993-09-01

    The field coupling method is extended to a system with a velocity dependent mean potential. By means of this method, we can derive the effective interactions which are consistent with the mean potential. The self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions are applied to the microscopic analysis of the structures of giant dipole resonances (GDR) of 148,154 Sm, of the first excited 2 + states of Sn isotopes and of the first excited 3 - states of Mo isotopes. It is clarified that the interactions play crucial roles in describing the splitting of the resonant structure of GDR peaks, in restoring the energy weighted sum rule values, and in reducing B (Eλ) values. (author)

  20. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Susan E.; Thurman, Lindsey L.; Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monito...

  1. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  2. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  3. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  4. Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David A; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler–DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent-histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce versus a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite ‘past’ or ‘future’ scalar ‘time’, in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models. (paper)

  5. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  6. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  7. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Application data flow .............................................................................2 Fig. 2 Sample JSON data...interface supporting improved network analysis and network communication visualization. 2. Application Design NVP consists of 2 parts: back-end data...notation ( JSON ) format. This JSON is provided as input to the front-end application of the project. This interaction of the user with the back-end

  8. Home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Some of the specific areas/topics discussed include: Convergence in home networks, home service scenarios; Home wired network architectures, CapEx and OpEx; Residential Gateway; Optical fiber types;

  9. Do Health Systems Have Consistent Performance Across Locations and Is Consistency Associated With Higher Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    This study addresses whether health systems have consistent diabetes care performance across their ambulatory clinics and whether increasing consistency is associated with improvements in clinic performance. Study data included 2007 to 2013 diabetes care intermediate outcome measures for 661 ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states. Health systems provided more consistent performance, as measured by the standard deviation of performance for clinics in a system, relative to propensity score-matched proxy systems created for comparison purposes. No evidence was found that improvements in consistency were associated with higher clinic performance. The combination of high performance and consistent care is likely to enhance a health system's brand reputation, allowing it to better mitigate the financial risks of consumers seeking care outside the organization. These results suggest that larger health systems are most likely to deliver the combination of consistent and high-performance care. Future research should explore the mechanisms that drive consistent care within health systems.

  10. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  11. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  12. A method for consistent precision radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a meticulous setup procedure in which repeated portal films were taken before each treatment until satisfactory portal verifications were obtained, a high degree of precision in patient positioning was achieved. A fluctuation from treatment to treatment, over 11 treatments, of less than +-0.10 cm (S.D.) for anatomical points inside the treatment field was obtained. This, however, only applies to specific anatomical points selected for this positioning procedure and does not apply to all points within the portal. We have generalized this procedure and have suggested a means by which any target volume can be consistently positioned which may approach this degree of precision. (orig.)

  13. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  14. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  15. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  16. Self-consistent model of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency

  17. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  18. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  19. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  20. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  1. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  2. Design and value of service oriented technologies for smart business networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, R.; Smits, M.T.; Beverungen, D.; Tuunanen, T.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2014-01-01

    Business networks that effectively use technologies and outperform competing networks are known as smart business networks. Theory hypothesizes that smart business networking requires a ‘Networked Business Operating System’ (NBOS), a technological architecture consisting of business logic, that

  3. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Wackernagel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”, and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  4. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackernagel, Mathis, E-mail: mathis.wackernagel@footprintnetwork.org; Hanscom, Laurel; Lin, David [Global Footprint Network, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”), and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  5. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Hanscom, Laurel; Lin, David

    2017-01-01

    The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”), and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  6. Thermodynamically consistent coarse graining of biocatalysts beyond Michaelis–Menten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Artur; Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    Starting from the detailed catalytic mechanism of a biocatalyst we provide a coarse-graining procedure which, by construction, is thermodynamically consistent. This procedure provides stoichiometries, reaction fluxes (rate laws), and reaction forces (Gibbs energies of reaction) for the coarse-grained level. It can treat active transporters and molecular machines, and thus extends the applicability of ideas that originated in enzyme kinetics. Our results lay the foundations for systematic studies of the thermodynamics of large-scale biochemical reaction networks. Moreover, we identify the conditions under which a relation between one-way fluxes and forces holds at the coarse-grained level as it holds at the detailed level. In doing so, we clarify the speculations and broad claims made in the literature about such a general flux–force relation. As a further consequence we show that, in contrast to common belief, the second law of thermodynamics does not require the currents and the forces of biochemical reaction networks to be always aligned.

  7. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  8. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  9. A consistent thermodynamic database for cement minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Claret, F.; Burnol, A.; Marty, N.; Gaboreau, S.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffault, E.; Bourbon, X.

    2010-01-01

    work - the formation enthalpy and the Cp(T) function are taken from the literature or estimated - finally, the Log K(T) function is calculated, based on the selected dataset and it is compared to experimental data gathered at different temperatures. Each experimental point is extracted from solution compositions by using PHREEQC with a selection of aqueous complexes, consistent with the Thermochimie database. The selection was tested namely by drawing activity diagrams, allowing to assess phases relations. An example of such a diagram, drawn in the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O system is displayed. It can be seen that low pH concrete alteration proceeds essentially in decreasing the C/S ratio in C-S-H phases to the point where C-S-H are no longer stable and replaced by zeolite, then clay minerals. This evolution corresponds to a decrease in silica activity, which is consistent with the pH decrease, as silica concentration depends essentially on pH. Some rather consistent phase relations have been obtained for the SO 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CaO-CO 2 -H 2 O system. Addition of iron III enlarges the AFm-SO 4 stability field to the low temperature domain, whereas it decreases the pH domain where ettringite is stable. On the other hand, the stability field of katoite remains largely ambiguous, namely with respect to a hydro-garnet/grossular solid solution. With respect to other databases this work was made in consistency with a larger mineral selection, so that it can be used for modelling works in the cement clay interaction context

  10. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  11. Self-consistent modelling of ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Hedin, J.; Johnson, T.; Laxaaback, M.; Tennfors, E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of ICRH is often sensitive to the shape of the high energy part of the distribution functions of the resonating species. This requires self-consistent calculations of the distribution functions and the wave-field. In addition to the wave-particle interactions and Coulomb collisions the effects of the finite orbit width and the RF-induced spatial transport are found to be important. The inward drift dominates in general even for a symmetric toroidal wave spectrum in the centre of the plasma. An inward drift does not necessarily produce a more peaked heating profile. On the contrary, for low concentrations of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas it can even give rise to broader profiles. (author)

  12. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  13. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  14. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  15. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  16. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  17. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  18. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Self consistent field theory of virus assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyu; Orland, Henri; Zandi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    The ground state dominance approximation (GSDA) has been extensively used to study the assembly of viral shells. In this work we employ the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) to investigate the adsorption of RNA onto positively charged spherical viral shells and examine the conditions when GSDA does not apply and SCFT has to be used to obtain a reliable solution. We find that there are two regimes in which GSDA does work. First, when the genomic RNA length is long enough compared to the capsid radius, and second, when the interaction between the genome and capsid is so strong that the genome is basically localized next to the wall. We find that for the case in which RNA is more or less distributed uniformly in the shell, regardless of the length of RNA, GSDA is not a good approximation. We observe that as the polymer-shell interaction becomes stronger, the energy gap between the ground state and first excited state increases and thus GSDA becomes a better approximation. We also present our results corresponding to the genome persistence length obtained through the tangent-tangent correlation length and show that it is zero in case of GSDA but is equal to the inverse of the energy gap when using SCFT.

  20. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  2. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  3. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion

  4. The Consistency Between Clinical and Electrophysiological Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra E. Okuyucu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the impact of electrophysiological tests in the clinical management and diagnosis of patients, and to evaluate the consistency between referring clinical diagnoses and electrophysiological diagnoses. METHODS: The study included 957 patients referred to the electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory from different clinics with different clinical diagnoses in 2008. Demographic data, referring clinical diagnoses, the clinics where the requests wanted, and diagnoses after ENMG testing were recorded and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: In all, 957 patients [644 (67.3% female and 313 (32.7% male] were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 45.40 ± 14.54 years. ENMG requests were made by different specialists; 578 (60.4% patients were referred by neurologists, 122 (12.8% by orthopedics, 140 (14.6% by neurosurgeons, and 117 (12.2% by physical treatment and rehabilitation departments. According to the results of ENMG testing, 513 (53.6% patients’ referrals were related to their referral diagnosis, whereas 397 (41.5% patients had normal ENMG test results, and 47 (4.9% patients had a diagnosis that differed from the referring diagnosis. Among the relation between the referral diagnosis and electrophysiological diagnosis according to the clinics where the requests were made, there was no statistical difference (p= 0.794, but there were statistically significant differences between the support of different clinical diagnoses, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy-plexopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and myopathy based on ENMG test results (p< 0.001. CONCLUSION: ENMG is a frequently used neurological examination. As such, referrals for ENMG can be made to either support the referring diagnosis or to exclude other diagnoses. This may explain the inconsistency between clinical referring diagnoses and diagnoses following ENMG

  5. Self-consistent meson mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    A dual-topological-unitarization (or dual-fragmentation) approach to the calculation of hadron masses is presented, in which the effect of planar ''sea''-quark loops is taken into account from the beginning. Using techniques based on analyticity and generalized ladder-graph dynamics, we first derive the approximate ''generic'' Regge-trajectory formula α(t) = max (S 1 +S 2 , S 3 +S 4 )-(1/2) +2alpha-circumflex'[s/sub a/ +(1/2)(t-summationm/sub i/ 2 )] for any given hadronic process 1+2→3+4, where S/sub i/ and m/sub i/ are the spins and masses of i = 1,2,3,4, and √s/sub a/ is the effective mass of the lowest nonvanishing contribution (a) exchanged in the crossed channel. By requiring a minimization of secondary (background, etc.) contributions to a, and demanding simultaneous consistency for entire sets of such processes, we are then able to calculate the masses of all the lowest pseudoscalar and vector qq-bar states with q = u,d,s and the Regge trajectories on which they lie. By making certain additional assumptions we are also able to do this with q = u,d,c and q = u,d,b. Our only arbitrary parameters are m/sub rho/, m/sub K/*, m/sub psi/, and m/sub Upsilon/, one of which merely serves to fix the energy scale. In contrast to many other approaches, a small m/sub π/ 2 /m/sub rho/ 2 ratio arises quite naturally in the present scheme

  6. Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Daniele; Cano, Eduardo; Baldini, Gianmarco

    2018-05-16

    In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT.

  7. Contemporary Network Proteomics and Its Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee

    2013-01-01

    The integration of networks with genomics (network genomics) is a familiar field. Conventional network analysis takes advantage of the larger coverage and relative stability of gene expression measurements. Network proteomics on the other hand has to develop further on two critical factors: (1) expanded data coverage and consistency, and (2) suitable reference network libraries, and data mining from them. Concerning (1) we discuss several contemporary themes that can improve data quality, which in turn will boost the outcome of downstream network analysis. For (2), we focus on network analysis developments, specifically, the need for context-specific networks and essential considerations for localized network analysis. PMID:24833333

  8. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  9. Macroecology of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2013-01-01

    towards the tropics, and that network topology would be affected by current climate. Location Global. Methods Each network was organized as a presence/absence matrix, consisting of P plant species, A pollinator species and their links. From these matrices, network parameters were estimated. Additionally...... with either latitude or elevation. However, network modularity decreased significantly with latitude whereas mean number of links per plant species (Lp) and A/P ratio peaked at mid-latitude. Above 500 m a.s.l., A/P ratio decreased and mean number of links per pollinator species (La) increased with elevation......Aim Interacting communities of species are organized into complex networks, and network analysis is reckoned to be a strong tool for describing their architecture. Many species assemblies show strong macroecological patterns, e.g. increasing species richness with decreasing latitude, but whether...

  10. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  11. Molecular ecological network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-05-30

    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  12. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  13. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  14. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  15. Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Neural Network Classifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... an OCR using Neural Network classifier preceded by a set of preprocessing .... Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which we adopt in this research, consist of ... advantage and disadvantages of each technique. In [9],. Khemiri ...

  16. Bayesian Network Induction via Local Neighborhoods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margaritis, Dimitris

    1999-01-01

    .... We present an efficient algorithm for learning Bayesian networks from data. Our approach constructs Bayesian networks by first identifying each node's Markov blankets, then connecting nodes in a consistent way...

  17. COMMUNICA TION NETWORK FOR TELEMEDICINE Debretsion G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (3) continuing medical education and (4) Training the medical ... Telemedicine system consists of at least five major subsystems. [l,4]. ... and wire-line (optical network) telecommunication facilities .... An ATM network needs certain traffic control.

  18. LHCb DAQ network upgrade tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    My project concerned the evaluation of new technologies for the DAQ network upgrade of LHCb. The first part consisted in developing and Open Flow-based Clos network. This new technology is very interesting and powerful but, as shown by the results, it still needs further improvements. The second part consisted in testing and benchmarking 40GbE network equipment: Mellanox MT27500, Chelsio T580 and Huawei Cloud Engine 12804. An event-building simulation is currently been performed in order to check the feasibility of the DAQ network upgrade in LS2. The first results are promising.

  19. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  20. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  1. Data Exchange Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau Larsen, Anton; Ellersgaard, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the extensive Danish elite network. Collected during 2012 and 2013, the data comprises 56,536 positions within 5,079 affiliations, and connects 37,750 individuals. The network consists of the largest Danish corporations, state institutions, NGO’s, and other integrative...... networks such as social clubs or royal events. Data were gathered through an inclusion principle, adding all potentially interesting affiliations. Procedures of name-matching and quality control are presented. Finally, the data are introduced: made available through a package for R, which enables...

  2. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  3. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  4. Wireless Sensor Network –A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nirvika Chouhan; P.D.Vyavahare; Rekha Jain

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are the networks consisting of large number of small and tiny sensor nodes. The nodes are supplied with limited power, memory and other resources and perform in-network processing. In this paper, various issues are discussed that actually put the limitations in the well working and the life time of the network. In Wireless sensor network, nodes should consume less power, memoryand so data aggregation should be performed. Security is another aspect which should be pres...

  5. On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente Feruglio, Gabriel Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    We prove that Nakhleh’s metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of tree-child phylogenetic networks, semibinary tree-sibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phyl...

  6. Online Social Network Interactions:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jung Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural comparison of social networking structure on McDonald’s Facebook fan sites between Taiwan and the USA was conducted utilizing the individualism/collectivism dimension proposed by Hofstede. Four network indicators are used to describe the network structure of McDonald’s Facebook fan sites: size, density, clique and centralization. Individuals who post on both Facebook sites for the year of 2012 were considered as network participants for the purpose of the study. Due to the huge amount of data, only one thread of postings was sampled from each month of the year of 2012. The final data consists of 1002 postings written by 896 individuals and 5962 postings written by 5532 individuals from Taiwan and the USA respectively. The results indicated that the USA McDonald’s Facebook fan network has more fans, while Taiwan’s McDonald’s Facebook fan network is more densely connected. Cliques did form among the overall multiplex and within the individual uniplex networks in two countries, yet no significant differences were found between them. All the fan networks in both countries are relatively centralized, mostly on the site operators.

