WorldWideScience

Sample records for network making public

  1. Beyond public acceptance of energy infrastructure: How citizens make sense and form reactions by enacting networks of entities in infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaen, Sara Bjørn; Kerndrup, Søren; Lyhne, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the growing insight into public acceptance by presenting a novel approach to how citizens make sense of new energy infrastructure. We claim that to understand public acceptance, we need to go beyond the current thinking of citizens framed as passive respondents to proposed projects, and instead view infrastructure projects as enacted by citizens in their local settings. We propose a combination of sensemaking theory and actor–network theory that allows insight into how citizens enact entities from experiences and surroundings in order to create meaning and form a reaction to new infrastructure projects. Empirically, we analyze how four citizens make sense of an electricity cable project through a conversation process with a representative from the infrastructure developer. Interestingly, the formal participation process and the materiality of the cable play minor roles in citizens' sensemaking process. We conclude that insight into the way citizens are making sense of energy infrastructure processes can improve and help to overcome shortcomings in the current thinking about public acceptance and public participation. - Highlights: •Attention to citizens' sensemaking enables greater insight into the decision-making process. •A combination of sensemaking and actor-network theory (ANT) is relevant for studies of public acceptance. •Sensemaking explains why citizens facing similar situations act differently. •Complexity of citizens' sensemaking challenges the predictability of processes.

  2. Making media public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke; Gaber, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on two related street screening initiatives, Tahrir Cinema and Kazeboon, which took place in Egypt mainly between 2011 and 2013. Based on long-term ethnographic studies and activist work, we explore street screenings as place-making and describe how participants at street scr...

  3. A Novel Approach to Site Selection: Collaborative Multi-Criteria Decision Making through Geo-Social Network (Case Study: Public Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Neisani Samani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many potential factors that are involved in the decision making process of site selection, which makes it a challenging issue. This paper addresses the collaborative decision making concept through a geo-social network to predict site selection for public parking in Tehran, Iran. The presented approach utilized the analytic hierarchy process (AHP as a multi-criteria decision method (MCDM for weighting the criteria, which was completed in two stages; once by 50 experts, and then by three different levels of users, including 50 experts, 25 urban managers, and 150 pubic citizens, with respect to the case study area. The fuzzy majority method aggregates the archived results of AHP to determine the preferred locations that are suitable for public parking. The proposed method was implemented using a telegram bot platform. Two main advantages of the collaborative decision making scenario for public urban site selection are the fair distribution of the selected locations and the high satisfaction of users, which increased from 65% to 85%. This study presents an application for site selection based on multi-criteria decision making in a geo-social network context.

  4. Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: a social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi-Nooraie Reza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. Methods The staff were invited to respond to an online questionnaire inquiring about information seeking behavior, identification of colleague expertise, and friendship status. Three networks were developed based on the 170 participants. Overall shape, key indices, the most central people and brokers, and their characteristics were identified. Results The network analysis showed a low density and localized information-seeking network. Inter-personal connections were mainly clustered by organizational divisions; and people tended to limit information-seeking connections to a handful of peers in their division. However, recognition of expertise and friendship networks showed more cross-divisional connections. Members of the office of the Medical Officer of Health were located at the heart of the department, bridging across divisions. A small group of professional consultants and middle managers were the most-central staff in the network, also connecting their divisions to the center of the information-seeking network. In each division, there were some locally central staff, mainly practitioners, who connected their neighboring peers; but they were not necessarily connected to other experts or managers. Conclusions The methods of social network analysis were useful in providing a systems approach to understand how knowledge might flow in an organization. The findings of this study can be used to identify early adopters of knowledge translation interventions, forming

  5. Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: a social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. Methods The staff were invited to respond to an online questionnaire inquiring about information seeking behavior, identification of colleague expertise, and friendship status. Three networks were developed based on the 170 participants. Overall shape, key indices, the most central people and brokers, and their characteristics were identified. Results The network analysis showed a low density and localized information-seeking network. Inter-personal connections were mainly clustered by organizational divisions; and people tended to limit information-seeking connections to a handful of peers in their division. However, recognition of expertise and friendship networks showed more cross-divisional connections. Members of the office of the Medical Officer of Health were located at the heart of the department, bridging across divisions. A small group of professional consultants and middle managers were the most-central staff in the network, also connecting their divisions to the center of the information-seeking network. In each division, there were some locally central staff, mainly practitioners, who connected their neighboring peers; but they were not necessarily connected to other experts or managers. Conclusions The methods of social network analysis were useful in providing a systems approach to understand how knowledge might flow in an organization. The findings of this study can be used to identify early adopters of knowledge translation interventions, forming Communities of Practice, and

  6. The evolution of social networks through the implementation of evidence-informed decision-making interventions: a longitudinal analysis of three public health units in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Marin, Alexandra; Hanneman, Robert; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2015-12-03

    We studied the evolution of information-seeking networks over a 2-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented to promote evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) in three public health units in Ontario, Canada. We tested whether engagement of staff in the intervention and their EIDM behavior were associated with being chosen as information source and how the trend of inter-divisional communications and the dominance of experts evolved over time. Local managers at each health unit selected a group of staff to get engage in Knowledge Broker-led workshops and development of evidence summaries to address local public health problems. The staff were invited to answer three online surveys (at baseline and two annual follow-ups) including name generator questions eliciting the list of the staff they would turn to for help integrating research evidence into practice. We used stochastic actor-oriented modeling to study the evolution of networks. We tested the effect of engagement in the intervention, EIDM behavior scores, organizational divisions, and structural dynamics of social networks on the tendency of staff to select information sources, and the change in its trend between year 1 and year 2 of follow-up. In all the three health units, and especially in the two units with higher levels of engagement in the intervention, the network evolved towards a more centralized structure, with an increasing significance of already central staff. The staff showed greater tendencies to seek information from peers with higher EIDM behavior scores. In the public health unit that had highest engagement and stronger leadership support, the engaged staff became more central. In all public health units, the engaged staff showed an increasing tendency towards forming clusters. The staff in the three public health units showed a tendency towards limiting their connections within their divisions. The longitudinal analysis provided us with a means to study the

  7. Remarks on network public theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Brol; Slawomir Czetwertynski

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a trial of capturing of a relation between traditional public sphere atrophy and the augmentation of a network public sphere. A thesis is advanced that the traditional public sphere is subject of the atrophy, however, the entire network public sphere is subject of the augmentation process. Such a formulated thesis forces a choice between two following issues. The first of them regards a relation between factors, which stimulate the atrophy and the augmentation. The second issue ...

  8. From networked publics to issue publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    As an increasing part of everyday life becomes connected with the web in many areas of the globe, the question of how the web mediates political processes becomes still more urgent. Several scholars have started to address this question by thinking about the web in terms of a public space....... In this paper, we aim to make a twofold contribution towards the development of the concept of publics in web science. First, we propose that although the notion of publics raises a variety of issues, two major concerns continue to be user privacy and democratic citizenship on the web. Well-known arguments hold......, this paper points towards an alternative way to think about publics by proposing a pragmatist reorientation of the public/private distinction in web science, away from seeing two spheres that needs to be kept separate, towards seeing the public and the private as something that is continuously connected...

  9. Scaling in public transport networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Ferber

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the statistical properties of public transport networks. These networks are defined by a set of public transport routes (bus lines and the stations serviced by these. For larger networks these appear to possess a scale-free structure, as it is demonstrated e.g. by the Zipf law distribution of the number of routes servicing a given station or for the distribution of the number of stations which can be visited from a chosen one without changing the means of transport. Moreover, a rather particular feature of the public transport network is that many routes service common subsets of stations. We discuss the possibility of new scaling laws that govern intrinsic properties of such subsets.

  10. Public Participation in the Energy-Related Public Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, M.; Rodik, D.; Zmijarevic, Z.; Jaksic, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of possibilities for public participation in proposing legal acts and other energy related documents in the Republic of Croatia and gives author assessment of the Croatian public participation level in the processes carried out. The ways how public has participated in the making of a few officially accepted documents have been analysed and potential benefits of inclusion of a wider circle of interested public have been stated. A comparison of the degree of public involvement in the decision making processes in Croatia and the European Union has been made, with specific emphasis on the adoption of the Third package of energy laws. Several national and EU funded projects aiming at enhancing the Croatian public participation in public decision making processes have been presented and their results given. Finally, possibilities for the improvement of the public participation in the Croatian energy policy making processes are proposed. (author)

  11. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Heuristic Decision Making in Network Linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.W. Harmsen - Van Hout (Marjolein); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); P.J.J. Herings (Jean-Jacques)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNetwork formation among individuals constitutes an important part of many OR processes, but relatively little is known about how individuals make their linking decisions in networks. This article provides an investigation of heuristic effects in individual linking decisions for

  13. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  14. Making the Public Distribution System Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarshi Das

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical observations of operation of public distribution system in different states of India, the paper constructs a preliminary game theoretic model. It argues that an effective public distribution must be as universal as possible, delivery mechanism of fair price shops should be re- formed, they should be make them commercially viable and that special attention should be paid to PDS at times of high food inflation.

  15. Networks in the Making of Faroese Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    , that these became a political force in this time. The creation of Finishness was also connected to the publication of oral epic by first Swedish scholars – later the Swedish-speaking romantics were sidelined in Finnish memory. My argument is that this is also the case of the early networks of cultural nationalists...... the dynamics of the rediscovery of Faroese letters and language brought about by early networks of cultural nationalists, most of them clerics. Here I will go back to the case of the 1822 publication of the “The Sigurd Ballads”, because as we know with the Kalevala epic from Finland and the Icelandic sagas...

  16. Negative Affect, Decision Making, and Attentional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ana Raquel; Ramírez, Encarnación; Colmenero, José María; García-Viedma, Ma Del Rosario

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on whether risk avoidance in decision making depends on negative affect or it is specific to anxious individuals. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used to obtain an objective measure in a risk situation with anxious, depressive, and control individuals. The role of attentional networks was also studied using the Attentional Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) task with neutral stimuli. A significant difference was observed between anxious and depressive individuals in assumed risk in decision making. We found no differences between anxious and normal individuals in the alert, orientation, and congruency effects obtained in the ANT-I task. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between the risk avoidance and the indexes of alertness, orienting, and control. Future research shall determine whether emotionally relevant stimulation leads to attentional control deficit or whether differences between anxious and no anxious individuals are due to the type of strategy followed in choice tasks.

  17. The publics and the government of life in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Mota

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is an analysis of the relationship between the publics, analyzed by Gabriel Tarde and the government of practices of life, studied by Michel Foucault in the context of social networks, making a comparison between the practices of this kind of social grouping in the early twentieth century with its update in the social networks context in the twenty-first century. Initially we investigate the relationship between a private company with its public, identifying the salient...

  18. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Data for decision making in networked health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bourret

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, nowadays we live in a networked society: a society of information, knowledge and services (Castells, 1996, with strong specificities in the Health field (Bourret, 2003, Silber, 2003. The World Health Organization (WHO has outlined the importance of information for improving health for all. However, financial resources remain limited. Health costs represent 11% of GNP in France, Germany, Switzerland and Canada, 14% in the USA, and 7.5% in Spain and the United Kingdom. Governments, local powers, health or insurance organizations therefore face difficult choices in terms of opportunities and priorities, and for that they need specific and valuable data. Firstly, this paper provide a comprehensive overview of our networked society and the appointment of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies and Health (in other words e-Health in a perspective of needs and uses at the micro, meso, and macro levels. We point out the main challenges of development of Nationwide Health Information Network both in the US, UK and France. Then we analyze the main issues about data for Decision Making in Networked Health: coordination and evaluation. In the last sections, we use an Information System perspective to investigate the three interoperability layers (micro, meso and macro. We analyze the requirements and challenges to design an interoperability global architecture which supports different kinds of interactions; then we focus on the harmonization efforts provided at several levels. Finally, we identify common methodological and engineering issues.

  20. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  1. Public service in the age of social network media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2018-01-01

    This chapter addresses how, and to what extent, public service obligations and institutions may be redefined and extended to facilitate information flows and public deliberation using social network media as a remedy for democratic deficiencies of both older mass media and newer forms of network...... media. I make a case for three public service functions that have particular importance in social network media: curation, moderation, and monitoring. Building on a critique of the individualistic perspective underlying both cyber-optimist and -pessimist accounts of the potentials of social network...... media, an alternative and institutional perspective based on mediatization theory is introduced. I focus on the ongoing restructuring of societal spheres through which strategic and sociable forms of communication are challenging deliberative forms of communication. Based on recent studies on public...

  2. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  3. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  4. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  5. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  6. Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Godinez, Melanie A.

    2010-08-31

    On March 10, 2010 the workshop titled Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety was held in Seattle, WA. The objective of this workshop was to showcase ways social media networking technologies can be used to support emergency management and public safety operations. The workshop highlighted the current state of social networking and where this dynamic engagement is heading, demonstrated some of the more commonly used technologies, highlighted case studies on how these tools have been used in a variety of jurisdictions and engaged the private sector on how these tools might serve as a conduit for two way communication between with the public sector to address regional recovery issues and decision making.

  7. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  8. URBAN COHESION: A PUBLIC SPACE NETWORK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Pinto

    2015-07-01

    With this in mind, we have analysed one study case in Barcelona – the Barceloneta neighbourhood, a historic quarter outside the old walled city that is now part of its consolidated urban fabric. The analysis of this case allows us to assess both (1 the role that the urban layout plays in the configuration of the public space network, forcing us to reflect on the role of “boundaries” as fundamental elements in the articulation among the local and overall public space networks in the city; and (2 the role of several socio-economic dynamics affecting to the everyday life of these neighbourhoods

  9. Making harassment a public affair | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-26

    Apr 26, 2018 ... The research group leading HarassMap in Egypt are combatting sexual harassment with an online tool, developed in 2014, that enables the general public to voluntarily report incidents of harassment that they have experienced or witnessed. The reported incidents are displayed on a free interactive map ...

  10. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  11. Making Practice Visible through Writing for Professional Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2016-01-01

    Why should educators and service professionals bother writing for professional publication? Experienced editor, Sherron Roberts says writing for professional publication allows educators to share their work and make their practice visible. Any educator is quite capable of writing for a professional publication. This article is intended to show…

  12. Network public opinion space sentiment tendency analyze based on recurrent convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaowei; Xu, Lingyu; Wang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the investor's psychological characteristics and investment decision-making behavior characteristics, to study the investor sentiment under the network public opinion, and then analyze from three aspects: First, investor sentiment analysis and how to spread in the online media; The influence mechanism of investor's emotion on the stock market and its effect; the third one is to measure the investor's emotion based on the degree of attention, trying hard to sort out the internal relations between the investor's sentiment and the network public opinion and the stock market, in order to lay the theoretical foundation of this article.

  13. Cryptocurrency market making in the Ripple network

    OpenAIRE

    Brezigar, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Market maker provides counterparty for buyers and sellers of financial instruments in transaction settlement. Market makers quote the bid price and the ask price at the same time. This price setting process is called market making. This thesis covers theoretical and practical basis for implementation of autonomous market making algorithm for a promising cryptocurrency market called Ripple. We summarize market making theory, how Ripple cryptocurrency protocol works and how price formation proc...

  14. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  15. How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhoe, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

  16. How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhoe, G.F.

    1991-12-31

    Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

  17. 2008 Public Relations and Image Making for Libraries and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol.8 (1)2008. 17. Public Relations and Image Making for Libraries and the Profession in Nigeria. By .... An investigation carried out by Morrisey and Case .... can sponsor bills aimed at developing library.

  18. Documentary shows how public employment is making cities safer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In an engaging new documentary film, researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation share their insights of how a public employment program in South Africa is making cities safer and more inclusive.

  19. Public participation in decision-making for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Sharp, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Public participation is critical in environmental decision-making. This paper provides three examples of public participation in the decision making process. The first example illustrates the effectiveness of public involvement when incorporated at the beginning of a project. The second example shows the loss of trust by a community resulting from the lack of public involvement. The third example demonstrates public involvement in making risk-based decisions for corrective action in a non-radiological situation. The first site is the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a lawsuit filed by local citizens led to an independent audit of the laboratory's compliance with the Clean Air Act for radionuclides. The audit team involved the public extensively, resulting in close interaction during the audit and a better understanding by the public of the regulations. The second site is the Rocky Flats Plant nuclear weapons facility, which is being decommissioned and the surrounding property will ultimately be available for public use. The Department of Energy proposed a cleanup level but the level was developed with little public input and has been criticized widely by local residents. As a result, the target cleanup levels are being reevaluated by an independent contractor with oversight from a panel of local members of the public. Working with the independent contractor, the panel proposed new cleanup standards to the Department of Energy. The third site is a bulk oil and terminal where chemicals have migrated offsite into a residential area. Facility owners have initiated a public involvement program to help the community understand the potential risks involved and alternatives for remedial action. The public is playing a key role in the risk-based decision making process. Each of these examples illustrates the importance of public participation in different situations. (author)

  20. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  1. Social Networks and Decision Making for Clandestine Unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    networks play in decision making for and facilitation of clandestine abortions. It was a mixed ... Keywords: abortion decisions, social influence, health seeking behavior. Résumé ..... Special attention is given to young women who depend more ...

  2. Review of Public Safety in Viewpoint of Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai Chengcheng; Weng Wenguo; Yuan Hongyong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a brief review of public safety in viewpoint of complex networks is presented. Public safety incidents are divided into four categories: natural disasters, industry accidents, public health and social security, in which the complex network approaches and theories are need. We review how the complex network methods was developed and used in the studies of the three kinds of public safety incidents. The typical public safety incidents studied by the complex network methods in this paper are introduced, including the natural disaster chains, blackouts on electric power grids and epidemic spreading. Finally, we look ahead to the application prospects of the complex network theory on public safety.

  3. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  4. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ''envoys,'' is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers

  5. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, K.L. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States); Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  6. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-12-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  7. An Interdisciplinary Network Making Progress on Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.; Bales, S.; Fraser, J.; Yoder, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. Informal science education institutions can help bridge the gap between climate scientists and the public. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Ultimately, we need to take a strategic approach to the way climate change is communicated. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to bring together three key areas of expertise (as recommended by Pidgeon and Fischhoff, 2011): 1. Climate and decision science experts - who can summarize and explain what is known, characterize risks, and describe appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies; 2. Social scientists - who can bring to bear research, theory, and best practices from cognitive, communication, knowledge acquisition, and social learning theory; and 3. Informal educators and program designers - who bring a practitioner perspective and can exponentially facilitate a learning process for additional interpreters. With support from an NSF CCEP Phase I grant, we have tested this approach, bringing together Interdisciplinary teams of colleagues for a five month "study circles" to develop skills to communicate climate change based on research in the social and cognitive sciences. In 2011

  8. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  9. Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Mark; Iosifidis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Social media is said to radically change the way in which public communication takes place: information diffuses faster and can reach a large number of people, but what makes the process so novel is that online networks can empower people to compete with traditional broadcasters or public figures. This book critically interrogates the contemporary relevance of social networks as a set of economic, cultural and political enterprises and as a public sphere in which a variety of political and so...

  10. Making "social" safer: are Facebook and other online networks becoming less hazardous for health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Major concerns about privacy have limited health professionals' usage of popular social networking sites such as Facebook. However, the landscape of social media is changing in favor of more sophisticated privacy controls that enable users to more carefully manage public and private information. This evolution in technology makes it potentially less hazardous for health professionals to consider accepting colleagues and patients into their online networks, and invites medicine to think constructively about how social media may add value to contemporary healthcare.

  11. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy the growing wireless demand and improve network efficiency. Decision-making is the main function of the radio resources management process as it determines the radio parameters that control the use of these resources. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision-making scheme (ADMS) for radio resources management of different types of network applications including: power consuming, emergency, multimedia, and spectrum sharing. ADMS exploits genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool for decision-making. It consists of the several objective functions for the decision-making process such as minimizing power consumption, packet error rate (PER), delay, and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Simulation results and test bed evaluation demonstrate ADMS functionality and efficiency.

  12. Public goods games on adaptive coevolutionary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Elgar; Shapiro, Avi M.

    2017-07-01

    Productive societies feature high levels of cooperation and strong connections between individuals. Public Goods Games (PGGs) are frequently used to study the development of social connections and cooperative behavior in model societies. In such games, contributions to the public good are made only by cooperators, while all players, including defectors, reap public goods benefits, which are shares of the contributions amplified by a synergy factor. Classic results of game theory show that mutual defection, as opposed to cooperation, is the Nash Equilibrium of PGGs in well-mixed populations, where each player interacts with all others. In this paper, we explore the coevolutionary dynamics of a low information public goods game on a complex network in which players adapt to their environment in order to increase individual payoffs relative to past payoffs parameterized by greediness. Players adapt by changing their strategies, either to cooperate or to defect, and by altering their social connections. We find that even if players do not know other players' strategies and connectivity, cooperation can arise and persist despite large short-term fluctuations.

  13. Mechanisms of public participation in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public inquiries, hearings, referenda and government reviews are among a number of commonly mechanisms through which the public in the relevant OECD countries participate in the decision-making process in respect of nuclear power and its development. The scope, application and effectiveness of these procedures appear to vary from country to country; differences which may result from styles of government, history, national interest and other factors. We listen to each OECD member in turn, explaining how is the situation in his country

  14. Making or buying environmental public goods: do consumers care?

    OpenAIRE

    Bougherara, Douadia; Costa, Sandrine; Teisl, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Firms may voluntary abate pollution using one of two options: internalizing its own external effects and incuring abatement costs ("making") or delegating environmental protection by purchasing offsets ("buying"). We aim to elicit consumers' WTP for producers' use of the "making" option as compared to the "buying" option, controlling for spatial effects (joint local public goods) and level of GHG emissions. Using a stated choice survey with 722 respondents, we find consumers are more willing ...

  15. Making waste management public (or falling back to sleep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Myra J; Lougheed, Scott; Rowe, R Kerry; Kuyvenhoven, Cassandra

    2014-06-01

    Human-produced waste is a major environmental concern, with communities considering various waste management practices, such as increased recycling, landfilling, incineration, and waste-to-energy technologies. This article is concerned with how and why publics assemble around waste management issues. In particular, we explore Noortje Marres and Bruno Latour's theory that publics do not exist prior to issues but rather assemble around objects, and through these assemblages, objects become matters of concern that sometimes become political. The article addresses this theory of making things public through a study of a small city in Ontario, Canada, whose landfill is closed and waste diversion options are saturated, and that faces unsustainable costs in shipping its waste to the United States, China, and other regions. The city's officials are undertaking a cost-benefit assessment to determine the efficacy of siting a new landfill or other waste management facility. We are interested in emphasizing the complexity of making (or not making) landfills public, by exploring an object in action, where members of the public may or may not assemble, waste may or may not be made into an issue, and waste is sufficiently routinized that it is not typically transformed from an object to an issue. We hope to demonstrate Latour's third and fifth senses of politics best account for waste management's trajectory as a persistent yet inconsistent matter of public concern.

  16. Environmental decision making: what does public participation add?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierle, T.C.; Cayford, J.

    2004-01-01

    The role of public participation in environmental policy making has led to much discussion in recent years, accompanied by some cheering, some hand-wringing, a great deal of speculation, and always recognition of its growing importance. Over the past 30 years, participation has moved to centre stage in the play of influences that determine how the environment will be protected and managed. In doing so, it has evolved considerably. Traditional public hearings and public comment procedures have been joined by a broad array of more intensive approaches to participation that emphasize face-to-face deliberation, problem solving, and consensus building. Policy dialogues, stakeholder advisory committees, citizen juries, formal mediations, and a variety of other processes are now familiar components of the public participation mix. The amount of influence the public can wield has changed as well. In the United States, agreements made among interest groups in regulatory negotiations, for example, actually determine the content of proposed environmental regulations. Describing how well public participation has performed in its central role in environmental policy-making is the topic of our book, Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. In the book, we evaluate the success of 239 cases of public participation undertaken in the United States over the last 30 years. Our primary objective was to develop an understanding of the social value of public participation by evaluating cases against a set of social goals, such as conflict resolution, trust formation, and education. Our second objective was to understand what made some processes successful and others not. We were particularly interested in how different approaches to public participation - from public hearings to formal mediations differed in their accomplishments. (author)

  17. Public values for energy futures: Framing, indeterminacy and policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.; Demski, C.; Parkhill, K.; Pidgeon, N.; Spence, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK there are strong policy imperatives to transition toward low carbon energy systems but how and in what ways such transitional processes might be realised remains highly uncertain. One key area of uncertainty pertains to public attitudes and acceptability. Though there is wide-ranging research relevant to public acceptability, very little work has unpacked the multiple questions concerning how policy-makers can grapple with and mitigate related uncertainties in efforts to enact energy systems change. In this paper, public acceptability is identified as an indeterminate form of uncertainty that presents particular challenges for policy making. We build on our existing research into public values for energy system change to explore how the outcomes of the project can be applied in thinking through the uncertainties associated with public acceptability. Notably, we illustrate how the public values identified through our research bring into view alternative and quite different problem and solution framings to those currently evident within UK policy. We argue that engagement with a wide range of different framings can offer a basis for better understanding and anticipating public responses to energy system change, ultimately aiding in managing the complex set of uncertainties associated with public acceptability. - Highlights: • We argue that public acceptability represents an indeterminate form of uncertainty. • This means alternative approaches to decision-making are required. • We introduce a public value set for energy system change. • We use this as a basis for interrogating current UK policy approaches to transitions. • Incorporating public values in policy can help tackle uncertainty about acceptability.

  18. Making public health nutrition relevant to evidence-based action.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, E.; Rayner, M.; Thorogood, M.; Margetts, B.; Hooper, L.; Summerbell, C.D.; Dowler, E.; Hewitt, G.; Robertson, A.; Wiseman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public health nutrition enjoyed many breakthroughs in the\\ud 20th century – from the discovery of vitamins and the\\ud metabolic roles of some 60 macro- and micronutrients, to\\ud the effects of maternal and childhood diet on health over\\ud the life course. Moreover, the food shortages in the UK that\\ud were experienced during World War II gave the first\\ud opportunity to show that nutritional science could make a\\ud valuable contribution to public policy. However, public\\ud health nutrition is...

  19. Preferences for political decision-making processes and issue publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political

  20. Making Publics: Mobilizing Audiences in High School Makerspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; Nichols, T. Philip

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners are paying increasing attention to the educational opportunities afforded by the maker movement--a growing public interested in do-it-yourself designing, remixing, and tinkering using physical and digital tools. While education research on "making" has often focused on…

  1. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    societies, China and Denmark. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed entrepreneurs in China, Denmark and elsewhere. Analyses reconfirm the global tendencies and show that, China in contrast to Denmark, public sphere networking is sparser, but private sphere networking is denser. Innovation...

  2. [Public policy-making on breast cancer in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, M C; González-Robledo, L M; Nigenda, G

    2013-03-01

    To understand the public policy-making process as it relates to breast cancer care in five Latin American countries. An exploratory-evaluative study was conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela in 2010, with the selection of countries based on convenience sampling. Sixty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with government officials, academics, and representatives of trade associations and civil society organizations. A content analysis of secondary sources was performed. Information sources, data, and informants were mixed using the triangulation method for purposes of analysis. The countries that have made the most progress in public policy-making related to breast cancer are Brazil and Mexico. Although Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela do not have policies, they do have breast cancer care programs and activities. Two perspectives on the development of public policies became evident: the first includes the broad participation of both governmental and nongovernmental sectors, whereas the second, more narrow approach involves government authorities alone. The results point to significant differences in public policy-making related to breast cancer in the Region. They also show that greater progress has been made in countries where policies have been developed through inclusive participation processes.

  3. Setting Up a Public Use Local Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Eric; Thulstrup, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a public use microcomputer cluster at the University of Maine, Orono. Various network topologies, hardware and software options, installation problems, system management, and performance are discussed. (MES)

  4. Public participation in energy-related decision making: workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document contains edited transcripts of presentations and discussion at plenary sessions of a workshop on Public Participation in Energy Related Decision Making sponsored by the National Science Foundation and held at The MITRE Corporation in McLean, Virginia, on September 21 and 22, 1976. The Emergency Core Cooling System rulemaking, the consideration of Energy Parks in Pennsylvania, and the Seabrook, New Hampshire Nuclear Station decisions are summarized, and the process of public participation in each decision is analyzed by actual participants in the respective cases. Also summarized are the North Anna decision, the Sears Island decision, and the Big Rock Point decision. The conclusions and recommendations from working group discussions on the role and process of public participation are presented. An overall summary is provided, along with the final report of the National Academy of Public Administration Panel which was convened to assist in the design and conduct of the workshop. A companion volume to these proceedings, Public Participation in Energy Related Decision Making: Six Case Studies, M76-53, was distributed to participants prior to the workshop and includes complete case studies of the above six decisions

  5. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Socially Mediated Publicness in Networked Society for Indonesian Muslim Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa R. Beta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper addresses discursive processes that generated ‘jilboobs’ term. It tries to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness and its affordances by investigating the process of image making of Indonesian Muslim women. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis approach, the result shows three characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness: (1 religiosity has a central role in the shift and contestation of private versus public sphere, (2 the visual turn of the social media has given specifi c augmentation for networked public affordances, and (3 feminine pious bodies are often marked by their concurrent presence and absence. Abstrak: Makalah ini membahas proses diskursif yang memunculkan istilah ‘jilboobs’. Gagasan socially mediated publicness atau kepublikan termediasi dan berbagai bentuk affordances diaplikasikan dengan meneliti proses pencitraan perempuan muslim berjilbab di Indonesia. Menggunakan analisa diskursus Foucauldian, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa terdapat tiga karakteristik dari kepublikan termediasi di Indonesia, yaitu: (1 religiusitas berperan penting dalam pergeseran dan kontestasi pemisahan ranah publik dengan ranah privat, (2 semakin pentingnya dimensi visual dalam media sosial memberikan penekanan spesifi k pada elemen affordances, dan (3 tubuh feminin saleh dalam kepublikan yang termediasi muncul bersamaan melalui keberadaan dan ketiadaan.