  7. Design of micro distribution systems consisting of long channels with arbitrary cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdanitis, S; Valougeorgis, D

    2012-01-01

    Gas flows through long micro-channels of various cross sections have been extensively investigated over the years both numerically and experimentally. In various technological applications including microfluidics, these micro-channels are combined together in order to form a micro-channel network. Computational algorithms for solving gas pipe networks in the hydrodynamic regime are well developed. However, corresponding tools for solving networks consisting of micro-channels under any degree of gas rarefaction is very limited. Recently a kinetic algorithm has been developed to simulate gas distribution systems consisting of long circular channels under any vacuum conditions. In the present work this algorithm is generalized and extended into micro-channels of arbitrary cross-section etched by KOH in silicon (triangular and trapezoidal channels with acute angle of 54.74°). Since a kinetic approach is implemented, the analysis is valid and the results are accurate in the whole range of the Knudsen number, while the involved computational effort is very small. This is achieved by successfully integrating the kinetic results for the corresponding single channels into the general solver for designing the gas pipe network. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach two typical systems consisting of long rectangular and trapezoidal micro-channels are solved.

  8. Consistency Analysis and Data Consultation of Gas System of Gas-Electricity Network of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemite, L.; Kutjuns, A.; Bode, I.; Kunickis, M.; Zeltins, N.

    2018-02-01

    In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies. Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

  9. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for

  10. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  12. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  13. Security For Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Singh,; Dr. Harsh Kumar Verma

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is highly vulnerable to attacks because it consists of various resourceconstrained devices with their low battery power, less memory, and associated low energy. Sensor nodescommunicate among themselves via wireless links. However, there are still a lot of unresolved issues in wireless sensor networks of which security is one of the hottest research issues. Sensor networks aredeployed in hostile environments. Environmental conditions along with resource-constraints give...

  14. Managerial Challenges Within Networks - Emphasizing the Paradox of Network Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... and thereby sort out the paradox of network participation. Trust and information are mechanisms employed to absorb uncertainty. The relationship between trust and the requirement for information depends on the maturity of the relationship. When trust becomes too important as uncertainty absorption mechanism...

  15. Managerial challenges within networks: emphasizing the paradox of network participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... and thereby sort out the paradox of network participation. Trust and information are mechanisms employed to absorb uncertainty. The relationship between trust and the requirement for information depends on the maturity of the relationship. When trust becomes too important as uncertainty absorption mechanism...

  16. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  17. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  18. Multimodal network design and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; Alkim, T.P.; van Eck, Gijs; van Arem, Bart; Arentze, T.

    2010-01-01

    A framework is proposed for the design of an optimal multimodal transport network for the Randstad area. This research framework consists of a multi-objective optimization heuristic and a fast network assessment module, which results in a set of Pareto optimal solutions. Subsequently, a proper

  19. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  20. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  1. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  2. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  3. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  4. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...

  5. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  6. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  7. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  8. Multiplicative Consistency for Interval Valued Reciprocal Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian; Chiclana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicative consistency (MC) property of interval additive reciprocal preference relations (IARPRs) is explored, and then the consistency index is quantified by the multiplicative consistency estimated IARPR. The MC property is used to measure the level of consistency of the information provided by the experts and also to propose the consistency index induced ordered weighted averaging (CI-IOWA) operator. The novelty of this operator is that it aggregates individual IARPRs in such ...

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. NASA Networks: The Second Time Around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frate, A. Del

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of a second generation library network consisting of 15 autonomous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) libraries. The discussion covers some comparisons between the first and second generation networks, types of computerized systems and communication systems used in the current network, and future plans.…

  11. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  12. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. Direct lifts of coupled cell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A. P. S.; Moreira, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    In networks of dynamical systems, there are spaces defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates which are flow-invariant under any dynamical system that has a form consistent with the given underlying network structure—the network synchrony subspaces. Given a network and one of its synchrony subspaces, any system with a form consistent with the network, restricted to the synchrony subspace, defines a new system which is consistent with a smaller network, called the quotient network of the original network by the synchrony subspace. Moreover, any system associated with the quotient can be interpreted as the restriction to the synchrony subspace of a system associated with the original network. We call the larger network a lift of the smaller network, and a lift can be interpreted as a result of the cellular splitting of the smaller network. In this paper, we address the question of the uniqueness in this lifting process in terms of the networks’ topologies. A lift G of a given network Q is said to be direct when there are no intermediate lifts of Q between them. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a lift of a general network to be direct. Our results characterize direct lifts using the subnetworks of all splitting cells of Q and of all split cells of G. We show that G is a direct lift of Q if and only if either the split subnetwork is a direct lift or consists of two copies of the splitting subnetwork. These results are then applied to the class of regular uniform networks and to the special classes of ring networks and acyclic networks. We also illustrate that one of the applications of our results is to the lifting bifurcation problem.

  15. Privacy, Time Consistent Optimal Labour Income Taxation and Education Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Kai A.

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete information is a commitment device for time consistency problems. In the context of time consistent labour income taxation privacy reduces welfare losses and increases the effectiveness of public education as a second best policy.

  16. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times

  17. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Vainik, Uku; Dub?, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studi...

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  19. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  20. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  1. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  2. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that are controlled foreign corporations. (6) Stock consistency. This section limits the application of... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a) Introduction—(1...

  3. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  4. Simulation of Routing Protocol with CoS/QoS Enhancements in Heterogeneous Communication Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kubera, Emil; Sliwa, Joanna; Zubel, Krzysztof; Mroczko, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the subject of QoS routing mechanism in tactical heterogeneous communication network consisting of network elements built in different technologies and connected following rules...

  5. Functional Module Analysis for Gene Coexpression Networks with Network Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu; Ng, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Network has been a general tool for studying the complex interactions between different genes, proteins, and other small molecules. Module as a fundamental property of many biological networks has been widely studied and many computational methods have been proposed to identify the modules in an individual network. However, in many cases, a single network is insufficient for module analysis due to the noise in the data or the tuning of parameters when building the biological network. The availability of a large amount of biological networks makes network integration study possible. By integrating such networks, more informative modules for some specific disease can be derived from the networks constructed from different tissues, and consistent factors for different diseases can be inferred. In this paper, we have developed an effective method for module identification from multiple networks under different conditions. The problem is formulated as an optimization model, which combines the module identification in each individual network and alignment of the modules from different networks together. An approximation algorithm based on eigenvector computation is proposed. Our method outperforms the existing methods, especially when the underlying modules in multiple networks are different in simulation studies. We also applied our method to two groups of gene coexpression networks for humans, which include one for three different cancers, and one for three tissues from the morbidly obese patients. We identified 13 modules with three complete subgraphs, and 11 modules with two complete subgraphs, respectively. The modules were validated through Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. We also showed that the main functions of most modules for the corresponding disease have been addressed by other researchers, which may provide the theoretical basis for further studying the modules experimentally.

  6. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    of scientific publications related to pharmaceutical research and applying social network analysis, we find that both the number of countries and their connectivity increase in almost all disease group specific networks. The cores of the networks consist of high income OECD countries and remain rather stable......Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... over time. Using network regression techniques to analyze the network dynamics our results indicate that accumulative advantages based on connectedness and multi-connectivity are positively related to changes in the countries' collaboration intensity whereas various indicators on similarity between...

  7. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  8. The Laplacian spectrum of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Siemon C.; de Reus, Marcel A.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a complex network of neural interactions, both at the microscopic and macroscopic level. Graph theory is well suited to examine the global network architecture of these neural networks. Many popular graph metrics, however, encode average properties of individual network elements. Complementing these “conventional” graph metrics, the eigenvalue spectrum of the normalized Laplacian describes a network's structure directly at a systems level, without referring to individual nodes or connections. In this paper, the Laplacian spectra of the macroscopic anatomical neuronal networks of the macaque and cat, and the microscopic network of the Caenorhabditis elegans were examined. Consistent with conventional graph metrics, analysis of the Laplacian spectra revealed an integrative community structure in neural brain networks. Extending previous findings of overlap of network attributes across species, similarity of the Laplacian spectra across the cat, macaque and C. elegans neural networks suggests a certain level of consistency in the overall architecture of the anatomical neural networks of these species. Our results further suggest a specific network class for neural networks, distinct from conceptual small-world and scale-free models as well as several empirical networks. PMID:24454286

  9. An evolving network model with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Maini, Philip K

    2005-01-01

    Many social and biological networks consist of communities-groups of nodes within which connections are dense, but between which connections are sparser. Recently, there has been considerable interest in designing algorithms for detecting community structures in real-world complex networks. In this paper, we propose an evolving network model which exhibits community structure. The network model is based on the inner-community preferential attachment and inter-community preferential attachment mechanisms. The degree distributions of this network model are analysed based on a mean-field method. Theoretical results and numerical simulations indicate that this network model has community structure and scale-free properties

  10. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  11. Research of Innovation Diffusion on Industrial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real value of innovation consists in its diffusion on industrial network. The factors which affect the diffusion of innovation on industrial network are the topology of industrial network and rules of diffusion. Industrial network is a complex network which has scale-free and small-world characters; its structure has some affection on threshold, length of path, enterprise’s status, and information share of innovation diffusion. Based on the cost and attitude to risk of technical innovation, we present the “avalanche” diffusing model of technical innovation on industrial network.

  12. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  13. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  14. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  15. [Health care networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça

    2010-08-01

    The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.

  16. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless......, international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...

  17. Consistent Regulation of Infrastructure Businesses: Some Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio M. Menezes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some important economic aspects associated with the notion that consistency in the regulation of infrastructure businesses is a desirable feature. It makes two important points. First, it is not easy to measure consistency. In particular, one cannot simply point to different regulatory parameters as evidence of inconsistent regulatory policy. Second, even if one does observe consistency emerging from decisions made by different regulators, it does not necessarily mean that...

  18. Community detection for networks with unipartite and bipartite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang; Tang, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Finding community structures in networks is important in network science, technology, and applications. To date, most algorithms that aim to find community structures only focus either on unipartite or bipartite networks. A unipartite network consists of one set of nodes and a bipartite network consists of two nonoverlapping sets of nodes with only links joining the nodes in different sets. However, a third type of network exists, defined here as the mixture network. Just like a bipartite network, a mixture network also consists of two sets of nodes, but some nodes may simultaneously belong to two sets, which breaks the nonoverlapping restriction of a bipartite network. The mixture network can be considered as a general case, with unipartite and bipartite networks viewed as its limiting cases. A mixture network can represent not only all the unipartite and bipartite networks, but also a wide range of real-world networks that cannot be properly represented as either unipartite or bipartite networks in fields such as biology and social science. Based on this observation, we first propose a probabilistic model that can find modules in unipartite, bipartite, and mixture networks in a unified framework based on the link community model for a unipartite undirected network [B Ball et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 036103)]. We test our algorithm on synthetic networks (both overlapping and nonoverlapping communities) and apply it to two real-world networks: a southern women bipartite network and a human transcriptional regulatory mixture network. The results suggest that our model performs well for all three types of networks, is competitive with other algorithms for unipartite or bipartite networks, and is applicable to real-world networks.

  19. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  20. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  1. Bipartite Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations

  2. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  3. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  4. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  5. Measuring the evolutionary rewiring of biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shou

    Full Text Available We have accumulated a large amount of biological network data and expect even more to come. Soon, we anticipate being able to compare many different biological networks as we commonly do for molecular sequences. It has long been believed that many of these networks change, or "rewire", at different rates. It is therefore important to develop a framework to quantify the differences between networks in a unified fashion. We developed such a formalism based on analogy to simple models of sequence evolution, and used it to conduct a systematic study of network rewiring on all the currently available biological networks. We found that, similar to sequences, biological networks show a decreased rate of change at large time divergences, because of saturation in potential substitutions. However, different types of biological networks consistently rewire at different rates. Using comparative genomics and proteomics data, we found a consistent ordering of the rewiring rates: transcription regulatory, phosphorylation regulatory, genetic interaction, miRNA regulatory, protein interaction, and metabolic pathway network, from fast to slow. This ordering was found in all comparisons we did of matched networks between organisms. To gain further intuition on network rewiring, we compared our observed rewirings with those obtained from simulation. We also investigated how readily our formalism could be mapped to other network contexts; in particular, we showed how it could be applied to analyze changes in a range of "commonplace" networks such as family trees, co-authorships and linux-kernel function dependencies.

  6. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  7. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  8. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  9. Basketball Teams as Strategic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, Jennifer H.; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as “uphill/downhill” flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness. PMID:23139744

  10. Basketball teams as strategic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, Jennifer H; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S

    2012-01-01

    We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.

  11. Basketball teams as strategic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Fewell

    Full Text Available We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1 whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2 whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.

  12. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  13. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  14. Self-consistent calculation of atomic structure for mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xujun; Bai Yun; Sun Yongsheng; Zhang Jinglin; Zong Xiaoping

    2000-01-01

    Based on relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent average atomic model, atomic structure for mixture is studied by summing up component volumes in mixture. Algorithmic procedure for solving both the group of Thomas-Fermi equations and the self-consistent atomic structure is presented in detail, and, some numerical results are discussed

  15. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  16. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  17. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  18. Risk aversion vs. the Omega ratio : Consistency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Sven; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    This paper clarifies when the Omega ratio and related performance measures are consistent with second order stochastic dominance and when they are not. To avoid consistency problems, the threshold parameter in the ratio should be chosen as the expected return of some benchmark – as is commonly done

  19. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  20. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  1. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  2. Consistency of a system of equations: What does that mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; Koelewijn, Jaap; Bomhoff, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of (structural) consistency also called structural solvability is an important basic tool for analyzing the structure of systems of equations. Our aim is to provide a sound and practically relevant meaning to this concept. The implications of consistency are expressed in terms of

  3. Quasi-Particle Self-Consistent GW for Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, F; Harding, M E; Seiler, C; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J

    2016-06-14

    We present the formalism and implementation of quasi-particle self-consistent GW (qsGW) and eigenvalue only quasi-particle self-consistent GW (evGW) adapted to standard quantum chemistry packages. Our implementation is benchmarked against high-level quantum chemistry computations (coupled-cluster theory) and experimental results using a representative set of molecules. Furthermore, we compare the qsGW approach for five molecules relevant for organic photovoltaics to self-consistent GW results (scGW) and analyze the effects of the self-consistency on the ground state density by comparing calculated dipole moments to their experimental values. We show that qsGW makes a significant improvement over conventional G0W0 and that partially self-consistent flavors (in particular evGW) can be excellent alternatives.

  4. Consistency of hand preference: predictions to intelligence and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D W; Gottfried, A; Bathurst, K

    1991-05-01

    Gottfried and Bathurst (1983) reported that hand preference consistency measured over time during infancy and early childhood predicts intellectual precocity for females, but not for males. In the present study longitudinal assessments of children previously classified by Gottfried and Bathurst as consistent or nonconsistent in cross-time hand preference were conducted during middle childhood (ages 5 to 9). Findings show that (a) early measurement of hand preference consistency for females predicts school-age intellectual precocity, (b) the locus of the difference between consistent vs. nonconsistent females is in verbal intelligence, and (c) the precocity of the consistent females was also revealed on tests of school achievement, particularly tests of reading and mathematics.

  5. Putting humans in ecology: consistency in science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Larry; Fowler, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    Normal and abnormal levels of human participation in ecosystems can be revealed through the use of macro-ecological patterns. Such patterns also provide consistent and objective guidance that will lead to achieving and maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability. This paper focuses on the consistency of this type of guidance and management. Such management, in sharp contrast to current management practices, ensures that our actions as individuals, institutions, political groups, societies, and as a species are applied consistently across all temporal, spatial, and organizational scales. This approach supplants management of today, where inconsistency results from debate, politics, and legal and religious polarity. Consistency is achieved when human endeavors are guided by natural patterns. Pattern-based management meets long-standing demands for enlightened management that requires humans to participate in complex systems in consistent and sustainable ways.

  6. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-01-01

    A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  7. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uku Vainik

    Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  8. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  9. Iberdrola's Innovation Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor-Escobar, E.; Martinez-Cid, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Iberdrola's Innovation Network was created as a place where the company shares and promotes ideas and projects with its technological partners. The network consists of multiple nodes each one with its specific scope where the company exposes its vision and strategy related to the node's thematic. It also enables a interchange of opinions, know-how and resources in order to develop R and D projects that solve Iberdrola's needs. Based on the concept of Open Innovation, the network is open for anybody that wants to join and that has interest in the diverse matters treated in the nodes. The Innovation Network is targeted to manufacturers/providers, universities, technological centers and associations. The Innovation Network offers to its member the acquisitions of relevant information and know-how, as well as the possibility of participating in the projects that are generated. Iberdrola's strong commitment with Innovation, together with its definitive internationalization process, make that the available resources provided by Iberdrola itself, as well as the interest areas and the project are very important for any stake holder in the sector. (Author) 4 refs

  10. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  11. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  12. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  13. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  14. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Alexander J; Hayes, Amy E; Pawling, Ralph; Tipper, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene), whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene). During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  15. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Kirkham

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene, whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene. During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  16. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW method: a short summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Takao; Schilfgaarde, Mark van; Faleev, Sergey V; Chantis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW), which is a new self-consistent method to calculate the electronic structure within the GW approximation. The method is formulated based on the idea of a self-consistent perturbation; the non-interacting Green function G 0 , which is the starting point for GWA to obtain G, is determined self-consistently so as to minimize the perturbative correction generated by GWA. After self-consistency is attained, we have G 0 , W (the screened Coulomb interaction) and G self-consistently. This G 0 can be interpreted as the optimum non-interacting propagator for the quasiparticles. We will summarize some theoretical discussions to justify QSGW. Then we will survey results which have been obtained up to now: e.g., band gaps for normal semiconductors are predicted to a precision of 0.1-0.3 eV; the self-consistency including the off-diagonal part is required for NiO and MnO; and so on. There are still some remaining disagreements with experiments; however, they are very systematic, and can be explained from the neglect of excitonic effects

  17. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  18. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2012-01-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can

  19. Dynamic and interacting complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark E.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of dynamic and interacting complex networks. The mapping of various social and physical phenomena to complex networks has been a rich field in the past few decades. Subjects as broad as petroleum engineering, scientific collaborations, and the structure of the internet have all been analyzed in a network physics context, with useful and universal results. In the first chapter we introduce basic concepts in networks, including the two types of network configurations that are studied and the statistical physics and epidemiological models that form the framework of the network research, as well as covering various previously-derived results in network theory that are used in the work in the following chapters. In the second chapter we introduce a model for dynamic networks, where the links or the strengths of the links change over time. We solve the model by mapping dynamic networks to the problem of directed percolation, where the direction corresponds to the time evolution of the network. We show that the dynamic network undergoes a percolation phase transition at a critical concentration pc, that decreases with the rate r at which the network links are changed. The behavior near criticality is universal and independent of r. We find that for dynamic random networks fundamental laws are changed: i) The size of the giant component at criticality scales with the network size N for all values of r, rather than as N2/3 in static network, ii) In the presence of a broad distribution of disorder, the optimal path length between two nodes in a dynamic network scales as N1/2, compared to N1/3 in a static network. The third chapter consists of a study of the effect of quarantine on the propagation of epidemics on an adaptive network of social contacts. For this purpose, we analyze the susceptible-infected-recovered model in the presence of quarantine, where susceptible

  20. The Consistent Preferences Approach to Deductive Reasoning in Games

    CERN Document Server

    Asheim, Geir B

    2006-01-01

    "The Consistent Preferences Approach to Deductive Reasoning in Games" presents, applies, and synthesizes what my co-authors and I have called the 'consistent preferences' approach to deductive reasoning in games. Briefly described, this means that the object of the analysis is the ranking by each player of his own strategies, rather than his choice. The ranking can be required to be consistent (in different senses) with his beliefs about the opponent's ranking of her strategies. This can be contrasted to the usual 'rational choice' approach where a player's strategy choice is (in dif

  1. Multiphase flows of N immiscible incompressible fluids: A reduction-consistent and thermodynamically-consistent formulation and associated algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent formulation and an associated numerical algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an isothermal mixture consisting of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with different physical properties (densities, viscosities, and pair-wise surface tensions). By reduction consistency we refer to the property that if only a set of M (1 ⩽ M ⩽ N - 1) fluids are present in the system then the N-phase governing equations and boundary conditions will exactly reduce to those for the corresponding M-phase system. By thermodynamic consistency we refer to the property that the formulation honors the thermodynamic principles. Our N-phase formulation is developed based on a more general method that allows for the systematic construction of reduction-consistent formulations, and the method suggests the existence of many possible forms of reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent N-phase formulations. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for flow problems involving multiple fluid components and large density ratios and large viscosity ratios, and the simulation results are compared with the physical theories or the available physical solutions. The comparisons demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for this class of problems.

  2. NETWORK, HOW? Perceptions of business people on networking practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia De Klerk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to contribute to literature on networking from a South African perspective. Literature on networking is mainly concentrated on the European and American contexts with homogeneous groups and traditional divisions. The business landscape of South Africa thus requires more investigation. Problem investigated: Literature regarding networking in an South African context with its dynamic business environment is limited. This article addresses the concerns of how South African business owners and managers perceive networking in their businesses and specifically focus on the South African perspective. Therefore, the focus is on the perceptions of business owners and managers on current networking practices in South Africa. Methodology: A qualitative research design to uncover the rich underlying feelings of business owners and managers was used. The qualitative enquiry consisted of five focus group discussions (n=41 participants among prominent business owners and managers in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Gauteng Province was selected since it is the economic and innovation hub of South Africa. Findings and implications: The main findings showed the following main themes of networking that emerged from the data, and included (1 networking as a skill versus a natural ability; (2 the motivation behind networking; (3 the loci of networking; (4 the type of relationships that determine the character of the network; and (5 the relationship characteristics of successful networking. The main contribution of this is that there seems to be different networking situations and applications for different circumstances. According to the participants, it seems that networking in the South African landscape appears to be either relationship or business based. Originality and value of the research: The value of these findings lies in the fact that they contribute to networking literature from a South African perspective

  3. The modularity of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    In natural communities, species and their interactions are often organized as nonrandom networks, showing distinct and repeated complex patterns. A prevalent, but poorly explored pattern is ecological modularity, with weakly interlinked subsets of species (modules), which, however, internally...... consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... almost 10,000 species and 20,000 links and tested for modularity by using a recently developed simulated annealing algorithm. All networks with >150 plant and pollinator species were modular, whereas networks with

  4. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...

  5. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  6. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  7. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  8. Diversity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    and professional growth of women through networking, mentoring and training. We strive to ensure that will be used. National Processing Center Seniors Leader: Jo Anne Hankins Champion: Eric Milliner NO

  9. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    , as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  10. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  11. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  12. On the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, F.; Kent, A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the consistent histories formulations of quantum mechanics developed by Griffiths, Omnes, Gell-Man, and Hartle, and we describe the classifications of consistent sets. We illustrate some general features of consistent sets by a few lemmas and examples. We also consider various interpretations of the formalism, and we examine the new problems which arise in reconstructing the past and predicting the future. It is shown that Omnes characterization of true statements---statements that can be deduced unconditionally in his interpretation---is incorrect. We examine critically Gell-Mann and Hartle's interpretation of the formalism, and in particular, their discussions of communication, prediction, and retrodiction, and we conclude that their explanation of the apparent persistence of quasiclassicality relies on assumptions about an as-yet-unknown theory of experience. Our overall conclusion is that the consistent histories approach illustrates the need to supplement quantum mechanics by some selection principle in order to produce a fundamental theory capable of unconditional predictions

  13. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  14. Liking for Evaluators: Consistency and Self-Esteem Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Judith Weiner

    1976-01-01

    Consistency and self-esteem theories make contrasting predictions about the relationship between a person's self-evaluation and his liking for an evaluator. Laboratory experiments confirmed predictions about these theories. (Editor/RK)

  15. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  16. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    Two mechanisms at the origin of profile consistency in models of electrostatic turbulence in magnetized plasmas are considered. One involves turbulent diffusion in collisionless plasmas and the subsequent turbulent equipartition of Lagrangian invariants. By the very nature of its definition...

  17. 15 CFR 930.36 - Consistency determinations for proposed activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessity of issuing separate consistency determinations for each incremental action controlled by the major... plans), and that affect any coastal use or resource of more than one State. Many States share common...

  18. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    disease. Objective: To examine the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent condom use intention of HIV .... (24-25), making subjective norms as better predictors of intention ..... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision.

  19. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  20. Island of Stability for Consistent Deformations of Einstein's Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Berkhahn, Felix; Hofmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incor...

  1. Modular architectures for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, A.; Wallnöfer, J.; Dür, W.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating multipartite entangled states in a quantum network upon request. We follow a top-down approach, where the required entanglement is initially present in the network in form of network states shared between network devices, and then manipulated in such a way that the desired target state is generated. This minimizes generation times, and allows for network structures that are in principle independent of physical links. We present a modular and flexible architecture, where a multi-layer network consists of devices of varying complexity, including quantum network routers, switches and clients, that share certain resource states. We concentrate on the generation of graph states among clients, which are resources for numerous distributed quantum tasks. We assume minimal functionality for clients, i.e. they do not participate in the complex and distributed generation process of the target state. We present architectures based on shared multipartite entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states of different size, and fully connected decorated graph states, respectively. We compare the features of these architectures to an approach that is based on bipartite entanglement, and identify advantages of the multipartite approach in terms of memory requirements and complexity of state manipulation. The architectures can handle parallel requests, and are designed in such a way that the network state can be dynamically extended if new clients or devices join the network. For generation or dynamical extension of the network states, we propose a quantum network configuration protocol, where entanglement purification is used to establish high fidelity states. The latter also allows one to show that the entanglement generated among clients is private, i.e. the network is secure.

  2. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  3. Pintadas network

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.

    2006-01-01

    The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...

  4. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....

  5. Self-consistent normal ordering of gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehl, W.

    1987-01-01

    Mean-field theories with a real action of unconstrained fields can be self-consistently normal ordered. This leads to a considerable improvement over standard mean-field theory. This concept is applied to lattice gauge theories. First an appropriate real action mean-field theory is constructed. The equations determining the Gaussian kernel necessary for self-consistent normal ordering of this mean-field theory are derived. (author). 4 refs

  6. Consistency of the least weighted squares under heteroscedasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 47 (2011), s. 179-206 ISSN 0023-5954 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Regression * Consistency * The least weighted squares * Heteroscedasticity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-consistency of the least weighted squares under heteroscedasticity.pdf

  7. Cosmological consistency tests of gravity theory and cosmic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among the important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use statistical measures, the rate of cosmic expansion, the growth rate of large scale structure, and the physical consistency of these probes with one another.

  8. Self-consistency corrections in effective-interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkand, Y.; Kirson, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Large-matrix extended-shell-model calculations are used to compute self-consistency corrections to the effective interaction and to the linked-cluster effective interaction. The corrections are found to be numerically significant and to affect the rate of convergence of the corresponding perturbation series. The influence of various partial corrections is tested. It is concluded that self-consistency is an important effect in determining the effective interaction and improving the rate of convergence. (author)

  9. Parquet equations for numerical self-consistent-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickers, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years increases in computational power have provided new motivation for the study of self-consistent-field theories for interacting electrons. In this set of notes, the so-called parquet equations for electron systems are derived pedagogically. The principal advantages of the parquet approach are outlined, and its relationship to simpler self-consistent-field methods, including the Baym-Kadanoff technique, is discussed in detail. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs

  10. Consistent Estimation of Pricing Kernels from Noisy Price Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Kargin

    2003-01-01

    If pricing kernels are assumed non-negative then the inverse problem of finding the pricing kernel is well-posed. The constrained least squares method provides a consistent estimate of the pricing kernel. When the data are limited, a new method is suggested: relaxed maximization of the relative entropy. This estimator is also consistent. Keywords: $\\epsilon$-entropy, non-parametric estimation, pricing kernel, inverse problems.

  11. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  12. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  14. High-performance speech recognition using consistency modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digalakis, Vassilios; Murveit, Hy; Monaco, Peter; Neumeyer, Leo; Sankar, Ananth

    1994-12-01

    The goal of SRI's consistency modeling project is to improve the raw acoustic modeling component of SRI's DECIPHER speech recognition system and develop consistency modeling technology. Consistency modeling aims to reduce the number of improper independence assumptions used in traditional speech recognition algorithms so that the resulting speech recognition hypotheses are more self-consistent and, therefore, more accurate. At the initial stages of this effort, SRI focused on developing the appropriate base technologies for consistency modeling. We first developed the Progressive Search technology that allowed us to perform large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) experiments. Since its conception and development at SRI, this technique has been adopted by most laboratories, including other ARPA contracting sites, doing research on LVSR. Another goal of the consistency modeling project is to attack difficult modeling problems, when there is a mismatch between the training and testing phases. Such mismatches may include outlier speakers, different microphones and additive noise. We were able to either develop new, or transfer and evaluate existing, technologies that adapted our baseline genonic HMM recognizer to such difficult conditions.