  7. Need for public participation in decision-making on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norte Gomez, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the need to expand and improve public participation in decision-making on energy. In an advanced society like ours you can not continue using the same tools they used a century ago. Provide and transmit by the scientific community to society, information science and technology in an appropriate language that comes to them, giving them opportunities and enabling them to participate objectively in this decision making. There must be a legitimate, honest, sincere and plural debate where the participation of all the actors involved and from all strata of society. (Author)

  8. Public involvement in decision making process in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Decision Making Process (DMP) in nuclear field is influenced by multiple factors such as: complex technical aspects, diversity of stakeholders, long term risks, psychological stresses, societal attitudes, etc. General public is sometimes considered as the only one of stakeholders, the involvement of the public being seen as a factor to obtain the acceptance in the late phase of DMP. Generally it is assessed by public consultation on the environment impact studies and by approval of the sitting through the local authorities decision. Modern society uses methods to involve public from the beginning of DMP. The paper shows a general view of the methods and tools used in Europe for public involvement in DMP. The process of construction of a continuous democratic dialog inside of Romanian Stakeholder Group (RSG) in the frame of the FP6-COWAM2 and CIP projects is presented with a focusing of the barriers and factors of disturbing the trust and collaboration between stakeholders. The influence on the public acceptance is also discussed. (authors)

  9. Public involvement in the decision making process, Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clein, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a young participative democracy the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.), technical and legal responsible for radioactive waste management, is developing a plan for the close out of tailings facilities from past mining and milling operations and the environmental restoration of nine different sites in six provinces all over the country. In the first site, Malargue Facility, different activities have been developed promoting public involvement in the decision making process. The lessons learned and the experience acquired have given the background for the systematization of public consultation in the ongoing and future stages of the plan. Malargue's experience in this field will be analyzed stressing on different aspects considered of importance for the design of a communicational strategy adapted to the characteristics of a society without experience in this field. The influence of public concern on conservative bias of technical decisions will be evaluated. (author)

  10. Quantum stochastic walks on networks for decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ismael; Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments report violations of the classical law of total probability and incompatibility of certain mental representations when humans process and react to information. Evidence shows promise of a more general quantum theory providing a better explanation of the dynamics and structure of real decision-making processes than classical probability theory. Inspired by this, we show how the behavioral choice-probabilities can arise as the unique stationary distribution of quantum stochastic walkers on the classical network defined from Luce’s response probabilities. This work is relevant because (i) we provide a very general framework integrating the positive characteristics of both quantum and classical approaches previously in confrontation, and (ii) we define a cognitive network which can be used to bring other connectivist approaches to decision-making into the quantum stochastic realm. We model the decision-maker as an open system in contact with her surrounding environment, and the time-length of the decision-making process reveals to be also a measure of the process’ degree of interplay between the unitary and irreversible dynamics. Implementing quantum coherence on classical networks may be a door to better integrate human-like reasoning biases in stochastic models for decision-making.

  11. Quantum stochastic walks on networks for decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ismael; Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo

    2016-03-31

    Recent experiments report violations of the classical law of total probability and incompatibility of certain mental representations when humans process and react to information. Evidence shows promise of a more general quantum theory providing a better explanation of the dynamics and structure of real decision-making processes than classical probability theory. Inspired by this, we show how the behavioral choice-probabilities can arise as the unique stationary distribution of quantum stochastic walkers on the classical network defined from Luce's response probabilities. This work is relevant because (i) we provide a very general framework integrating the positive characteristics of both quantum and classical approaches previously in confrontation, and (ii) we define a cognitive network which can be used to bring other connectivist approaches to decision-making into the quantum stochastic realm. We model the decision-maker as an open system in contact with her surrounding environment, and the time-length of the decision-making process reveals to be also a measure of the process' degree of interplay between the unitary and irreversible dynamics. Implementing quantum coherence on classical networks may be a door to better integrate human-like reasoning biases in stochastic models for decision-making.

  12. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  13. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  14. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.

  15. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  16. Using NASA Environmental Data to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this collaboration are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, and deliver the data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. These data can be linked spatially and temporally to public health data, such as mortality and disease morbidity, for further analysis and decision making. Three daily environmental data sets have been developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the time period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer reviewed publications. To date, two of the data sets have been released to the public in CDC

  17. Quantum-Like Bayesian Networks for Modeling Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eMoreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore an alternative quantum structure to perform quantum probabilistic inferences to accommodate the paradoxical findings of the Sure Thing Principle. We propose a Quantum-Like Bayesian Network, which consists in replacing classical probabilities by quantum probability amplitudes. However, since this approach suffers from the problem of exponential growth of quantum parameters, we also propose a similarity heuristic that automatically fits quantum parameters through vector similarities. This makes the proposed model general and predictive in contrast to the current state of the art models, which cannot be generalized for more complex decision scenarios and that only provide an explanatory nature for the observed paradoxes. In the end, the model that we propose consists in a nonparametric method for estimating inference effects from a statistical point of view. It is a statistical model that is simpler than the previous quantum dynamic and quantum-like models proposed in the literature. We tested the proposed network with several empirical data from the literature, mainly from the Prisoner's Dilemma game and the Two Stage Gambling game. The results obtained show that the proposed quantum Bayesian Network is a general method that can accommodate violations of the laws of classical probability theory and make accurate predictions regarding human decision-making in these scenarios.

  18. Going Public: Networking Globally and Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Rural sociologists figure prominently in the move towards public sociology. The paper takes up Michael Burawoy's call for public sociology and discusses what rural sociologists have to offer to publics and how we stand to gain as a discipline in working with publics. The paper argues that rural sociologists' ability to adopt a cosmopolitan view…

  19. Distributed Data Networks That Support Public Health Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabano, David C; Cole, Elizabeth; Holve, Erin; Davidson, Arthur J

    Data networks, consisting of pooled electronic health data assets from health care providers serving different patient populations, promote data sharing, population and disease monitoring, and methods to assess interventions. Better understanding of data networks, and their capacity to support public health objectives, will help foster partnerships, expand resources, and grow learning health systems. We conducted semistructured interviews with 16 key informants across the United States, identified as network stakeholders based on their respective experience in advancing health information technology and network functionality. Key informants were asked about their experience with and infrastructure used to develop data networks, including each network's utility to identify and characterize populations, usage, and sustainability. Among 11 identified data networks representing hundreds of thousands of patients, key informants described aggregated health care clinical data contributing to population health measures. Key informant interview responses were thematically grouped to illustrate how networks support public health, including (1) infrastructure and information sharing; (2) population health measures; and (3) network sustainability. Collaboration between clinical data networks and public health entities presents an opportunity to leverage infrastructure investments to support public health. Data networks can provide resources to enhance population health information and infrastructure.

  20. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  1. Sovereign public debt crisis in Europe. A network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, David; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolving network structure of the quarterly public debt-to-GDP ratio from 2000 to 2014. By applying tools and concepts coming from complex systems we study the effects of the global financial crisis over public debt network connections and communities. Two main results arise from this analysis: firstly, countries public debts tend to synchronize their evolution, increasing global connectivity in the network and dramatically decreasing the number of communities. Secondly, a disruption in previous structure is observed at the time of the shock, emerging a more centralized and less diversify network topological organization which might be more prone to suffer contagion effects. This last fact is evidenced by an increasing tendency in countries of similar level of public debt to be connected between them, which we have quantified by the network assortativity.

  2. Public Access; Public Interest. The Network Project. Notebook Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Network Project.

    The transcript of a panel discussion and an essay on public access to and control of society's information resources are presented. It is contended that the electronic Media--including radio, television, and communication satellites--are controlled by a select group of individuals and corporations and that they are not meeting the public interest.…

  3. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  4. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  5. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  6. CosmoQuest: Making the public your students and collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela; Buxner, Sanlyn; Grier, Jennifer; Richardson, Matthew; CosmoQuest Team

    2018-01-01

    CosmoQuest is a second generation citizen science project that makes it possible for NASA Subject Matter Experts to engage the public as both learners and collaborators in research. Engaging the public in publishable science is termed “Citizen Science.” This is a powerful technique for accomplishing research projects and tasks that require many minds and eyes to complete. While some projects may use undergraduates for help, others simply have too many images or too much data for a small population to sort through. CosmoQuest is a platform that enables scientists to take advantage of already existing science tools to engage the public in their research and to acquire the data analysis they need. Citizen scientists, like students, need their experience properly scaffolded to their understanding, and they require mentoring and training to succeed.This presentation focuses on methods for focusing research projects for successful citizen science engagement, and determining what scaffolding must be built to support citizen education and engagement.This presentation will help you understand how to transform your research project into a successful citizen science engagement. We will also present a flowchart to help you define: what is required, how to focus on what science does and doesn’t work, and what support your project requires. The content presented will allow you to successfully implement a project within the CosmoQuest facility, and determine what educational support you should provide or request aid to provide.

  7. An Ensemble of Neural Networks for Stock Trading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Chann; Liu, Chen-Hao; Fan, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Jun-Lin; Lai, Chih-Ming

    Stock turning signals detection are very interesting subject arising in numerous financial and economic planning problems. In this paper, Ensemble Neural Network system with Intelligent Piecewise Linear Representation for stock turning points detection is presented. The Intelligent piecewise linear representation method is able to generate numerous stocks turning signals from the historic data base, then Ensemble Neural Network system will be applied to train the pattern and retrieve similar stock price patterns from historic data for training. These turning signals represent short-term and long-term trading signals for selling or buying stocks from the market which are applied to forecast the future turning points from the set of test data. Experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid system can make a significant and constant amount of profit when compared with other approaches using stock data available in the market.

  8. Evolving neural networks for strategic decision-making problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Nate; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2009-04-01

    Evolution of neural networks, or neuroevolution, has been a successful approach to many low-level control problems such as pole balancing, vehicle control, and collision warning. However, certain types of problems-such as those involving strategic decision-making-have remained difficult for neuroevolution to solve. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that such problems are difficult because they are fractured: The correct action varies discontinuously as the agent moves from state to state. A method for measuring fracture using the concept of function variation is proposed and, based on this concept, two methods for dealing with fracture are examined: neurons with local receptive fields, and refinement based on a cascaded network architecture. Experiments in several benchmark domains are performed to evaluate how different levels of fracture affect the performance of neuroevolution methods, demonstrating that these two modifications improve performance significantly. These results form a promising starting point for expanding neuroevolution to strategic tasks.

  9. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    could be used to add an in-app purchase to the user’s mobile phone bill. Major operators , such as AT& T , Deutsche Telekom, Orange, Telefonica and...3GPP technologies such as CDMA2000 and WiMAX networks. MME Mobility Managemen t Entity The MME is the key control-node for the LTE access-network... operator ( operator -managed small cells, etc.) or provides sufficient security (authentication, encryption, etc.). See Figure D3. Figure D3: ITU- T

  10. Social network analysis of public health programs to measure partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2014-12-01

    In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Networks Impacts on Knowledge Sharing Among Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Social networks, Social media, Facebook, Twitter, and. Linkedin, Knowledge ... of knowledge sharing among public education students which the researcher see as .... frankness with teaching sphere. The American ...

  12. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  13. Implications of network structure on public health collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrum, Jessica H; Chapman, Carrie L; Varda, Danielle M

    2013-10-01

    Interorganizational collaboration is an essential function of public health agencies. These partnerships form social networks that involve diverse types of partners and varying levels of interaction. Such collaborations are widely accepted and encouraged, yet very little comparative research exists on how public health partnerships develop and evolve, specifically in terms of how subsequent network structures are linked to outcomes. A systems science approach, that is, one that considers the interdependencies and nested features of networks, provides the appropriate methods to examine the complex nature of these networks. Applying Mays and Scutchfields's categorization of "structural signatures" (breadth, density, and centralization), this research examines how network structure influences the outcomes of public health collaboratives. Secondary data from the Program to Analyze, Record, and Track Networks to Enhance Relationships (www.partnertool.net) data set are analyzed. This data set consists of dyadic (N = 12,355), organizational (N = 2,486), and whole network (N = 99) data from public health collaborations around the United States. Network data are used to calculate structural signatures and weighted least squares regression is used to examine how network structures can predict selected intermediary outcomes (resource contributions, overall value and trust rankings, and outcomes) in public health collaboratives. Our findings suggest that network structure may have an influence on collaborative-related outcomes. The structural signature that had the most significant relationship to outcomes was density, with higher density indicating more positive outcomes. Also significant was the finding that more breadth creates new challenges such as difficulty in reaching consensus and creating ties with other members. However, assumptions that these structural components lead to improved outcomes for public health collaboratives may be slightly premature. Implications of

  14. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  15. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  16. M2M Optimizations in Public Mobile Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norp, A.H.J.; Landais, B.

    2012-01-01

    Many M2M applications use public telecommunications networks to transfer data from M2M devices to an M2M server. These telecommunications networks will have to be adapted to cope with the traffic generated by the projected growth of M2M applications. In the near future, many more devices will be

  17. Artificial neural networks for decision-making in urologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Theodore; Remzi, Mesut; Lykourinas, Michael; Djavan, Bob

    2003-06-01

    The authors are presenting a thorough introduction in Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and their contribution to modern Urologic Oncology. The article covers a description of Artificial Neural Network methodology and points out the differences of Artificial Intelligence to traditional statistic models in terms of serving patients and clinicians, in a different way than current statistical analysis. Since Artificial Intelligence is not yet fully understood by many practicing clinicians, the authors have reviewed a careful selection of articles in order to explore the clinical benefit of Artificial Intelligence applications in modern Urology questions and decision-making. The data are from real patients and reflect attempts to achieve more accurate diagnosis and prognosis, especially in prostate cancer that stands as a good example of difficult decision-making in everyday practice. Experience from current use of Artificial Intelligence is also being discussed, and the authors address future developments as well as potential problems such as medical record quality, precautions in using ANNs or resistance to system use, in an attempt to point out future demands and the need for common standards. The authors conclude that both methods should continue to be used in a complementary manner. ANNs still do not prove always better as to replace standard statistical analysis as the method of choice in interpreting medical data.

  18. Personalised Networks of Influence in Public Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    of influence are also tested with Italian journalists to verify whether or not other communication-related professions consider important to have personalised networks of influence and whether or not this relevance is perceived similar to that of PR practitioners. The data of this study was gleaned from...

  19. 'The public is too subjective': public involvement at different levels of health-care decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litva, Andrea; Coast, Joanna; Donovan, Jenny; Eyles, John; Shepherd, Michael; Tacchi, Jo; Abelson, Julia; Morgan, Kieran

    2002-06-01

    There are a number of impulses towards public participation in health care decision making including instrumentalist, communitarian, educative and expressive impulses and the desire for increased accountability. There has, however, been little research looking systematically at the public's preferences for being involved in particular types of rationing decisions, nor indeed, has there been a critical examination of the degree of involvement desired by the public. The research reported here uses findings from focus groups and in-depth interviews to explore these questions. Eight focus groups were conducted with a total of 57 informants, four amongst randomly selected members of the public and four with informants from health and non-health related organisations. Nineteen interviews were conducted to allow the elaboration of focus group comments, to probe views more deeply and to pursue emerging themes. The findings show variations in the willingness of members of the public to be involved in health care decisions and consistency across the different forms of the public as represented by the focus groups with randomly selected citizens and pre-existing organisations. There was a strong desire in all the groups for the public to be involved both at the system and programme levels, with much less willingness to be involved at the individual level. At the system and programme levels informants generally favoured consultation, without responsibility for decisions, but with the guarantee that their contribution would be heard and that decisions taken following consultation would be explained. At the patient level informants felt that the public should participate only by setting criteria for deciding between potential beneficiaries of treatment. The public has much to contribute, particularly at the system and programme levels, to supplement the inputs of health care professionals.

  20. Making public ahead of print: Meetings and publications at the Royal Society, 1752?1892

    OpenAIRE

    Fyfe, Aileen; Moxham, Noah

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the interplay between the meetings and publications of learned scientific societies during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when journals were an established but not yet dominant form of scholarly communication. The practice of ‘making public’ research at meetings, long before actual ‘publication’ in society periodicals, enabled a complex of more-or-less formal sites of communication and discussion ahead of print. Using two case studies from the Royal Society of Lo...

  1. Artificial Neural Networks in Mammography Interpretation and Diagnostic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ayer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening mammography is the most effective means for early detection of breast cancer. Although general rules for discriminating malignant and benign lesions exist, radiologists are unable to perfectly detect and classify all lesions as malignant and benign, for many reasons which include, but are not limited to, overlap of features that distinguish malignancy, difficulty in estimating disease risk, and variability in recommended management. When predictive variables are numerous and interact, ad hoc decision making strategies based on experience and memory may lead to systematic errors and variability in practice. The integration of computer models to help radiologists increase the accuracy of mammography examinations in diagnostic decision making has gained increasing attention in the last two decades. In this study, we provide an overview of one of the most commonly used models, artificial neural networks (ANNs, in mammography interpretation and diagnostic decision making and discuss important features in mammography interpretation. We conclude by discussing several common limitations of existing research on ANN-based detection and diagnostic models and provide possible future research directions.

  2. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  3. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Monavarian; Mojtaba Amiri; Narges Sadat Razavimehr

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from...

  4. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L. E.; Litchfield, J. W.; Currie, J. W.; McDonald, C. L.; Adams, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems.

  5. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest.

  6. Digital Networked Information Society and Public Health: Problems and Promises of Networked Health Communication of Lay Publics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Nam

    2018-01-01

    This special issue of Health Communication compiles 10 articles to laud the promise and yet confront the problems in the digital networked information society related to public health. We present this anthology of symphony and cacophony of lay individuals' communicative actions in a digital networked information society. The collection of problems and promise of the new digital world may be a cornerstone joining two worlds-pre- and postdigital network society-and we hope this special issue will help better shape our future states of public health.

  7. Public management in intergovernmental networks: Matching structural and behavioral networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    While there is considerable consensus on the importance of intergovernmental management for the performance of many public programs, theoretical work has been slow to develop, and systematic empirical research on the topic has been rare. This article explores intergovernmental management in the

  8. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  10. Making Geoscience Data Relevant for Students, Teachers, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Prakash, A.; Domenico, B.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific data collected by government funded research belongs to the public. As such, the scientific and technical communities are responsible to make scientific data accessible and usable by the educational community. However, much geoscience data are difficult for educators and students to find and use. Such data are generally described by metadata that are narrowly focused and contain scientific language. Thus, data access presents a challenge to educators in determining if a particular dataset is relevant to their needs, and to effectively access and use the data. The AccessData project (EAR-0623136, EAR-0305058) has developed a model for bridging the scientific and educational communities to develop robust inquiry-based activities using scientific datasets in the form of Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) chapters. EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for accessing specific data and analyzing it with a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. The AccessData model involves working directly with small teams made up of data providers from scientific data archives or research teams, data analysis tool specialists, scientists, curriculum developers, and educators (AccessData, http://serc.carleton.edu/usingdata/accessdata). The process involves a number of steps including 1) building of the team; 2) pre-workshop facilitation; 3) face-to-face 2.5 day workshop; 4) post-workshop follow-up; 5) completion and review of the EET chapter. The AccessData model has been evolved over a series of six annual workshops hosting ~10 teams each. This model has been expanded to other venues to explore expanding its scope and sustainable mechanisms. These venues include 1) workshops focused on the data collected by a large research program (RIDGE, EarthScope); 2) a workshop focused on developing a citizen scientist guide to conducting research; and 3) facilitating a team on an annual basis

  11. Network governance in electricity distribution: Public utility or commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, Rolf; Fens, Theo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether the operation and management of electricity distribution networks in a liberalized market environment evolves into a market driven commodity business or might be perceived as a genuine public utility task. A framework is developed to classify and compare different institutional arrangements according to the public utility model and the commodity model. These models are exemplified for the case of the Dutch electricity sector. It appears that the institutional organization of electricity distribution networks is at the crossroads of two very different institutional development paths. They develop towards commercial business if the system characteristics of the electricity sector remain basically unchanged to the traditional situation. If however innovative technological developments allow for a decentralization and decomposition of the electricity system, distribution networks might be operated as public utilities while other energy services are exploited commercially. (Author)

  12. Visible technologies, invisible organisations: An empirical study of public beliefs about electricity supply networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala

    2010-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions in the energy system poses significant challenges to electricity transmission and distribution networks. Whilst these challenges are as much social as economic or technical, to date few research studies have investigated public beliefs about electricity supply networks. This research aimed to address this gap by means of a nationally representative study of UK adults (n=1041), probing beliefs about how electricity reaches the home, responsibility for electricity supply, associations with the words 'National Grid', as well as beliefs about the planning of new infrastructure. Findings suggest that electricity networks are represented predominantly in terms of technologies rather than organisations, specifically in terms of familiar, visible components such as cables or wires, rather than more systemic concepts such as networks. Transmission and distribution network operators were largely invisible to members of the public. In terms of planning new lines, most respondents assumed that government ministers were involved in decision-making, while local residents were widely perceived to have little influence; moreover, there was strong public support for placing new power lines underground, regardless of the cost. In conclusion, organisational invisibility, coupled with low expectations of participatory involvement, could provoke public opposition and delay siting new network infrastructure.

  13. Radio making waves in the italian diaspora: Public sphere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deterritorialised publics of diaspora are conceptually quite different from the homogenous nationally bound public originally conceived to participate in Habermas' public sphere. However, with globalisation and parallel advances in media technologies the qualities of diasporic communication increasingly come to ...

  14. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  15. Evolutionary Artificial Neural Network Weight Tuning to Optimize Decision Making for an Abstract Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    EVOLUTIONARY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK WEIGHT TUNING TO OPTIMIZE DECISION MAKING FOR AN ABSTRACT...AFIT/GCS/ENG/10-06 EVOLUTIONARY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK WEIGHT TUNING TO OPTIMIZE DECISION MAKING FOR AN ABSTRACT GAME THESIS Presented...35 14: Diagram of pLoGANN’s Artificial Neural Network and

  16. Socially Mediated Publicness in Networked Society for Indonesian Muslim Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beta, Annisa R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper addresses discursive processes that generated ‘jilboobs’ term. It tries to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness and its affordances by investigating the process of image making of Indonesian Muslim women. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis approach, the result shows three characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness: (1) religiosity has a central role in the shift and contestation of private versus public sphere, (2) the visual turn of the so...

  17. Network public goods with asymmetric information about cooperation preferences and network degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We propose a game theoretical model of one-shot network public goods formalizing the 'closure argument' that cooperation is more frequent in denser groups or networks. Equilibrium analyses show that (i) an 'inefficiency problem' exists: players all preferring mutual cooperation need not all

  18. Risk in Public Policy Making: A Neglected Issue in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.; Lien, Gudbrand D.

    2008-01-01

    We argue for greater recognition of the risky nature of most policy decisions. In this context we discuss the gulf between public risk perceptions and attitudes and those of 'experts'. Public views of risk are often inconsistent and seemingly irrational. They nevertheless influence policy choices in a democracy. On the other hand, experts often claim unjustifiable levels of confidence in their predictions of policy choice outcomes, creating a lack of public faith in their recommendations. Whi...

  19. Public information strategies: Making government information available to citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; Thaens, M.

    2009-01-01

    New technological opportunities and increasing demands make it imperative for government agencies to make the information they gather available to citizens. How should they go about this? This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing the strategic options open to agencies which have

  20. Synchronization between Different Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Its Application in Bilayer Coupled Public Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic characteristics of urban public traffic network, this paper establishes the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network based on the space R modeling method. Then regarding these two networks as the subnetwork, the paper presents a new bilayer coupled public traffic network through the transfer relationship between subway and bus, and this model well reflects the connection between the passengers and bus operating vehicles. Based on the synchronization theory of coupling network with time-varying delay and taking “Lorenz system” as the network node, the paper studies the synchronization of bilayer coupled public traffic network. Finally, numerical results are given to show the impact of public traffic dispatching, delayed departure, the number of public bus stops between bus lines, and the number of transfer stations between two traffic modes on the bilayer coupled public traffic network balance through Matlab simulation.

  1. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  2. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  3. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monavarian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from practical research purpose and method view, is a descriptive research and survey branch. The study investigates the effect of university based Iranian Sociological Association on public policy making. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts. The results of our survey indicate that that Iranian Sociological Association could influence on public policy making through elite and prominent leaders, self-knowledge and information, elective campaigns, stimulation and connecting with people and other groups.

  4. Using Social Network Analysis to Assess Mentorship and Collaboration in a Public Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Belza, Basia; Leith, Katherine; Allen, Peg; Coe, Norma B; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-08-20

    Addressing chronic disease burden requires the creation of collaborative networks to promote systemic changes and engage stakeholders. Although many such networks exist, they are rarely assessed with tools that account for their complexity. This study examined the structure of mentorship and collaboration relationships among members of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) using social network analysis (SNA). We invited 97 HAN members and partners to complete an online social network survey that included closed-ended questions about HAN-specific mentorship and collaboration during the previous 12 months. Collaboration was measured by examining the activity of the network on 6 types of products: published articles, in-progress manuscripts, grant applications, tools, research projects, and presentations. We computed network-level measures such as density, number of components, and centralization to assess the cohesiveness of the network. Sixty-three respondents completed the survey (response rate, 65%). Responses, which included information about collaboration with nonrespondents, suggested that 74% of HAN members were connected through mentorship ties and that all 97 members were connected through at least one form of collaboration. Mentorship and collaboration ties were present both within and across boundaries of HAN member organizations. SNA of public health collaborative networks provides understanding about the structure of relationships that are formed as a result of participation in network activities. This approach may offer members and funders a way to assess the impact of such networks that goes beyond simply measuring products and participation at the individual level.

  5. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  6. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ''clean'' and ''dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs

  8. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: making the workplace healthier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Scott, Courtney; D'Souza, Preethy; James, Lesley; Mehrotra, Anushka; Petticrew, Mark; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Durand, Mary Alison; Mays, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership which aims to improve public health by addressing issues such as health at work. This paper analyses the RD health at work pledges in terms of their likely effectiveness and added value. A review of evidence on the effectiveness of the RD 'health at work' pledges to improve health in the workplace; analysis of publically available data on signatory organizations' plans and progress towards achieving the pledges; and assessment of the likelihood that workplace activities pledged by signatories were brought about by participating in the RD. The 'health at work' pledges mostly consist of information sharing activities, and could be more effective if made part of integrated environmental change at the workplace. The evaluation of organizations' plans and progress suggests that very few actions (7%) were motivated by participation in the RD, with most organizations likely (57%) or probably (36%) already engaged in the activities they listed before joining the RD. The RD's 'health at work' pledges are likely to contribute little to improving workplace health as they stand but could contribute more if they were incorporated into broader, coherent workplace health strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Engaging the public in decision-making. A Swiss approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Swiss public is still involved in main decisions which may be concern them. The nuclear industry knows a lot about the difficulties of advancing with projects such as repository or new plants. The temptation is very high to change the existing law to simplify the procedure of authorization. But this would be a very bad way to circumvent the distrust of public against nuclear projects. Everywhere today politicians are promoting the empowerment of responsible citizens: in health care, consumers decision and so on. In the domain of nuclear concerns this empowerment is extremely important: especially in this field the public has rights and needs which must be taken into account. (R.P.)

  10. Making the case for a 'fifth wave' in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, P; Carlisle, S; Hannah, M; Reilly, D; Lyon, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper will argue that the UK has seen several phases of public health improvement since the Industrial Revolution, and that each of these can be linked to major shifts in thinking about the nature of society and health itself. The authors are not, however, attempting to delineate firm sequences of events (or imply causality) as this would require a level of analysis of the relationship between economy, society and culture which is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is suggested that each phase of health improvement can be thought of in metaphorical terms as a 'wave'. The first wave is associated with great public works and other developments arising from social responses to the profound disruptions which followed the Industrial Revolution. The second wave saw the emergence of medicine as science. The third wave involved the redesign of our social institutions during the 20th Century and gave birth to the welfare state. The fourth wave has been dominated by efforts to combat disease risk factors and the emergence of systems thinking. Although a trough of public health activity continues from each wave, none exerts the same impact as when it first emerged. This paper will discuss the complex challenges of obesity, inequality and loss of wellbeing, together with the broader problems of exponential growth in population, money creation and energy usage. As exponential growth is unsustainable on a finite planet, inevitable change looms. Taken together, these analyses suggest that a fifth wave of public health development is now needed; one which will need to differ radically from its forerunners. The authors invite others to join them in envisioning its nature and in furthering the debate about future public health. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Public understanding: can we make an atom of difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Chairman of British Nuclear Fuels Limited proposes a fresh marketing approach for the image of nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom, in an attempt to woo public opinion. Openness and honesty are essential, and environmental issues, while important, should not be cynically exploited. The Visitors' Centre at Sellafield is cited as a good example of how this might be achieved. (UK)

  12. Making public-private partnerships work in Nigeria | Erumebor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Policy Brief delves into special cases and experiences of PPPs while reviewing critical challenges and proffering solutions to making PPPs work in Nigeria. Overall, the Brief recommends the review of the National Integrated Infrastructure Master Plan (NIIMP), enactment of PPP legislation and implementation support ...