  15. Are prescription drug insurance choices consistent with expected utility theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundorf, M Kate; Mata, Rui; Schoenbaum, Michael; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2013-09-01

    To determine the extent to which people make choices inconsistent with expected utility theory when choosing among prescription drug insurance plans and whether tabular or graphical presentation format influences the consistency of their choices. Members of an Internet-enabled panel chose between two Medicare prescription drug plans. The "low variance" plan required higher out-of-pocket payments for the drugs respondents usually took but lower out-of-pocket payments for the drugs they might need if they developed a new health condition than the "high variance" plan. The probability of a change in health varied within subjects and the presentation format (text vs. graphical) and the affective salience of the clinical condition (abstract vs. risk related to specific clinical condition) varied between subjects. Respondents were classified based on whether they consistently chose either the low or high variance plan. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between decision outcomes and task characteristics. The majority of respondents consistently chose either the low or high variance plan, consistent with expected utility theory. Half of respondents consistently chose the low variance plan. Respondents were less likely to make discrepant choices when information was presented in graphical format. Many people, although not all, make choices consistent with expected utility theory when they have information on differences among plans in the variance of out-of-pocket spending. Medicare beneficiaries would benefit from information on the extent to which prescription drug plans provide risk protection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  17. Conceptual and methodological biases in network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Many natural and biological phenomena can be depicted as networks. Theoretical and empirical analyses of networks have become prevalent. I discuss theoretical biases involved in the delineation of biological networks. The network perspective is shown to dissolve the distinction between regulatory architecture and regulatory state, consistent with the theoretical impossibility of distinguishing a priori between "program" and "data." The evolutionary significance of the dynamics of trans-generational and interorganism regulatory networks is explored and implications are presented for understanding the evolution of the biological categories development-heredity, plasticity-evolvability, and epigenetic-genetic.

  18. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  19. Self-consistency of a heterogeneous continuum porous medium representation of a fractured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, A.R.; Jackson, C.P.; Todman, S.

    1998-01-01

    For many of the rocks that are, or have been, under investigation as potential host rocks for a radioactive waste repository, groundwater flow is considered to take place predominantly through discontinuities such as fractures. Although models of networks of discrete features (DFN models) would be the most realistic models for such rocks, calculations on large length scales would not be computationally practicable. A possible approach would be to use heterogeneous continuum porous-medium (CPM) models in which each block has an effective permeability appropriate to represent the network of features within the block. In order to build confidence in this approach, it is necessary to demonstrate that the approach is self-consistent, in the sense that if the effective permeability on a large length scale is derived using the CPM model, the result is close to the value derived directly from the underlying network model. It is also desirable to demonstrate self-consistency for the use of stochastic heterogeneous CPM models that are built as follows. The correlation structure of the effective permeability on the scale of the blocks is inferred by analysis of the effective permeabilities obtained from the underlying DFN model. Then realizations of the effective permeability within the domain of interest are generated on the basis of the correlation structure, rather than being obtained directly from the underlying DFN model. A study of self-consistency is presented for two very different underlying DFN models: one based on the properties of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group at Sellafield, and one based on the properties of the granite at Aespoe in Sweden. It is shown that, in both cases, the use of heterogeneous CPM models based directly on the DFN model is self-consistent, provided that care is taken in the evaluation of the effective permeability for the DFN models. It is also shown that the use of stochastic heterogeneous CPM models based on the correlation structure of the

  20. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  1. Self-consistent electrodynamic scattering in the symmetric Bragg case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the symmetric Bragg case, introducing a model of self consistent scattering for two elliptically polarized beams. The crystal is taken as a set of mathematical planes, each of them defined by a surface density of dipoles. We have considered the mesofield and the epifield differently from that of the Ewald's theory and, we assumed a plane of dipoles and the associated fields as a self consistent scattering unit. The exact analytical treatment when applied to any two neighbouring planes, results in a general and self consistent Bragg's equation, in terms of the amplitude and phase variations. The generalized solution for the set of N planes was obtained after introducing an absorption factor in the incident radiation, in two ways: (i) the analytical one, through a rule of field similarity, which says that the incidence occurs in both faces of the all crystal planes and also, through a matricial development with the Chebyshev polynomials; (ii) using the numerical solution we calculated, iteratively, the reflectivity, the reflection phase, the transmissivity, the transmission phase and the energy. The results are showed through reflection and transmission curves, which are characteristics as from kinematical as dynamical theories. The conservation of the energy results from the Ewald's self consistency principle is used. In the absorption case, the results show that it is not the only cause for the asymmetric form in the reflection curves. The model contains basic elements for a unified, microscope, self consistent, vectorial and exact formulation for interpretating the X ray diffraction in perfect crystals. (author)

  2. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A consistent response spectrum analysis including the resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Simmchen, A.

    1983-01-01

    The report provides a complete consistent Response Spectrum Analysis for any component. The effect of supports with different excitation is taken into consideration, at is the description of the resonance ranges. It includes information explaining how the contributions of the eigenforms with higher eigenfrequencies are to be considered. Stocking of floor response spectra is also possible using the method described here. However, modified floor response spectra must now be calculated for each building mode. Once these have been prepared, the calculation of the dynamic component values is practically no more complicated than with the conventional, non-consistent methods. The consistent Response Spectrum Analysis can supply smaller and larger values than the conventional theory, a fact which can be demonstrated using simple examples. The report contains a consistent Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA), which, as far as we know, has been formulated in this way for the first time. A consistent RSA is so important because today this method is preferentially applied as an important tool for the earthquake proof of components in nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  4. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  5. Investigation on network utilization efficiency and image transmission time for the PACS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, K.; Nishihara, E.; Komatsu, K.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the following features of a PACS network: (1) network utilization efficiency and (2) image transmission time. They changed the following parameters, which the two items shown above depend on: (1) transfer rate between imaging equipment and network (10 kB/econd-8 MB/second), (2) network transmission speed (100 kB/second-50 MB/second), (3) packet length (10 kB-4 MB), and (4) message length (image data) (64 kB-4 MB). As a result, a conventional-type network cannot meet a need for PACS. To solve this problem, the authors propose a multiplexed network that consists of the high-speed network for image transmission and the conventional speed of control network for commands and shorter messages. If the packet length of the image network is designed to be variable, they can choose an optimum packet length for image transmission

  6. Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunho; Park, JaeHong

    2018-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc), designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.

  7. Context-dependent individual behavioral consistency in Daphnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Ekvall, Mikael T.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed "personality," for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals......, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are still rare. Here, we show individual differences in the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a clonal freshwater invertebrate, before, during, and after being exposed to a lethal threat, ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We show consistency in swimming...... that of adults. Overall, we show that aquatic invertebrates are far from being identical robots, but instead they show considerable individual differences in behavior that can be attributed to both ontogenetic development and individual consistency. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time...

  8. Consistent forcing scheme in the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Linlin; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative derivation for the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) within a general multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) framework by introducing a shift matrix. When the shift matrix is a unit matrix, the CLBM degrades into an MRT LBM. Based on this, a consistent forcing scheme is developed for the CLBM. The consistency of the nonslip rule, the second-order convergence rate in space, and the property of isotropy for the consistent forcing scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several canonical problems. Several existing forcing schemes previously used in the CLBM are also examined. The study clarifies the relation between MRT LBM and CLBM under a general framework.

  9. Application of consistent fluid added mass matrix to core seismic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, K. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the application algorithm of a consistent fluid added mass matrix including the coupling terms to the core seismic analysis is developed and installed at SAC-CORE3.0 code. As an example, we assumed the 7-hexagon system of the LMR core and carried out the vibration modal analysis and the nonlinear time history seismic response analysis using SAC-CORE3.0. Used consistent fluid added mass matrix is obtained by using the finite element program of the FAMD(Fluid Added Mass and Damping) code. From the results of the vibration modal analysis, the core duct assemblies reveal strongly coupled vibration modes, which are so different from the case of in-air condition. From the results of the time history seismic analysis, it was verified that the effects of the coupled terms of the consistent fluid added mass matrix are significant in impact responses and the dynamic responses

  10. Self-consistent approximations beyond the CPA: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, T.; Gray, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a self-consistent approximation for random alloys developed by Kaplan, Leath, Gray, and Diehl. The construction of the augmented space formalism for a binary alloy is sketched, and the notation to be used derived. Using the operator methods of the augmented space, the self-consistent approximation is derived for the average Green's function, and for evaluating the self-energy, taking into account the scattering by clusters of excitations. The particular cluster approximation desired is derived by treating the scattering by the excitations with S /SUB T/ exactly. Fourier transforms on the disorder-space clustersite labels solve the self-consistent set of equations. Expansion to short range order in the alloy is also discussed. A method to reduce the problem to a computationally tractable form is described

  11. Linear augmented plane wave method for self-consistent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Kuebler, J.

    1979-01-01

    O.K. Andersen has recently introduced a linear augmented plane wave method (LAPW) for the calculation of electronic structure that was shown to be computationally fast. A more general formulation of an LAPW method is presented here. It makes use of a freely disposable number of eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. These eigenfunctions can be selected in a self-consistent way. The present formulation also results in a computationally fast method. It is shown that Andersen's LAPW is obtained in a special limit from the present formulation. Self-consistent test calculations for copper show the present method to be remarkably accurate. As an application, scalar-relativistic self-consistent calculations are presented for the band structure of FCC lanthanum. (author)

  12. Self-consistency and coherent effects in nonlinear resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.; Franchetti, G.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of space charge on emittance growth is studied in simulations of a coasting beam exposed to a strong octupolar perturbation in an otherwise linear lattice, and under stationary parameters. We explore the importance of self-consistency by comparing results with a non-self-consistent model, where the space charge electric field is kept 'frozen-in' to its initial values. For Gaussian distribution functions we find that the 'frozen-in' model results in a good approximation of the self-consistent model, hence coherent response is practically absent and the emittance growth is self-limiting due to space charge de-tuning. For KV or waterbag distributions, instead, strong coherent response is found, which we explain in terms of absence of Landau damping

  13. A consistent time frame for Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrimage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, K. R.

    2001-08-01

    A consistent time frame for the pilgrimage that Geoffrey Chaucer describes in The Canterbury Tales can be established if the seven celestial assertions related to the journey mentioned in the text can be reconciled with each other and the date of April 18 that is also mentioned. Past attempts to establish such a consistency for all seven celestial assertions have not been successful. The analysis herein, however, indicates that in The Canterbury Tales Chaucer accurately describes the celestial conditions he observed in the April sky above the London(Canterbury region of England in the latter half of the fourteenth century. All seven celestial assertions are in agreement with each other and consistent with the April 18 date. The actual words of Chaucer indicate that the Canterbury journey began during the 'seson' he defines in the General Prologue and ends under the light of the full Moon on the night of April 18, 1391.

  14. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Yoichi; Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal

  15. Consistent forcing scheme in the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Linlin; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative derivation for the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) within a general multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) framework by introducing a shift matrix. When the shift matrix is a unit matrix, the CLBM degrades into an MRT LBM. Based on this, a consistent forcing scheme is developed for the CLBM. The consistency of the nonslip rule, the second-order convergence rate in space, and the property of isotropy for the consistent forcing scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several canonical problems. Several existing forcing schemes previously used in the CLBM are also examined. The study clarifies the relation between MRT LBM and CLBM under a general framework.

  16. Consistency and Reconciliation Model In Regional Development Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Suryawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the problems and determine the conceptual model of regional development planning. Regional development planning is a systemic, complex and unstructured process. Therefore, this study used soft systems methodology to outline unstructured issues with a structured approach. The conceptual models that were successfully constructed in this study are a model of consistency and a model of reconciliation. Regional development planning is a process that is well-integrated with central planning and inter-regional planning documents. Integration and consistency of regional planning documents are very important in order to achieve the development goals that have been set. On the other hand, the process of development planning in the region involves technocratic system, that is, both top-down and bottom-up system of participation. Both must be balanced, do not overlap and do not dominate each other. regional, development, planning, consistency, reconciliation

  17. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...... to be inconsistent. Our method restores consistency of the nonparametric bootstrap by altering the shape of the criterion function defining the estimator whose distribution we seek to approximate. This modification leads to a generic and easy-to-implement resampling method for inference that is conceptually distinct...... from other available distributional approximations based on some form of modified bootstrap. We offer simulation evidence showcasing the performance of our inference method in finite samples. An extension of our methodology to general M-estimation problems is also discussed....

  18. Self-consistent modelling of resonant tunnelling structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Jauho, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the effects of self-consistency on the I-V-characteristics of resonant tunnelling structures. The calculational method is based on a simultaneous solution of the effective-mass Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation, and the current is evaluated...... applied voltages and carrier densities at the emitter-barrier interface. We include the two-dimensional accumulation layer charge and the quantum well charge in our self-consistent scheme. We discuss the evaluation of the current contribution originating from the two-dimensional accumulation layer charges......, and our qualitative estimates seem consistent with recent experimental studies. The intrinsic bistability of resonant tunnelling diodes is analyzed within several different approximation schemes....

  19. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  20. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  1. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  2. An Explicit Consistent Geometric Stiffness Matrix for the DKT Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Lucena Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of references dealing with the geometric stiffness matrix of the DKT finite element exist in the literature, where nearly all of them adopt an inconsistent form. While such a matrix may be part of the element to treat nonlinear problems in general, it is of crucial importance for linearized buckling analysis. The present work seems to be the first to obtain an explicit expression for this matrix in a consistent way. Numerical results on linear buckling of plates assess the element performance either with the proposed explicit consistent matrix, or with the most commonly used inconsistent matrix.

  3. The cluster bootstrap consistency in generalized estimating equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2013-03-01

    The cluster bootstrap resamples clusters or subjects instead of individual observations in order to preserve the dependence within each cluster or subject. In this paper, we provide a theoretical justification of using the cluster bootstrap for the inferences of the generalized estimating equations (GEE) for clustered/longitudinal data. Under the general exchangeable bootstrap weights, we show that the cluster bootstrap yields a consistent approximation of the distribution of the regression estimate, and a consistent approximation of the confidence sets. We also show that a computationally more efficient one-step version of the cluster bootstrap provides asymptotically equivalent inference. © 2012.

  4. Consistency in the description of diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.; Muurinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    A macro-level diffusion model, which aims to provide a unifying framework for explaining the experimentally observed co-ion exclusion and greatly controversial counter-ion surface diffusion in a consistent fashion, is presented. It is explained in detail why a term accounting for the non-zero mobility of the counter-ion surface excess is required in the mathematical form of the macroscopic diffusion flux. The prerequisites for the consistency of the model and the problems associated with the interpretation of diffusion in such complex pore geometries as in compacted smectite clays are discussed. (author)

  5. An energetically consistent vertical mixing parameterization in CCSM4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Borg; Jochum, Markus; Eden, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    An energetically consistent stratification-dependent vertical mixing parameterization is implemented in the Community Climate System Model 4 and forced with energy conversion from the barotropic tides to internal waves. The structures of the resulting dissipation and diffusivity fields are compared......, however, depends greatly on the details of the vertical mixing parameterizations, where the new energetically consistent parameterization results in low thermocline diffusivities and a sharper and shallower thermocline. It is also investigated if the ocean state is more sensitive to a change in forcing...

  6. The consistency service of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    With the continuously increasing volume of data produced by ATLAS and stored on the WLCG sites, the probability of data corruption or data losses, due to software and hardware failures is increasing. In order to ensure the consistency of all data produced by ATLAS a Consistency Service has been developed as part of the DQ2 Distributed Data Management system. This service is fed by the different ATLAS tools, i.e. the analysis tools, production tools, DQ2 site services or by site administrators that report corrupted or lost files. It automatically corrects the errors reported and informs the users in case of irrecoverable file loss.

  7. The Consistency Service of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    With the continuously increasing volume of data produced by ATLAS and stored on the WLCG sites, the probability of data corruption or data losses, due to software and hardware failure is increasing. In order to ensure the consistency of all data produced by ATLAS a Consistency Service has been developed as part of the DQ2 Distributed Data Management system. This service is fed by the different ATLAS tools, i.e. the analysis tools, production tools, DQ2 site services or by site administrators that report corrupted or lost files. It automatically correct the errors reported and informs the users in case of irrecoverable file loss.

  8. Consistency among integral measurements of aggregate decay heat power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H.; Sagisaka, M.; Oyamatsu, K.; Kukita, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Persisting discrepancies between summation calculations and integral measurements force us to assume large uncertainties in the recommended decay heat power. In this paper, we develop a hybrid method to calculate the decay heat power of a fissioning system from those of different fissioning systems. Then, this method is applied to examine consistency among measured decay heat powers of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu at YAYOI. The consistency among the measured values are found to be satisfied for the {beta} component and fairly well for the {gamma} component, except for cooling times longer than 4000 s. (author)

  9. Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens

    2013-01-01

    At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....

  10. STP: A mathematically and physically consistent library of steam properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, F.; Hutter, A.C.; Tuttle, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    A new FORTRAN library of subroutines has been developed from the fundamental equation of Keenan et al. to evaluate a large set of water properties including derivatives such as sound speed and isothermal compressibility. The STP library uses the true saturation envelope of the Keenan et al. fundamental equation. The evaluation of the true envelope by a continuation method is explained. This envelope, along with other design features, imparts an exceptionally high degree of thermodynamic and mathematical consistency to the STP library, even at the critical point. Accuracy and smoothness, library self-consistency, and designed user convenience make the STP library a reliable and versatile water property package

  11. Weyl consistency conditions in non-relativistic quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sridip; Grinstein, Benjamín [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Weyl consistency conditions have been used in unitary relativistic quantum field theory to impose constraints on the renormalization group flow of certain quantities. We classify the Weyl anomalies and their renormalization scheme ambiguities for generic non-relativistic theories in 2+1 dimensions with anisotropic scaling exponent z=2; the extension to other values of z are discussed as well. We give the consistency conditions among these anomalies. As an application we find several candidates for a C-theorem. We comment on possible candidates for a C-theorem in higher dimensions.

  12. A Van Atta reflector consisting of half-wave dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1966-01-01

    The reradiation pattern of a passive Van Atta reflector consisting of half-wave dipoles is investigated. The character of the reradiation pattern first is deduced by qualitative and physical considerations. Various types of array elements are considered and several geometrical configurations...... of these elements are outlined. Following this, an analysis is made of the reradiation pattern of a linear Van Atta array consisting of four equispaced half-wave dipoles. The general form of the reradiation pattern is studied analytically. The influence of scattering and coupling is determined and the dependence...

  13. A self-consistent theory of the magnetic polaron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvakov, D.I.; Kuzemsky, A.L.; Vlahov, J.P.

    1984-10-01

    A finite temperature self-consistent theory of magnetic polaron in the s-f model of ferromagnetic semiconductors is developed. The calculations are based on the novel approach of the thermodynamic two-time Green function methods. This approach consists in the introduction of the ''irreducible'' Green functions (IGF) and derivation of the exact Dyson equation and exact self-energy operator. It is shown that IGF method gives a unified and natural approach for a calculation of the magnetic polaron states by taking explicitly into account the damping effects and finite lifetime. (author)

  14. Evidence for Consistency of the Glycation Gap in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Ananth U.; Holland, Martin R.; Macdonald, David R.; Nevill, Alan; Singh, Baldev M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Discordance between HbA1c and fructosamine estimations in the assessment of glycemia is often encountered. A number of mechanisms might explain such discordance, but whether it is consistent is uncertain. This study aims to coanalyze paired glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-fructosamine estimations by using fructosamine to determine a predicted HbA1c, to calculate a glycation gap (G-gap) and to determine whether the G-gap is consistent over time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We include...

  15. Diagnostic language consistency among multicultural English-speaking nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, K L

    1996-01-01

    Cultural differences among nurses may influence the choice of terminology applicable to use of a nursing diagnostic statement. This study explored whether defining characteristics are consistently applied by culturally varied nurses in an English language setting. Two diagnoses, pain, and high risk for altered skin integrity, were studied within six cultures: African, Asian, Filipino, East Indian, African-American, and Anglo-American nurses. Overall, there was consistency between the cultural groups. Analysis of variance for the pain scale demonstrated differences among cultures on two characteristics of pain, restlessness and grimace. The only difference on the high risk for altered skin integrity scale was found on the distructor, supple skin.

  16. Interpolative Boolean Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boolean networks are used for modeling and analysis of complex systems of interacting entities. Classical Boolean networks are binary and they are relevant for modeling systems with complex switch-like causal interactions. More descriptive power can be provided by the introduction of gradation in this model. If this is accomplished by using conventional fuzzy logics, the generalized model cannot secure the Boolean frame. Consequently, the validity of the model’s dynamics is not secured. The aim of this paper is to present the Boolean consistent generalization of Boolean networks, interpolative Boolean networks. The generalization is based on interpolative Boolean algebra, the [0,1]-valued realization of Boolean algebra. The proposed model is adaptive with respect to the nature of input variables and it offers greater descriptive power as compared with traditional models. For illustrative purposes, IBN is compared to the models based on existing real-valued approaches. Due to the complexity of the most systems to be analyzed and the characteristics of interpolative Boolean algebra, the software support is developed to provide graphical and numerical tools for complex system modeling and analysis.

  17. The Falcon Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  18. Default network modulation and large-scale network interactivity in healthy young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    We investigated age-related changes in default, attention, and control network activity and their interactions in young and old adults. Brain activity during autobiographical and visuospatial planning was assessed using multivariate analysis and with intrinsic connectivity networks as regions of interest. In both groups, autobiographical planning engaged the default network while visuospatial planning engaged the attention network, consistent with a competition between the domains of internalized and externalized cognition. The control network was engaged for both planning tasks. In young subjects, the control network coupled with the default network during autobiographical planning and with the attention network during visuospatial planning. In old subjects, default-to-control network coupling was observed during both planning tasks, and old adults failed to deactivate the default network during visuospatial planning. This failure is not indicative of default network dysfunction per se, evidenced by default network engagement during autobiographical planning. Rather, a failure to modulate the default network in old adults is indicative of a lower degree of flexible network interactivity and reduced dynamic range of network modulation to changing task demands.

  19. Communication Network Architectures Based on Ethernet Passive Optical Network for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with large-scale offshore wind power farms (WPFs becoming a reality, more efforts are needed to maintain a reliable communication network for WPF monitoring. Deployment topologies, redundancy, and network availability are the main items to enhance the communication reliability between wind turbines (WTs and control centers. Traditional communication networks for monitoring and control (i.e., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems using switched gigabit Ethernet will not be sufficient for the huge amount of data passing through the network. In this paper, the optical power budget, optical path loss, reliability, and network cost of the proposed Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON-based communication network for small-size offshore WPFs have been evaluated for five different network architectures. The proposed network model consists of an optical network unit device (ONU deployed on the WT side for collecting data from different internal networks. All ONUs from different WTs are connected to a central optical line terminal (OLT, placed in the control center. There are no active electronic elements used between the ONUs and the OLT, which reduces the costs and complexity of maintenance and deployment. As fiber access networks without any protection are characterized by poor reliability, three different protection schemes have been configured, explained, and discussed. Considering the cost of network components, the total implementation expense of different architectures with, or without, protection have been calculated and compared. The proposed network model can significantly contribute to the communication network architecture for next generation WPFs.

  20. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  1. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  2. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... threats to the critical infrastructure. Finally, before our conclusions and outlook, we give a brief overview of some key activities in the field and what research directions are currently investigated....

  3. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  4. The least weighted squares II. Consistency and asymptotic normality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2002), s. 1-28 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Grant - others:GA UK(CR) 255/2000/A EK /FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : robust regression * consistency * asymptotic normality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Consistency relation for the Lorentz invariant single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we compute the sizes of equilateral and orthogonal shape bispectrum for the general Lorentz invariant single-field inflation. The stability of field theory implies a non-negative square of sound speed which leads to a consistency relation between the sizes of orthogonal and equilateral shape bispectrum, namely f NL orth. ≤ −0.054f NL equil. . In particular, for the single-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation, the consistency relation becomes f NL orth. = 0.070f NL equil. ≤ 0. These consistency relations are also valid in the mixed scenario where the quantum fluctuations of some other light scalar fields contribute to a part of total curvature perturbation on the super-horizon scale and may generate a local form bispectrum. A distinguishing prediction of the mixed scenario is τ NL loc. > ((6/5)f NL loc. ) 2 . Comparing these consistency relations to WMAP 7yr data, there is still a big room for the Lorentz invariant inflation, but DBI inflation has been disfavored at more than 68% CL

  6. Short-Cut Estimators of Criterion-Referenced Test Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1990-01-01

    Presents simplified methods for deriving estimates of the consistency of criterion-referenced, English-as-a-Second-Language tests, including (1) the threshold loss agreement approach using agreement or kappa coefficients, (2) the squared-error loss agreement approach using the phi(lambda) dependability approach, and (3) the domain score…

  7. SOCIAL COMPARISON, SELF-CONSISTENCY AND THE PRESENTATION OF SELF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORSE, STANLEY J.; GERGEN, KENNETH J.

    TO DISCOVER HOW A PERSON'S (P) SELF-CONCEPT IS AFFECTED BY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOTHER (O) WHO SUDDENLY APPEARS IN THE SAME SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, SEVERAL QUESTIONNAIRES, INCLUDING THE GERGEN-MORSE (1967) SELF-CONSISTENCY SCALE AND HALF THE COOPERSMITH SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY, WERE ADMINISTERED TO 78 UNDERGRADUATE MEN WHO HAD ANSWERED AN AD FOR WORK…

  8. Consistency of the Takens estimator for the correlation dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovkova, S.; Burton, Robert; Dehling, H.

    Motivated by the problem of estimating the fractal dimension of a strange attractor, we prove weak consistency of U-statistics for stationary ergodic and mixing sequences when the kernel function is unbounded, extending by this earlier results of Aaronson, Burton, Dehling, Gilat, Hill and Weiss. We

  9. Assessing atmospheric bias correction for dynamical consistency using potential vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocheta, Eytan; Sharma, Ashish; Evans, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Correcting biases in atmospheric variables prior to impact studies or dynamical downscaling can lead to new biases as dynamical consistency between the ‘corrected’ fields is not maintained. Use of these bias corrected fields for subsequent impact studies and dynamical downscaling provides input conditions that do not appropriately represent intervariable relationships in atmospheric fields. Here we investigate the consequences of the lack of dynamical consistency in bias correction using a measure of model consistency—the potential vorticity (PV). This paper presents an assessment of the biases present in PV using two alternative correction techniques—an approach where bias correction is performed individually on each atmospheric variable, thereby ignoring the physical relationships that exists between the multiple variables that are corrected, and a second approach where bias correction is performed directly on the PV field, thereby keeping the system dynamically coherent throughout the correction process. In this paper we show that bias correcting variables independently results in increased errors above the tropopause in the mean and standard deviation of the PV field, which are improved when using the alternative proposed. Furthermore, patterns of spatial variability are improved over nearly all vertical levels when applying the alternative approach. Results point to a need for a dynamically consistent atmospheric bias correction technique which results in fields that can be used as dynamically consistent lateral boundaries in follow-up downscaling applications. (letter)

  10. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams–Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern

  11. Delimiting coefficient alpha from internal consistency and unidimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, K.

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient α to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient α is a lower bound to reliability and

  12. Challenges of Predictability and Consistency in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to investigate some features of Endemann's (1911) Wörterbuch der Sotho-Sprache (Dictionary of the Sotho language) with the focus on challenges of predictability and consistency in the lemmatization approach, the access alphabet, cross references and article treatments. The dictionary has hitherto ...

  13. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  14. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with 'anomoulous' magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them. The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  15. Using the Perceptron Algorithm to Find Consistent Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, M.; Shawe-Taylor, J.

    1993-01-01

    The perceptron learning algorithm yields quite naturally an algorithm for finding a linearly separable boolean function consistent with a sample of such a function. Using the idea of a specifying sample, we give a simple proof that this algorithm is not efficient, in general.

  16. Probability Machines: Consistent Probability Estimation Using Nonparametric Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J. D.; Kruppa, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Malley, K. G.; Ziegler, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. Objectives The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Methods Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Results Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Conclusions Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications. PMID:21915433

  17. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  18. Is There a Future for Education Consistent with Agenda 21?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses recent experiences in developing and implementing strategies for education consistent with the concept of sustainable development at two different levels: (1) the international level characterized by Agenda 21 along with the efforts of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development to foster its progress; and (2) the national…

  19. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model’s prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF. Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain—the heat control unit of a spacecraft—where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  20. Consistent dynamical and statistical description of fission and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shunuan, Wang [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    The research survey of consistent dynamical and statistical description of fission is briefly introduced. The channel theory of fission with diffusive dynamics based on Bohr channel theory of fission and Fokker-Planck equation and Kramers-modified Bohr-Wheeler expression according to Strutinsky method given by P.Frobrich et al. are compared and analyzed. (2 figs.).

  1. Brief Report: Consistency of Search Engine Rankings for Autism Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the…

  2. Consistency of the Self-Schema in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Mueller, John H.

    Depressed individuals may filter or distort environmental information in direct relationship to their self perceptions. To investigate the degree of uncertainty about oneself and others, as measured by consistent/inconsistent responses, 72 college students (32 depressed and 40 nondepressed) rated selected adjectives from the Derry and Kuiper…

  3. Composition consisting of a dendrimer and an active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition consisting of a dendrimer provided with blocking agents and an active substance occluded in the dendrimer. According to the invention a blocking agent is a compound which is sterically of sufficient size, which readily enters into a chemical bond with the

  4. Analytical relativistic self-consistent-field calculations for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelat, J.C.; Pelissier, M.; Durand, P.