  13. Teaching science for public understanding: Developing decision-making abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    One of the most important challenges educators have is teaching students how to make decisions about complex issues. In this study, methods designed to enhance students' decision-making skills and attitudes were investigated. An issue-oriented science curriculum was partly replaced with activities designed by the experimenter. The first objective of the study was to examine the effects of an instructional method to increase students' use of relevant scientific evidence in their decisions. The second goal of the research was to test whether the instructional activities could promote students' beliefs that science is relevant to them, because attitudes have been shown to affect students' performance and persistence (Schommer, 1994). Third, the study was designed to determine whether the instructional activities would affect students' beliefs that their intelligence is not fixed but can grow; this question is based on Dweck and Leggett's (1988) definition of two orientations toward intelligence---entity theorists and incremental theorists (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck & Henderson, 1989). Two urban high-school classrooms participated in this study. Tenth graders examined scientific materials about current issues involving technology and society. Instructional materials on decision making were prepared for one class of students to enhance their regular issue-oriented course, Science and Sustainability. A computer program, called Convince Me (Schank, Ranney & Hoadley, 1996), provided scaffolding for making an evidence-based decision. The experimental group's activities also included pen-and-paper lessons on decision making and the effect of experience on the structure of the brain. The control class continued to engage in Science and Sustainability decision-making activities during the time the experimental class completed the treatment. The control group did not show significant improvement on decision-making tasks, and the experimental group showed marginally

  14. Making sense of science: Meeting the public's information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed at better understanding of specific information needs as well as of how the public perceives the issue of radioactive contamination. Main conclusions of the study:1. Information is lacking 2. Great concern for health effects of radiation 3. Poverty is a worry. Study results are very much consistent with the ideas of 2002 UN Report: Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident: A Strategy for Recovery

  15. Environmental Public Health Indicators Impact Report: Data and methods that support environmental public health decision-making by communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of twenty competitively funded Science-To-Achieve-Results (STAR) grants in EPA's Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHI) research program. The grantsdirectly supported health interventions, informed policy and decision-making, and improved t...

  16. Networked publics: multi-disciplinary perspectives on big policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Dutton

    2018-01-01

    This special issue of Internet Policy Review is the first to bring together the best policy-oriented papers presented at the annual conference of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR). This issue is anchored in the 2017 conference in Tartu, Estonia, which was organised around the theme of networked publics. The seven papers span issues concerning whether and how technology and policy are reshaping access to information, perspectives on privacy and security online, and social and lega...

  17. Making Better Re/Insurance Underwriting and Capital Management Decisions with Public-Private-Academic Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, G.; Gunasekera, R.; Werner, A.; Galy, H.

    2012-04-01

    Similar to 2001, 2004, and 2005, 2011 was another year of unexpected international catastrophe events, in which insured losses were more than twice the expected long-term annual average catastrophe losses of USD 30 to 40bn. Key catastrophe events that significantly contributed these losses included the Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, the Jan. 2011 floods in Queensland, the October 2011 floods in Thailand, the Mw 6.1 Christchurch earthquake and Convective system (Tornado) in United States. However, despite considerable progress in catastrophe modelling, the advent of global catastrophe models, increasing risk model coverage and skill in the detailed modelling, the above mentioned events were not satisfactorily modelled by the current mainstream Re/Insurance catastrophe models. This presentation therefore address problems in models and incomplete understanding identified from recent catastrophic events by considering: i) the current modelling environment, and ii) how the current processes could be improved via: a) the understanding of risk within science networks such as the Willis Research Network, and b) the integration of risk model results from available insurance catastrophe models and tools. This presentation aims to highlight the needed improvements in decision making and market practices, thereby advancing the current management of risk in the Re/Insurance industry. This also increases the need for better integration of Public-Private-Academic partnerships and tools to provide better estimates of not only financial loss but also humanitarian and infrastructural losses as well.

  18. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy

  19. Minimal Representation and Decision Making for Networked Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 1308 W Main, Urbana , IL 61801 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 1308 W Main, Urbana , IL 61801 tel: 217-333-1368, fax: 217-244-1653 email: voulgari@illinois.edu...a mobile sensor network (MSN) when some of the nodes in the network fail. We posed the problem as a multi-stage decision process, and used forward

  20. Leadership and Decision-Making Practices in Public versus Private Universities in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…

  1. It's meaning making stupid! Succes of public leadership during flash crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boin et al. (International Review of Public Administration, 18, 2013, 79) and others propose that public crisis leadership consists of several core tasks, among which crisis decision-making and meaning making stand out in “flash crises.” We however argue that successful leadership during a sudden

  2. It's meaning making, stupid! Success of public leadership during flash crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boin et al. (International Review of Public Administration, 18, 2013, 79) and others propose that public crisis leadership consists of several core tasks, among which crisis decision-making and meaning making stand out in “flash crises.” We however argue that successful leadership during a sudden

  3. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities...... evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable...

  4. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach.

  5. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  6. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Suri

    Full Text Available A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  7. Mobile Network Data for Public-Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eOliver

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief and, recently, public health. In this paper we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health.

  8. Mobile Network Data for Public Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Nuria; Matic, Aleksandar; Frias-Martinez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then, it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief, and, recently, public health. In this paper, we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health. PMID:26301211

  9. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  10. Morally responsible decision making in networked military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuijzen-Van Burken, C.G.; Van Bezooijen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing responsible innovations on the battlefield requires a rethinking of social and psychological aspects of moral decision making on the battlefield, and in particular, including how these aspects are influenced by technology. In this chapter, the social aspects of moral decision making are

  11. The decision-making process in public healthcare entities – identification of the decision-making process type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymaniec-Mlicka Karolina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decisions made in the organization determine its success, therefore, conducting studies in the scope of decision-making seems important both for theory and practice. The aim of the studies was to identify the type of decision-making process in public medical entities with the use of typology developed by P. Nutt. For this purpose we used qualitative methods. Interviews with 8 directors of hospitals were conducted and the reconstruction was made on the basis of the decision-making process, which enabled the assignment of the model of decision-making process to the organization. The research indicated that four organizations use the historical decision-making model, three organizations represent the model of generating solutions, and one organization uses the model of available solutions.

  12. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  13. Personal Agency and Public Recognition in Women's Volunteering: Does the Organisation Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa

    2003-01-01

    Life review interviews with 54 midlife and older women discussed their volunteer activities. In general, highly public activities were associated with formal volunteering and low-agency/private activities with informal volunteering. Even formal activities with limited public exposure helped network people who would otherwise not have made contact.…

  14. What makes corruption in the public procurement process awful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Osei-Afoakwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.

  15. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making

  16. The role of women in nuclear - attracting public participation in regulatory decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Jais, Azlina; Hassan, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Public participation is vital in demonstrating transparency and enhancing effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory process. As such, it is necessary for nuclear practitioners to involve the public in key nuclear delivery milestones. This paper specifically discusses challenges faced in attracting public participation throughout the nuclear regulatory decision-making process, and highlights the roles of women in nuclear (WiN) in initiating the said public discourse.

  17. Assimilation of public opinions in nuclear decision-making using risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Yang, J.W.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of assimilating public opinions in the decision-making process has been developed in this study. The proposed method will resolve the major shortcomings of existing decision-making models, which are deficient in, or missing public participation during the process. In the nuclear-related decision-making process, a particular concern of the public is nuclear safety, which is numerically characterized by risk. In reality, it is the risk that each individual perceives that is very important. Hence, the public perception of risk has been employed as a key decision-making element in representing public opinions. To quantify the public perception of risk, the psychometric model is used. Psychological risk dimensions are first assessed using factor analysis and a set of factors is identified for optimized computation. Expert opinions formulated by a group of selected professionals and experts are then aggregated with the public opinions. To gather public and expert opinions, separate polls were conducted in this study. In the aggregation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility analysis (MAUA) were employed, and for uncertainty analysis, a fuzzy set based approach was adopted. This method has been applied to analyze six options for spent fuel management in Korea for a case study. As expected, the results of the case study show that public risk perception is an important element in nuclear-related decision-making processes

  18. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  19. Working in networks to make biodiversity data more available

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available mandates, resources and management—has risen to prominence as a way of organising many activities in the modern era. A cynic might say this is because the world has lost the appetite for creating and funding new institutions or that networking is a way... more equitable management Trends in representative coverage of protected areas and other area based approaches, including sites of particular importance for biodiversity, and of terrestrial, marine and inland water systems Trends in the delivery...

  20. Exploiting Publication Contents and Collaboration Networks for Collaborator Recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Kong

    Full Text Available Thanks to the proliferation of online social networks, it has become conventional for researchers to communicate and collaborate with each other. Meanwhile, one critical challenge arises, that is, how to find the most relevant and potential collaborators for each researcher? In this work, we propose a novel collaborator recommendation model called CCRec, which combines the information on researchers' publications and collaboration network to generate better recommendation. In order to effectively identify the most potential collaborators for researchers, we adopt a topic clustering model to identify the academic domains, as well as a random walk model to compute researchers' feature vectors. Using DBLP datasets, we conduct benchmarking experiments to examine the performance of CCRec. The experimental results show that CCRec outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and F1 score.

  1. Development scheme of the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Article 14 of the modified law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility foresees that the development scheme of the public power transportation network is regularly submitted to the approval of the ministry of energy after advice from the energy regulation commission. The development scheme identifies the areas of 'power fragility' with respect to the existing or future constraints susceptible to occur at the short- or medium-term on the French power grid. This document comprises the text of the law 2000-108 from February 10, 2000, and the complete development scheme with its appendixes (regulatory and administrative context relative to network projects, constraints relative to each administrative region). (J.S.)

  2. The EVOTION Decision Support System: Utilizing It for Public Health Policy-Making in Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrakazas, Panagiotis; Trenkova, Lyubov; Milas, Josip; Brdaric, Dario; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    As Decision Support Systems start to play a significant role in decision making, especially in the field of public-health policy making, we present an initial attempt to formulate such a system in the concept of public health policy making for hearing loss related problems. Justification for the system's conceptual architecture and its key functionalities are presented. The introduction of the EVOTION DSS sets a key innovation and a basis for paradigm shift in policymaking, by incorporating relevant models, big data analytics and generic demographic data. Expected outcomes for this joint effort are discussed from a public-health point of view.

  3. Blogging as Popular History Making, Blogs as Public History: The Singapore Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Blogging is a twenty-first century phenomenon that has heralded an age where ordinary people can make their voices heard in the public sphere of the Internet. This article explores blogging as a form of popular history making; the blog as a public history document; and how blogging is transforming the nature of public history and practice of history making in Singapore. An analysis of two Singapore ‘historical’ blogs illustrates how blogging is building a foundation for a more participatory historical society in the island nation. At the same time, the case studies also demonstrate the limitations of blogging and blogs in challenging official versions of history.

  4. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  5. Public Orchestration, Social Networks, and Transnational Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Ponte, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to current debates on the potential and limitations of transnational environmental governance, addressing in particular the issue of how private and public regulation compete and/or reinforce each other - and with what results. One of the most influential approaches...... that a social network analytical perspective on orchestration can improve our understanding of how governments and international organizations can shape transnational environmental governance. Through a case study of aviation, we provide two contributions to these debates: first, we propose four analytical...... and institutions that provide the infrastructure of governance....

  6. The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

  7. [Local public health networks. Apropos of an experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, Joan; Bocio, Ana; Ferràs, Joaquim; Margalef, Jordi; Osanz, Anna C; Serrano, Mónica; Sentenà, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Public health action on a territory is complex and requires the involvement of multiple actors, who do not always act coordinately. Networks of organizations structures including the whole of the local actors facilitate the generation of synergies and enable greater effectiveness and efficiency of the joint action from the different actors on a same landscape. We present 3 years experience of four Public Health Committees in a region of Catalonia (Spain), composed by the main actors in public health planning. Each of the committees is organized on a plenary and working groups on issues arising from the regional health diagnosis, and coincident with the Health Plan of the Region. Coordination in no case implies the loss or dilution of the firm of the actor generator of intervention initiative in public health, but their empowerment and collaboration by the other actors. In conclusion welcomes the creation of a culture of collaboration and synergies between the different organizations concerned. Lack of specificity is observed in establishing operational objectives, and the need for greater coordination and involvement of the components of the various working groups. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation areas, both public and private, are critical tools to protect biodiversity and deliver important ecosystem services (ES) to society. Although societal benefits from such ES are increasingly used to promote public support of conservation, the number of beneficiaries, their identity, and the magnitude of benefits are largely unknown for the vast majority of conservation areas in the United States public-private conservation network. The location of conservation areas in relation to people strongly influences the direction and magnitude of ES flows as well as the identity of beneficiaries. We analyzed benefit zones, the areas to which selected ES could be conveyed to beneficiaries, to assess who benefits from a typical conservation network. Better knowledge of ES flows and beneficiaries will help land conservationists make a stronger case for the broad collateral benefits of conservation and help to address issues of social-environmental justice. To evaluate who benefits the most from the current public-private conservation network, we delineated the benefit zones for local ES (within 16 km) that are conveyed along hydrological paths from public (federal and state) and private (easements) conservation lands in the states of North Carolina and Virginia, USA. We also discuss the challenges and demonstrate an approach for delineating nonhydrological benefits that are passively conveyed to beneficiaries. We mapped and compared the geographic distribution of benefit zones within and among conservation area types. We further compared beneficiary demographics across benefit zones of the conservation area types and found that hydrological benefit zones of federal protected areas encompass disproportionately fewer minority beneficiaries compared to statewide demographic patterns. In contrast, benefit zones of state protected areas and private easements encompassed a much greater proportion of minority beneficiaries (~22–25%). Benefit zones associated with

  9. kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ... The International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) conducts research ... Poonam Kathuria's 17 years of experience as a women's rights advocate is ...

  10. 77 FR 17001 - USDA Public Stakeholder Meeting: Match Making in the Biofuels Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USDA Public Stakeholder Meeting: Match Making in the Biofuels Value... and representatives from the participating stakeholders will respond with short formal presentations... through USDA's security clearance. ADDRESSES: Patio, United States Department of Agriculture Whitten...

  11. From Social Network (Centralized vs. Decentralized) to Collective Decision-Making (Unshared vs. Shared Consensus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the...

  12. The Environmental Scanning Function of Public Relations Practitioners and Participation in Management Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.

    Focusing on the concepts of scanning (gathering information about segments of the public, their reactions to the organization, and their opinions about issues important to the organization), decision making, and roles, a study examined the relationship between environmental scanning and the participation of public relations practitioners in…

  13. Safeguards decision making in the public and regulatory environment, and the potential role of quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the nature of the safeguards program's objectives and constraints, and the inherent limitations on comprehensive quantification. It discusses the nature of the public and regulatory processes employed in safeguards decision making, and examines their implications regarding the potential role of quantitative approaches to safeguards policy and operational decision making

  14. On the ethical analysis of value issues in public decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Philosophy ... What difference can such an ethical analysis make to public decision-making? ... value and ethical questions cannot be settled in a rational manner ... values and ethics are so intertwined with emotions and biases that one cannot take them seriously in ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Decision-Making Styles of Department Chairs at Public Jordanian Universities: A High-Expectancy Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Samer; Alomari, Aiman; Abu-tineh, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the decision-making styles of department chairs employed by three public institutions in Jordan. A total of 95 department chairs participated in the study by completing the General Decision-Making Styles survey. The results indicated that department chairs under study have the rational…

  16. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  17. From social network (centralized vs. decentralized to collective decision-making (unshared vs. shared consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones--star network vs. equal network--led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies.

  18. From social network (centralized vs. decentralized) to collective decision-making (unshared vs. shared consensus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones--star network vs. equal network--led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies.

  19. Selected aspects of the logistics network of public hospitals in the competitive market of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majchrzak-Lepczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The below considerations provide an overview of the issues of sustainable development, logistics, to financial engineering instruments and the role of intellectual capital in the process of transformation of public hospitals. The aim of this research was to assess the competitiveness of the network of public hospitals in the market of health services based on literature studies, as well as empirical research. Methods: Empirical study using a questionnaire survey was conducted in the period from January 2007 to December 2011, in the area of Warmia and Mazury, Pomerania and Wielkopolska. The goal of this questionnaire survey was to know the medical staff reviews issues related to adaptation to the nature of the network of public hospitals methods and logistics tools, sustainable development, corporate social responsibility - CSR. The study was carried out in 104 public hospitals, on a sample of 8975 respondents. Results and conclusions: Analysis of the completed study showed that the logistic processes and their improvement in the health sector play a significant role. The surveyed entities explicitly draw attention to the need for information systems,  pro-environment activities, access to information, or the use of GS1 global standards. These tools allow you to increase the efficiency of supply chains, ensuring not only tracking and tracing of products from the manufacturer to the patient, but also enabling better protection against making a mistake or counterfeit products.

  20. Utilization of extended bayesian networks in decision making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, Edward M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leishman, Deborah A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network tool (called IKE for Integrated Knowledge Engine) has been developed to assess the probability of undesirable events. The tool allows indications and observables from sensors and/or intelligence to feed directly into hypotheses of interest, thus allowing one to quantify the probability and uncertainty of these events resulting from very disparate evidence. For example, the probability that a facility is processing nuclear fuel or assembling a weapon can be assessed by examining the processes required, establishing the observables that should be present, then assembling information from intelligence, sensors and other information sources related to the observables. IKE also has the capability to determine tasking plans, that is, prioritize which observable should be collected next to most quickly ascertain the 'true' state and drive the probability toward 'zero' or 'one.' This optimization capability is called 'evidence marshaling.' One example to be discussed is a denied facility monitoring situation; there is concern that certain process(es) are being executed at the site (due to some intelligence or other data). We will show how additional pieces of evidence will then ascertain with some degree of certainty the likelihood of this process(es) as each piece of evidence is obtained. This example shows how both intelligence and sensor data can be incorporated into the analysis. A second example involves real-time perimeter security. For this demonstration we used seismic, acoustic, and optical sensors linked back to IKE. We show how these sensors identified and assessed the likelihood of 'intruder' versus friendly vehicles.

  1. Application of artificial neural network for medical image recognition and diagnostic decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, N.; Eiho, S.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.; Montner, S.M.; Giger, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial neural network has been applied for pattern recognition and used as a tool in an expert system. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential usefulness of the neural network approach in medical applications for image recognition and decision making. The authors designed multilayer feedforward neural networks with a back-propagation algorithm for our study. Using first-pass radionuclide ventriculograms, we attempted to identify the right and left ventricles of the heart and the lungs by training the neural network from patterns of time-activity curves. In a preliminary study, the neural network enabled identification of the lungs and heart chambers once the network was trained sufficiently by means of repeated entries of data from the same case

  2. Making biodiversity a public problem – The case of dead wood in forests Making biodiversity a public problem – The case of dead wood in forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deuffic and Christophe Bouget

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available How did the issue of deadwood become an important part of management policies for forest biodiversity? The authors provide a number of answers on the emergence and inclusion of deadwood in management policies.How did the issue of biodiversity emerge? Why are certain categories of living beings ignored? How did the issue of deadwood land on the public-policy agenda? To answer these questions, we used the approach established by Trom and Zimmerman (2001, which identifies the necessary steps toward "institutionalisation" of a public problem, i.e. public criticism of a disturbance, objectivisation of the problem, networking of stakeholders and acceptance of the problem by stakeholders in the field. Using the example of efforts to conserve deadwood in forests, we show that placing an issue on the public agenda does not mean all aspects of biodiversity are involved. In addition, certain potential stakeholders such as forest owners are not inclined to adopt these policies. It is not that they contest the legitimacy of the policy, but rather the procedural aspects from which they feel excluded.

  3. Ethical Decision-Making: The Role of Self-Monitoring, Future Orientation, and Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Bon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of individual factors (self monitoring, temporal orientation on social networking, and their relationship with unethical decision-making. The study used surveys to measure the unethical intentions and social network data of 129 professionals. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The findings provided evidence that individual factors influence the development of social networks and, along with self-monitoring, the likelihood of unethical decision-making. In particular, being in positions of lower network centrality increased individuals’ risk of unethical intention. One explanation stems from the need for high situation control to reduce risk and ensure the success of an event, which only a closed network can provide. However, ethical low self-monitor women were also found to have low centrality, so social networks alone do not explain ethical decision-making. This research represents a step forward in our understanding of ethical decision-making through the adoption of multiple and simultaneous factors, proposing an integrated theory of individual and situational factors influencing unethical options.

  4. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  5. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Renchu; Yang, Chen; Marchese, Maurizio; Liang, Yanchun; Shi, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP) to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  6. Public Affairs Decision Making in the U.S. Air Force: An Application of Multiattribute Utility Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Prabu; Pierson, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on public relations decision making and public relations theory. Examines decision making by United States Air Force public affairs personnel. Finds that only 48% of the decisions fit the public relations excellence criteria of accommodation and long-term relationship building. Finds also a negative correlation between…

  7. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance.

  8. Public Speaking Apprehension, Decision-Making Errors in the Selection of Speech Introduction Strategies and Adherence to Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the choice-making processes of students engaged in the selection of speech introduction strategies. Finds that the frequency of students making decision-making errors was a positive function of public speaking apprehension. (MS)

  9. Criteria for Drug Reimbursement Decision-Making: An Emerging Public Health Challenge in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Iskrov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: During times of fiscal austerity, means of reimbursement decision-making are of particular interest for public health theory and practice. Introduction of advanced health technologies, growing health expenditures and increased public scrutiny over drug reimbursement decisions have pushed governments to consider mechanisms that promote the use of effective health technologies, while constraining costs. Aims: The study’s aim was to explore the current rationale of the drug reimbursement decision-making framework in Bulgaria. Our pilot research focused on one particular component of this process – the criteria used – because of the critical role that criteria are known to have in setting budgets and priorities in the field of public health. The analysis pursued two objectives: to identify important criteria relevant to drug reimbursement decision-making and to unveil relationships between theory and practice. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study was realized through a closed-ended survey on reimbursement criteria among four major public health stakeholders – medical professionals, patients, health authorities, and industry. Empirical outcomes were then cross-compared with the theoretical framework, as defined by current Bulgarian public health legislation. Analysis outlined what is done and what needs to be done in the field of public health reimbursement decision-making. Results: Bulgarian public health stakeholders agreed on 15 criteria to form a tentative optimal framework for drug reimbursement decision-making. The most apparent gap between the empirically found preferences and the official legislation is the lack of consideration for the strength of evidence in reimbursement decisions. Conclusion: Bulgarian policy makers need to address specific gaps, such as formal consideration for strength of evidence, explicit role of efficiency criteria, and means to effectively empower patient and citizen

  10. Tourette syndrome: a disorder of the social decision-making network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Roger L

    2018-02-01

    Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions. These features include the natural history of tic expression, with typical onset of tics around ages 5 to 7 years and exacerbation during the peri-pubertal years, marked sex disparity with higher male prevalence, and the characteristic distribution of tics. The latter are usually repetitive, somewhat stereotyped involuntary eye, facial and head movements, and phonations. A major functional role of eye, face, and head movements is social signalling. Prior work in social neuroscience identified a phylogenetically conserved network of sexually dimorphic subcortical nuclei, the Social Behaviour Network, mediating many social behaviours. Social behaviour network function is modulated developmentally by gonadal steroids and social behaviour network outputs are stereotyped sex and species specific behaviours. In 2011 O'Connell and Hofmann proposed that the social behaviour network interdigitates with the basal ganglia to form a greater network, the social decision-making network. The social decision-making network may have two functionally complementary limbs: the basal ganglia component responsible for evaluation of socially relevant stimuli and actions with the social behaviour network component responsible for the performance of social acts. Social decision-making network dysfunction can explain major features of the neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome may be a disorder of social communication resulting from

  11. Risk perception, trust and public engagement in nuclear decision-making in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy can be a feasible energy option has re-emerged as a subject of widespread debate following the Fukushima accident in Japan. However, relatively little is known about how public inputs can improve nuclear decision-making. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of public opinions regarding nuclear energy by examining its risk perception, trust and public engagement dimensions. Based on a survey of Hong Kong residents (n=509), we make some observations. Firstly, we offer empirical evidence that affirms the theoretical connections between risk perception, trust, and public engagement in the context of nuclear energy. Secondly, our logistic regression analysis indicates that demographics, trust, and perceptions of the efficacy of public engagement are factors explaining perceptions of greater risks and nuclear opposition. Thirdly, our conceptual model sheds light on the complexity of the trust concept, and specifies aspects of trust that are influential in the contexts of risk perception and nuclear choices. Our findings suggest that the Hong Kong government must ensure trust building receives prominent attention in nuclear decision-making, and that it should avoid excessive reliance on the business sector and should assume a key role for itself in enhancing trust in nuclear decision-making. - Highlights: • Risk perception, trust and public engagement matter to nuclear decision-making. • Our logistic regression analysis found that demographics, trust and perception of public engagement are the factors that explain risk perception and nuclear choice in Hong Kong. • Our conceptual model specifics aspects of trust that are influential

  12. Who runs public health? A mixed-methods study combining qualitative and network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; de Vocht, Frank; Money, Annemarie; Everett, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Persistent health inequalities encourage researchers to identify new ways of understanding the policy process. Informal relationships are implicated in finding evidence and making decisions for public health policy (PHP), but few studies use specialized methods to identify key actors in the policy process. We combined network and qualitative data to identify the most influential individuals in PHP in a UK conurbation and describe their strategies to influence policy. Network data were collected by asking for nominations of powerful and influential people in PHP (n = 152, response rate 80%), and 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed using a framework approach. The most influential PHP makers in this conurbation were mid-level managers in the National Health Service and local government, characterized by managerial skills: controlling policy processes through gate keeping key organizations, providing policy content and managing selected experts and executives to lead on policies. Public health professionals and academics are indirectly connected to policy via managers. The most powerful individuals in public health are managers, not usually considered targets for research. As we show, they are highly influential through all stages of the policy process. This study shows the importance of understanding the daily activities of influential policy individuals.

  13. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today’s society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event’s social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1 Flu emergency.

  14. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency.

  15. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  16. Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Milton, Beth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-12-18

    In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local levels), academia and voluntary organizations. Analysis was based on the framework method using N-VIVO software. Interviews were transcribed, coded and emergent themes identified. Many participants suggested that the timescales for public health decision-making are too short. Commissioners and some practitioners working at the national level particularly felt constrained in terms of planning for the long-term. Furthermore respondents felt that longer term planning was needed to address the wider determinants of health and to achieve societal level changes. Three prominent 'systems' issues were identified as important drivers of short term thinking: the need to demonstrate impact within the 4 year political cycle; the requirement to 'balance the books' within the annual commissioning cycle and the disruption caused by frequent re-organisations within the health service. In addition respondents suggested that the tools and evidence base for longer term planning were not well established. Many public health decision and policy makers feel that the timescales for decision-making are too short. Substantial systemic barriers to longer-term planning exist. Policy makers need to look beyond short-term targets and budget cycles to secure investment for long-term improvement in public health.

  17. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  18. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  19. Integrating technical analysis and public values in risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnenblust, Hans; Slovic, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Simple technical analysis cannot capture the complex scope of preferences or values of society and individuals. However, decision making needs to be sustained by formal analysis. The paper describes a policy framework which incorporates both technical analysis and aspects of public values. The framework can be used as a decision supporting tool and helps decision makers to make more informed and more transparent decisions about safety issues

  20. Large-scale network dynamics of beta-band oscillations underlie auditory perceptual decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alavash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decisions vary in the speed at which we make them. Evidence suggests that translating sensory information into perceptual decisions relies on distributed interacting neural populations, with decision speed hinging on power modulations of the neural oscillations. Yet the dependence of perceptual decisions on the large-scale network organization of coupled neural oscillations has remained elusive. We measured magnetoencephalographic signals in human listeners who judged acoustic stimuli composed of carefully titrated clouds of tone sweeps. These stimuli were used in two task contexts, in which the participants judged the overall pitch or direction of the tone sweeps. We traced the large-scale network dynamics of the source-projected neural oscillations on a trial-by-trial basis using power-envelope correlations and graph-theoretical network discovery. In both tasks, faster decisions were predicted by higher segregation and lower integration of coupled beta-band (∼16–28 Hz oscillations. We also uncovered the brain network states that promoted faster decisions in either lower-order auditory or higher-order control brain areas. Specifically, decision speed in judging the tone sweep direction critically relied on the nodal network configurations of anterior temporal, cingulate, and middle frontal cortices. Our findings suggest that global network communication during perceptual decision-making is implemented in the human brain by large-scale couplings between beta-band neural oscillations. The speed at which we make perceptual decisions varies. This translation of sensory information into perceptual decisions hinges on dynamic changes in neural oscillatory activity. However, the large-scale neural-network embodiment supporting perceptual decision-making is unclear. We addressed this question by experimenting two auditory perceptual decision-making situations. Using graph-theoretical network discovery, we traced the large-scale network

  1. Italian public health care organizations: specialization, institutional deintegration, and public networks relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Mario; De Pietro, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Italian National Health Service (INHS) has undergone profound changes over the past three decades. With establishment of the INHS in 1978--a tax-based public health care system with universal coverage--one of the underlying principles was integration. The recognition of health and health care as requiring integrated answers led to the creation of a single public organization, the Local Health Unit, responsible for the health status of the population of its catchment area. At the beginning of the 1990s, the scenario radically changed. The creation of hospital trusts, the development of quasi-market mechanisms and management control tools, the adoption of a prospective payment system for reimbursing health care providers--all were signs of deintegration and institutional unbundling. Two structural changes have deeply sustained this deintegration: patients' empowerment and the increased possibilities for outsourcing practices. In more recent years, a new reintegration effort has occurred, often led by regional governments and based on institutional cooperation and network relationships. However, the earlier structural changes require innovative approaches and solutions if public health care organizations want to retain their leading role.

  2. A Bayesian Network Model on the Public Bicycle Choice Behavior of Residents: A Case Study of Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the main factors affecting the behaviors that city residents make regarding public bicycle choice and to further study the public bicycle user’s personal characteristics and travel characteristics, a travel mode choice model based on a Bayesian network was established. Taking residents of Xi’an as the research object, a K2 algorithm combined with mutual information and expert knowledge was proposed for Bayesian network structure learning. The Bayesian estimation method was used to estimate the parameters of the network, and a Bayesian network model was established to reflect the interactions among the public bicycle choice behaviors along with other major factors. The K-fold cross-validation method was used to validate the model performance, and the hit rate of each travel mode was more than 80%, indicating the precision of the proposed model. Experimental results also present the higher classification accuracy of the proposed model. Therefore, it may be concluded that the resident travel mode choice may be accurately predicted according to the Bayesian network model proposed in our study. Additionally, this model may be employed to analyze and discuss changes in the resident public bicycle choice and to note that they may possibly be influenced by different travelers’ characteristics and trip characteristics.

  3. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....

  4. Manufacturing Consent for Privatization in Public Education: The Rise of a Social Finance Network in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy; Sen, Vicheth; Fallon, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Multiple forms of privatization are emerging in the Canadian public sector, including public-private partnerships. This article focuses on one approach to public-private partnerships called "social finance," and a network of public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that promotes social finance as a means of funding public…

  5. A Case for Open Network Health Systems: Systems as Networks in Public Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michael Grant; de Vries, Marten W

    2017-01-08

    Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH) services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community) Participation Act (2014), local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or "innovate." But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder. The aim was to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of local PMH services. The investigation concluded that no specific failure by an individual professional or service provider facility led to the murder. Instead, also as a result of the Participation Act that severed communication lines between individuals and organizations, information sharing failures were likely to have reduced system level capacity to identify risks. The methods and analytical frameworks employed to reach this conclusion, also lead to discussion as to the plausibility of an unconventional solution. If improving communication is the primary problem, non-hierarchical information, and organizational networks arise as possible and innovative system solutions. The proposal for debate is that traditional "health system" definitions, literature and narratives, and operating assumptions in public (mental) health are 'locked in' constraining technical and organization innovations. If we view a "health system" as an adaptive system of economic and social "networks," it becomes clear that the current orthodox solution, the so-called integrated health system, typically results in a "centralized hierarchical" or "tree" network. An overlooked alternative that breaks out of the established policy narratives is the view of a 'health systems' as a non-hierarchical organizational structure or 'Open Network.' In turn, this opens new technological and

  6. A Case for Open Network Health Systems: Systems as Networks in Public Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grant Rhodes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community Participation Act (2014, local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or “innovate.” But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder. The aim was to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of local PMH services. The investigation concluded that no specific failure by an individual professional or service provider facility led to the murder. Instead, also as a result of the Participation Act that severed communication lines between individuals and organizations, information sharing failures were likely to have reduced system level capacity to identify risks. The methods and analytical frameworks employed to reach this conclusion, also lead to discussion as to the plausibility of an unconventional solution. If improving communication is the primary problem, non-hierarchical information, and organizational networks arise as possible and innovative system solutions. The proposal for debate is that traditional “health system” definitions, literature and narratives, and operating assumptions in public (mental health are ‘locked in’ constraining technical and organization innovations. If we view a “health system” as an adaptive system of economic and social “networks,” it becomes clear that the current orthodox solution, the so-called integrated health system, typically results in a “centralized hierarchical” or “tree” network. An overlooked alternative that breaks out of the established policy narratives is the view of a ‘health systems’ as a non-hierarchical organizational structure or

  7. Collaborative Tools for e-Participation across Networks: The Comuno Networking Site for Public Governance and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaschesky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents collaborative tools for public participation across multiple networking sites. The tools are part of the Comuno networking site for public governance and services, which is particularly targeted at the public sector (currently in alpha testing at http://comuno.org. The Broadcast tool allows cross-posting content from Comuno to a wide variety of other networking sites, such as Facebook or Twitter. The UserFeed and TopicFeed tools build RSS feeds from content published by a specific user or under a specific topic. The LifeStream tool gathers a user’s activities across multiple networking sites in the private account section at Comuno. These tools and related aspects of the Comuno networking site are discussed and presented in the context of deliberation and opinion-forming in a Swiss bilingual city.

  8. Negative and Positive Pretrial Publicity Affect Juror Memory and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L.; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants…

  9. The Need for Advanced Public Transport Information Services When Making Transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.; Chorus, C.; Van Sloten, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Specific attention is given to the role of making transfers in the decision to acquire specific types of information. Intercity

  10. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  11. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  12. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  13. The plethora of publics and their participation in policy making: How can they properly participate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper examines the theoretical bases of publics and stakeholder participation in decision making, with special attention to mixed issues, including federal government actions such as remedial action programs and hazardous facility sitings. Empowerment associated with participation is addressed, focusing on differences between power and authority.

  14. Challenges Associated With Applying Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for Public Health Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in chemical toxicology have grown steadily since their emergence in the 1980s. However, critical evaluation of PBPK models to support public health decision-making across federal agencies has t...

  15. Visualizing Public Opinion in Croatia Based on Available Social Network Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševa, Jurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade advances of computer technologies have lead towards a technological reality where the line between information consumers and information producers is blurred. This technological omnipresence allows for unprecedented data creation capabilities. Based on various data sources, it seems humans have fully embraced data-generating activities. One such activity is using online social network applications, like Facebook or Twitter in almost all aspects of their lives. One of the main features of online social network applications is perceived freedom of speech, individuality and privacy, even though every application has some special features. Therefore, content generated using these services presents the public with interesting insights in private life of people and their attitudes towards public affairs. Social network applications are active the most during specific public events aimed at the massive public. Due to its brevity, ease of use and frequency, Twitter is an interesting social network application for research and analysis. Other than allowing almost exclusively short messages (up to 140 characters, a tweet (a Twitter post can contain location of the message sender as well as a graphic to accompany the textual message. The textual part of the message may contain so called hashtags – keywords used for indexing and easy identification of a subject the message is related to. These hashtags allow us to group messages related to a specific event. Recent governmental elections held in Croatia were very popular amongst the Croatian Twitter community. Usage of hashtags allowed us to identify the right messages and thus most-used words to describe this event and potentially identify how people felt when talking, i.e. writing, about politics and the held elections. Furthermore, geolocation information, optionally embedded in a tweet, makes it possible to analyze which keywords were used in which parts of Croatia, all pertaining to

  16. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirson Leslea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM. However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. Methods This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27 with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. Results The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services, fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. Conclusion With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  17. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen; Mowat, David

    2012-02-20

    Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM). However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27) with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services), fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  18. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to

  1. 77 FR 60680 - Development of the Nationwide Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... public comment on the conceptual network architecture presentation made at the FirstNet Board of... business plan considerations. NTIA also seeks comment on the general concept of how to develop applications... network based on a single, nationwide network architecture called for under the Middle Class Tax Relief...

  2. Public participation in decision-making on the coverage of new antivirals for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslich, Katharina; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Badano, Gabriele; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Cubillos, Leonardo; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Henshall, Chris; Krubiner, Carleigh B; Littlejohns, Peter; Lu, Lanting; Pearson, Steven D; Rid, Annette; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wilson, James

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - New hepatitis C medicines such as sofosbuvir underline the need to balance considerations of innovation, clinical evidence, budget impact and equity in health priority-setting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of public participation in addressing these considerations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a comparative case study approach. It explores the experience of four countries - Brazil, England, South Korea and the USA - in making coverage decisions about the antiviral sofosbuvir and involving the public and patients in these decision-making processes. Findings - Issues emerging from public participation ac tivities include the role of the universal right to health in Brazil, the balance between innovation and budget impact in England, the effect of unethical medical practices on public perception in South Korea and the legitimacy of priority-setting processes in the USA. Providing policymakers are receptive to these issues, public participation activities may be re-conceptualized as processes that illuminate policy problems relevant to a particular context, thereby promoting an agenda-setting role for the public. Originality/value - The paper offers an empirical analysis of public involvement in the case of sofosbuvir, where the relevant considerations that bear on priority-setting decisions have been particularly stark. The perspectives that emerge suggest that public participation contributes to raising attention to issues that need to be addressed by policymakers. Public participation activities can thus contribute to setting policy agendas, even if that is not their explicit purpose. However, the actualization of this contribution is contingent on the receptiveness of policymakers.

  3. How do we make community owned information networks work for the poor?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morris, CF

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available asked in this paper is how do we make community owned information networks work for the poor? A case study from Angola shares key lessons learnt in developing shared cost models in telecentres in the face of exorbitantly high connectivity costs. The real...

  4. Global and Long-Distance Decision-Making, Environmental Issues and Network Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, K.; And Others

    FID/TM, an international group concerned with theory and methods of systems cybernetics and information networks, held a panel session at the 34th Annual American Society for Information Science (ASIS) Meeting in November 1971. This report contains the seven papers presented by that panel, concerning issues in global decision-making and the role…

  5. Novel approach to make concrete structures self-healing using porous network concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Schlangen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers proposed self healing mechanism using hollow fibres and or microcapsule containing a modifying agent dispersed in the concrete to prolong its service life and make it more durable. A novel self healing concrete concept is proposed in this paper by using porous network concrete

  6. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support: A rational approach to dynamic decision-making under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation deals with decision support in the context of clinical oncology. (Dynamic) Bayesian networks are used as a framework for (dynamic) decision-making under uncertainty and applied to a variety of diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment problems in medicine. It is shown that the proposed

  7. Health and wellbeing boards: public health decision making bodies or political pawns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Z; McCafferty, S

    2017-02-01

    Health and Wellbeing boards in England are uniquely constituted; embedded in the local authorities with membership drawn from a range of stakeholders and partner organizations. This raises the question of how decision making functions of the boards reflects wider public health decision making, if criteria are applied to decision making, and what prioritization processes, if any, are used. Qualitative research methods were employed and five local boards were approached, interview dyads were conducted with the boards Chair and Director of Public Health across four of these (n = 4). Three questions were addressed: how are decisions made? What are the criteria applied to decision making? And how are criteria then prioritized? A thematic approach was used to analyse data identifying codes and extracting key themes. Equity, effectiveness and consistency with strategies of board and partners were most consistently identified by participants as criteria influencing decisions. Prioritization was described as an engaged and collaborative process, but criteria were not explicitly referenced in the decision making of the boards which instead made unstructured prioritization of population sub-groups or interventions agreed by consensus. Criteria identified are broadly consistent with those used in wider public health practice but additionally incorporated criteria which recognizes the political siting of the boards. The study explored the variety in different board's approaches to prioritization and identified a lack of clarity and rigour in the identification and use of criteria in prioritization processes. Decision making may benefit from the explicit inclusion of criteria in the prioritization process. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Networks of innovation or networks of opportunity? The making of the Spanish antibiotics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Nuria

    2004-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is a typically research-intensive, first world-industry. This article seeks to explain why it has been so difficult for late industrialised nations to reproduce the networks of innovation on which the design and manufacturing of new drugs has historically based, and why alternative concepts are needed in order to understand the dynamics of science-based industries in emerging countries. The article analyses the development of the Spanish antibiotics industry, build after the World War II under the strong influence of the new international order and Spain's political framework, academic traditions and business groups. Focusing on the long-term relationships established between two Spanish companies (Antibióticos SA and Compañía Española de Penicilina y Antibióticos, CEPA), their American technological partners (Schenley and Merck), and their social and scientific environment, the article identifies networks of opportunity as the key institutional arrangement of this new industry in Spain. Opportunity (as opposed to innovation) networks are thus proposed to conceptualise the development of technologically complex industries in the European periphery.

  9. Using social network analysis to examine the decision-making process on new vaccine introduction in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, C B; Privor-Dumm, L; Aina, M; Pate, A M; Reis, R; Gadhoke, P; Levine, O S

    2012-05-01

    The decision-making process to introduce new vaccines into national immunization programmes is often complex, involving many stakeholders who provide technical information, mobilize finance, implement programmes and garner political support. Stakeholders may have different levels of interest, knowledge and motivations to introduce new vaccines. Lack of consensus on the priority, public health value or feasibility of adding a new vaccine can delay policy decisions. Efforts to support country-level decision-making have largely focused on establishing global policies and equipping policy makers with the information to support decision-making on new vaccine introduction (NVI). Less attention has been given to understanding the interactions of policy actors and how the distribution of influence affects the policy process and decision-making. Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science technique concerned with explaining social phenomena using the structural and relational features of the network of actors involved. This approach can be used to identify how information is exchanged and who is included or excluded from the process. For this SNA of vaccine decision-making in Nigeria, we interviewed federal and state-level government officials, officers of bilateral and multilateral partner organizations, and other stakeholders such as health providers and the media. Using data culled from those interviews, we performed an SNA in order to map formal and informal relationships and the distribution of influence among vaccine decision-makers, as well as to explore linkages and pathways to stakeholders who can influence critical decisions in the policy process. Our findings indicate a relatively robust engagement of key stakeholders in Nigeria. We hypothesized that economic stakeholders and implementers would be important to ensure sustainable financing and strengthen programme implementation, but some economic and implementation stakeholders did not appear centrally on

  10. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  11. A complex systems approach to planning, optimization and decision making for energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jessica; Kempener, Ruud; Cohen, Brett; Petrie, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a new approach to planning and optimization of energy networks, using a mix of global optimization and agent-based modeling tools. This approach takes account of techno-economic, environmental and social criteria, and engages explicitly with inherent network complexity in terms of the autonomous decision-making capability of individual agents within the network, who may choose not to act as economic rationalists. This is an important consideration from the standpoint of meeting sustainable development goals. The approach attempts to set targets for energy planning, by determining preferred network development pathways through multi-objective optimization. The viability of such plans is then explored through agent-based models. The combined approach is demonstrated for a case study of regional electricity generation in South Africa, with biomass as feedstock

  12. Making sense of information in noisy networks: human communication, gossip, and distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Mark E; Lamb, Alex; Shultz, Susanne; Olsen, Megan

    2013-01-21

    Information from others can be unreliable. Humans nevertheless act on such information, including gossip, to make various social calculations, thus raising the question of whether individuals can sort through social information to identify what is, in fact, true. Inspired by empirical literature on people's decision-making when considering gossip, we built an agent-based simulation model to examine how well simple decision rules could make sense of information as it propagated through a network. Our simulations revealed that a minimalistic decision-rule 'Bit-wise mode' - which compared information from multiple sources and then sought a consensus majority for each component bit within the message - was consistently the most successful at converging upon the truth. This decision rule attained high relative fitness even in maximally noisy networks, composed entirely of nodes that distorted the message. The rule was also superior to other decision rules regardless of its frequency in the population. Simulations carried out with variable agent memory constraints, different numbers of observers who initiated information propagation, and a variety of network types suggested that the single most important factor in making sense of information was the number of independent sources that agents could consult. Broadly, our model suggests that despite the distortion information is subject to in the real world, it is nevertheless possible to make sense of it based on simple Darwinian computations that integrate multiple sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Network Biology (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    networkbiology@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Network Biology ISSN 2220-8879 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/rss.xml E-mail: networkbiology@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope NETWORK BIOLOGY (ISSN 2220-8879; CODEN NBEICS is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of network biology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Network Biology. It dedicates to the latest advances in network biology. The goal of this journal is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and promote the research work in these fast moving areas. The topics to be covered by Network Biology include, but are not limited to: •Theories, algorithms and programs of network analysis •Innovations and applications of biological networks •Ecological networks, food webs and natural equilibrium •Co-evolution, co-extinction, biodiversity conservation •Metabolic networks, protein-protein interaction networks, biochemical reaction networks, gene networks, transcriptional regulatory networks, cell cycle networks, phylogenetic networks, network motifs •Physiological networksNetwork regulation of metabolic processes, human diseases and ecological systems •Social networks, epidemiological networks •System complexity, self-organized systems, emergence of biological systems, agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, neural network modeling, and other network-based modeling, etc. We are also interested in short communications that clearly address a specific issue or completely present a new ecological network, food web, or metabolic or gene network, etc. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, networkbiology@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal

  14. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. A systematic review of collaboration and network research in the public affairs literature: implications for public health practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varda, Danielle; Shoup, Jo Ann; Miller, Sara

    2012-03-01

    We explored and analyzed how findings from public affairs research can inform public health research and practice, specifically in the area of interorganizational collaboration, one of the most promising practice-based approaches in the public health field. We conducted a systematic review of the public affairs literature by following a grounded theory approach. We coded 151 articles for demographics and empirical findings (n = 258). Three primary findings stand out in the public affairs literature: network structure affects governance, management strategies exist for administrators, and collaboration can be linked to outcomes. These findings are linked to priorities in public health practice. Overall, we found that public affairs has a long and rich history of research in collaborations that offers unique organizational theory and management tools to public health practitioners.

  16. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  17. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  18. Modelling Investment Attractiveness of a Public Joint Stock Company as the Basis of Managerial Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brukhovetskaya Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors of influence upon investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company, which are factors by the sphere of origin. The article identifies the degree and direction of influence of the factors by the sphere of origin upon investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company; factors are divided into two groups, which could be regulated directly by society and which cannot be regulated. It justifies the necessity of modelling investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company under influence of the factors with the aim of managerial decision making of two groups of stakeholders: owners and managers, shareholders and investors. It conducts modelling of investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company using the decision tree method. It develops a decision matrix, on the basis of which the owners, managers, shareholders and investors can make decisions regarding directions of increase of investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company and expediency of initial or further investing into society development.

  19. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  20. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    National governments around the globe are actively seeking new ways to engage in social innovation and are investing in innovation labs and innovation centers where methods and principles of design are now being explored and applied to problems of transforming and innovating the public sector (cf...... governments but they also pose new challenges for policy-makers and public administrators who are not yet familiar with design concepts, principles and methods beyond problem-solving. Despite the many linkages between and among design, designing, policy-making and policy implementation, we have yet to clarify...

  1. The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison School of Journalism and Mass Communication (United States)], E-mail: scheufele@wisc.edu; Lewenstein, Bruce V. [Cornell University, Department of Communication and Department of Science and Technology Studies (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We report findings from a national telephone survey on levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward nanotechnology that demonstrate how people make decisions about emerging technologies. Our findings confirm previous research that suggests that people form opinions and attitudes even in the absence of relevant scientific or policy-related information. In fact, our data show that cognitive shortcuts or heuristics - often provided by mass media - are currently a key factor in influencing how the public thinks about nanotechnology and about its risks and benefits, and in determining the level of support among the public for further funding for research in this area.

  2. The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    2005-01-01

    We report findings from a national telephone survey on levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward nanotechnology that demonstrate how people make decisions about emerging technologies. Our findings confirm previous research that suggests that people form opinions and attitudes even in the absence of relevant scientific or policy-related information. In fact, our data show that cognitive shortcuts or heuristics - often provided by mass media - are currently a key factor in influencing how the public thinks about nanotechnology and about its risks and benefits, and in determining the level of support among the public for further funding for research in this area

  3. Why orphan drug coverage reimbursement decision-making needs patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Conor M W; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Burgess, Michael; Lynd, Larry D

    2015-05-01

    Recently there has been an increase in the active involvement of publics and patients in healthcare and research, which is extending their roles beyond the passive recipients of medicines. However, there has been noticeably less work engaging them into decision-making for healthcare rationing exercises, priority setting, health technology assessment, and coverage decision-making. This is particularly evident in reimbursement decision-making for 'orphan drugs' or drugs for rare diseases. Medicinal products for rare disease offer particular challenges in coverage decision-making because they often lack the 'evidence of efficacy' profiles of common drugs that have been trialed on larger populations. Furthermore, many of these drugs are priced in the high range, and with limited health care budgets the prospective opportunity costs of funding them means that those resources cannot be allocated elsewhere. Here we outline why decision-making for drugs for rare diseases could benefit from increased levels of publics and patients involvement, suggest some possible forms that involvement could take, and advocate for empirical experimentation in this area to evaluate the effects of such involvement. Focus is given to the Canadian context in which we are based; however, potentialities and challenges relating to involvement in this area are likely to be similar elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social network and decision-making in primates: a report on Franco-Japanese research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Pelé, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Sociality is suggested to evolve as a strategy for animals to cope with challenges in their environment. Within a population, each individual can be seen as part of a network of social interactions that vary in strength, type and dynamics (Sueur et al. 2011a). The structure of this social network can strongly impact upon not only on the fitness of individuals and their decision-making, but also on the ecology of populations and the evolution of a species. Our Franco-Japanese collaboration allowed us to study social networks in several species (Japanese macaques, chimpanzees, colobines, etc.) and on different topics (social epidemiology, social evolution, information transmission). Individual attributes such as stress, rank or age can affect how individuals take decisions and the structure of the social network. This heterogeneity is linked to the assortativity of individuals and to the efficiency of the flow within a network. It is important, therefore, that this heterogeneity is integrated in the process or pattern under study in order to provide a better resolution of investigation and, ultimately, a better understanding of behavioural strategies, social dynamics and social evolution. How social information affects decision-making could be important to understand how social groups make collective decisions and how information may spread throughout the social group. In human beings, road-crossing behaviours in the presence of other individuals is a good way to study the influence of social information on individual behaviour and decision-making, for instance. Culture directly affects which information - personal vs social - individuals prefer to follow. Our collaboration contributed to the understanding of the relative influence of different factors, cultural and ecological, on primate, including human, sociality.

  5. Prioritising public health: a qualitative study of decision making to reduce health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Flaherty Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public health system in England is currently facing dramatic change. Renewed attention has recently been paid to the best approaches for tackling the health inequalities which remain entrenched within British society and across the globe. In order to consider the opportunities and challenges facing the new public health system in England, we explored the current experiences of those involved in decision making to reduce health inequalities, taking cardiovascular disease (CVD as a case study. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study employing 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were public health policy makers and planners in CVD in the UK, including: Primary Care Trust and Local Authority staff (in various roles; General Practice commissioners; public health academics; consultant cardiologists; national guideline managers; members of guideline development groups, civil servants; and CVD third sector staff. Results The short term target- and outcome-led culture of the NHS and the drive to achieve "more for less", combined with the need to address public demand for acute services often lead to investment in "downstream" public health intervention, rather than the "upstream" approaches that are most effective at reducing inequalities. Despite most public health decision makers wishing to redress this imbalance, they felt constrained due to difficulties in partnership working and the over-riding influence of other stakeholders in decision making processes. The proposed public health reforms in England present an opportunity for public health to move away from the medical paradigm of the NHS. However, they also reveal a reluctance of central government to contribute to shifting social norms. Conclusions It is vital that the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of all new and existing policies and services affecting public health are measured in terms of their impact on the

  6. Prioritising public health: a qualitative study of decision making to reduce health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Lois C; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Taylor-Robinson, David C; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2011-10-20

    The public health system in England is currently facing dramatic change. Renewed attention has recently been paid to the best approaches for tackling the health inequalities which remain entrenched within British society and across the globe. In order to consider the opportunities and challenges facing the new public health system in England, we explored the current experiences of those involved in decision making to reduce health inequalities, taking cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a case study. We conducted an in-depth qualitative study employing 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were public health policy makers and planners in CVD in the UK, including: Primary Care Trust and Local Authority staff (in various roles); General Practice commissioners; public health academics; consultant cardiologists; national guideline managers; members of guideline development groups, civil servants; and CVD third sector staff. The short term target- and outcome-led culture of the NHS and the drive to achieve "more for less", combined with the need to address public demand for acute services often lead to investment in "downstream" public health intervention, rather than the "upstream" approaches that are most effective at reducing inequalities. Despite most public health decision makers wishing to redress this imbalance, they felt constrained due to difficulties in partnership working and the over-riding influence of other stakeholders in decision making processes. The proposed public health reforms in England present an opportunity for public health to move away from the medical paradigm of the NHS. However, they also reveal a reluctance of central government to contribute to shifting social norms. It is vital that the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of all new and existing policies and services affecting public health are measured in terms of their impact on the social determinants of health and health inequalities. Researchers

  7. Constitution and application of reactor make-up system's fault diagnostic Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jie; Cai Qi; Chu Zhuli; Wang Haiping

    2013-01-01

    A fault diagnostic Bayesian network of reactor make-up system was constituted. The system's structure characters, operation rules and experts' experience were combined and an initial net was built. As the fault date sets were learned with the particle swarm optimization based Bayesian network structure, the structure of diagnostic net was completed and used to inference case. The built net can analyze diagnostic probability of every node in the net and afford assistant decision to fault diagnosis. (authors)

  8. Dialogue Police, Decision Making, and the Management of Public Order During Protest Crowd Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis......Following the major riots within England in August 2011, the efficacy of public order police decision making was brought into a sharp focus. None the less, the reform of this mode of policing within the UK was already underway with a strong emphasis upon policing through consent and the need...... in the north of England. This paper draws out lessons to be learned from what proved to be a highly successful dialogue-based approach to policing protests. We contend that dialogue and liaison were effective because they allowed for an ongoing dynamic risk assessment that improved command-level decision...

  9. Developmental changes of neuronal networks associated with strategic social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Elisabeth; Schmalor, Antonia; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Galka, Andreas; Möhring, Jan; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2014-04-01

    One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of public housing on social networks: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig E; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Burkhauser, Susan; Schwartz, Heather

    2014-09-01

    We assessed whether 2 types of public housing-scattered among market-rate housing developments or clustered in small public housing projects-were associated with the perceived health and health behaviors of residents' social networks. Leveraging a natural experiment in Montgomery County, Maryland, in which residents were randomly assigned to different types of public housing, we surveyed 453 heads of household in 2011. We asked residents about their own health as well as the perceived health of their network members, including their neighbors. Residents in scattered-site public housing perceived that their neighbors were more likely to exercise than residents of clustered public housing (24.7% of network members vs 14.0%; P housing have a modest impact on the health composition of one's social network, suggesting the importance of housing policy for health.

  11. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  13. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  14. LEPA: A Lightweight and Efficient Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From smart watch to remote healthcare system, wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs play an important role in modern healthcare system. However, the weak capacity of devices has limited WBSNs development. Considering the huge processing and storage capacity of the cloud, it can be merged with WBSNs to make up for the deficiencies of weak capacity. Based on this consideration, the concept of cloud-assisted WBSNs has been proposed recently. In contrast to generic data, the data in cloud-assisted WBSNs will be used for providing medical diagnosis, so the integrity of data is very important because any modification will result in severe consequences such as misdiagnosis. The public auditing scheme could provide an efficient solution to check the data integrity remotely without downloading them. However, the traditional public auditing scheme for cloud cannot be used directly due to the high data density and weak processing capacity in WBSNs. So, in this paper, we proposed a lightweight and efficient public auditing scheme, LEPA, for cloud-assisted WBSNs. Compared with similar schemes, the WBSNs’ client only needs to do one symmetrical encryption with low computational cost in LEPA. Security proof shows that LEPA can resist two types of adversaries in random oracle model. The efficiency evaluation also shows that LEPA outperforms previous proposals.

  15. More Than a Pretty Picture: Making WISE Data Accessible to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nancy; Mendez, B.; Fricke, K.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Hurt, R.; WISE Team

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the sky in four bands of infrared light, creating a treasure trove of data. This data is of interest not only to the professional astronomical community, but also to educators, students and the general public. The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program for WISE is creating opportunities to make WISE data accessible to these audiences through the Internet as well as through teacher professional development programs. Shortly after WISE took its first light image in January 2010, images have been featured weekly on the WISE website. These images serve to engage the general public through "pretty pictures” that are accompanied by educational captions. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are used to further engage the public with the images. For a more comprehensive view of WISE images, we are creating a guided tour of the infrared sky on the WorldWide Telescope. The public will be able to use the free WorldWide Telescope software to interact with WISE images and listen to narration that describes features of the Universe as seen in infrared light. We are also developing resources for teachers and students to access WISE data when in becomes public in 2011 to learn about astronomical imaging and to conduct authentic scientific investigations.

  16. Node-making process in network meta-analysis of nonpharmacological treatment are poorly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2018-05-01

    To identify methods to support the node-making process in network meta-analyses (NMAs) of nonpharmacological treatments. We proceeded in two stages. First, we conducted a literature review of guidelines and methodological articles about NMAs to identify methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. Second, we conducted a systematic review of NMAs of nonpharmacological treatments to extract methods used by authors to support their node-making process. MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched to identify articles assessing NMA guidelines or methodology intended for NMA authors. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched to identify reports of NMAs including at least one nonpharmacological treatment. Both searches involved articles available from database inception to March 2016. From the methodological review, we identified and extracted methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. From the systematic review, the reporting of the network was assessed as long as the method described supported the node-making process. Among the 116 articles retrieved in the literature review, 12 (10%) discussed the concept of lumping or splitting interventions in NMAs. No consensual method was identified during the methodological review, and expert consensus was the only method proposed to support the node-making process. Among 5187 references for the systematic review, we included 110 reports of NMAs published between 2007 and 2016. The nodes were described in the introduction section of 88 reports (80%), which suggested that the node content might have been a priori decided before the systematic review. Nine reports (8.1%) described a specific process or justification to build nodes for the network. Two methods were identified: (1) fit a previously published classification and (2) expert consensus. Despite the importance of NMA in the delivery of evidence when several interventions are available for a single indication, recommendations on the reporting of the node-making

  17. An Exploratory Analysis of Network Characteristics and Quality of Interactions among Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varda, Danielle M; Retrum, Jessica H

    2012-06-15

    While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net) database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships), in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement. the authors would like to thank the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Public Health Program for funding for this research.