    1980-01-01

    A new second-order representation of the Dirac equation is presented. This representation which is exact for a hydrogen atom is applied to approximate analytical self-consistent-field calculations for atoms. Results are given for the rare-gas atoms from helium to radon and for lead. The results compare favorably with numerical Dirac-Hartree-Fock solutions

  5. A consistent analysis for the quark condensate in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zheng; Huang Tao

    1988-08-01

    The dynamical symmetry breaking in QCD is analysed based on the vacuum condensates. A self-consistent equation for the quark condensate (φ φ) is derived. A nontrivial solution for (φ φ) ≠ 0 is given in terms of the QCD scale parameter A

  6. The consistency assessment of topological relations in cartographic generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunyan; Guo, Qingsheng; Du, Xiaochu

    2006-10-01

    The field of research in the generalization assessment has been less studied than the generalization process itself, and it is very important to keep topological relation consistency for meeting generalization quality. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the quality of generalized map from topological relations consistency. Taking roads (including railway) and residential areas for examples, from the viewpoint of the spatial cognition, some issues about topological consistency in different map scales are analyzed. The statistic information about the inconsistent topological relations can be obtained by comparing the two matrices: one is the matrix for the topological relations in the generalized map; the other is the theoretical matrix for the topological relations that should be maintained after generalization. Based on the fuzzy set theory and the classification of map object types, the consistency evaluation model of topological relations is established. The paper proves the feasibility of the method through the example about how to evaluate the local topological relations between simple roads and residential area finally.

  7. Numerical consistency check between two approaches to radiative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approaches for a consistency check on numerical accuracy, and find out the stabil- ... ln(MR/1 GeV) to top-quark mass scale t0(= ln(mt/1 GeV)) where t0 ≤ t ≤ tR, we ..... It is in general to tone down the solar mixing angle through further fine.

  8. Consistency or Discrepancy? Rethinking Schools from Organizational Hypocrisy to Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçoglu, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    Consistency in statements, decisions and practices is highly important for both organization members and the image of an organization. It is expected from organizations, especially from their administrators, to "walk the talk"--in other words, to try to practise what they preach. However, in the process of gaining legitimacy and adapting…

  9. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan

    2018-03-29

    The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  10. Consistency Check for the Bin Packing Constraint Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien; Schaus, Pierre; Deville, Yves

    The bin packing problem (BP) consists in finding the minimum number of bins necessary to pack a set of items so that the total size of the items in each bin does not exceed the bin capacity C. The bin capacity is common for all the bins.

  11. Matrix analysis for associated consistency in cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Driessen, Theo; Sun, H.; Sun, H.

    Hamiache's recent axiomatization of the well-known Shapley value for TU games states that the Shapley value is the unique solution verifying the following three axioms: the inessential game property, continuity and associated consistency. Driessen extended Hamiache's axiomatization to the enlarged

  12. Matrix analysis for associated consistency in cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu Genjiu, G.; Driessen, Theo; Sun, H.; Sun, H.

    Hamiache axiomatized the Shapley value as the unique solution verifying the inessential game property, continuity and associated consistency. Driessen extended Hamiache’s axiomatization to the enlarged class of efficient, symmetric, and linear values. In this paper, we introduce the notion of row

  13. Consistent measurements comparing the drift features of noble gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, U; Fortunato, E M; Kirchner, J; Rosera, K; Uchida, Y

    1999-01-01

    We present a consistent set of measurements of electron drift velocities and Lorentz deflection angles for all noble gases with methane and ethane as quenchers in magnetic fields up to 0.8 T. Empirical descriptions are also presented. Details on the World Wide Web allow for guided design and optimization of future detectors.

  14. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  15. Consistency in behavior of the CEO regarding corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.; Kartal, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - When corporations adopt a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program and use and name it in their external communications, their members should act in line with CSR. The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment in which the consistent or inconsistent behavior of a CEO was

  16. Self-consistent description of the isospin mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrakov, S.I.; Pyatov, N.I.; Baznat, M.I.; Salamov, D.I.

    1978-03-01

    The properties of collective 0 + states built of unlike particle-hole excitations in spherical nuclei have been investigated in a self-consistent microscopic approach. These states arise when the broken isospin symmetry of the nuclear shell model Hamiltonian is restored. The numerical calculations were performed with Woods-Saxon wave functions

  17. Potential application of the consistency approach for vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, J; Sirota, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Consistency Approach offers the possibility of reducing the number of animals used for a potency test. However, it is critical to assess the effect that such reduction may have on assay performance. Consistency of production, sometimes referred to as consistency of manufacture or manufacturing, is an old concept implicit in regulation, which aims to ensure the uninterrupted release of safe and effective products. Consistency of manufacture can be described in terms of process capability, or the ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. For example, the standard method for potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines is a multiple-dilution vaccination challenge test in mice that gives a quantitative, although highly variable estimate. On the other hand, a single-dilution test that does not give a quantitative estimate, but rather shows if the vaccine meets the specification has been proposed. This simplified test can lead to a considerable reduction in the number of animals used. However, traditional indices of process capability assume that the output population (potency values) is normally distributed, which clearly is not the case for the simplified approach. Appropriate computation of capability indices for the latter case will require special statistical considerations.

  18. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of networkbehaviour, knowing how to manage this relation becomes essential, especiallyduring the development of new strategies....

  19. A Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations Based ANP Model for R&D Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly changing economy, technology companies have to make decisions on research and development (R&D projects investment on a routine bases with such decisions having a direct impact on that company’s profitability, sustainability and future growth. Companies seeking profitable opportunities for investment and project selection must consider many factors such as resource limitations and differences in assessment, with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Often, differences in perception by the various stakeholders hinder the attainment of a consensus of opinion and coordination efforts. Thus, in this study, a hybrid model is developed for the consideration of the complex criteria taking into account the different opinions of the various stakeholders who often come from different departments within the company and have different opinions about which direction to take. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL approach is used to convert the cause and effect relations representing the criteria into a visual network structure. A consistent fuzzy preference relations based analytic network process (CFPR-ANP method is developed to calculate the preference-weights of the criteria based on the derived network structure. The CFPR-ANP is an improvement over the original analytic network process (ANP method in that it reduces the problem of inconsistency as well as the number of pairwise comparisons. The combined complex proportional assessment (COPRAS-G method is applied with fuzzy grey relations to resolve conflicts arising from differences in information and opinions provided by the different stakeholders about the selection of the most suitable R&D projects. This novel combination approach is then used to assist an international brand-name company to prioritize projects and make project decisions that will maximize returns and ensure sustainability for the company.

  20. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Trindade-Filho

    Full Text Available In a world limited by data availability and limited funds for conservation, scientists and practitioners must use indicator groups to define spatial conservation priorities. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indicator groups, but still little is known about the consistency in performance of these groups in different regions, which would allow their a priori selection.We systematically examined the effectiveness and the consistency of nine indicator groups in representing mammal species in two top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspots (BH: the Brazilian Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. To test for group effectiveness we first found the best sets of sites able to maximize the representation of each indicator group in the BH and then calculated the average representation of different target species by the indicator groups in the BH. We considered consistent indicator groups whose representation of target species was not statistically different between BH. We called effective those groups that outperformed the target-species representation achieved by random sets of species. Effective indicator groups required the selection of less than 2% of the BH area for representing target species. Restricted-range species were the most effective indicators for the representation of all mammal diversity as well as target species. It was also the only group with high consistency.We show that several indicator groups could be applied as shortcuts for representing mammal species in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to develop conservation plans, however, only restricted-range species consistently held as the most effective indicator group for such a task. This group is of particular importance in conservation planning as it captures high diversity of endemic and endangered species.

  1. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Filho, Joaquim; Loyola, Rafael Dias

    2011-01-01

    In a world limited by data availability and limited funds for conservation, scientists and practitioners must use indicator groups to define spatial conservation priorities. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indicator groups, but still little is known about the consistency in performance of these groups in different regions, which would allow their a priori selection. We systematically examined the effectiveness and the consistency of nine indicator groups in representing mammal species in two top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspots (BH): the Brazilian Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. To test for group effectiveness we first found the best sets of sites able to maximize the representation of each indicator group in the BH and then calculated the average representation of different target species by the indicator groups in the BH. We considered consistent indicator groups whose representation of target species was not statistically different between BH. We called effective those groups that outperformed the target-species representation achieved by random sets of species. Effective indicator groups required the selection of less than 2% of the BH area for representing target species. Restricted-range species were the most effective indicators for the representation of all mammal diversity as well as target species. It was also the only group with high consistency. We show that several indicator groups could be applied as shortcuts for representing mammal species in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to develop conservation plans, however, only restricted-range species consistently held as the most effective indicator group for such a task. This group is of particular importance in conservation planning as it captures high diversity of endemic and endangered species.

  2. Conformal consistency relations for single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the single-field consistency relations to capture not only the leading term in the squeezed limit — going as 1/q 3 , where q is the small wavevector — but also the subleading one, going as 1/q 2 . This term, for an (n+1)-point function, is fixed in terms of the variation of the n-point function under a special conformal transformation; this parallels the fact that the 1/q 3 term is related with the scale dependence of the n-point function. For the squeezed limit of the 3-point function, this conformal consistency relation implies that there are no terms going as 1/q 2 . We verify that the squeezed limit of the 4-point function is related to the conformal variation of the 3-point function both in the case of canonical slow-roll inflation and in models with reduced speed of sound. In the second case the conformal consistency conditions capture, at the level of observables, the relation among operators induced by the non-linear realization of Lorentz invariance in the Lagrangian. These results mean that, in any single-field model, primordial correlation functions of ζ are endowed with an SO(4,1) symmetry, with dilations and special conformal transformations non-linearly realized by ζ. We also verify the conformal consistency relations for any n-point function in models with a modulation of the inflaton potential, where the scale dependence is not negligible. Finally, we generalize (some of) the consistency relations involving tensors and soft internal momenta

  3. Dynamic Frequency Control in Power Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Changhong; Mallada Garcia, Enrique; Low, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Node controllers in power distribution networks in accordance with embodiments of the invention enable dynamic frequency control. One embodiment includes a node controller comprising a network interface a processor; and a memory containing a frequency control application; and a plurality of node operating parameters describing the operating parameters of a node, where the node is selected from a group consisting of at least one generator node in a power distribution network wherein the proces...

  4. Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina

    2005-01-01

    We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...

  5. CUFID-query: accurate network querying through random walk based network flow estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyundoo; Qian, Xiaoning; Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2017-12-28

    Functional modules in biological networks consist of numerous biomolecules and their complicated interactions. Recent studies have shown that biomolecules in a functional module tend to have similar interaction patterns and that such modules are often conserved across biological networks of different species. As a result, such conserved functional modules can be identified through comparative analysis of biological networks. In this work, we propose a novel network querying algorithm based on the CUFID (Comparative network analysis Using the steady-state network Flow to IDentify orthologous proteins) framework combined with an efficient seed-and-extension approach. The proposed algorithm, CUFID-query, can accurately detect conserved functional modules as small subnetworks in the target network that are expected to perform similar functions to the given query functional module. The CUFID framework was recently developed for probabilistic pairwise global comparison of biological networks, and it has been applied to pairwise global network alignment, where the framework was shown to yield accurate network alignment results. In the proposed CUFID-query algorithm, we adopt the CUFID framework and extend it for local network alignment, specifically to solve network querying problems. First, in the seed selection phase, the proposed method utilizes the CUFID framework to compare the query and the target networks and to predict the probabilistic node-to-node correspondence between the networks. Next, the algorithm selects and greedily extends the seed in the target network by iteratively adding nodes that have frequent interactions with other nodes in the seed network, in a way that the conductance of the extended network is maximally reduced. Finally, CUFID-query removes irrelevant nodes from the querying results based on the personalized PageRank vector for the induced network that includes the fully extended network and its neighboring nodes. Through extensive

  6. Seeded Bayesian Networks: Constructing genetic networks from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quackenbush John

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays and other genomics-inspired technologies provide large datasets that often include hidden patterns of correlation between genes reflecting the complex processes that underlie cellular metabolism and physiology. The challenge in analyzing large-scale expression data has been to extract biologically meaningful inferences regarding these processes – often represented as networks – in an environment where the datasets are often imperfect and biological noise can obscure the actual signal. Although many techniques have been developed in an attempt to address these issues, to date their ability to extract meaningful and predictive network relationships has been limited. Here we describe a method that draws on prior information about gene-gene interactions to infer biologically relevant pathways from microarray data. Our approach consists of using preliminary networks derived from the literature and/or protein-protein interaction data as seeds for a Bayesian network analysis of microarray results. Results Through a bootstrap analysis of gene expression data derived from a number of leukemia studies, we demonstrate that seeded Bayesian Networks have the ability to identify high-confidence gene-gene interactions which can then be validated by comparison to other sources of pathway data. Conclusion The use of network seeds greatly improves the ability of Bayesian Network analysis to learn gene interaction networks from gene expression data. We demonstrate that the use of seeds derived from the biomedical literature or high-throughput protein-protein interaction data, or the combination, provides improvement over a standard Bayesian Network analysis, allowing networks involving dynamic processes to be deduced from the static snapshots of biological systems that represent the most common source of microarray data. Software implementing these methods has been included in the widely used TM4 microarray analysis package.

  7. Estimating Conditional Distributions by Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Neural Networks for estimating conditionaldistributions and their associated quantiles are investigated in this paper. A basic network structure is developed on the basis of kernel estimation theory, and consistency property is considered from a mild set of assumptions. A number of applications...

  8. Cognitive Radio-based Home Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarijari, M.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    A future home area network (HAN) is envisaged to consist of a large number of devices that support various applications such as smart grid, security and safety systems, voice call, and video streaming. Most of these home devices are communicating based on various wireless networking technologies

  9. Financial stability from a network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of six chapters related to applications of network analysis’ methods for financial stability. The first chapter introduces the network perspective as a new mapping technique for studying and understanding financial markets’architecture. The second chapter breaks down the

  10. Percolation of interdependent network of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Bashan, Amir; Gao, Jianxi; Kenett, Dror Y.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a Network Of Networks (NONs) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (first-order) phase transition, unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. Moreover, although networks with broader degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are more robust when analyzed as single networks, they become more vulnerable in a NON. We also review the effect of space embedding on network vulnerability. It is shown that for spatially embedded networks any finite fraction of dependency nodes will lead to abrupt transition

  11. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  12. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  13. Network Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…

  14. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  15. Global Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…

  16. Dispersion Differences and Consistency of Artificial Periodic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Bao; Lin, Wen-Kai; Shi, Zhi-Fei

    2017-10-01

    Dispersion differences and consistency of artificial periodic structures, including phononic crystals, elastic metamaterials, as well as periodic structures composited of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials, are investigated in this paper. By developing a K(ω) method, complex dispersion relations and group/phase velocity curves of both the single-mechanism periodic structures and the mixing-mechanism periodic structures are calculated at first, from which dispersion differences of artificial periodic structures are discussed. Then, based on a unified formulation, dispersion consistency of artificial periodic structures is investigated. Through a comprehensive comparison study, the correctness for the unified formulation is verified. Mathematical derivations of the unified formulation for different artificial periodic structures are presented. Furthermore, physical meanings of the unified formulation are discussed in the energy-state space.