  18. Public management and network specificity: Effects of colleges’ ties with professional organizations on graduates’ labour market success and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    Research on managerial networking in the public sector reports positive effects of network activity on performance. However, little is known about which network relations influence different aspects of performance. We argue that for specific organizational goals, organizations should direct their

  19. The role of public communication in decision making for waste management infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Richard; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2017-12-01

    Modern waste management provision seeks to meet challenging objectives and strategies while reflecting community aspirations and ensuring cost-effective compliance with statutory obligations. Its social acceptability, which affects both what systems (infrastructure) can be put in place and to what extent their implementation will be successful, is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, often not well understood. In light of the growing evidence that decisions to build new infrastructure are often contested by the public, there is a clear need to understand the role of scientific evidence in public perception, particularly as environmental infrastructure delivery is often objected to by the public on environmental grounds. In this paper the need for waste management infrastructure is reviewed, and the way its delivery in the UK has evolved is used as an example of the role of public perception in the planning and delivery of waste facilities. Findings demonstrate the vital role of public communication in waste management infrastructure delivery. Public perception must be taken into account early in the decision making process, with the public informed and engaged from the start. There is a pressing need for people not simply to accept but to understand and appreciate the need for infrastructure, the nature of infrastructure investments and development, the costs and the benefits involved, and the technological aspects. Scientific evidence and literacy have a critical role to play, facilitating public engagement in a process that empowers people, allowing them to define and handle challenges and influence decisions that will impact their lives. Problem ownership, and an increased probability of any solutions proposed being selected and implemented successfully are potential benefits of such approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Constructing a clinical decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy using a Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrave, C; Deegan, T; Gibbs, A; Poulsen, M; Moores, M; Harden, F; Mengersen, K

    2014-01-01

    A decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is being developed using a Bayesian Network (BN) to graphically describe, and probabilistically quantify, the many interacting factors that are involved in this complex clinical process. Outputs of the BN will provide decision-support for radiation therapists to assist them to make correct inferences relating to the likelihood of treatment delivery accuracy for a given image-guided set-up correction. The framework is being developed as a dynamic object-oriented BN, allowing for complex modelling with specific subregions, as well as representation of the sequential decision-making and belief updating associated with IGRT. A prototype graphic structure for the BN was developed by analysing IGRT practices at a local radiotherapy department and incorporating results obtained from a literature review. Clinical stakeholders reviewed the BN to validate its structure. The BN consists of a sub-network for evaluating the accuracy of IGRT practices and technology. The directed acyclic graph (DAG) contains nodes and directional arcs representing the causal relationship between the many interacting factors such as tumour site and its associated critical organs, technology and technique, and inter-user variability. The BN was extended to support on-line and off-line decision-making with respect to treatment plan compliance. Following conceptualisation of the framework, the BN will be quantified. It is anticipated that the finalised decision-making framework will provide a foundation to develop better decision-support strategies and automated correction algorithms for IGRT.

  1. Constructing a clinical decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, C.; Moores, M.; Deegan, T.; Gibbs, A.; Poulsen, M.; Harden, F.; Mengersen, K.

    2014-03-01

    A decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is being developed using a Bayesian Network (BN) to graphically describe, and probabilistically quantify, the many interacting factors that are involved in this complex clinical process. Outputs of the BN will provide decision-support for radiation therapists to assist them to make correct inferences relating to the likelihood of treatment delivery accuracy for a given image-guided set-up correction. The framework is being developed as a dynamic object-oriented BN, allowing for complex modelling with specific subregions, as well as representation of the sequential decision-making and belief updating associated with IGRT. A prototype graphic structure for the BN was developed by analysing IGRT practices at a local radiotherapy department and incorporating results obtained from a literature review. Clinical stakeholders reviewed the BN to validate its structure. The BN consists of a sub-network for evaluating the accuracy of IGRT practices and technology. The directed acyclic graph (DAG) contains nodes and directional arcs representing the causal relationship between the many interacting factors such as tumour site and its associated critical organs, technology and technique, and inter-user variability. The BN was extended to support on-line and off-line decision-making with respect to treatment plan compliance. Following conceptualisation of the framework, the BN will be quantified. It is anticipated that the finalised decision-making framework will provide a foundation to develop better decision-support strategies and automated correction algorithms for IGRT.

  2. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of ''noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of ''Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants

  3. Development of Human-level Decision Making Algorithm for NPPs through Deep Neural Networks : Conceptual Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Development of operation support systems and automation systems are closely related to machine learning field. However, since it is hard to achieve human-level delicacy and flexibility for complex tasks with conventional machine learning technologies, only operation support systems with simple purposes were developed and high-level automation related studies were not actively conducted. As one of the efforts for reducing human error in NPPs and technical advance toward automation, the ultimate goal of this research is to develop human-level decision making algorithm for NPPs during emergency situations. The concepts of SL, RL, policy network, value network, and MCTS, which were applied to decision making algorithm for other fields are introduced and combined with nuclear field specifications. Since the research is currently at the conceptual stage, more research is warranted.

  4. Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eSiegel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how decision-making emerges from the dynamic interactions among these regions. Here, we review a series of studies, in which we characterized the cortical network interactions underlying a perceptual decision process in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure the large-scale cortical population dynamics underlying each of the sub-processes involved in this decision: the encoding of sensory evidence and action plan, the mapping between the two, and the attentional selection of task-relevant evidence. We found that these sub-processes are mediated by neuronal oscillations within specific frequency ranges. Localized gamma-band oscillations in sensory and motor cortices reflect the encoding of the sensory evidence and motor plan. Large-scale oscillations across widespread cortical networks mediate the integrative processes connecting these local networks: Gamma- and beta-band oscillations across frontal, parietal and sensory cortices serve the selection of relevant sensory evidence and its flexible mapping onto action plans. In sum, our results suggest that perceptual decisions are mediated by oscillatory interactions within overlapping local and large-scale cortical networks.

  5. Public Agility and Change in a Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Engers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.

  6. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  7. E-networks for improving public health education and practice in low and middle income countries: Introducing public health global network

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Raj Mathur; Priyanka Chaman; Vijayluxmi Bose

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a knowledge exchange portal called the Public Health Global network (www.publichealthglobal.org). Evolution of the portal as a medium for promoting dialogue and exchange within the community of public health practice and its functions ─ showcasing successes, discussing challenges and focussing on debates around research, curricula, training needs and capacity-building interventions are described. Several challenges to setting up and running such a portal are highlighted ...

  8. An Appraisal of Social Network Theory and Analysis as Applied to Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Pitts, Stephanie R

    2017-03-20

    The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics. Next steps for the field are outlined and the need for funding is emphasized. Recently developed network analysis techniques, technological innovations in communication, and changes in theoretical perspectives to include a focus on social and environmental behavioral influences have created opportunities for new theory and ever broader application of social networks to public health topics.

  9. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim; Saeed, Nasir; Haq, Mian Imtiaz Ul; Cho, Sunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic

  10. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Health implications of social networks for children living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Schwartz, Heather L; Griffin, Beth Ann; Burkhauser, Susan; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to examine whether: (1) the health composition of the social networks of children living in subsidized housing within market rate developments (among higher-income neighbors) differs from the social network composition of children living in public housing developments (among lower-income neighbors); and (2) children's social network composition is associated with children's own health. We found no significant differences in the health characteristics of the social networks of children living in these different types of public housing. However, social network composition was significantly associated with several aspects of children's own health, suggesting the potential importance of social networks for the health of vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public participation in the decision making process in the nuclear field in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.

    1993-01-01

    In Italy, the decision making process to localize, construct and operate electronuclear power stations have been restructured and such a process today must follow the rules enacted by three laws: the Act of 2 August 1975 about the procedures for choosing the site; the Act of 8 July 1986 about the rules for the environmental impact evaluation, the so-called VIA which in italian means GO; the Act of 10 August 1988 which states that the construction of nuclear waste processing plants and nuclear waste storage plants must pass the Environment Impact Evaluation. In Italy there are three levels of Local government,'Regioni', 'Provincie' and 'Comuni', that are free to compete among themselves and with the Central government, so that it is very sticky to implement any decision. The Public Inquiry is a strongly innovative instrument. The Environmental Impact Evaluation procedure guarantees the transparency of the decision making process and supplies a real communication channel between the public opinion and the authorities. In the Public Inquiry any association, organization, union or group of people have the right to verify any part of the project under the Environmental Impact Evaluation and to express their consideration and observation on the subject

  13. Performance indicators and decision making for outsourcing public health laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Moraes, Ricardo Montes de; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2012-06-01

    To develop performance indicators for outsourcing clinical laboratory services, based on information systems and public administrative records. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, the public health laboratory network comprised 33 laboratories with automated equipment (but no integrated information system), 90 primary care units (where sample collection was performed) and 983 employees. Information records were obtained from the administrative records of the Budget Information System for Public Health and the Outpatient and Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System. Performance indicators (production, productivity, usage and costs) were generated from data collected routinely from 2006 to 2008. The variations in production, costs and unit prices for tests were analyzed by Laspeyres and Paasche indices, which specifically measure laboratory activity, and by the Consumer Price Index from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. A total of 10,359,111 tests were performed in 2008 (10.6% increase over 2006), and the test/employee ratio grew by 8.6%. The costs of supplies, wages and providers increased by 2.3%, 45.4% and 18.3%, respectively. The laboratory tests per visit and hospitalizations increased by 10% and 20%, respectively. The direct costs totaled R$ 63.2 million in 2008, representing an increase of 22.2% in current values during the period analyzed. The direct costs deflated by the Brazilian National Consumer Price Index (9.5% for the period) showed an 11.6% increase in production volumes. The activity-specific volume index, which considers changes in the mix of tests, showed increases of 18.5% in the test price and 3.1% in the production volume. The performance indicators, particularly the specific indices for volume and price of activity, constitute a baseline of performance potential for monitoring private laboratories and contractors. The economic performance indicators demonstrated the need for network

  14. Decision-making in irrigation networks: Selecting appropriate canal structures using multi-attribute decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzade, Zeinab; Pagsuyoin, Sheree A; Ponnambalam, Kumaraswamy; Monem, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    The stiff competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural production sectors makes it necessary to have effective management of irrigation networks in farms. However, the process of selecting flow control structures in irrigation networks is highly complex and involves different levels of decision makers. In this paper, we apply multi-attribute decision making (MADM) methodology to develop a decision analysis (DA) framework for evaluating, ranking and selecting check and intake structures for irrigation canals. The DA framework consists of identifying relevant attributes for canal structures, developing a robust scoring system for alternatives, identifying a procedure for data quality control, and identifying a MADM model for the decision analysis. An application is illustrated through an analysis for automation purposes of the Qazvin irrigation network, one of the oldest and most complex irrigation networks in Iran. A survey questionnaire designed based on the decision framework was distributed to experts, managers, and operators of the Qazvin network and to experts from the Ministry of Power in Iran. Five check structures and four intake structures were evaluated. A decision matrix was generated from the average scores collected from the survey, and was subsequently solved using TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. To identify the most critical structure attributes for the selection process, optimal attribute weights were calculated using Entropy method. For check structures, results show that the duckbill weir is the preferred structure while the pivot weir is the least preferred. Use of the duckbill weir can potentially address the problem with existing Amil gates where manual intervention is required to regulate water levels during periods of flow extremes. For intake structures, the Neyrpic® gate and constant head orifice are the most and least preferred alternatives, respectively. Some advantages

  15. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. © The

  16. Structure and Discourse: Mapping the Networked Public Sphere in the Arab Region

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Robert M; Kelly, John; Noman, Helmi; Othman, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we employ social network mapping techniques to analyze the shape and structure of the networked public sphere in the Arab region. The analysis is based on four distinct views of digitally connected communities: a regional map of the blogosphere and maps of Twitter networks in three countries: Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain. This media ecology mapping across these different platforms and regions offers a detailed view of social, cultural, religious, and political expression through...

  17. An exploratory analysis of network characteristics and quality of interactions among public health collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Varda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships, in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement.

  18. Public Knowledge, Private Minds: Meaning Making on the Pathways of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pryce R.

    Every day people are inundated with news reports about the latest scientific research. The ways in which these texts enlighten or misinform the general public is a central question in both the research literature and discussions in popular culture. However, both research and popular discussion often take on deficit views of these texts, and the capabilities of readers to critically engage with them, and treat them as static, one-way conduits that transfer information to a passive audience. In contrast, I advocate treating popular science texts as the result of a chain of consumption and production that are actively shaped by the varied perspectives of scientists, communicators, and members of the general public. My work envisions all of these actors as science learners who simultaneously act as both producers and consumers of science, and who interact with one another through in-the-moment meaning making. This dissertation examines how the meaning of scientific research is filtered and transformed in moments of interaction and knowledge construction as it moves along this pathway of science communication from scientists to the general public. I present the results of a study that attempts to follow pieces of recent scientific research as they work their way from scientists to publication as popular science news stories, and ultimately to the public. To that end, I collected data from three types of actors involved in the paths of science communication, as well as the texts they read and generate. These actors include (1) the scientists who performed the research, (2) the reporters tasked with writing about it for popular dissemination, and (3) members of the public who must read and interpret the research. The texts I analyze include: peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, university-produced news briefs, popular press science stories, and various text-based conversations between scientists and reporters. Through an analysis of texts, individual interviews, and

  19. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  20. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  1. What Does It Mean to Have an N of 1? Art Making, Education, Research, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  2. Playing a role – but which one ? : how public service motivation and professionalism affect decision-making in dilemma situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who work in the public sector see themselves confronted with conflicting values, contradictory demands, and the need to serve an at times difficult to define ‘public interest’. This book contributes to our understanding of what drives public service professionals’ decision-making in

  3. Making a human right to tobacco control: expert and advocacy networks, framing and the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the proliferation of human rights in international public health over the last 20 years by examining recent attempts at framing the global smoking epidemic as a human rights problem. Rather than advocating in favour or against human rights-based approaches, the article purports to understand how and why such approaches are being articulated and disseminated. First, it argues that the representation of the global smoking epidemic as a human rights issue has been the product of a small, international network of public health experts and lawyers: the human rights and tobacco control collective or community (HTC). The article describes in particular the HTC's membership, its style of thinking and its efforts to articulate and disseminate human rights-based approaches to tobacco control. Second, the article argues that the aim of the HTC when framing tobacco control as a human rights issue was not to generate public attention for and the political will to tackle the global smoking epidemic, as the literature on framing and human rights presupposes. Instead, as the article shows, the HTC framed tobacco control as a human rights problem to tap into the powerful, judicial monitoring and enforceability mechanisms that make up international human rights.

  4. Involving the public in decision-making at federal facilities: The Department of Energy experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesalman, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy is involved in cleanup of a wide variety of sites used in the development and production of nuclear weapons. Substantial and increasing efforts have been made to involve the public in the planning and implementation of the cleanup projects. Early in the program, public participation was mainly an information transfer effort. More recently, innovative techniques have been used to increase public understanding of the tradeoffs required in making cleanup decisions (e.g., more stringent cleanup standards lead to higher costs). Sites now realize that relationships are key and are working to develop them. Advisory boards have been established at several sites. The methods of forming the boards have varied from site to site, as have the size of the group and the issues addressed. The effectiveness of the boards in their goal of improving public participation at the sites will be evaluated in the next fiscal year. DOE has sought public input on an increasing number of issues, such as future use of its facilities, environmental justice concerns, and budget development. Assumptions about future use of sites are crucial to setting realistic cleanup standards and controlling costs. Decisions made in the early phases of the budget process are now based in part on stakeholder input regarding priorities; for example, stakeholder concerns about and support for emphasizing plutonium cleanup at Rocky Flats have led to changes in priorities between the materials stabilization and environmental restoration programs. Environmental justice has become an increasing issue; sites must ensure that public participation programs effectively reach minority and low-income populations

  5. Energy Democracies and Publics in the Making: A Relational Agenda for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Chilvers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream approaches to energy democracy and public engagement with energy transitions tend to adopt specific, pre-given meanings of both “democracy” and “publics.” Different approaches impose prescriptive assumptions about the model of participation, the identity of public participants, and what it means to participate well. The rigidity of many existing approaches to energy participation is increasingly being challenged by the ever-multiplying diversity of ways in which citizens participate in energy systems, as consumers in energy markets, protesters against new infrastructures and technologies, as initiators of community energy projects, and as subjects of behavior change interventions, amongst others. This paper is concerned with growing areas of scholarship which seek to understand and explore these emerging energy publics and forms of energy democracy from a relational perspective. Such work, grounded in constructivist and relational ontologies, views forms of participatory democracy and publics as being co-produced, constructed, and emergent through the performance of collective practices. It pays closer attention to power relations, politics, materiality, exclusions, and effects in both understanding and intervening in the making of energy democracy. This in turn shifts the focus from studying discrete unitary forms of “energy democracy” to one of understanding interrelations between multiple diverse energy democracies in wider systems. In this paper, we chart these developments and explore the significant challenges and potential contributions of relational approaches to furthering the theories, methods, and practices of energy democracy and energy public engagement. The paper draws on an expert workshop, and an accompanying review, which brought together leading proponents of contending relational approaches to energy participation in direct conversation for the first time. We use this as a basis to explore tensions

  6. Understanding the tariff. Access to the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since the European directive of December 19, 1996 about the common rules of the European power market, the eligible companies can chose their power supplier anywhere in Europe. The manager of the French power transportation network (RTE) supplies a network access to these companies according to a tariff fixed by the decree no. 2002-1014 from July 19, 2002. The aim of this document is to explain this tariff: tariffing principles ('mail-stamp' principle, voltage domain, subscribed output power tariffs, input power tariffs), tariffing elements (access to the grid, elements of output tariffs (subscribed power, overload, emergency tariffs, modifications etc..)), invoicing modalities, output tariffs, definitions. (J.S.)

  7. Public management and policy networks: foundations of a network approach to governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this article we address the elaboratlon of the central concepts of a theory of networks and of network management. We suggest that the network approach builds on several theoretical traditions After this we clarify the theoretical concepts and axioms of the policy

  8. Making the Case: Workforce, Education, Public Outreach and Communications as Mission-Critical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Gordon K.; Brewer, Janesse; Dawson, Sandra; Program Organizing Committee "Making the Case" workshop 2017

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, next-generation science projects will never see first light, or will lose their “right to operate” if they are unable to be responsive to emerging societal values and interests. Science projects with a robust and professional Workforce, Education, Public Outreach and Communications (WEPOC) architecture are able to engage and welcome public discourse about science, trade-offs, and what it means to be a good neighbor in a community. In this talk I will update the latest WEPOC efforts for TMT & NASA projects at Caltech/IPAC, and highlight how WEPOC has entered the critical path for many large, international science projects. I will also present a draft working document being developed by many of the world's largest astronomy and high-energy physics WEPOC leaders as an outcome from a "Making the Case" conference held at Caltech in spring 2017.

  9. Youth, Privacy and Online Media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Jørgensen, Rikke Frank

    2015-01-01

    debate. It presents the results of a qualitative study amongst 68 Danish high school students concerning how they perceive, negotiate and control their private sphere when using social media and builds a case for utilizing the results of studies as this to inform the ongoing policy discourses concerning...... policy making that the right to privacy is challenged in new ways in a structurally transformed online public sphere, the way in which it has been framed does not seem to acknowledge this transformation. This paper therefore argues for a reformulation of “online privacy” in the current global policy......The right to privacy is a fundamental human right defined in international and regional human rights instruments. As such it has been included as a core component of key legislature and policy proceedings throughout the brief history of the World Wide Web. While it is generally recognized in public...

  10. Mural art as a media on making urban kampung's public space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Dalhar; Widyarko, Widyarko; Nadia Ilmiani, Ajeng

    2017-12-01

    The lack of public space is one of the main problems in the big cities in Indonesia. Urban kampungas part of the city is also no exception. Rapid growth on population sparks uncontrollable physical development that erode open space inside urbankampung. Sometimes, what is left is just neglected space which don‟t „live‟ and far from the definition of public space. Mural art has been existed since the beginning of human civilization. Now, it has evolved into one of the popular urban art. The previous research has proven that the process of urban art making through participatory approach could trigger community interaction in a space. Interaction itself is a main factor that may trigger the establishmentof a public space. With the same method, this research attempts to build mural in a neglected space inside urbankampung named Palsigunung. After all of the process done, the space still haven‟t changed from the previous condition, which is still a neglected space. Together with facilitator, kampung‟s residents need to be involved identifying the problem and also the solution to the lack of public space in their kampung. Particularly for urban kampungPalsigunung, the needed solution might not be mural.

  11. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers’ preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger’s choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost. PMID:29746528

  12. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiying; Guan, Wei; Ma, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers' preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger's choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost.

  13. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Public Management and Educational Performance: The impact of Managerial Networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Policies are implemented in complex networks of organizations and target populations. Effective action often requires managers to deal with an array of actors to procure resources, build support, coproduce results, and overcome obstacles to implementation. Few large-n studies have examined the

  15. Provision of Ubiquitous Tourist Information in Public Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carmelo R.; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines an information system for tourists using collective public transport based on mobile devices with limited computation and wireless connection capacities. In this system, the mobile device collaborates with the vehicle infrastructure in order to provide the user with multimedia (visual and audio) information about his/her trip. The information delivered, adapted to the user preferences, is synchronized with the passage of vehicles through points of interest along the route, for example: bus stops, tourist sights, public service centres, etc.

  16. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-01-30

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  17. Strategies for Orchestrating and Managing Supply Chains in Public Service Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veenstra, A.F.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, B.

    2009-01-01

    Joining-up is high on the e-government agenda as this is expected to improve service delivery to citizens and businesses. It requires public and private organizations to cooperate with each other within networks that are formed around public services that cross the boundaries of organizations.

  18. Awareness of evidence-based practices by organizations in a publicly funded smoking cessation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provan, K.; Beagles, J.; Mercken, L.; Leischow, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence-based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the United States, working to get people to quit

  19. In the patient's best interest: appraising social network site information for surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shahla; Chuan, Voo Teck

    2018-06-28

    This paper will discuss why and how social network sites ought to be used in surrogate decision making (SDM), with focus on a context like Singapore in which substituted judgment is incorporated as part of best interest assessment for SDM, as guided by the Code of Practice for making decisions for those lacking mental capacity under the Mental Capacity Act (2008). Specifically, the paper will argue that the Code of Practice already supports an ethical obligation, as part of a patient-centred care approach, to look for and appraise social network site (SNS) as a source of information for best interest decision making. As an important preliminary, the paper will draw on Berg's arguments to support the use of SNS information as a resource for SDM. It will also supplement her account for how SNS information ought to be weighed against or considered alongside other evidence of patient preference or wishes, such as advance directives and anecdotal accounts by relatives. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  20. Who influences white working-class boys’ higher education decision-making process? the role of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The study illuminates the influence of social networks on the HE decision-making process of white working-class boys. The impact of gender, race and social class social characteristics on white working-class boys HE decision-making is assessed. In addition, how white working-class boys define and discuss the membership of their social network, together with the phenomenon of social network influence on white working-class boys’ decision-making about HE at Key Stage 4.The expansive literature ...

  1. [Geography of science makes a difference: an appeal for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a perspective for analyzing the relationship between geographic space and scientific practice and the possible contribution by the geography of science to understanding and developing strategies in favor of public health. Contributions by the field of social studies of science, specifically from the Actor-Network Theory and its concept of translation, and the geography of Milton Santos, form the theoretical framework that allows exploring the spatial dimensions of the production and circulation of scientific knowledge. The article discusses how this approach both enriches and challenges the recent international policies in favor of knowledge translation. The article identifies a possible contribution by the field of Information Science to favor the movement of knowledge, aiming to help minimize the imbalance between what is known in theory and what is applied in practice in health, or the so-called 'know-do gap'.

  2. Transforming public health education in India through networking and collaborations: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2013-01-01

    A competent and motivated health workforce is indispensable to achieve the best health outcomes possible through given available resources and circumstances. However, apart from the shortages and unequal distribution, the workforce has fallen short of responding to the public health challenges of 21 st century also because of primarily the traditional training of health professionals. Although, health professionals have made enormous contributions to health and development over the past century, the 20 th century educational strategies are unfit to tackle 21 st century challenges. One of the key recommendations of the Lancet Commission on Education of Health Professionals is to improve health through reforms of professional education by establishing networks and partnerships which takes advantage of information and communication linkages. The primary goal of this manuscript is to highlight the potential of networks and partnerships in advancing the agenda of educational reforms to revitalize public health education in India. It outlines the current status and expanding scope of public health education in India, existing networks of public health professionals and public health education institutions in the country, and opportunities, advantages and challenges for such networks. Although, we have networks of individuals and institutions in the country, there potential to bring about change has still not being utilized fully and effectively. Immediate collaborative efforts could be directed towards designing and adaptation of competency driven curriculum frameworks suitable of addressing public health challenges of 21 st century, shifting the current focus of curriculum to multidisciplinary public health outlook, developing accreditation mechanisms for both the programs and institutions, engaging in creating job opportunities and designing career pathways for public health professionals in public and private sector. These efforts could certainly be facilitated

  3. Ethical Frameworks in Public Health Decision-Making: Defending a Value-Based and Pluralist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle; Dawson, Angus

    2017-12-01

    A number of ethical frameworks have been proposed to support decision-making in public health and the evaluation of public health policy and practice. This is encouraging, since ethical considerations are of paramount importance in health policy. However, these frameworks have various deficiencies, in part because they incorporate substantial ethical positions. In this article, we discuss and criticise a framework developed by James Childress and Ruth Bernheim, which we consider to be the state of the art in the field. Their framework distinguishes aims, such as the promotion of public health, from constraints on the pursuit of those aims, such as the requirement to avoid limitations to liberty, or the requirement to be impartial. We show how this structure creates both theoretical and practical problems. We then go on to present and defend a more practical framework, one that is neutral in avoiding precommitment to particular values and how they ought to be weighted. We believe ethics is at the very heart of such weightings and our framework is developed to reflect this belief. It is therefore both pluralist and value-based. We compare our new framework to Childress and Bernheim's and outline its advantages. It is justified by its impetus to consider a wide range of alternatives and its tendency to direct decisions towards the best alternatives, as well as by the information provided by the ranking of alternatives and transparent explication of the judgements that motivate this ranking. The new framework presented should be useful to decision-makers in public health, as well as being a means to stimulate further reflection on the role of ethics in public health.

  4. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  5. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  6. Model and Empirical Study on Several Urban Public Transport Networks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yimin; Ding, Zhuo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the empirical investigation results on the urban public transport networks (PTNs) and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We investigate some urban public traffic networks in China, which are the urban public traffic networks of Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan and etc. The empirical results on the big cities show that the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs take neither power function forms, nor exponential function forms, but they are described by a shifted power function, and the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs in medium-sized or small cities follow the same law. In the end, we propose a model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such network. The analytic results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  7. Playing a role – but which one ?: how public service motivation and professionalism affect decision-making in dilemma situations

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who work in the public sector see themselves confronted with conflicting values, contradictory demands, and the need to serve an at times difficult to define ‘public interest’. This book contributes to our understanding of what drives public service professionals’ decision-making in real-life dilemma situations by looking into the combined effect of public service motivation (PSM) and professionalism. Because there are persistent knowledge gaps about the meaning and behavioural co...

  8. A non-linear decision making process for public involvement in environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.R.; Kastenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The international industrial and governmental institutions involved in radioactive waste management and environmental remediation are now entering a new era in which they must significantly expand public involvement. Thus the decision making processes formerly utilized to direct and guide these institutions must now be shifted to take into consideration the needs of many more stakeholders than ever before. To meet this challenge, they now have the job of developing and creating a new set of accurate, sufficient and continuous self-regulating and self-correcting information pathways between themselves and the many divergent stakeholder groups in order to establish sustainable, trusting and respectful relationships. In this paper the authors introduce a new set of non-linear, practical and effective strategies for interaction. These self-regulating strategies provide timely feedback to a system, establishing trust and creating a viable vehicle for staying open and responsive to the needs out of which change and balanced adaptation can continually emerge for all stakeholders. The authors present a decision making process for public involvement which is congruent with the non-linear ideas of holographic and fractal relationships -- the mutual influence between related parts of the whole and the self-symmetry of systems at every level of complexity

  9. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  10. Making better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Thorne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous networks and initiatives concerned with the non-satellite-observing segment of Earth observation. These are owned and operated by various entities and organisations often with different practices, norms, data policies, etc. The Horizon 2020 project GAIA–CLIM is working to improve our collective ability to use an appropriate subset of these observations to rigorously characterise satellite observations. The first fundamental question is which observations from the mosaic of non-satellite observational capabilities are appropriate for such an application. This requires an assessment of the relevant, quantifiable aspects of the measurement series which are available. While fundamentally poor or incorrect measurements can be relatively easily identified, it is metrologically impossible to be sure that a measurement series is correct. Certain assessable aspects of the measurement series can, however, build confidence in their scientific maturity and appropriateness for given applications. These are aspects such as that it is well documented, well understood, representative, updated, publicly available and maintains rich metadata. Entities such as the Global Climate Observing System have suggested a hierarchy of networks whereby different subsets of the observational capabilities are assigned to different layers based on such assessable aspects. Herein, we make a first attempt to formalise both such a system-of-systems networks concept and a means by which to, as objectively as possible, assess where in this framework different networks may reside. In this study, we concentrate on networks measuring primarily a subset of the atmospheric Essential Climate Variables of interest to GAIA–CLIM activities. We show assessment results from our application of the guidance and how we plan to use this in downstream example applications of the GAIA–CLIM project. However, the approach laid out should be more widely applicable across

  11. Provision of Ubiquitous Tourist Information in Public Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Padrón

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an information system for tourists using collective public transport based on mobile devices with limited computation and wireless connection capacities. In this system, the mobile device collaborates with the vehicle infrastructure in order to provide the user with multimedia (visual and audio information about his/her trip. The information delivered, adapted to the user preferences, is synchronized with the passage of vehicles through points of interest along the route, for example: bus stops, tourist sights, public service centres, etc.

  12. ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS AND BALANCED SCORECARD APPLIED TO THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Reis dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of public health systems is an issue of great concern. After all, to assure people's quality of life, public health systems need different kinds of resources. Balanced Scorecard provides a multi-dimensional evaluation framework. This paper presents the application of the Analytic Network Process and Balanced Scorecard in the performance evaluation of a public health system in a typical medium-sized Southeastern town in Brazil.

  13. Geoscience Education and Public Outreach AND CRITERION 2: MAKING A BROADER IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlino, M.; Scotchmoor, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    The geosciences influence our daily lives and yet often go unnoticed by the general public. From the moment we listen to the weather report and fill-up our cars for the daily commute, until we return to our homes constructed from natural resources, we rely on years of scientific research. The challenge facing the geosciences is to make explicit to the public not only the criticality of the research whose benefits they enjoy, but also to actively engage them as partners in the research effort, by providing them with sufficient understanding of the scientific enterprise so that they become thoughtful and proactive when making decisions in the polling booth. Today, there is broad recognition within the science and policy community that communication needs to be more effective, more visible, and that the public communication of the scientific enterprise is critical not only to its taxpayer support, but also to maintenance of a skilled workforce and the standard of living expected by many Americans. In 1997, the National Science Board took the first critical step in creating a cultural change in the scientific community by requiring explicit consideration of the broader impacts of research in every research proposal. The so-called Criterion 2 has catalyzed a dramatic shift in expectations within the geoscience community and an incentive for finding ways to encourage the science research community to select education and public outreach as a venue for responding to Criterion 2. In response, a workshop organized by the University of California Museum of Paleontology and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) was held on the Berkeley campus May 11-13, 2005. The Geoscience EPO Workshop purposefully narrowed its focus to that of education and public outreach. This workshop was based on the premise that there are proven models and best practices for effective outreach strategies that need to be identified and shared with research scientists. Workshop

  14. Making the case: leveraging resources toward public health system improvement in Turning Point states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Riley, Catharine M; Padgett, Stephen M; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2007-01-01

    Leveraging funds to sustain the efforts of a grant-funded initiative is often an explicit, or implicit, expectation in philanthropy. However, the magnitude of funds leveraged and the factors that facilitate success in leveraging are rarely researched. An example of one of these grant-funded initiatives is the National Turning Point Initiative. Twenty-one states received funding from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of this initiative to establish and implement strategic goals for achieving significant statewide public health system improvement through diverse, cross-sector partnerships. Leaders from 17 of these 21 states participated in a two-phased study regarding the leveraging of additional funds for their public health infrastructure improvement activities. This article reports on the second phase of the study. In this phase, key informant interviews were conducted to examine how leveraging of resources occurred as part of this large national initiative. Findings indicate that the combination of a comprehensive planning process and a broad-based partnership was crucial in securing resources to expand their efforts. The ability to strategically respond to unexpected events and opportunities also helped states use their plans and partnerships to "make the case" for additional resources to improve their public health infrastructure.

  15. The Making of a Sustainable Wireless City? Mapping Public Wi-Fi Access in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global information economy, ready access to the Internet is critical to a city’s competitiveness, which has prompted a number of cities to launch plans to establish wireless networks. Most literature on the development of wireless cities focuses on cities in Western countries, and few have discussed how Chinese cities have adopted wireless technologies in their urban infrastructure development efforts. This paper examines recent development and spatial distribution of public Wi-Fi access in Shanghai, a leading business hub in China. We mapped Wi-Fi hotspots through the government sponsored “i-Shanghai” project and China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC. We find that while telecommunication providers have been proactively deploying WLAN (wireless local area network,a proxy of public Wi-Fi or wireless access hotspots in Shanghai, neither government sponsored WLAN hotspots nor facilities established by CMCC could cover the old traditional neighborhoods in the central city and sub-districts in remote rural areas. We also address the development of a more sustainable wireless city in Shanghai with a particular focus on digital divide and social equity issues.

  16. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland). Research and Environmental Surveillance; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland). System Analysis Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process.

  17. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process

  18. Surveillance in Public Transport Systems using Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    KALOGERAS Athanasios; ANDRITSOS Fivos; CHATZIGIANNAKIS Ioannis; KONSTANTINOPOULOS Panagiotis A.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt availability of critical information to the right people is the main factor for the management of any emergency situation. However, despite the numerous investments in the domain of public safety and security, recent events demonstrate that, both in Europe and US, this is still an open issue.

  19. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Koutsopoulos, H.; Wilson, N.H.M.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative shuttle

  20. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  1. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of t....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.......The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...

  2. Enhancing Public Participation to Improve Natural Resources Science and its Use in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Shapiro, C. D.; Liu, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The need for broader understanding and involvement in science coupled with social technology advances enabling crowdsourcing and citizen science have created greater opportunities for public participation in the gathering, interpretation, and use of geospatial information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing guidance for USGS scientists, partners, and interested members of the public on when and how public participation can most effectively be used in the conduct of scientific activities. Public participation can provide important perspectives and knowledge that cannot be obtained through traditional scientific methods alone. Citizen engagement can also provide increased efficiencies to USGS science and additional benefits to society including enhanced understanding, appreciation, and interest in geospatial information and its use in decision making.The USGS guidance addresses several fundamental issues by:1. Developing an operational definition of citizen or participatory science.2. Identifying the circumstances under which citizen science is appropriate for use and when its use is not recommended. 3. Describing structured processes for effective use of citizen science. 4. Defining the successful application of citizen science and identifying useful success metrics.The guidance is coordinated by the USGS Science and Decisions Center and developed by a multidisciplinary team of USGS scientists and managers. External perspectives will also be incorporated, as appropriate to align with other efforts such as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing Toolkit for the Federal government. The guidance will include the development of an economic framework to assess the benefits and costs of geospatial information developed through participatory processes. This economic framework considers tradeoffs between obtaining additional perspectives through enhanced participation with costs associated from obtaining

  3. Transfer of Patients in a Telestroke Network: What Are the Relevant Factors for Making This Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Funck, Laura; Klingner, Caroline C; Berrouschot, Jörg; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

    2018-02-01

    Background/Introduction: Current telestroke network consultations are focused on decision-making in the hyperacute stage of stroke management. The two main questions in telestroke consultations are whether thrombolysis should be initiated and whether the patient should be transferred to a hub hospital. Although guidelines exist for initiating intravenous thrombolytic therapy, the question of whether patients should be transferred is far more elusive. In this study, we investigated the factors involved in the decision to transfer stroke patients to a hub hospital. We were particularly interested in identifying factors that promote or impede the transfer of patients. We enrolled 1,615 cases of telestroke consultation of the University Hospital Jena. The two main factors that independently influenced the probability of transferring a patient were the patient's age and the identification of a proximal vessel occlusion. Interestingly, factors such as the severity of symptoms and the time elapsed from symptom onset were not found to have an independent influence on the decision to transfer a patient. The transfer of most patients was justified by the possibility of performing interventional reperfusion therapy. We discuss the effectiveness of the current decision-making process and possible ways to improve decision-making for a more effective selection of patients who would benefit from transfer. The decision-making process to a transfer patient is not standardized and constitutes a trade-off between the intention to treat all possible patients while avoiding the transfer of patients without treatment options.

  4. Cooperation among cancer cells as public goods games on Voronoi networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco

    2016-05-07

    Cancer cells produce growth factors that diffuse and sustain tumour proliferation, a form of cooperation that can be studied using mathematical models of public goods in the framework of evolutionary game theory. Cell populations, however, form heterogeneous networks that cannot be described by regular lattices or scale-free networks, the types of graphs generally used in the study of cooperation. To describe the dynamics of growth factor production in populations of cancer cells, I study public goods games on Voronoi networks, using a range of non-linear benefits that account for the known properties of growth factors, and different types of diffusion gradients. The results are surprisingly similar to those obtained on regular graphs and different from results on scale-free networks, revealing that network heterogeneity per se does not promote cooperation when public goods diffuse beyond one-step neighbours. The exact shape of the diffusion gradient is not crucial, however, whereas the type of non-linear benefit is an essential determinant of the dynamics. Public goods games on Voronoi networks can shed light on intra-tumour heterogeneity, the evolution of resistance to therapies that target growth factors, and new types of cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A decision-making framework to model environmental flow requirements in oasis areas using Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong; Mao, Donglei; Shareef, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    The competition for water resources between agricultural and natural oasis ecosystems has become an increasingly serious problem in oasis areas worldwide. Recently, the intensive extension of oasis farmland has led to excessive exploitation of water discharge, and consequently has resulted in a lack of water supply in natural oasis. To coordinate the conflicts, this paper provides a decision-making framework for modeling environmental flows in oasis areas using Bayesian networks (BNs). Three components are included in the framework: (1) assessment of agricultural economic loss due to meeting environmental flow requirements; (2) decision-making analysis using BNs; and (3) environmental flow decision-making under different water management scenarios. The decision-making criterion is determined based on intersection point analysis between the probability of large-level total agro-economic loss and the ratio of total to maximum agro-economic output by satisfying environmental flows. An application in the Qira oasis area of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China indicates that BNs can model environmental flow decision-making associated with agricultural economic loss effectively, as a powerful tool to coordinate water-use conflicts. In the case study, the environmental flow requirement is determined as 50.24%, 49.71% and 48.73% of the natural river flow in wet, normal and dry years, respectively. Without further agricultural economic loss, 1.93%, 0.66% and 0.43% of more river discharge can be allocated to eco-environmental water demands under the combined strategy in wet, normal and dry years, respectively. This work provides a valuable reference for environmental flow decision-making in any oasis area worldwide.

  6. Improving publication rates in a collaborative clinical trials research network

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Stephanie Wilson; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Truog, William E.; Stevenson, David K.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Das, Abhik; Devaskar, Uday; Nelin, Leif D.; Petrie Huitema, Carolyn M.; Crawford, Margaret M.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    Unpublished results can bias biomedical literature, favoring positive over negative findings, primary over secondary analyses, and can lead to duplicate studies that unnecessarily endanger subjects and waste resources. The Neonatal Research Network’s (NRN) publication policies for approving, reviewing, and tracking abstracts and papers work to combat these problems. In 2003, the NRN restricted investigators with unfinished manuscripts from proposing new ones and in 2010, urged authors to comp...

  7. Improving publication rates in a collaborative clinical trials research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Stephanie Wilson; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Truog, William E.; Stevenson, David K.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Das, Abhik; Devaskar, Uday; Nelin, Leif D.; Petrie Huitema, Carolyn M.; Crawford, Margaret M.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    Unpublished results can bias biomedical literature, favoring positive over negative findings, primary over secondary analyses, and can lead to duplicate studies that unnecessarily endanger subjects and waste resources. The Neonatal Research Network’s (NRN) publication policies for approving, reviewing, and tracking abstracts and papers work to combat these problems. In 2003, the NRN restricted investigators with unfinished manuscripts from proposing new ones and in 2010, urged authors to complete long-outstanding manuscripts. Data from 1991 to 2015 were analyzed to determine effectiveness of these policy changes. The NRN has achieved an overall publication rate of 78% for abstracts. For 1990–2002, of 137 abstracts presented, 43 (31%) were published within 2 years; for 2003–2009, after the manuscript completion policy was instituted, of 140 abstracts presented, 68 (49%) were published within 2 years. Following the effort in 2010, the rate increased to 64%. The NRN surpassed reported rates by developing a comprehensive process, holding investigators accountable and tracking abstracts from presentation to publication. PMID:27423510

  8. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’ in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  9. Prefrontal spatial working memory network predicts animal's decision making in a free choice saccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    While neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode spatial information during the performance of working memory tasks, they are also known to participate in subjective behavior such as spatial attention and action selection. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of primate PFC neurons during the performance of a free choice memory-guided saccade task in which the monkeys needed to choose a saccade direction by themselves. In trials when the receptive field location was subsequently chosen by the animal, PFC neurons with spatially selective visual response started to show greater activation before cue onset. This result suggests that the fluctuation of firing before cue presentation prematurely biased the representation of a certain spatial location and eventually encouraged the subsequent choice of that location. In addition, modulation of the activity by the animal's choice was observed only in neurons with high sustainability of activation and was also dependent on the spatial configuration of the visual cues. These findings were consistent with known characteristics of PFC neurons in information maintenance in spatial working memory function. These results suggest that precue fluctuation of spatial representation was shared and enhanced through the working memory network in the PFC and could finally influence the animal's free choice of saccade direction. The present study revealed that the PFC plays an important role in decision making in a free choice condition and that the dynamics of decision making are constrained by the network architecture embedded in this cortical area. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Prefrontal spatial working memory network predicts animal's decision making in a free choice saccade task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kei

    2015-01-01

    While neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode spatial information during the performance of working memory tasks, they are also known to participate in subjective behavior such as spatial attention and action selection. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of primate PFC neurons during the performance of a free choice memory-guided saccade task in which the monkeys needed to choose a saccade direction by themselves. In trials when the receptive field location was subsequently chosen by the animal, PFC neurons with spatially selective visual response started to show greater activation before cue onset. This result suggests that the fluctuation of firing before cue presentation prematurely biased the representation of a certain spatial location and eventually encouraged the subsequent choice of that location. In addition, modulation of the activity by the animal's choice was observed only in neurons with high sustainability of activation and was also dependent on the spatial configuration of the visual cues. These findings were consistent with known characteristics of PFC neurons in information maintenance in spatial working memory function. These results suggest that precue fluctuation of spatial representation was shared and enhanced through the working memory network in the PFC and could finally influence the animal's free choice of saccade direction. The present study revealed that the PFC plays an important role in decision making in a free choice condition and that the dynamics of decision making are constrained by the network architecture embedded in this cortical area. PMID:26490287

  11. Public representation in water management -- A network analysis of organization and public perceptions in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany B. Cutts; Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson; Shade T. Shutters

    2015-01-01

    To better accomplish their mission of an informed public, environmental education organizations often exchange ideas, share financing, and distribute overhead through collaboration. Yet it remains to be seen whether benefits of these collaborations extend to the public. We examine two possible benefits: the ability of the organizations to act as representatives of the...

  12. Making Room for New Public Schools: How Innovative School Districts Are Learning to Share Public Education Facilities with Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazon, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    All public school children are entitled to quality public educational facilities--including those who attend public charter schools. Yet charter school leaders often spend substantial time and money searching for a facility. When they find one, they encounter significant costs associated with leasing or purchasing the building. They may have to…

  13. Public preferences for engagement in Health Technology Assessment decision-making: protocol of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Lancsar, Emily; Salkeld, Glenn; Howard, Kirsten

    2015-07-14

    Much attention in recent years has been given to the topic of public engagement in health technology assessment (HTA) decision-making. HTA organizations spend substantial resources and time on undertaking public engagement, and numerous studies have examined challenges and barriers to engagement in the decision-making process however uncertainty remains as to optimal methods to incorporate the views of the public in HTA decision-making. Little research has been done to ascertain whether current engagement processes align with public preferences and to what extent their desire for engagement is dependent on the question being asked by decision-makers or the characteristics of the decision. This study will examine public preferences for engagement in Australian HTA decision-making using an exploratory mixed methods design. The aims of this study are to: 1) identify characteristics about HTA decisions that are important to the public in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken on a particular topic, 2) determine which decision characteristics influence public preferences for the extent, or type of public engagement, and 3) describe reasons underpinning these preferences. Focus group participants from the general community, aged 18-70 years, will be purposively sampled from the Australian population to ensure a wide range of demographic groups. Each focus group will include a general discussion on public engagement as well as a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique (NGT). The NGT will inform the design of a discrete choice study to quantitatively assess public preferences for engagement in HTA decision-making. The proposed research seeks to investigate under what circumstances and how the public would like their views and preferences to be considered in health technology assessments. HTA organizations regularly make decisions about when and how public engagement should occur but without consideration of the public's preferences on

  14. Delay Tolerant Networking over the Metropolitan Public Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bujari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss MDTN: a delay tolerant application platform built on top of the Public Transportation System (PTS and able to provide service access while exploiting opportunistic connectivity. Our solution adopts a carrier-based approach where buses act as data collectors for user requests requiring Internet access. Simulations based on real maps and PTS routes with state-of-the-art routing protocols demonstrate that MDTN represents a viable solution for elastic nonreal-time service delivery. Nevertheless, performance indexes of the considered routing policies show that there is no golden rule for optimal performance and a tailored routing strategy is required for each specific case.

  15. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  16. Functional brain networks involved in decision-making under certain and uncertain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Danielle C.; Moss, Mark B.; Killiany, Ronald J. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mian, Asim Z. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Budson, Andrew E. [VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states. In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18-35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs. In one condition of the task, the participant was certain of the rule to apply to match the cards; in the other condition, the participant was uncertain. We performed cluster-based comparison of the two conditions using FSL fMRI Expert Analysis Tool and network-based analysis using MATLAB. The uncertain > certain comparison yielded three clusters - a midline cluster that extended through the midbrain, the thalamus, bilateral prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and bilateral parietal/occipital clusters. The certain > uncertain comparison yielded bilateral clusters in the insula, parietal and temporal lobe, as well as a medial frontal cluster. A larger, more connected functional network was found in the uncertain condition. The involvement of the insula, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex of the certain condition reinforces the notion that certainty is inherently rewarding. For the uncertain condition, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal involvement was expected, as these are areas involved in resolving uncertainty and rule updating. The involvement of occipital cortical involvement and midbrain involvement may be attributed to increased visual attention and increased motor control. (orig.)

  17. Functional brain networks involved in decision-making under certain and uncertain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Danielle C.; Moss, Mark B.; Killiany, Ronald J.; Mian, Asim Z.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states. In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18-35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs. In one condition of the task, the participant was certain of the rule to apply to match the cards; in the other condition, the participant was uncertain. We performed cluster-based comparison of the two conditions using FSL fMRI Expert Analysis Tool and network-based analysis using MATLAB. The uncertain > certain comparison yielded three clusters - a midline cluster that extended through the midbrain, the thalamus, bilateral prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and bilateral parietal/occipital clusters. The certain > uncertain comparison yielded bilateral clusters in the insula, parietal and temporal lobe, as well as a medial frontal cluster. A larger, more connected functional network was found in the uncertain condition. The involvement of the insula, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex of the certain condition reinforces the notion that certainty is inherently rewarding. For the uncertain condition, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal involvement was expected, as these are areas involved in resolving uncertainty and rule updating. The involvement of occipital cortical involvement and midbrain involvement may be attributed to increased visual attention and increased motor control. (orig.)

  18. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  19. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Space evolution model and empirical analysis of an urban public transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Shao, Feng-jing; Sun, Ren-cheng; Li, Shu-jing

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the space evolution of an urban public transport network, using empirical evidence and a simulation model validated on that data. Public transport patterns primarily depend on traffic spatial-distribution, demands of passengers and expected utility of investors. Evolution is an iterative process of satisfying the needs of passengers and investors based on a given traffic spatial-distribution. The temporal change of urban public transport network is evaluated both using topological measures and spatial ones. The simulation model is validated using empirical data from nine big cities in China. Statistical analyses on topological and spatial attributes suggest that an evolution network with traffic demands characterized by power-law numerical values which distribute in a mode of concentric circles tallies well with these nine cities.

  1. Counting hard-to-count populations: the network scale-up method for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, H Russell; Hallett, Tim; Iovita, Alexandrina; Johnsen, Eugene C; Lyerla, Rob; McCarty, Christopher; Mahy, Mary; Salganik, Matthew J; Saliuk, Tetiana; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Shelley, Gene A; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Weir, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Estimating sizes of hidden or hard-to-reach populations is an important problem in public health. For example, estimates of the sizes of populations at highest risk for HIV and AIDS are needed for designing, evaluating and allocating funding for treatment and prevention programmes. A promising approach to size estimation, relatively new to public health, is the network scale-up method (NSUM), involving two steps: estimating the personal network size of the members of a random sample of a total population and, with this information, estimating the number of members of a hidden subpopulation of the total population. We describe the method, including two approaches to estimating personal network sizes (summation and known population). We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and provide examples of international applications of the NSUM in public health. We conclude with recommendations for future research and evaluation. PMID:21106509

  2. Decision Making Patterns in Territorial Public Administration: The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel Cotae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main mechanisms fuelling the process of territorial development both on local and regional levels is cooperation. It is distinguished as one fundamental priority for the European Union in terms of operational aspirations. Local initiative and decision making patterns are contributing processes for the regional and sub-regional level, as they target the ‘integrated’ feature of sustainable territorial development policies. In an attempt to address the role of these mechanisms in relation to their contribution towards delineating a new regional development model, existing theories on planned behaviour, new regionalism and decision-making in public administration are investigated. Following a set of innovative but rather less complex studies portraying the factors influencing the municipalities to associate, we hypothesize that there may be other elements accounting for these intentions expressed by the local authorities. These can be furthermore aggregated within a territorial intention model. The study aims to thoroughly define a set of secondary factors influencing the association intentions in local administrative units while subsequently underlining the potential of this dimension to define an alternative regional development model.

  3. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES § 383.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of... regulations for all years 2007 and earlier. Such fee shall be recoupable and credited against royalties due in...

  5. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public... Preexisting Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services § 382.12 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings. (a) In general. The monthly royalty fee to be paid by a...

  6. Superintendents and Principals Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    District superintendents or school principals need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Although public reporting in a few states is designed to serve information needs, states'…

  7. The next public health revolution: public health information fusion and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali S; Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2010-07-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information "fusion" may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action.

  8. "Black Magic" and "Gold Dust": The Epistemic and Political Uses of Evidence Tools in Public Health Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ellen; Smith, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about the limited influence of research on decision making have prompted the development of tools intended to mediate evidence for policy audiences. This article focuses on three examples, prominent in public health: impact assessments; systematic reviews; and economic decision-making tools (cost-benefit analysis and scenario modelling).…

  9. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Status of Utilizing Social Media Networks in the Teaching-Learning Process at Public Jordanian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35 statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382 male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed that the participants gave a low score to the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian universities. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences between the participants of the study according to the academic rank attributed to the graduate students, and according to gender attributed to male students at the instrument macro level and on all dimensions of the two variables. In light of these results, the study recommended that public universities should utilize modern technology in the educational process, urge and encourage the teaching staff members to use the social media networks in the teaching-learning process and raise the students' awareness about the benefits of using social media networks. Keywords: Social media networks, Teaching-learning process, Public Jordanian Universities

  11. Retrieval of publications addressing shared decision making: an evaluation of full-text searches on medical journal websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-04-07

    Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. The objective of our study was to assess the efficiency and reliability of full-text searches in major medical journals for identifying shared decision making publications. A full-text search was performed on the websites of 15 high-impact journals in general internal medicine to look up publications of any type from 1996-2011 containing the phrase "shared decision making". The search method was compared with a PubMed search of titles and abstracts only. The full-text search was further validated by requesting all publications from the same time period from the individual journal publishers and searching through the collected dataset. The full-text search for "shared decision making" on journal websites identified 1286 publications in 15 journals compared to 119 through the PubMed search. The search within the publisher-provided publications of 6 journals identified 613 publications compared to 646 with the full-text search on the respective journal websites. The concordance rate was 94.3% between both full-text searches. Full-text searching on medical journal websites is an efficient and reliable way to identify relevant articles in the field of shared decision making for review or other purposes. It may be more widely used in biomedical research in other fields in the future, with the collaboration of publishers and journals toward open-access data.

  12. Studi Migrasi Public Switched Telephone Network (Pstn) Menuju Jaringan Telekomunikasi Berbasis Paket Next Generation Network (Ngn) Dengan Teknologi Softswitch

    OpenAIRE

    Suseno, Andrias Danang; Najib, Warsun; Samiyono, -

    2009-01-01

    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) adalah sistem telekomunikasi berbasis circuit-switched. Pada awalnya PSTN hanya menyediakan layanan voice. PSTN sekarang telah berkembang ke arah pelayanan komunikasi data yang didorong oleh berkembangnya dunia internet dengan Internet Protokol (IP)-nya. Telah muncul teknologi Voice over IP (VoIP) yang mampu melewatkan trafik voice pada jaringan data dengan mengubah voice menjadi paket. VoIP telah mendorong trend/kecenderungan terjadinya konvergensi an...

  13. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  14. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Fischer, Roland; Locatelli, Isabella; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques

    2014-08-09

    Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase "shared decision making" or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P Full-text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the medical community.

  15. Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen

    in the estimation of route choice models of public transport users based upon observed choices. Public transport route choice models have not benefitted from the same technological enhancements as car models because of the necessity (i) to collect additional information concerning lines and transfers, and (ii...... modes, public transport modes, lines, transfers, egress modes) is large. This thesis proposes a doubly stochastic approach for generating alternative routes that are relevant to travellers, since the method allows accounting for both perceived costs of the network elements and heterogeneity......The subject of this thesis is behavioural models for route choice of passengers in multimodal public transport networks. While research in sustainable transport has dedicated much attention toward the determinants of choice between car and sustainable travel options, it has devoted less attention...

  16. Exploring the field of public construction clients by a graphical network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Because public construction clients form the majority of construction clients and procure over 40% of the construction output in most countries, they are important actors in the construction industry. Yet, the field of research on clients is still underdeveloped. In order to identify the research gaps in this field, a graphical network analysis of existing literature is performed. The analysis is based on a query executed in the scientific database Scopus resulting in around 3,300 publication...

  17. Public participation in the process of decision making related to site selection of low and intermediate radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the work with public related to the acceptance of low and intermediate radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia. Activities performing in the field of public relations in the Hazardous Waste Management Agency - APO have been described. The fact that all the important decisions on site selections and constructions of different facilities, frequently controversial, were made in the former system without involvement of the public, makes them more significant. Therefore, the public is afraid of being cheated and manipulated again. In order to represent APO not only as the expert ecologically interested actor in the decision-making process on site selection, the study on forming the ecological image of the agency, has been done. In accordance with the results of the study, the activities related to the permanent informing and educating of the public, are being performed. In the end, it has been concluded that it is not enough to inform the public properly, accurately and timely, but it is necessary to educate the public too, because only in the way the public can be thoroughly involved in the decision-making process on site selection of radioactive waste disposal

  18. The availability of public information for insurance risk decision-making in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nigel; Gibbs, Mark; Chadwick, Ben; Foote, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    At present, there is a wealth of hazard and exposure data which cannot or is not being full used by risk modelling community. The reasons for this under-utilisation of data are many: restrictive and complex data policies and pricing, risks involved in information sharing, technological shortcomings, and variable resolution of data, particularly with catastrophe models only recently having been adjusted to consume high-resolution exposure data. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of common modelling practices and applications for climate and geo-hazard risk assessment, all of which would be highly relevant to public policy, disaster risk management and financial risk transfer communities. This paper will present a methodology to overcome these obstacles and to review the availability of hazard data at research institutions in a consistent format. Such a methodology would facilitate the collation of hazard and other auxiliary data, as well as present data within a geo-spatial framework suitable for public and commercial use. The methodology would also review the suitability of datasets and how these could be made more freely available in conjunction with other research institutions in order to present a consistent data standard. It is clear that an understanding of these different issues of data and data standards have significant ramifications when used in Natural Hazard Risk Assessment. Scrutinising the issue of data standards also allows the data to be evaluated and re-evaluated for its gaps, omissions, fitness, purpose, availability and precision. Not only would there be a quality check on data, but it would also help develop and fine-tune the tools used for decision-making and assessment of risk.

  19. [Ethical and philosophical dimensions of decision-making in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémy, F

    2008-01-01

    Decisions in public health, or in individual health care, are taken by people (individuals or collective) for other people (individuals or collective). Human values, that is to say what is connected to Ethics, should be to the fore, de jure. Too often, under the pretext that they refer to subjectivity, they appear only after very many technical considerations. The latter, in a scientist society, are supposed to deserve a claim to objectivity, this being of course illusory. The author, placing himself in the line of Levinas, Ricoeur, and also of Kant, for whom the "What must I do?" is the most fundamental question any human being has to face, develops four reasons which plead for the pre-eminence of ethics as the foundation of decisions in a policy for public health. 1) He reminds us the intangible values, which are on one side uniqueness and universality of mankind, and on the other side the singularity of the human person. 2) He insists on the ethical wreck which threatens the whole health- and healthcare systems. 3) He sets out some results of modern neurophysiological research (AR Damasio's work), joining an intuition of Aristoteles: the decision making process implies two phases: deliberation the aim of which is to list the different possible actions to undertake, then the choice between those actions. Damasio shows that the lack of emotions inhibits the choice, especially when decision implies human values. 4) Finally, he insists, after E. Morin, on the practical and theoretical difficulties in taking a "good" decision, and on what Morin calls "ecology of action". The results of a decision may completely escape from the decision-makers aims, very often for unexpected social and psychological reasons.

  20. Coevolution of network structure and cooperation in the public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the emergence of cooperation has become a central topic in the evolutionary game field, and coevolution of game dynamics and network topology structure can give us a fresh viewpoint of how the network evolves and cooperation arises. In this paper, we show in detail a picture of the co-evolutionary behaviors between the microscopic structure of the network and cooperation promotion in the public goods game (PGG). Based on a mechanism named after evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA), in which the growth of the network depends on the outcome of PGG dynamics, we explore the structural properties of networks and cooperative behaviors taking place on the networks created by EPA rules. Extensive simulation results indicate that the structure of the resulting networks displays a transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous properties as the selection strength ϵ increases, and the cooperative behaviors have a non-trivial state in which cooperators and defectors can simultaneously occupy the hub nodes in the network. Current results are of interest for us to further understand the cooperation persistence and structure evolution in many natural, social and economical systems. (paper)

  1. Development scheme of the public power transportation network; Le schema de developpement du reseau public de transport d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Article 14 of the modified law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility foresees that the development scheme of the public power transportation network is regularly submitted to the approval of the ministry of energy after advice from the energy regulation commission. The development scheme identifies the areas of 'power fragility' with respect to the existing or future constraints susceptible to occur at the short- or medium-term on the French power grid. This document comprises the text of the law 2000-108 from February 10, 2000, and the complete development scheme with its appendixes (regulatory and administrative context relative to network projects, constraints relative to each administrative region). (J.S.)

  2. 40 CFR 60.1130 - How do I make my siting analysis available to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separation plan. Include the normal business hours of each library. (5) An agenda of the topics that will be...) Distribute your siting analysis and revised materials separation plan to the main public libraries in the... public meeting. (2) The time of the public meeting. (3) The location of the public meeting. (4) The...