  17. Consistent Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Loebbert, Florian; Plefka, Jan

    The question of whether classically conformal modifications of the standard model are consistent with experimental obervations has recently been subject to renewed interest. The method of Gildener and Weinberg provides a natural framework for the study of the effective potential of the resulting multi-scalar standard model extensions. This approach relies on the assumption of the ordinary loop hierarchy $\\lambda_\\text{s} \\sim g^2_\\text{g}$ of scalar and gauge couplings. On the other hand, Andreassen, Frost and Schwartz recently argued that in the (single-scalar) standard model, gauge invariant results require the consistent scaling $\\lambda_\\text{s} \\sim g^4_\\text{g}$. In the present paper we contrast these two hierarchy assumptions and illustrate the differences in the phenomenological predictions of minimal conformal extensions of the standard model.

  18. Surfactant modified clays’ consistency limits and contact angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akbulut

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing a surfactant modified clay (SMC and researching the effect of surfactants on clays' contact angles and consistency limits; clay was thus modified by surfactants formodifying their engineering properties. Seven surfactants (trimethylglycine, hydroxyethylcellulose  octyl phenol ethoxylate, linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, cetyl trimethylammonium chloride and quaternised ethoxylated fatty amine were used as surfactants in this study. The experimental results indicated that SMC consistency limits (liquid and plastic limits changedsignificantly compared to those of natural clay. Plasticity index and liquid limit (PI-LL values representing soil class approached the A-line when zwitterion, nonionic, and anionic surfactant percentageincreased. However, cationic SMC became transformed from CH (high plasticity clay to MH (high plasticity silt class soils, according to the unified soil classification system (USCS. Clay modifiedwith cationic and anionic surfactants gave higher and lower contact angles than natural clay, respectively.

  19. Rotating D0-branes and consistent truncations of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Ortiz, Thomas; Samtleben, Henning

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuations around the D0-brane near-horizon geometry are described by two-dimensional SO(9) gauged maximal supergravity. We work out the U(1) 4 truncation of this theory whose scalar sector consists of five dilaton and four axion fields. We construct the full non-linear Kaluza–Klein ansatz for the embedding of the dilaton sector into type IIA supergravity. This yields a consistent truncation around a geometry which is the warped product of a two-dimensional domain wall and the sphere S 8 . As an application, we consider the solutions corresponding to rotating D0-branes which in the near-horizon limit approach AdS 2 ×M 8 geometries, and discuss their thermodynamical properties. More generally, we study the appearance of such solutions in the presence of non-vanishing axion fields

  20. Substituting fields within the action: Consistency issues and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    In field theory, as well as in mechanics, the substitution of some fields in terms of other fields at the level of the action raises an issue of consistency with respect to the equations of motion. We discuss this issue and give an expression which neatly displays the difference between doing the substitution at the level of the Lagrangian or at the level of the equations of motion. Both operations do not commute in general. A very relevant exception is the case of auxiliary variables, which are discussed in detail together with some of their relevant applications. We discuss the conditions for the preservation of symmetries--Noether as well as non-Noether--under the reduction of degrees of freedom provided by the mechanism of substitution. We also examine how the gauge fixing procedures fit in our framework and give simple examples on the issue of consistency in this case.

  1. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the shearing chamber is built, and the formula and procedure to calculate the radius of the turbulence generator are established. The blade laying angle is referenced from the turbine agitator which has the similar shape with the turbulence generator, and the CFD simulation is applied to study the different flow fields with different blade laying angles. Then the recommended blade laying angle of the turbulence generator is formed to be between 60° and 75°.

  2. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  4. Quantitative verification of ab initio self-consistent laser theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Tandy, Robert J; Stone, A D; Türeci, Hakan E

    2008-10-13

    We generalize and test the recent "ab initio" self-consistent (AISC) time-independent semiclassical laser theory. This self-consistent formalism generates all the stationary lasing properties in the multimode regime (frequencies, thresholds, internal and external fields, output power and emission pattern) from simple inputs: the dielectric function of the passive cavity, the atomic transition frequency, and the transverse relaxation time of the lasing transition.We find that the theory gives excellent quantitative agreement with full time-dependent simulations of the Maxwell-Bloch equations after it has been generalized to drop the slowly-varying envelope approximation. The theory is infinite order in the non-linear hole-burning interaction; the widely used third order approximation is shown to fail badly.

  5. Self-consistent studies of magnetic thin film Ni (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in experimental methods for studying surface phenomena have provided the stimulus to develop theoretical methods capable of interpreting this wealth of new information. Of particular interest have been the relative roles of bulk and surface contributions since in several important cases agreement between experiment and bulk self-consistent (SC) calculations within the local spin density functional formalism (LSDF) is lacking. We discuss our recent extension of the (LSDF) approach to the study of thin films (slabs) and the role of surface effects on magnetic properties. Results are described for Ni (001) films using our new SC numerical basis set LCAO method. Self-consistency within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model is obtained iteratively with the atomic configuration as the adjustable parameter. Results are presented for the electronic charge densities and local density of states. The origin and role of (magnetic) surface states is discussed by comparison with results of earlier bulk calculations

  6. Self-consistent equilibria in the pulsar magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endean, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    For a 'collisionless' pulsar magnetosphere the self-consistent equilibrium particle distribution functions are functions of the constants of the motion ony. Reasons are given for concluding that to a good approximation they will be functions of the rotating frame Hamiltonian only. This is shown to result in a rigid rotation of the plasma, which therefore becomes trapped inside the velocity of light cylinder. The self-consistent field equations are derived, and a method of solving them is illustrated. The axial component of the magnetic field decays to zero at the plasma boundary. In practice, some streaming of particles into the wind zone may occur as a second-order effect. Acceleration of such particles to very high energies is expected when they approach the velocity of light cylinder, but they cannot be accelerated to very high energies near the star. (author)

  7. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a mininum strength heat is also shown to provide adequate predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations

  8. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  9. Rotating D0-branes and consistent truncations of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, UMR 5672, CNRS École Normale Supérieure de Lyon 46, allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07 (France); Ortiz, Thomas; Samtleben, Henning [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, UMR 5672, CNRS École Normale Supérieure de Lyon 46, allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07 (France)

    2013-12-18

    The fluctuations around the D0-brane near-horizon geometry are described by two-dimensional SO(9) gauged maximal supergravity. We work out the U(1){sup 4} truncation of this theory whose scalar sector consists of five dilaton and four axion fields. We construct the full non-linear Kaluza–Klein ansatz for the embedding of the dilaton sector into type IIA supergravity. This yields a consistent truncation around a geometry which is the warped product of a two-dimensional domain wall and the sphere S{sup 8}. As an application, we consider the solutions corresponding to rotating D0-branes which in the near-horizon limit approach AdS{sub 2}×M{sub 8} geometries, and discuss their thermodynamical properties. More generally, we study the appearance of such solutions in the presence of non-vanishing axion fields.

  10. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a minimum strength heat is also shown to provide reasonable predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum strength heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations. 12 refs

  11. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A L

    2015-08-12

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ1 from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex Γ(E)). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. The results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question-which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on perturbation theory (PT) systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.

  12. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (replaced by CentER DP 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  13. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of CentER DP 2011-063)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  14. Consistency of eye movements in MOT using horizontally flipped trials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děchtěrenko, F.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Suppl (2013), s. 42-42 ISSN 0301-0066. [36th European Conference on Visual Perception. 25.08.2013.-29.08.2013, Brémy] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eye movements * symmetry * consistency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.ecvp.uni-bremen.de/~ecvpprog/abstract164.html

  15. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sammie eTarenskeen; Mirjam eBroersma; Mirjam eBroersma; Bart eGeurts

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a bet...

  16. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  17. Monetary Poverty, Material Deprivation and Consistent Poverty in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Farinha Rodrigues; Isabel Andrade

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the Portuguese component of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions {EU-SILC) to develop a measure of consistent poverty in Portugal. It is widely agreed that being poor does not simply mean not having enough monetary resources. It also reflects a lack of access to the resources required to enjoy a minimum standard of living and participation in the society one belor]gs to. The coexistence of material deprivation and monetary poverty leads ...

  18. Consistency requirements on Δ contributions to the NN potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1982-04-01

    We discuss theories leading to intermediate state NΔ and ΔΔ contributions to Vsub(NN). We focus on the customary addition of Lsub(ΔNπ)' to Lsub(πNN)' in a conventional field theory and argue that overcounting of contributions to tsub(πN) and Vsub(NN) will be the rule. We then discuss the cloudy bag model where a similar interaction naturally arises and which leads to a consistent theory. (author)

  19. Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Tomio, L.; Dey, M.; Frederico, T.

    1989-01-01

    1/N c expansion in QCD (with N c the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a σ field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking ( χ SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the χ SB-modelling. All masses, M Ν , m σ , m ω are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author)

  20. Self-consistent T-matrix theory of superconductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šopík, B.; Lipavský, Pavel; Männel, M.; Morawetz, K.; Matlock, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 9 (2011), 094529/1-094529/13 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0212; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * T-matrix * superconducting gap * restricted self-consistency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  1. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Tarenskeen, S.L.; Broersma, M.; Geurts, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Usi...

  2. The consistent histories interpretation of quantum fields in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blencowe, M.

    1991-01-01

    As an initial attempt to address some of the foundation problems of quantum mechanics, the author formulates the consistent histories interpretation of quantum field theory on a globally hyperbolic curved space time. He then constructs quasiclassical histories for a free, massive scalar field. In the final part, he points out the shortcomings of the theory and conjecture that one must take into account the fact that gravity is quantized in order to overcome them

  3. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  4. Modeling a Consistent Behavior of PLC-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article extends the cycle of papers dedicated to programming and verificatoin of PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides the availability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method.The model checking method needs to construct a finite model of a PLC program. For successful verification of required properties it is important to take into consideration that not all combinations of input signals from the sensors can occur while PLC works with a control object. This fact requires more advertence to the construction of the PLC-program model.In this paper we propose to describe a consistent behavior of sensors by three groups of LTL-formulas. They will affect the program model, approximating it to the actual behavior of the PLC program. The idea of LTL-requirements is shown by an example.A PLC program is a description of reactions on input signals from sensors, switches and buttons. In constructing a PLC-program model, the approach to modeling a consistent behavior of PLC sensors allows to focus on modeling precisely these reactions without an extension of the program model by additional structures for realization of a realistic behavior of sensors. The consistent behavior of sensors is taken into account only at the stage of checking a conformity of the programming model to required properties, i. e. a property satisfaction proof for the constructed model occurs with the condition that the model contains only such executions of the program that comply with the consistent behavior of sensors.

  5. Modeling, Optimization & Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2014-01-01

    . The nonlinear network model is derived based on the circuit theory. A suitable projection is used to reduce the state vector and to express the model in standard state-space form. Then, the controllability of nonlinear nonaffine hydraulic networks is studied. The Lie algebra-based controllability matrix is used......Water supply systems consist of a number of pumping stations, which deliver water to the customers via pipeline networks and elevated reservoirs. A huge amount of drinking water is lost before it reaches to end-users due to the leakage in pipe networks. A cost effective solution to reduce leakage...... in water network is pressure management. By reducing the pressure in the water network, the leakage can be reduced significantly. Also it reduces the amount of energy consumption in water networks. The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for pressure control in water supply...

  6. Noise Analysis studies with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seker, S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1996-01-01

    Noise analysis studies with neural network are aimed. Stochastic signals at the input of the network are used to obtain an algorithmic multivariate stochastic signal modeling. To this end, lattice modeling of a stochastic signal is performed to obtain backward residual noise sources which are uncorrelated among themselves. There are applied together with an additional input to the network to obtain an algorithmic model which is used for signal detection for early failure in plant monitoring. The additional input provides the information to the network to minimize the difference between the signal and the network's one-step-ahead prediction. A stochastic algorithm is used for training where the errors reflecting the measurement error during the training are also modelled so that fast and consistent convergence of network's weights is obtained. The lattice structure coupled to neural network investigated with measured signals from an actual power plant. (authors)

  7. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  8. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  9. Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunho Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc, designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.

  10. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.

  11. Consistency checks in beam emission modeling for neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punyapu, Bharathi; Vattipalle, Prahlad; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Baruah, Ujjwal Kumar; Crowley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    In positive neutral beam systems, the beam parameters such as ion species fractions, power fractions and beam divergence are routinely measured using Doppler shifted beam emission spectrum. The accuracy with which these parameters are estimated depend on the accuracy of the atomic modeling involved in these estimations. In this work, an effective procedure to check the consistency of the beam emission modeling in neutral beam injectors is proposed. As a first consistency check, at a constant beam voltage and current, the intensity of the beam emission spectrum is measured by varying the pressure in the neutralizer. Then, the scaling of measured intensity of un-shifted (target) and Doppler shifted intensities (projectile) of the beam emission spectrum at these pressure values are studied. If the un-shifted component scales with pressure, then the intensity of this component will be used as a second consistency check on the beam emission modeling. As a further check, the modeled beam fractions and emission cross sections of projectile and target are used to predict the intensity of the un-shifted component and then compared with the value of measured target intensity. An agreement between the predicted and measured target intensities provide the degree of discrepancy in the beam emission modeling. In order to test this methodology, a systematic analysis of Doppler shift spectroscopy data obtained on the JET neutral beam test stand data was carried out

  12. A dynamical mechanism for large volumes with consistent couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Steven [IPPP, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-14

    A mechanism for addressing the “decompactification problem” is proposed, which consists of balancing the vacuum energy in Scherk-Schwarzed theories against contributions coming from non-perturbative physics. Universality of threshold corrections ensures that, in such situations, the stable minimum will have consistent gauge couplings for any gauge group that shares the same N=2 beta function for the bulk excitations as the gauge group that takes part in the minimisation. Scherk-Schwarz compactification from 6D to 4D in heterotic strings is discussed explicitly, together with two alternative possibilities for the non-perturbative physics, namely metastable SQCD vacua and a single gaugino condensate. In the former case, it is shown that modular symmetries gives various consistency checks, and allow one to follow soft-terms, playing a similar role to R-symmetry in global SQCD. The latter case is particularly attractive when there is nett Bose-Fermi degeneracy in the massless sector. In such cases, because the original Casimir energy is generated entirely by excited and/or non-physical string modes, it is completely immune to the non-perturbative IR physics. Such a separation between UV and IR contributions to the potential greatly simplifies the analysis of stabilisation, and is a general possibility that has not been considered before.