  3. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  4. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  5. Network formation, governance, and evolution in public health: the North American Quitline Consortium case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Keith G; Beagles, Jonathan E; Leischow, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative networks of health organizations have received a great deal of attention in recent years as a way of enhancing the flow of information and coordination of services. However, relatively little is known about how such networks are formed and evolve, especially outside a local, community-based setting. This article is an in-depth discussion of the evolution of the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). The NAQC is a network of U.S. and Canadian organizations that provide telephone-based counseling and related services to people trying to quit smoking. The research draws on data from interviews, documents, and a survey of NAQC members to assess how the network emerged, became formalized, and effectively governed. The findings provide an understanding of how multiregional public health networks evolve, while building on and extending the broader literature on organizational networks in other sectors and settings. Specifically, we found that the network form that ultimately emerged was a product of the back-and-forth interplay between the internal needs and goals of those organizations that would ultimately become network members, in this case, state-, and provincial-level tobacco quitline organizations. We also found that network formation, and then governance through a network administrative organization, was driven by important events and shifts in the external environment, including the impact and influence of major national organizations. The results of the study provide health care leaders and policy officials an understanding of how the activities of a large number of organizations having a common health goal, but spanning multiple states and countries, might be coordinated and integrated through the establishment of a formal network.

  6. The manual of strategic economic decision making using Bayesian belief networks to solve complex problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...

  7. Assessment of the quality of public services based on the analysis of these social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivko Sergei Rostislavovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studied the possibilities and the potential of using data on the views of users of social networks on the uptake and quality of e-government services, the analysis of the distribution of publications in international scientific periodicals repertoire Related research.

  8. Beyond a complete failure : The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between

  9. 76 FR 51271 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... 700 MHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document... medical services, Incorporation by reference, Individuals with disabilities, Radio, Reporting and...- 798 MHz bands. * * * * * Service Availability. The use of a public safety broadband network on a day...

  10. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  11. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Australia. Results from network measurements and their use in public education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.R.; Gies, H.P.; Lokan, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    Growing evidence of global depletion of stratospheric ozone has given additional support to the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) network established by ARL in Australia and Antarctica. The data produced is necessary to increase our knowledge of atmospheric change, human health studies and for public education. (4 figs., 1 tab.)

  12. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .../library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf . Written comments... http://www.cdc.gov/phin/library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf...-2011-0004] Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY...

  13. Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013). Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community. In M. d'Aquin, S. Dietze, H. Drachsler, E. Herder, & D. Taibi (Eds.), Linked data challenge, Learning Analytic and Knowledge (LAK13) (pp. 6-10). Vol. 974, Leuven,

  14. An Application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Networks to Predict Energy Consumption in Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Baca Ruiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of energy consumption prediction using neural networks over a set of public buildings. Since energy consumption in the public sector comprises a substantial share of overall consumption, the prediction of such consumption represents a decisive issue in the achievement of energy savings. In our experiments, we use the data provided by an energy consumption monitoring system in a compound of faculties and research centers at the University of Granada, and provide a methodology to predict future energy consumption using nonlinear autoregressive (NAR and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network with exogenous inputs (NARX, respectively. Results reveal that NAR and NARX neural networks are both suitable for performing energy consumption prediction, but also that exogenous data may help to improve the accuracy of predictions.

  15. Comparative study of conditions and instruments of economic regulation of networked public services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Claude; Curien, Nicolas; Gassner, Katharina; Krom, Hans de

    1999-11-01

    In order to provide a comparative view on implemented regulations regarding networked public services like electric power distribution, train transport, telecommunications, or mail services, this collective publication gathers six studies which respectively address the cases of Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of them, the authors report, analyse and discuss the evolution and implementation of regulation or deregulation processes, the content of the relevant laws which can be specific to a sector, the role and the importance of public and private actors, and the market status and operation

  16. Emerging Metagovernance as an Institutional Framework for Public Private Partnership Network in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Buser, Martine

    2006-01-01

    Implementing private public partnerships in Denmark has been a long and reluctant process. PPP developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002. In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again. Drawing on new public...... management perspectives, public services are viewed as a network of mixed players with a regulatory framework, a metagovernance. Examples of Danish PPP initiatives are given. The present metagovernance consists of a comparator, guidelines, feasibility studies and a central competence unit. New issues like...... employment relations are surfacing. PPPs are thus emergent political arenas....

  17. Emerging metagovernance as an institutional framework for public private partnership networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Buser, Martine

    2006-01-01

    Implementing private public partnerships in Denmark has been a long and reluctant process. PPP developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002. In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again. Drawing on new public...... management perspectives, public services are viewed as a network of mixed players with a regulatory framework, a metagovernance. Examples of Danish PPP initiatives are given. The present metagovernance consists of a comparator, guidelines, feasibility studies and a central competence unit. New issues like...... employment relations are surfacing. PPPs are thus emergent political arenas....

  18. Negative and positive pretrial publicity affect juror memory and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-09-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants independently attributed specific information as having been presented during the trial or in the news articles. Half of the jurors rendered their verdicts and completed the source-memory test immediately after the trial, while the other half did so after a 2-day delay. Exposure to PTP significantly affected guilty verdicts, perceptions of defendant credibility, juror ratings of the prosecuting and defense attorneys, and misattributions of PTP as having been presented as trial evidence. Similar effects were obtained for negative and positive PTP. Delay significantly increased source-memory errors but did not influence guilt ratings. Defendant's credibility and juror ratings of prosecuting and defense attorneys significantly mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  20. The US CDC Centers for public health preparedness : building a nationwide exemplar network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A.; Paulson, G.; Perry, E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-07-01

    The network of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) was created by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in response to the perception that public health professionals were inadequately prepared to respond to terrorism incidents, natural disasters and similar major events. The events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent anthrax attacks confirmed the wisdom of a concerted approach to emergency preparedness. This paper provides an outline of the network's recent activities as well as a review of the rationale, history and progress of the network to date. In the most recent grant cycle, each center was required to allocate 20 per cent of its resources to network-wide activities, including contribution of CPHP-developed materials to a central resource center maintained by the Association of Schools of Public Health. The materials are publicly available and are to be used in the development of training programs; the establishment of 19 or more exemplar groups that focus on specific preparedness-related knowledge domains such as mental health, educational evaluation methods and field epidemiology, who are also expected to develop tool kits of validated and fully described training materials for use by any CPHP person or group. The outcome of the CPHP network activities is the development of a more comprehensive and robust core of preparedness training materials that aim to facilitate rapid and effective training, while at the same time eliminating redundancy and duplication of effort. It was concluded that the expenditure of 20 per cent of center funds on network development activities is forcing the academically based CPHPs to adopt a new collaborative paradigm in order to ensure effective nationwide preparedness. 3 refs.

  1. Decision-making about chronic radiation exposure to the public. New recommendations from the ICRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.J. [Division of Radiation and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    The paper discusses decision-making in situations of chronic exposure within the framework of a forthcoming related ICRP report on the subject which has been produced by an ICRP Task Group chaired by the author. This ICRP report will provide guidance on the application of the ICRP System of Radiological Protection to prolonged exposure situations afflicting members of the public. It will address the general application of the System to the control of prolonged exposures resulting from practices and to the undertaking of interventions in prolonged exposure situations, and will provide recommendations on generic reference levels for such interventions. It will also consider some specific situations and will discuss a number of issues that have been of concern, namely: natural radiation sources that may give rise to high doses; the restoration and rehabilitation of sites where human activities involving radioactive substances have been carried out; the return to 'normality' following an accident that has released radioactive substances to the environment; and the global marketing of commodities for public consumption that contain relatively high levels of radioactive substances. Annexes will provide some examples of prolonged exposure situations and will discuss the radiological protection quantities, radiation-induced health effects and aspects of the System of Radiological Protection relevant to prolonged exposure. The quantitative recommendations for prolonged exposures provided in the report will be as follows: generic reference levels for intervention, in terms of existing annual doses, of < or approx. 100 mSv, above which intervention is almost always justifiable (situations for which the annual dose threshold for deterministic effects in relevant organs is exceeded will almost always require intervention), and of < or approx.10 mSv, below which intervention is not likely to be justifiable (and above which it may be necessary); intervention exemption

  2. Networking of Public Health Microbiology Laboratories Bolsters Europe’s Defenses against Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Albiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing. Cooperation among the European laboratory networks in the past 7 years has proved successful in strengthening epidemic preparedness by enabling adaptive capabilities for rapid detection of emerging pathogens across Europe. In partnership with food safety authorities, international public health agencies and learned societies, ECDC-supported laboratory networks have also progressed harmonization of routinely used antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, thereby significantly advancing the quality, comparability and precision of microbiological information gathered by ECDC for surveillance for zoonotic diseases and multidrug-resistant pathogens in Europe. ECDC continues to act as a catalyst for sustaining continuous practice improvements and strengthening wider access to laboratory capacity across the European Union. Key priorities include optimization and broader use of rapid diagnostics, further integration of whole-genome sequencing in surveillance and electronic linkage of laboratory and public health systems. This article highlights some of the network contributions to public health in Europe and the role that ECDC plays managing these networks.

  3. Aarhus and Espoo Conventions: The role in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making. The role of the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Ms Yanush and Mr Jendroska highlighted the role and importance of the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention) and that of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention). These two conventions are open for global accession and, at present, have been ratified mainly by European and Central Asian countries within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) region. Those two conventions, which apply to a wide range of activities including nuclear, are the only two binding international instruments setting minimum standards for public access to environmental information and public participation in decision making. The Maastricht Recommendations on Promoting Effective Public Participation in Decision-Making in Environmental Matters under the Aarhus Convention and the Good Practice Recommendations on the Application of the Convention to Nuclear Energy-related Activities under the Espoo Convention are instrumental in advancing the implementation in this area. Public participation under the Aarhus Convention goes beyond information or consultation: the decision maker must take into account the views of the 'public concerned' (i.e. the members of the public affected or likely to be affected by the decision making or having an interest in it). As the 'public concerned' is assessed through the potential impact of the proposed activity, including in the case of an accident, the obligation to notify and provide opportunity for public participation is not limited to the territory of the country hosting the proposed activity. Mr Jendroska indicated a particular finding of the Espoo Convention Implementation Committee that decisions regarding modifications, upgrades or extensions to the lifetime/operation of a nuclear installation would be subject to these obligations even though the activity remains exactly

  4. Building a multimodal network and determining individual accessibility by public transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The increased availability of transit schedules from web sites or travel planners as well as more disaggregate data has led to a growing interest in creating individual public transportation accessibility measures. However, used extensively, standard GIS software does not have direct capabilities...... from a travel planner into a multimodal network model using simple SQL (structured query language) programming and standard GIS. The method presented here integrates all parts of travelling by public transportation from individual home addresses to all reachable transit stops within different travel....... The accessibility areas are created at morning rush hour for a study population of 29 447 individuals and a few examples of accessibility areas are presented. The results show a big difference in individual public transportation accessibility in the region. In addition, how the transit network is accessed, whether...

  5. On the Impact of using Public Network Communication Infrastructure for Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    voltage controlled distribution system. A cost effective way to connect the ReGen plants to the control center is to consider the existing public network infrastructure. This paper, therefore, illustrates the impact of using the existing public network communication infrastructure for online voltage...

  6. Governing irrationality, or a more than rational government? Reflections on the rescientisation of decision making in British public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Whitehead; Rhys Jones; Jessica Pykett

    2011-01-01

    It appears that recent debates within human geography, and the broader social sciences, concerning the more-than-rational constitution of human decision making are now being paralleled by changes in the ways in which public policy makers are conceiving of and addressing human behaviour. This paper focuses on the rise of so-called Behaviour Change policies in public policy in the UK. Behaviour Change policies draw on the behavioural insights being developed within the neurosciences, behavioura...

  7. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  8. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  9. Non-technical factors impacting on the decision making processes in environmental remediation. Influences on the decision making process such as cost, planned land use and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including the legacy of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation: factors important for formulating a strategy for environmental remediation; site characterisation techniques and strategies; assessment of remediation technologies; assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; post-restoration compliance monitoring; assessment of the costs of remediation measures; remediation of low-level disperse radioactive contaminations in the environment. While this project mainly focus on technological aspects, non-technical factors will be influencing the decision making process in remediation decisively. Often their influence is only tacitly accepted and not explicitly acknowledged by the responsible decision makers. This makes it difficult to trace the decision making process in the event that it has to be revisited. The present publication attempts to make these factors explicit and to present methods to include them consciously into the decision making process

  10. The Use of Social Networking Sites for Public Health Practice and Research: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kate; Echavarría, Maria I; Joe, Jonathan; Neogi, Tina; Turner, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have the potential to increase the reach and efficiency of essential public health services, such as surveillance, research, and communication. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify the use of SNSs for public health research and practice and to identify existing knowledge gaps. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of articles related to public health and SNSs using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL to search for peer-reviewed publications describing the use of SNSs for public health research and practice. We also conducted manual searches of relevant publications. Each publication was independently reviewed by 2 researchers for inclusion and extracted relevant study data. Results A total of 73 articles met our inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=50) were published in the final 2 years covered by our search. In all, 58 articles were in the domain of public health research and 15 were in public health practice. Only 1 study was conducted in a low-income country. Most articles (63/73, 86%) described observational studies involving users or usages of SNSs; only 5 studies involved randomized controlled trials. A large proportion (43/73, 59%) of the identified studies included populations considered hard to reach, such as young individuals, adolescents, and individuals at risk of sexually transmitted diseases or alcohol and substance abuse. Few articles (2/73, 3%) described using the multidirectional communication potential of SNSs to engage study populations. Conclusions The number of publications about public health uses for SNSs has been steadily increasing in the past 5 years. With few exceptions, the literature largely consists of observational studies describing users and usages of SNSs regarding topics of public health interest. More studies that fully exploit the communication tools embedded in SNSs and study their potential to produce significant effects

  11. The use of social networking sites for public health practice and research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Cole, Kate; Echavarría, Maria I; Joe, Jonathan; Neogi, Tina; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-14

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have the potential to increase the reach and efficiency of essential public health services, such as surveillance, research, and communication. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify the use of SNSs for public health research and practice and to identify existing knowledge gaps. We performed a systematic literature review of articles related to public health and SNSs using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL to search for peer-reviewed publications describing the use of SNSs for public health research and practice. We also conducted manual searches of relevant publications. Each publication was independently reviewed by 2 researchers for inclusion and extracted relevant study data. A total of 73 articles met our inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=50) were published in the final 2 years covered by our search. In all, 58 articles were in the domain of public health research and 15 were in public health practice. Only 1 study was conducted in a low-income country. Most articles (63/73, 86%) described observational studies involving users or usages of SNSs; only 5 studies involved randomized controlled trials. A large proportion (43/73, 59%) of the identified studies included populations considered hard to reach, such as young individuals, adolescents, and individuals at risk of sexually transmitted diseases or alcohol and substance abuse. Few articles (2/73, 3%) described using the multidirectional communication potential of SNSs to engage study populations. The number of publications about public health uses for SNSs has been steadily increasing in the past 5 years. With few exceptions, the literature largely consists of observational studies describing users and usages of SNSs regarding topics of public health interest. More studies that fully exploit the communication tools embedded in SNSs and study their potential to produce significant effects in the overall population's health are needed.

  12. Mapping quorum sensing onto neural networks to understand collective decision making in heterogeneous microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Boedicker, James Q.

    2017-08-01

    Microbial communities frequently communicate via quorum sensing (QS), where cells produce, secrete, and respond to a threshold level of an autoinducer (AI) molecule, thereby modulating gene expression. However, the biology of QS remains incompletely understood in heterogeneous communities, where variant bacterial strains possess distinct QS systems that produce chemically unique AIs. AI molecules bind to ‘cognate’ receptors, but also to ‘non-cognate’ receptors found in other strains, resulting in inter-strain crosstalk. Understanding these interactions is a prerequisite for deciphering the consequences of crosstalk in real ecosystems, where multiple AIs are regularly present in the same environment. As a step towards this goal, we map crosstalk in a heterogeneous community of variant QS strains onto an artificial neural network model. This formulation allows us to systematically analyze how crosstalk regulates the community’s capacity for flexible decision making, as quantified by the Boltzmann entropy of all QS gene expression states of the system. In a mean-field limit of complete cross-inhibition between variant strains, the model is exactly solvable, allowing for an analytical formula for the number of variants that maximize capacity as a function of signal kinetics and activation parameters. An analysis of previous experimental results on the Staphylococcus aureus two-component Agr system indicates that the observed combination of variant numbers, gene expression rates and threshold concentrations lies near this critical regime of parameter space where capacity peaks. The results are suggestive of a potential evolutionary driving force for diversification in certain QS systems.

  13. A conceptual framework for negotiating public involvement in municipal waste management decision-making in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim; Longhurst, Philip; Jude, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making. The study addressed questions of perception, interests, the decision context, the means of engagement and the necessary resources and capacity for adopting a participatory decision process. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the research produced an empirical framework for negotiating the mode and level of public involvement in waste management decision-making. The framework captures and builds on theories of public involvement and the experiences of practitioners, and offers guidance for integrating analysis and deliberation with public groups in different waste management decision contexts. Principles in the framework operate on the premise that the decision about 'more' and 'better' forms of public involvement can be negotiated, based on the nature of the waste problem and wider social context of decision-making. The collection of opinions from the wide range of stakeholders involved in the study has produced new insights for the design of public engagement processes that are context-dependent and 'fit-for-purpose'; these suggest a need for greater inclusivity in the case of contentious technologies and high levels of uncertainty regarding decision outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Probabilistic interconnection between interdependent networks promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baokui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2012-01-01

    Most previous works study the evolution of cooperation in a structured population by commonly employing an isolated single network. However, realistic systems are composed of many interdependent networks coupled with each other, rather than an isolated single one. In this paper, we consider a system including two interacting networks with the same size, entangled with each other by the introduction of probabilistic interconnections. We introduce the public goods game into such a system, and study how the probabilistic interconnection influences the evolution of cooperation of the whole system and the coupling effect between two layers of interdependent networks. Simulation results show that there exists an intermediate region of interconnection probability leading to the maximum cooperation level in the whole system. Interestingly, we find that at the optimal interconnection probability the fraction of internal links between cooperators in two layers is maximal. Also, even if initially there are no cooperators in one layer of interdependent networks, cooperation can still be promoted by probabilistic interconnection, and the cooperation levels in both layers can more easily reach an agreement at the intermediate interconnection probability. Our results may be helpful in understanding cooperative behavior in some realistic interdependent networks and thus highlight the importance of probabilistic interconnection on the evolution of cooperation. (paper)

  15. Intra-Organizational Two-Mode Networks Analysis of a Public Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ujwary-Gil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of intra-organizational and two-mode networks of knowledge, resources and tasks. Each of these networks consists of a human and non-human actor in the terminology of the actor-network theory (ANT, or of only non-human actors. This type of research is rare in the theory of organization and management, even though the first article on meta-networks dates back to nearly two decades ago (Krackhardt & Carley, 1998. The article analyses the prominences and ties between particular network nodes (actors, knowledge, resources and tasks, assessing their effective use in an organization. The author selected a public organization operating in the university education sector, where saturation with communication, resource and knowledge-sharing are relatively high. The application of the network analysis provides a totally different perspective on an organization, taking into account the inter-relationship, which allows a holistic (complex outlook on the analyzed object. Especially, as it measures particular nodes as related to one another, not as isolated variables, as in classical research, where observations are independent.

  16. 78 FR 16567 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Non-Rule Making Action To Change Land Use From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Public Comment on Non-Rule Making Action To Change Land Use From Aeronautical to Non-Aeronautical at... layout plan update, if approved, would change the land use on 72.13 acres from aeronautical to non-aeronautical. The property will then be leased for Commercial Development. The location of the land relative to...

  17. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  18. THE FEATURES OF THE PROCEDURE FOR MAKING THE DECISION ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECTS THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vorobiova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for making a decision on the implementation of public-private partnership, which has developed in Ukraine was examined in the article. Three consecutive stages of preparation for the implementation of projects of partnership between the state and business were сomprehensively considered. The main disadvantages of each stage were determined and suggestions for their improvement were given.

  19. What makes public health studies ethical? Dissolving the boundary between research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Donald J; Ondrusek, Nancy; Dawson, Angus; Emerson, Claudia; Ferris, Lorraine E; Saginur, Raphael; Sampson, Heather; Upshur, Ross

    2014-08-08

    The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary - whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying legal authority, departure from usual practice, or direct benefits to participants - have been unsatisfactory.Public Health Ontario has eschewed this distinction between research and other evaluative activities, choosing to adopt a common framework and process to guide ethical reflection on all public health evaluative projects throughout their lifecycle - from initial planning through to knowledge exchange. The Public Health Ontario framework was developed by a working group of public health and ethics professionals and scholars, in consultation with individuals representing a wide range of public health roles. The first part of the framework interprets the existing Canadian research ethics policy statement (commonly known as the TCPS 2) through a public health lens. The second part consists of ten questions that guide the investigator in the application of the core ethical principles to public health initiatives.The framework is intended for use by those designing and executing public health evaluations, as well as those charged with ethics review of projects. The goal is to move toward a culture of ethical integrity among investigators, reviewers and decision-makers, rather than mere compliance with rules. The framework is consonant with the perspective of the learning organization and is generalizable to other public health organizations, to health services organizations, and beyond. Public

  20. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  1. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  2. Social capital and the networked public sphere: Implications for political social media sites

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Marius Rohde

    2012-01-01

    Submitted version of a paper from the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), 2012. Published version available from IEEE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2012.535 This paper presents a theoretical lens for research on social media use in eParticipation, along with an example case study. The idea of the public sphere and how it can be applied to eParticipation research is presented. The public sphere is discussed in relation to Castell's notion of the network societ...

  3. Identifying the Effective Factors in Making Trust in Online Social Networks on the perspective of Iranian experts Using Fuzzy ELECTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haghighi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available this paper attempts to rank the effective factors in making trust in social networks to provide the possibility of attracting and increasing users’ trust on these social networks for providers and designers of online social networks. Identifying the effective factors in making trust in social networks is a multi-criteria decision making problem and most of effective factors are ambiguous and uncertain, thereby this article uses Fuzzy ELECTRE to rank them. By implementing Fuzzy ELECTRE on gathered data, respectively «usability factor», «supporting up to date technology factor», «integrity» and «the rate of ethics factor» are on the top of effective factors in making trust in users. In general, «web features» and «technology features» have a higher degree of importance than «security features», «individual-social features» and «cultural features». Ranking of Fuzzy ELECTRE comparison ranking of Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy ELECTRE method becomes validate because Spearman correlation coefficients is 0/867. Result of sensitivity analysis on changing weight of criteria shows that Fuzzy ELECTRE isn’t affected by ambiguity and uncertainty in inputs.

  4. Effect of local information within network layers on the evolution of cooperation in duplex public goods games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yifeng; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional works of public goods game (PGG) are often studied in simplex networks where agents play games through the same type of social interactions. In order to promote cooperation against the defection in PGGs in simplex network environment, many mechanisms have been proposed from different perspectives, such as the volunteering mechanisms, and the punishment and reward approaches. However, due to diverse types of interactions between agents in reality, the study of PGG should also consider the characteristic of multiplexity of networks. Hence, we firstly model the public goods game in the duplex network (for simplification of analysis, the duplex network is considered), in which agents have two types of social interactions, and thus the network is modeled as two network layers. This type of PGG is naturally named as duplex public goods game (D-PGG), in which agents can select one of the network layers to allocate their limited resources. Then for the new game environment (D-PGG), we propose a novel perspective to promote cooperation: degrading the information integrity, i.e., agents get information just from one network layer (local information) rather than from the whole duplex network (global information) in the evolution process. Finally, through theoretical analyses and simulations, we find that if agents imitate based on the local information of the payoff in the evolution, cooperation can be generally promoted; and the extent of promotion depends on both the network structure and the similarity of the network layers

  5. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...... and to assess the choice set quality in a complex multimodal transport network. Results illustrate the applicability of the algorithm and the relevance of the utility specification chosen for the reproduction of real-life path choices. Moreover, results show that the level of stochasticity used in choice set...

  6. Tweeting badges: user motivations for displaying achievement in publicly networked environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K Hazel; Halavais, Alexander; Havener, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    Badge systems, a common mechanism for gamification on social media platforms, provide a way for users to present their knowledge or experience to others. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of why social media users publicize their achievements in the form of online badges. Five motivational factors for badge display in public networked environments are distinguished-self-efficacy, social incentives, networked support, passing time, and inattentive sharing-and it is suggested that different badge types are associated with different motivations. System developers are advised to consider these components in their designs, applying the elements most appropriate to the communities they serve. Comparing user motivations associated with badges shared across boundaries provides a better understanding of how online badges relate to the larger social media ecosystem.

  7. Trust Threshold Based Public Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    detection 49 [6,7] , authentication, access control, key management, iso- 50 lating misbehaving nodes for effective routing [6,8,9] , and 51 many other...83 84 85 aims to achieve: (a) resiliency against misbehaving nodes 86 in the network to maintain minimum security vulnerabil- 87 ity; (b...neighbor will decreas the misbehaving node’s direct competence trust. Fur thermore, this neighbor when acting as a recommended public key management in

  8. Status of Utilizing Social Media Networks in the Teaching-Learning Process at Public Jordanian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait; Mohammad . S. Alzboon

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35) statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382) male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed tha...

  9. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  10. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  11. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  12. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  13. Privatization of Public Universities: How the Budget System Affects the Decision-Making Strategy of Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Mark Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In response to lower funding commitments, many public colleges and universities have elected to incorporate decentralized budgeting systems, one of which is Responsibility Center Management (RCM). As public institutions are becoming more dependent on tuition dollars because state appropriations are declining, deans have an increased responsibility…

  14. Google Scholar makes it hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Kreveld, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal profile pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are

  15. Google Scholar makes it hard – the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, van M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal profile pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are

  16. Google Scholar makes it Hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306025; van Kreveld, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07492253X

    2014-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal prole pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are the

  17. A Public-Private Partnership Improves Clinical Performance In A Hospital Network In Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria; Jack, Brian; Nkabane-Nkholongo, Elizabeth Limakatso; Vian, Taryn

    2015-06-01

    Health care public-private partnerships (PPPs) between a government and the private sector are based on a business model that aims to leverage private-sector expertise to improve clinical performance in hospitals and other health facilities. Although the financial implications of such partnerships have been analyzed, few studies have examined the partnerships' impact on clinical performance outcomes. Using quantitative measures that reflected capacity, utilization, clinical quality, and patient outcomes, we compared a government-managed hospital network in Lesotho, Africa, and the new PPP-managed hospital network that replaced it. In addition, we used key informant interviews to help explain differences in performance. We found that the PPP-managed network delivered more and higher-quality services and achieved significant gains in clinical outcomes, compared to the government-managed network. We conclude that health care public-private partnerships may improve hospital performance in developing countries and that changes in management and leadership practices might account for differences in clinical outcomes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  19. Chains, Shops and Networks: Official Statistics and the Creation of Public Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asle Rolland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns offi cial statistics, particularly as produced by the NSIs. Their contribution to the society is considered well captured by the concept of public value. Official statistics create value for the democracy as foundation for evidence-based politics. Democracies and autocracies alike need statistics to govern the public. Unique for the democracy is the need of statistics to govern the governors, for which the independence of the NSI is crucial. Three ways of creating public value are the value chain, the value shop and the value network. The chain is appropriate for the production, the shop for the interpretation and the network for the dissemination of statistics. Automation reduces the need to rely on the value chain as core business model. Thereto automation increases the statistical output, which in turn increases the need of shop and network activities. Replacing the chain with the shop as core model will elevate the NSIs from commodity producers to a processing industry.

  20. Equity at Scale: How Public Charter School Networks Can Innovate and Improve Services for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul T.; Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2015-01-01

    When public charter schools first opened in the early 1990s, each was unique and independent. But as successful public charter schools continued to grow and expand their impact beyond a single site, and as organizations developed school designs that could be implemented at multiple locations, networks of public charter schools emerged. The public…

  1. Analysis of Greedy Decision Making for Geographic Routing for Networks of Randomly Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Israr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous and self-organizing wireless ad-hoc communication networks for moving objects consist of nodes, which use no centralized network infrastructure. Examples of moving object networks are networks of flying objects, networks of vehicles, networks of moving people or robots. Moving object networks have to face many critical challenges in terms of routing because of dynamic topological changes and asymmetric networks links. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the deployment of moving nodes. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of the Greedy Decision method (position aware distance based algorithm for geographic routing for network nodes moving according to the random waypoint mobility model. The widely used GPSR (Greedy Packet Stateless Routing protocol utilizes geographic distance and position based data of nodes to transmit packets towards destination nodes. In this paper different scenarios have been tested to develop a concrete set of recommendations for optimum deployment of distance based Greedy Decision of Geographic Routing in randomly moving objects network

  2. Toward more effective regional networks: a multi-method study on top-down stimulated networks within the Dutch public-policy areas of education and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaster, E.