  13. Consistency of variables in PCS and JASTRO great area database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Tomohiro; Teshima, Teruki; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) reflects the data for the major areas in Japan, the consistency of variables in the PCS and in the major area database of the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) were compared. Patients with esophageal or uterine cervical cancer were sampled from the PCS and JASTRO databases. From the JASTRO database, 147 patients with esophageal cancer and 95 patients with uterine cervical cancer were selected according to the eligibility criteria for the PCS. From the PCS, 455 esophageal and 432 uterine cervical cancer patients were surveyed. Six items for esophageal cancer and five items for uterine cervical cancer were selected for a comparative analysis of PCS and JASTRO databases. Esophageal cancer: Age (p=.0777), combination of radiation and surgery (p=.2136), and energy of the external beam (p=.6400) were consistent for PCS and JASTRO. However, the dose of the external beam for the non-surgery group showed inconsistency (p=.0467). Uterine cervical cancer: Age (p=.6301) and clinical stage (p=.8555) were consistent for the two sets of data. However, the energy of the external beam (p<.0001), dose rate of brachytherapy (p<.0001), and brachytherapy utilization by clinical stage (p<.0001) showed inconsistencies. It appears possible that the JASTRO major area database could not account for all patients' backgrounds and factors and that both surveys might have an imbalance in the stratification of institutions including differences in equipment and staffing patterns. (author)

  14. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  15. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  16. Consistency in color parameters of a commonly used shade guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkandi, Esam

    2010-01-01

    The use of shade guides to assess the color of natural teeth subjectively remains one of the most common means for dental shade assessment. Any variation in the color parameters of the different shade guides may lead to significant clinical implications. Particularly, since the communication between the clinic and the dental laboratory is based on using the shade guide designation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of the L∗a∗b∗ color parameters of a sample of a commonly used shade guide. The color parameters of a total of 100 VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide (VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany(were measured using a X-Rite ColorEye 7000A Spectrophotometer (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA). Each shade guide consists of 16 tabs with different designations. Each shade tab was measured five times and the average values were calculated. The ΔE between the average L∗a∗b∗ value for each shade tab and the average of the 100 shade tabs of the same designation was calculated. Using the Student t-test analysis, no significant differences were found among the measured sample. There is a high consistency level in terms of color parameters of the measured VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide sample tested.

  17. The study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gnitko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil 1% for the complex therapy and prevention of alopecia. This shampoo with minoxidil was selected according to the complex physical-chemical, biopharmaceutical and microbiological investigations. Methods and results. It has been established that consistent properties of the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and the «mechanical stability» (1.70 describe the formulation as exceptionally thixotropic composition with possibility of restoration after mechanical loads. Also this fact allows to predict stability of the consistent properties during long storage. Conclusion. Factors of dynamic flowing for the foam detergent gel with minoxidil (Кd1=38.9%; Kd2=78.06% quantitatively confirm sufficient degree of distribution at the time of spreading composition on the skin surface of the hairy part of head or during technological operations of manufacturing. Insignificant difference of «mechanical stability» for the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and its base indicates the absence of interactions between active substance and the base.

  18. Consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations via exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Samtleben, Henning [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, UMR 5672, CNRS,École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46, allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07 (France)

    2015-01-26

    We present the generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz for the full supersymmetric exceptional field theory in terms of group valued twist matrices subject to consistency equations. With this ansatz the field equations precisely reduce to those of lower-dimensional gauged supergravity parametrized by an embedding tensor. We explicitly construct a family of twist matrices as solutions of the consistency equations. They induce gauged supergravities with gauge groups SO(p,q) and CSO(p,q,r). Geometrically, they describe compactifications on internal spaces given by spheres and (warped) hyperboloides H{sup p,q}, thus extending the applicability of generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions beyond homogeneous spaces. Together with the dictionary that relates exceptional field theory to D=11 and IIB supergravity, respectively, the construction defines an entire new family of consistent truncations of the original theories. These include not only compactifications on spheres of different dimensions (such as AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}), but also various hyperboloid compactifications giving rise to a higher-dimensional embedding of supergravities with non-compact and non-semisimple gauge groups.

  19. Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings.

  20. Consistency relation in power law G-inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the standard inflationary scenario based on a minimally coupled scalar field, canonical or non-canonical, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar perturbations ensures the following consistency relation: r ≤ −8n T , where r is the tensor-to-scalar-ratio and n T is the spectral index for tensor perturbations. However, recently, it has been demonstrated that this consistency relation could be violated in Galilean inflation models even in the absence of superluminal propagation of scalar perturbations. It is therefore interesting to investigate whether the subluminal propagation of scalar field perturbations impose any bound on the ratio r/|n T | in G-inflation models. In this paper, we derive the consistency relation for a class of G-inflation models that lead to power law inflation. Within these class of models, it turns out that one can have r > −8n T or r ≤ −8n T depending on the model parameters. However, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar field perturbations, as required by causality, restricts r ≤ −(32/3) n T

  1. Evaluation of Persian Professional Web Social Networks\\\\\\' Features, to Provide a Suitable Solution for Optimization of These Networks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjla Hariri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the status of Persian professional web social networks' features and provide a suitable solution for optimization of these networks in Iran. The research methods were library research and evaluative method, and study population consisted of 10 Persian professional web social networks. In this study, for data collection, a check list of social networks important tools and features was used. According to the results, “Cloob”, “IR Experts” and “Doreh” were the most compatible networks with the criteria of social networks. Finally, some solutions were presented for optimization of capabilities of Persian professional web social networks.

  2. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  3. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  4. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  5. Potential theory for directed networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation.

  6. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  7. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

  8. Functional connectivity modeling of consistent cortico-striatal degeneration in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imis Dogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric phenotype. In a recent meta-analysis we identified core regions of consistent neurodegeneration in premanifest HD in the striatum and middle occipital gyrus (MOG. For early manifest HD convergent evidence of atrophy was most prominent in the striatum, motor cortex (M1 and inferior frontal junction (IFJ. The aim of the present study was to functionally characterize this topography of brain atrophy and to investigate differential connectivity patterns formed by consistent cortico-striatal atrophy regions in HD. Using areas of striatal and cortical atrophy at different disease stages as seeds, we performed task-free resting-state and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM. MACM utilizes the large data source of the BrainMap database and identifies significant areas of above-chance co-activation with the seed-region via the activation-likelihood-estimation approach. In order to delineate functional networks formed by cortical as well as striatal atrophy regions we computed the conjunction between the co-activation profiles of striatal and cortical seeds in the premanifest and manifest stages of HD, respectively. Functional characterization of the seeds was obtained using the behavioral meta-data of BrainMap. Cortico-striatal atrophy seeds of the premanifest stage of HD showed common co-activation with a rather cognitive network including the striatum, anterior insula, lateral prefrontal, premotor, supplementary motor and parietal regions. A similar but more pronounced co-activation pattern, additionally including the medial prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei was found with striatal and IFJ seeds at the manifest HD stage. The striatum and M1 were functionally connected mainly to premotor and sensorimotor areas, posterior insula, putamen and thalamus. Behavioral characterization of the seeds confirmed that experiments

  9. Force10 networks performance in world's first transcontinental 10 gigabit ethernet network verified by Ixia

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Force10 Networks, Inc., today announced that the performance of the Force10 E-Series switch/routers deployed in a transcontinental network has been verified as line-rate 10 GE throughput by Ixia, a leading provider of high-speed, network performance and conformance analysis systems. The network, the world's first transcontinental 10 GE wide area network, consists of a SURFnet OC-192 lambda between Geneva and the StarLight facility in Chicago via Amsterdam and another OC-192 lambda between this same facility in Chicago and Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada provided by CANARIE and ORANO (1/2 page).

  10. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but

  11. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    performance networks is a consistent, widely deployed, well-maintained toolset that is optimized for wide area, high-speed data transfer (e.g. GridFTP) that allows scientists to easily utilize the services and capabilities that the network provides. Network test and measurement is an important part of ensuring that these tools and network services are functioning correctly. One example of a tool in this area is the recently developed perfSONAR, which has already shown its usefulness in fault diagnosis during the recent deployment of high-performance data movers at NERSC and ORNL. On the other hand, it is clear that there is significant work to be done in the area of authentication and access control - there are currently compatibility problems and differing requirements between the authentication systems in use at different facilities, and the policies and mechanisms in use at different facilities are sometimes in conflict. Finally, long-term software maintenance was of concern for many attendees. Scientists rely heavily on a large deployed base of software that does not have secure programmatic funding. Software packages for which this is true include data transfer tools such as GridFTP as well as identity management and other software infrastructure that forms a critical part of the Open Science Grid and the Earth System Grid.

  12. Physics of flow in weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua

    This thesis uses concepts from statistical physics to understand the physics of flow in weighted complex networks. The traditional model for random networks is the Erdoḧs-Renyi (ER.) network, where a network of N nodes is created by connecting each of the N(N - 1)/2 pairs of nodes with a probability p. The degree distribution, which is the probability distribution of the number of links per node, is a Poisson distribution. Recent studies of the topology in many networks such as the Internet and the world-wide airport network (WAN) reveal a power law degree distribution, known as a scale-free (SF) distribution. To yield a better description of network dynamics, we study weighted networks, where each link or node is given a number. One asks how the weights affect the static and the dynamic properties of the network. In this thesis, two important dynamic problems are studied: the current flow problem, described by Kirchhoff's laws, and the maximum flow problem, which maximizes the flow between two nodes. Percolation theory is applied to these studies of the dynamics in complex networks. We find that the current flow in disordered media belongs to the same universality class as the optimal path. In a randomly weighted network, we identify the infinite incipient percolation cluster as the "superhighway", which contains most of the traffic in a network. We propose an efficient strategy to improve significantly the global transport by improving the superhighways, which comprise a small fraction of the network. We also propose a network model with correlated weights to describe weighted networks such as the WAN. Our model agrees with WAN data, and provides insight into the advantages of correlated weights in networks. Lastly, the upper critical dimension is evaluated using two different numerical methods, and the result is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  13. Dictionary-based fiber orientation estimation with improved spatial consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation. However, because FOs are only indirectly determined from the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms and not modeled as variables in the objective function, these methods do not incorporate FO smoothness directly, and their ability to produce smooth FOs could be limited. In this work, we propose an improvement to Fiber Orientation Reconstruction using Neighborhood Information (FORNI), which we call FORNI+; this method estimates FOs in a dictionary-based framework where FO smoothness is better enforced than in FORNI alone. We describe an objective function that explicitly models the actual FOs and the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms. Specifically, it consists of data fidelity between the observed signals and the signals represented by the dictionary, pairwise FO dissimilarity that encourages FO smoothness, and weighted ℓ 1 -norm terms that ensure the consistency between the actual FOs and the FO configuration suggested by the dictionary representation. The FOs and mixture fractions are then jointly estimated by minimizing the objective function using an iterative alternating optimization strategy. FORNI+ was evaluated on a simulation phantom, a physical phantom, and real brain dMRI data. In particular, in the real brain dMRI experiment, we have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the reproducibility of the proposed method. Results demonstrate that

  14. Nonlinear and self-consistent treatment of ECRH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, C.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-07-01

    A self-consistent formulation for the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with relativistic magnetized electrons is applied for the description of the ECRH. In general, electron-cyclotron absorption is the result of resonances between the cyclotron harmonics and the Doppler-shifted waver frequency. The resonant interaction results to an intense wave-particle energy exchange and an electron acceleration, and for that reason it is widely applied in fusion experiments for plasma heating and current drive. The linear theory, for the wave absorption, as well as the quasilinear theory for the electron distribution function, are the most frequently-used tools for the study of wave-particle interactions. However, in many cases the validity of these theories is violated, namely cases where nonlinear effects, like, e. g. particle trapping in the wave field, are dominant in the particle phase-space. Our model consists of electrons streaming and gyrating in a tokamak plasma slab, which is finite in the directions perpendicular to the main magnetic field. The particles interact with an electromagnetic electron-cyclotron wave of the ordinary (O-) or the extraordinary (X-) mode. A set of nonlinear and relativistic equations is derived, which take into account the effects of the charged particle motions on the wave. These consist of the equations of motion for the plasma electrons in the slab, as well as the wave equation in terms of the vector potential. The effect of the electron motions on the temporal evolution of the wave is reflected in the current density source term. (Author)

  15. Nonlinear and self-consistent treatment of ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsironis, C.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent formulation for the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with relativistic magnetized electrons is applied for the description of the ECRH. In general, electron-cyclotron absorption is the result of resonances between the cyclotron harmonics and the Doppler-shifted waver frequency. The resonant interaction results to an intense wave-particle energy exchange and an electron acceleration, and for that reason it is widely applied in fusion experiments for plasma heating and current drive. The linear theory, for the wave absorption, as well as the quasilinear theory for the electron distribution function, are the most frequently-used tools for the study of wave-particle interactions. However, in many cases the validity of these theories is violated, namely cases where nonlinear effects, like, e. g. particle trapping in the wave field, are dominant in the particle phase-space. Our model consists of electrons streaming and gyrating in a tokamak plasma slab, which is finite in the directions perpendicular to the main magnetic field. The particles interact with an electromagnetic electron-cyclotron wave of the ordinary (O-) or the extraordinary (X-) mode. A set of nonlinear and relativistic equations is derived, which take into account the effects of the charged particle motions on the wave. These consist of the equations of motion for the plasma electrons in the slab, as well as the wave equation in terms of the vector potential. The effect of the electron motions on the temporal evolution of the wave is reflected in the current density source term. (Author)

  16. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  17. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1: 45–52, 2012].

  18. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura R. STEIN; Alison M. BELL

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior.For example,individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics.A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior.In sticklebacks,fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fimess.In this study,we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior.We recorded visits to nest,total time fanning,and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch,and then allowed the males to breed again.Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the fast clutch,and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch.We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch:for example,total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching,then decreased to approximately zero.Despite these temporal changes,males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass.Moreover,individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time.Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels.Altogether,these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1):45-52,2012].

  19. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  20. Coagulation of Agglomerates Consisting of Polydisperse Primary Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeli, E; Eggersdorfer, M L; Pratsinis, S E

    2016-09-13

    The ballistic agglomeration of polydisperse particles is investigated by an event-driven (ED) method and compared to the coagulation of spherical particles and agglomerates consisting of monodisperse primary particles (PPs). It is shown for the first time to our knowledge that increasing the width or polydispersity of the PP size distribution initially accelerates the coagulation rate of their agglomerates but delays the attainment of their asymptotic fractal-like structure and self-preserving size distribution (SPSD) without altering them, provided that sufficiently large numbers of PPs are employed. For example, the standard asymptotic mass fractal dimension, Df, of 1.91 is attained when clusters are formed containing, on average, about 15 monodisperse PPs, consistent with fractal theory and the literature. In contrast, when polydisperse PPs with a geometric standard deviation of 3 are employed, about 500 PPs are needed to attain that Df. Even though the same asymptotic Df and mass-mobility exponent, Dfm, are attained regardless of PP polydispersity, the asymptotic prefactors or lacunarities of Df and Dfm increase with PP polydispersity. For monodisperse PPs, the average agglomerate radius of gyration, rg, becomes larger than the mobility radius, rm, when agglomerates consist of more than 15 PPs. Increasing PP polydispersity increases that number of PPs similarly to the above for the attainment of the asymptotic Df or Dfm. The agglomeration kinetics are quantified by the overall collision frequency function. When the SPSD is attained, the collision frequency is independent of PP polydispersity. Accounting for the SPSD polydispersity in the overall agglomerate collision frequency is in good agreement with that frequency from detailed ED simulations once the SPSD is reached. Most importantly, the coagulation of agglomerates is described well by a monodisperse model for agglomerate and PP sizes, whereas the detailed agglomerate size distribution can be obtained by