    2015-01-01

    Regional networks have become a popular way for the Dutch central government to translate national ambitions into regional policies and actions. This thesis focuses on regional networks in the public-policy fields of education and employment, which consist of various actors, including schools, local

  3. Breast cancer publication network: profile of co-authorship and co-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer

  4. Space and Power in the Ivory Tower: Decision Making in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Sandra McCoskrie

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of managing physical space in higher education are often left unspoken and under researched. In this multiple case study of three urban universities, decision-making processes are examined with particular attention to who has institutional decision-making authority. Effective and efficient space management is important because the…

  5. Making cytological diagnoses on digital images using the iPath network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalquen, Peter; Savic Prince, Spasenija; Spieler, Peter; Kunze, Dietmar; Neumann, Heinrich; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Adams, Heiner; Glatz, Katharina; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    The iPath telemedicine platform Basel is mainly used for histological and cytological consultations, but also serves as a valuable learning tool. To study the level of accuracy in making diagnoses based on still images achieved by experienced cytopathologists, to identify limiting factors, and to provide a cytological image series as a learning set. Images from 167 consecutive cytological specimens of different origin were uploaded on the iPath platform and evaluated by four cytopathologists. Only wet-fixed and well-stained specimens were used. The consultants made specific diagnoses and categorized each as benign, suspicious or malignant. For all consultants, specificity and sensitivity regarding categorized diagnoses were 83-92 and 85-93%, respectively; the overall accuracy was 88-90%. The interobserver agreement was substantial (κ = 0.791). The lowest rate of concordance was achieved in urine and bladder washings and in the identification of benign lesions. Using a digital image set for diagnostic purposes implies that even under optimal conditions the accuracy rate will not exceed to 80-90%, mainly because of lacking supportive immunocytochemical or molecular tests. This limitation does not disqualify digital images for teleconsulting or as a learning aid. The series of images used for the study are open to the public at http://pathorama.wordpress.com/extragenital-cytology-2013/. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Understanding evidence: a statewide survey to explore evidence-informed public health decision-making in a local government setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Waters, Elizabeth; Moore, Laurence; Dobbins, Maureen; Pettman, Tahna; Burns, Cate; Swinburn, Boyd; Anderson, Laurie; Petticrew, Mark

    2014-12-14

    The value placed on types of evidence within decision-making contexts is highly dependent on individuals, the organizations in which the work and the systems and sectors they operate in. Decision-making processes too are highly contextual. Understanding the values placed on evidence and processes guiding decision-making is crucial to designing strategies to support evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM). This paper describes how evidence is used to inform local government (LG) public health decisions. The study used mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey and interviews. The Evidence-Informed Decision-Making Tool (EvIDenT) survey was designed to assess three key domains likely to impact on EIDM: access, confidence, and organizational culture. Other elements included the usefulness and influence of sources of evidence (people/groups and resources), skills and barriers, and facilitators to EIDM. Forty-five LGs from Victoria, Australia agreed to participate in the survey and up to four people from each organization were invited to complete the survey (n = 175). To further explore definitions of evidence and generate experiential data on EIDM practice, key informant interviews were conducted with a range of LG employees working in areas relevant to public health. In total, 135 responses were received (75% response rate) and 13 interviews were conducted. Analysis revealed varying levels of access, confidence and organizational culture to support EIDM. Significant relationships were found between domains: confidence, culture and access to research evidence. Some forms of evidence (e.g. community views) appeared to be used more commonly and at the expense of others (e.g. research evidence). Overall, a mixture of evidence (but more internal than external evidence) was influential in public health decision-making in councils. By comparison, a mixture of evidence (but more external than internal evidence) was deemed to be useful in public health decision-making

  7. The making of a public health problem: multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora C

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines how actors construct the public problem of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India. MDR-TB has been framed by the World Health Organization as a pressing, global public health problem. The responses to MDR-TB are complicated as treatment takes longer and is more expensive than routine TB treatment. This is particularly problematic in countries, such as India, with high patient loads, a large and unregulated private sector, weak health systems and potentially high numbers of MDR-TB cases. This paper analyses how actors struggle for control over ownership, causal theories and political responsibility of the public problem of MDR-TB in India. It combines Gusfield's theory on the construction of public problems with insights from literature on the social construction of diseases and on medical social control. It highlights that there are flexible definitions of public problems, which are negotiated among actor groups and which shift over time. The Indian government has shifted its policy in recent years and acknowledged that MDR-TB needs to be dealt with within the TB programme. The study results reveal how the policy shift happened, why debates on the construction of MDR-TB as a public problem in India continue, and why actors with alternative theories than the government do not succeed in their lobbying efforts. Two main arguments are put forward. First, the construction of the public problem of MDR-TB in India is a social and political process. The need for representative data, international influence and politics define what is controllable. Second, the government seems to be anxious to control the definition of India's MDR-TB problem. This impedes an open, critical and transparent discussion on the definition of the public problem of MDR-TB, which is important in responding flexibly to emerging public health challenges.

  8. What makes public health studies ethical? Dissolving the boundary between research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary – whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying legal authority, departure from usual practice, or direct benefits to participants – have been unsatisfactory. Public Health Ontario has eschewed this distinction between research and other evaluative activities, choosing to adopt a common framework and process to guide ethical reflection on all public health evaluative projects throughout their lifecycle – from initial planning through to knowledge exchange. Discussion The Public Health Ontario framework was developed by a working group of public health and ethics professionals and scholars, in consultation with individuals representing a wide range of public health roles. The first part of the framework interprets the existing Canadian research ethics policy statement (commonly known as the TCPS 2) through a public health lens. The second part consists of ten questions that guide the investigator in the application of the core ethical principles to public health initiatives. The framework is intended for use by those designing and executing public health evaluations, as well as those charged with ethics review of projects. The goal is to move toward a culture of ethical integrity among investigators, reviewers and decision-makers, rather than mere compliance with rules. The framework is consonant with the perspective of the learning organization and is generalizable to other public health organizations, to health services

  9. Interorganizational networks in public transport: a multicase study in different cities of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the expansion of the debate on inter-organizational networks for conducting a study of exploratory and qualitative in a group of transportation companies passenger-pole and three cities of a metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul The goal is understand how the passenger carriers in the cities analyzed, operate in a network. For this, we used the model proposed by Marcon and Moinet (2001, which ranks the inter-organizational relationships, and model and Balestrin Vershoore (2006, which deals with benefits in interorganizational networks. To achieve the objective of this study were collected through interviews with managers of transport companies and document analysis, using the technique of content analysis a posteriori. The results of these tests have drawn the picture of the performance of carriers in the network in the cities studied. We developed a report of cases crossed that define the possible inter-relationships as formal and horizontal, between the main benefits of network operation, there was the implementation of electronic ticketing system and gains in representation before public interaction.

  10. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  11. Reliability analysis of road network for estimation of public evacuation time around NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun-Young; Lee, Gab-Bock; Chung, Yang-Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The most strong protection method of radiation emergency preparedness is the evacuation of the public members when a great deal of radioactivity is released to environment. After the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant meltdown in the United States and Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in the U.S.S.R, many advanced countries including the United States and Japan have continued research on estimation of public evacuation time as one of emergency countermeasure technologies. Also in South Korea, 'Framework Act on Civil Defense: Radioactive Disaster Preparedness Plan' was established in 1983 and nuclear power plants set up a radiation emergency plan and have regularly carried out radiation emergency preparedness trainings. Nonetheless, there is still a need to improve technology to estimate public evacuation time by executing precise analysis of traffic flow to prepare practical and efficient ways to protect the public. In this research, road network for Wolsong and Kori NPPs was constructed by CORSIM code and Reliability analysis of this road network was performed.

  12. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  13. Substance Testing in the Fire Service: Making Public Safety a Matter of National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    prevalence rate of certain knee, ankle , and back ailments or disabilities than office workers, no information is available to confirm they are at...archive/adastat91.htm# Anchor -6296 Title 42—The public health and welfare. Chapter 126—Equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities: Section...www.ada.gov/archive/adastat91.htm# Anchor -Sec-23240 Title 42—The public health and welfare. Chapter 126—Equal opportunity for individuals with

  14. The public space of social media connected cultures of the network society

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Social media is restructuring urban practices-through ad-hoc experimentation, commercial software development, and communities of participation. This book is the first to consider how practices contained within social media are situated within a larger genealogy of public space, including theories of communal identity, civitas and democracy, the fete, and self-expression. Through empirical research, the actual social practices of participants of networked publics are described and analyzed. Documenting how online counterpublics use the Internet to transmit classified photos, mobilize activists, and challenge the status quo, Tierney argues that online activities do not stop in online conversations; they are physically grounded through mobile GPS coordinates which are then transformed into activities in physical space-the street, the plaza, the places where people have traditionally gathered to demonstrate and express their opinions publicly.

  15. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking NASA Environmental Data with a National Public Health Cohort Study and a CDC On-Line System to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; hide

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely-sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county, state or regional level as per users need and downloaded in tabular, graphical, and map formats. The

  17. Ripples Make Waves: Binding Structured Activity and Plasticity in Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef H. L. P. Sadowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing novel episodic memories and stable spatial representations depends on an exquisitely choreographed, multistage process involving the online encoding and offline consolidation of sensory information, a process that is largely dependent on the hippocampus. Each step is influenced by distinct neural network states that influence the pattern of activation across cellular assemblies. In recent years, the occurrence of hippocampal sharp wave ripple (SWR oscillations has emerged as a potentially vital network phenomenon mediating the steps between encoding and consolidation, both at a cellular and network level by promoting the rapid replay and reactivation of recent activity patterns. Such events facilitate memory formation by optimising the conditions for synaptic plasticity to occur between contingent neural elements. In this paper, we explore the ways in which SWRs and other network events can bridge the gap between spatiomnemonic processing at cellular/synaptic and network levels in the hippocampus.

  18. An overview of structurally complex network-based modeling of public opinion in the “We the Media” era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Yufei; Liu, Yijun; Chi, Yuxue

    2018-05-01

    As the transmission of public opinion on the Internet in the “We the Media” era tends to be supraterritorial, concealed and complex, the traditional “point-to-surface” transmission of information has been transformed into “point-to-point” reciprocal transmission. A foundation for studies of the evolution of public opinion and its transmission on the Internet in the “We the Media” era can be laid by converting the massive amounts of fragmented information on public opinion that exists on “We the Media” platforms into structurally complex networks of information. This paper describes studies of structurally complex network-based modeling of public opinion on the Internet in the “We the Media” era from the perspective of the development and evolution of complex networks. The progress that has been made in research projects relevant to the structural modeling of public opinion on the Internet is comprehensively summarized. The review considers aspects such as regular grid-based modeling of the rules that describe the propagation of public opinion on the Internet in the “We the Media” era, social network modeling, dynamic network modeling, and supernetwork modeling. Moreover, an outlook for future studies that address complex network-based modeling of public opinion on the Internet is put forward as a summary from the perspective of modeling conducted using the techniques mentioned above.

  19. Social interactions elicit rapid shifts in functional connectivity in the social decision-making network of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Almeida, Olinda; Lopes, João S; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-10-07

    According to the social decision-making (SDM) network hypothesis, SDM is encoded in a network of forebrain and midbrain structures in a distributed and dynamic fashion, such that the expression of a given social behaviour is better reflected by the overall profile of activation across the different loci rather than by the activity of a single node. This proposal has the implicit assumption that SDM relies on integration across brain regions, rather than on regional specialization. Here we tested the occurrence of functional localization and of functional connectivity in the SDM network. For this purpose we used zebrafish to map different social behaviour states into patterns of neuronal activity, as indicated by the expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1, across the SDM network. The results did not support functional localization, as some loci had similar patterns of activity associated with different social behaviour states, and showed socially driven changes in functional connectivity. Thus, this study provides functional support to the SDM network hypothesis and suggests that the neural context in which a given node of the network is operating (i.e. the state of its interconnected areas) is central to its functional relevance. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Hydro power potentials of water distribution networks in public universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adebola KOYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Universities in Southwestern Nigeria are densely populated student-resident campuses, so that provision of regular potable water and electricity are important, but power supply is not optimally available for all the necessary activities. This study assesses the hydropower potential of the water distribution networks in the Universities, with the view to augmenting the inadequate power supplies. The institutions with water distribution configuration capable of accommodating in-pipe turbine are identified; the hydropower parameters, such as the flow characteristics and the pipe geometry are determined to estimate the water power. Global positioning device is used in estimating the elevations of the distribution reservoirs and the nodal points. The hydropower potential of each location is computed incorporating Lucid® Lift-based spherical turbine in the pipeline. From the analysis, the lean and the peak water power are between 1.92 – 3.30 kW and 3.95 – 7.24 kW, respectively, for reservoir-fed distribution networks; while, a minimum of 0.72 kW is got for pipelines associated with borehole-fed overhead tanks. Possible applications of electricity generation from the water distribution networks of the public universities are recommended.

  1. Public Demand and Climate Change Policy Making in OECD Countries – From Dynamics of the Demand to Policy Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Oehl

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s major political challenges. The Kyoto Protocol assigned national emission reduction goals for the developed countries however national governments in these countries have implemented policies varying widely in range and ambition over time and across countries to meet their goals. Can this variation in policy making be explained by dierences in the typically taken for granted – but empirically often neglected – influence of public demand for climate protection?...

  2. Decision making process: a comparison between the public and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Igreja, Arthur Schuler da

    2014-01-01

    The problem of decision making, its mechanisms and consequences is the very core of management, it is virtually impossible to separate the act of manage from this knowledge area. As defined by Herbert Simon – "decision making" as though it were synonymous with "managing". A decision is a selection made by an individual regarding a choice of a conclusion about a situation. This represents a course of behavior pertaining to what must be done or what must not be done. A decision is the point at ...

  3. The need for advanced public transport information services when making transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Chorus, C.G.; Sloten, van R.; Silva, da A.N.R.; Souza, de L.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Intercity train travelers are asked to choose among information services that varied in type of information provided by the

  4. Decision making at the frontline: Exploring coping with moral conflicts during public service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, E.; Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; Musheno, M.

    2015-01-01

    Moral conflicts, where a person is confronted with two or more clashing values, norms or responsibilities, are common in public service delivery. Choosing one is realized at the cost of the other(s). Frontline professionals, such as physicians and police officers, often experience clashes over the

  5. Spatializing Environmental Education: Critical Territorial Consciousness and Radical Place-Making in Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In this case study of an environmental education (EE) program run in public schools of Rio de Janeiro, I use a constructivist spatial analytic to interrogate notions of space, place, and territory in critical EE practices. I examine the connections between socioenvironmental relations, counter-hegemonic political activity, and education by delving…

  6. Children’s Lead Exposure: A Multimedia Modeling Analysis to Guide Public Health Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s National Drinking Water Advisory C...

  7. Government Accountability Reports and Public Education Policy: Studying Political Actors' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Timothy Ross

    2013-01-01

    This study asks how government accountability reports are used to influence public education policy. Government accountability reports, called "audits" in Utah, prove to be useful tools for examining education policy. Using a collective case study design examining Utah's Class Size Reduction (CSR) policy, government accountability…

  8. FILMING AYAT-AYAT CINTA: The Making of a Muslim Public Sphere in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nuril Huda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the film’s public screening of the novel Ayat-ayat Cinta shapes an Indonesian Muslim public sphere in which the notion of religious authority is re-created. It operates on three levels: first, the audiences’ perception of the film as a da`wah and their reactions toward the film’s contents; second, the rivalry between the novel writer and the film director on particular issues distancing the film from its novel version; and third, the public debates on the issue of polygamy revealed by the film. The paper finds out that the film Ayat-ayat Cinta has arguably invited Muslim people to have their religious teaching in cinema. More importantly, the wide publication of the film on the internet and mass media has enabled all individuals to take part in the debates raised by the film. In these debates, participation is widely open to all, and argumentation is not based on superiority.

  9. Making Michigan Right-to-Work: Implementation Problems in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how public school districts responded to Michigan's 2012 "right-to-work" law. It describes the key findings from reviews of more than 500 teacher collective bargaining agreements. It also raises several questions about the legality of some union contracts with regard to this new law. Approximately 75 percent of…

  10. kNOw Fear: Making Rural Public Spaces Safe for Women and Girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Acute violence against women and girls in rural areas has remained ... freedom from violence and safety for women and girls in rural public spaces in India. ... where both young women and men will come together to change attitudes, ... who are constitutionally mandated to ensure social justice and equitable development.

  11. Making the Blue Zones: Neoliberalism and nudges in public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the ideological and political origins of a place-based and commercial health promotion effort, the Blue Zones Project (BZP), launched in Iowa in 2011. Through critical discourse analysis, I argue that the BZP does reflect a neoliberalization of public health, but as an "actually existing neoliberalism" it emerges from a specific policy context, including dramatic health sector policy changes due to the national Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare; a media discourse of health crisis for an aging Midwestern population; and an effort to refashion Iowa cities as sites of healthy and active living, to retain and attract a creative class of young entrepreneurs. The BZP employs many well-known mechanisms of neoliberal governance: the public-private partnership; competition among communities for "public" funds; promotion of an apolitical discourse on individual responsibility and ownership of health; decentralizing governance to the "community" level; and marketing, branding, and corporate sponsorship of public projects. The BZP exemplifies the process of "neoliberal governmentality," by which individuals learn to govern themselves and their "life projects" in line with a market-based rationality. However, with its emphasis on "nudging" individuals towards healthy behaviors through small changes in the local environment, the BZP reflects the rise of "libertarian paternalism," a variant of neoliberalism, as a dominant ideology underlying contemporary health promotion efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. When America Makes, America Works A Successful Public Private 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    community within a public-private partnership model to drive an innovation economy forward for the nation. Ad- ditive manufacturing is a game-changer...also is an incredibly powerful teaching tool to reinvigorate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math - ematics—or STEM—education in the United States

  13. When America Makes, America Works: A Successful Public Private 3D Printing (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    tive community within a public-private partnership model to drive an innovation economy forward for the nation. Ad- ditive manufacturing is a game...plications. It also is an incredibly powerful teaching tool to reinvigorate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math - ematics—or STEM—education in the

  14. New perspectives on the "silo effect": initial comparisons of network structures across public health collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-04-01

    We explored to what extent "silos" (preferential partnering) persist in interorganizational boundaries despite advances in working across boundaries. We focused on organizational homophily and resulting silo effects within networks that might both facilitate and impede success in public health collaboratives (PHCs). We analyzed data from 162 PHCs with a series of exponential random graph models to determine the influence of uniform and differential homophily among organizations and to identify the propensity for partnerships with similar organizations. The results demonstrated a low presence (8%) of uniform homophily among networks, whereas a greater number (30%) of PHCs contained varying levels of differential homophily by 1 or more types of organization. We noted that the higher frequency among law enforcement, nonprofits, and public health organizations demonstrated a partner preference with similar organizations. Although we identified only a modest occurrence of partner preference in PHCs, overall success in efforts to work across boundaries might be problematic when public health members (often leaders of PHCs) exhibit the tendency to form silos.

  15. Microarray Data Processing Techniques for Genome-Scale Network Inference from Large Public Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Sriram; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-09-19

    Pre-processing of microarray data is a well-studied problem. Furthermore, all popular platforms come with their own recommended best practices for differential analysis of genes. However, for genome-scale network inference using microarray data collected from large public repositories, these methods filter out a considerable number of genes. This is primarily due to the effects of aggregating a diverse array of experiments with different technical and biological scenarios. Here we introduce a pre-processing pipeline suitable for inferring genome-scale gene networks from large microarray datasets. We show that partitioning of the available microarray datasets according to biological relevance into tissue- and process-specific categories significantly extends the limits of downstream network construction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pre-processing pipeline by inferring genome-scale networks for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using two different construction methods and a collection of 11,760 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray chips. Our pre-processing pipeline and the datasets used in this paper are made available at http://alurulab.cc.gatech.edu/microarray-pp.

  16. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  17. Making the Case for Public-Private Child Care Partnerships: Child Care Partnership Project. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…

  18. Success nonetheless : Making public utilities work in small-scale democracies despite difficult capital conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the study of politics is dedicated to identifying the circumstances under which democracy will flourish. Putnam made a major contribution to this field through his concept of social capital as developed in Making Democracy Work. Putnam found that communities with a high number of

  19. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  20. #DDOD Use Case: Make VBM (Value-Based Payment Modifier) reporting for all groups publicly available

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request to make Value-Based Payment Modifier (VBM) reporting more transparent for everyone. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that...

  1. The Effect of High-Impact Writing on Decision Making Within a Public Sector Bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchan, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Finds that respondents (working in a medium-sized federal government agency) reading high-impact reports did not make significantly better decisions than those reading bureaucratic reports. Shows that context factors (perceived work roles, job design, organizational structure, report genre expectations, and organizational language norms) caused…

  2. Making Failure Pay: For-Profit Tutoring, High-Stakes Testing, and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill P.

    2010-01-01

    A little-discussed aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a mandate that requires failing schools to hire after-school tutoring companies--the largest of which are private, for-profit corporations--and to pay them with federal funds. "Making Failure Pay" takes a hard look at the implications of this new blurring of the…

  3. A Low-Carbon-Based Bilevel Optimization Model for Public Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the demand of low-carbon transportation, this paper studies the optimization of public transit network based on the concept of low carbon. Taking travel time, operation cost, energy consumption, pollutant emission, and traffic efficiency as the optimization objectives, a bilevel model is proposed in order to maximize the benefits of both travelers and operators and minimize the environmental cost. Then the model is solved with the differential evolution (DE algorithm and applied to a real network of Baoji city. The results show that the model can not only ensure the benefits of travelers and operators, but can also reduce pollutant emission and energy consumption caused by the operations of buses, which reflects the concept of low carbon.

  4. How to make complexity look simple? Conveying ecosystems restoration complexity for socio-economic research and public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenk, Klaus; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people’s livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem’s information in a way that is accessible to the wider public. In this paper we take up this challenge with the ultimate aim of contributing to making a step change in science’s contribution to ecosystems restoration practice. Using peatlands as a paradigmatically complex ecosystem, we put in place a transdisciplinary process to articulate a description of the processes and outcomes of restoration that can be understood widely by the public. We provide evidence of the usefulness of the process and tools in addressing four key challenges relevant to restoration of any complex ecosystem: (1) how to represent restoration outcomes; (2) how to establish a restoration reference; (3) how to cope with varying restoration time-lags and (4) how to define spatial units for restoration. This evidence includes the way the process resulted in the creation of materials that are now being used by restoration practitioners for communication with the public and in other research contexts. Our main contribution is of an epistemological nature: while ecosystem services-based approaches have enhanced the integration of academic disciplines and non-specialist knowledge, this has so far only followed one direction (from the biophysical underpinning to the description of ecosystem services and their appreciation by the public). We propose that it is the mix of approaches and epistemological directions (including from the public to the

  5. Social Sensor Analytics: Making Sense of Network Models in Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Chase P.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Sathanur, Arun V.; Sego, Landon H.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-07-27

    Social networks can be thought of as noisy sensor networks mapping real world information to the web. Owing to the extensive body of literature in sensor network analysis, this work sought to apply several novel and traditional methods in sensor network analysis for the purposes of efficiently interrogating social media data streams from raw data. We carefully revisit our definition of a social media signal from previous work both in terms of time-varying features within the data and the networked nature of the medium. Further, we detail our analysis of global patterns in Twitter over the months of November 2013 and June 2014, detect and categorize events, and illustrate how these analyses can be used to inform graph-based models of Twitter, namely using a recent network influence model called PhySense: similar to PageRank but tuned to behavioral analysis by leveraging a sociologically inspired probabilistic model. We ultimately identify forms of information dissemination via analysis of time series and dynamic graph spectra and corroborate these findings through manual investigation of the data as a requisite step in modeling the diffusion process with PhySense. We hope to sufficiently characterize global behavior in a medium such as Twitter as a means of learning global model parameters one may use to predict or simulate behavior on a large scale. We have made our time series and dynamic graph analytical code available via a GitHub repository https://github.com/cpatdowling/salsa and our data are available upon request.

  6. How people make friends in social networking sites—A microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2012-02-01

    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential acceptance, creation, and attachment. Based on the linearly preferential linking, we put forward an analyzable network model which can reproduce the degree distribution of the network. The research framework presented in the paper could provide a potential insight into how the micro-motives of users lead to the global structure of online social networks.

  7. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries - a systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, Hilde P E M; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru; Quanjel, Marcel; Dulf, Diana; Glümer, Charlotte; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M

    2017-02-03

    Facilitating and enhancing interaction between stakeholders involved in the policymaking process to stimulate collaboration and use of evidence, is important to foster the development of effective Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) policies. Performing an analysis of real-world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes of these European country cases. A systems analysis of the local HEPA policymaking process was performed in three European countries involved in the 'REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity' (REPOPA) project, resulting in three schematic models showing the main stakeholders and their relationships. The models were used to compare the systems, focusing on implications with respect to collaboration and use of evidence in local HEPA policymaking. Policy documents and relevant webpages were examined and main stakeholders were interviewed. The systems analysis in each country identified the main stakeholders involved and their position and relations in the policymaking process. The Netherlands and Denmark were the most similar and both differed most from Romania, especially at the level of accountability of the local public authorities for local HEPA policymaking. The categories of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and

  8. Simultaneous Optimization of Road Tolls and Tradable Credits in Public-private Mixed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a hybrid management policy of road tolls and tradable credits in mixed road networks with both public and private roads. In the public sub-network, a tradable credit scheme is applied to mitigate traffic congestion. In the private sub-network, tolls are collected by the private company, but the toll levels and toll locations are determined by the government. The purpose of toll charge is two-fold: on the one hand, the government uses it as a tool for mitigating congestion; on the other hand, a threshold of revenue should be guaranteed for the profitability of the private company. A bi-level programming model is formulated to minimize the total travel time in the network by taking into account the user equilibrium travel behaviour and the revenue requirement of private firms. To obtain a  global optimum solution, the bi-level model is transformed into an equivalent single-level mixed integer linear program that can be easily solved with commercial software. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the mixed management schemes can achieve favourable targets, namely, joint implementation of road tolls and tradable credits can effectively mitigate traffic congestion and meanwhile maintain reasonable revenue for the private company.

  9. Making better babies: public health and race betterment in Indiana, 1920-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2002-05-01

    In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard-Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, "race betterment," and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing.

  10. Making Better Babies: Public Health and Race Betterment in Indiana, 1920–1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2002-01-01

    In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard–Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, “race betterment,” and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing. PMID:11988439

  11. Variations in disaster evacuation behavior: public responses versus private sector executive decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, T E

    1992-06-01

    Data obtained from 65 executives working for tourism firms in three sample communities permitted comparison with the public warning response literature regarding three topics: disaster evacuation planning, initial warning responses, and disaster evacuation behavior. Disaster evacuation planning was reported by nearly all of these business executives, although it was highly variable in content, completeness, and formality. Managerial responses to post-disaster warnings paralleled the type of complex social processes that have been documented within the public response literature, except that warning sources and confirmation behavior were significantly affected by contact with authorities. Five key areas of difference were discovered in disaster evacuation behavior pertaining to: influence of planning, firm versus family priorities, shelter selection, looting concerns, and media contacts.

  12. Public financing of the Medicare program will make its uniform structure increasingly costly to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Shepard, Mark; Skinner, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    The US Medicare program consumes an ever-rising share of the federal budget. Although this public spending can produce health and social benefits, raising taxes to finance it comes at the cost of slower economic growth. In this article we describe a model incorporating the benefits of public programs and the cost of tax financing. The model implies that the "one-size-fits-all" Medicare program, with everyone covered by the same insurance policy, will be increasingly difficult to sustain. We show that a Medicare program with guaranteed basic benefits and the option to purchase additional coverage could lead to more unequal health spending but slower growth in taxation, greater overall well-being, and more rapid growth of gross domestic product. Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare spending and economic prosperity.

  13. Boundary-making in the public sphere: Contestations of free speech

    OpenAIRE

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn Haagensen; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Thorbjørnsrud, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental human right and considered a core value in liberal democracies. However, it is also one of our time’s most contested issues, constantly claimed either to be too wide-ranging, allowing continuous repression of minority groups, or too limited – restricting dissent and democratic deliberation. In this book we depart from conventional approaches of free speech, which tend to focus on whether specific types of public talk should be considered legally allowed or n...

  14. Civic space: questions of society, history and politics to make a new public space

    OpenAIRE

    Dinneen, Marian

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The ambition of my thesis project is to design civic space, space for civic engagement. Taking inspiration from the various voices who have identified a democratic crisis and who are themselves more civilly engaged, I am designing for a society that has revolutionised itself to be more active in its own governance. I propose an alternative local government whose public face is dissolved into the street into an aggregation of rooms rather than on...

  15. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...... to exercise (42% vs. 0%), and with improved 30-day survival (69% vs. 15%, p=0.001). Among those presenting with a shockable rhythm, 20 (65%) had Return of Spontaneous Circulation upon arrival of EMS and 8 (26%) were conscious, which emphasizes the diagnostic value of ECG downloads from AEDs. Survival could...

  16. Can enrichment make Brazilian tapir spend more time on view to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Luísa Mascarenhas Ladeia; Young, Robert John

    2015-01-01

    One common visitor complaint in zoos is that the nonhuman animals are not visible. This problem needs to be resolved without compromising the animals' welfare; environmental enrichment could solve the problem. This study investigated whether enrichment would increase public exposure time of lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in the Belo Horizonte Zoo in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Observations were made before (62 hr) and during (62 hr) the introduction of enrichment using focal animal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior. The 5 enrichment items were a bamboo fence covered in vines, logs, a sandbox, dry leaves, and bamboo bushes. Before the enrichments were applied, the tapir was not visible to the public for more than 85% of the time. In addition, during the analysis of the enrichment treatment, other variables were considered--such as weekday, time of day, and weather conditions--which could influence the animals' interaction with the enrichments. The enrichments increased and decreased the expression of some behaviors; however, public viewing time of the animals did not increase. Thus, the enrichment applied was not strong enough to overcome the animals' crepuscular behavior.

  17. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...... compare the VPA negotiations in Cameroon (2006–2009) with three different ‘ideal’ models of participatory policy-making: the rationalist, the communicative incremental and the mixed model, which we expect have different implications for legitimacy. We conclude that the Cameroonian process is closest...

  18. Utilisation of Cost Type Information in Decision Making Process Approaches on Public Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai (Andreescu) Gabriela; Ionescu (Eftene) Nicoleta; Uta Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Managerial decisions and decision making process stand for the key issues of each entity around which all activities of financial information collection, processing, review, construing, summarizing, and not only, gravitate within every organisation. Moreover, costs (calculation, review and optimization of such) are important as the whole activity of an organisation reflects itself in costs, respectively based on information concerning costs based on which managers may decide on purchasing, pr...

  19. Reward-dependent learning in neuronal networks for planning and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, S; Changeux, J P

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal network models have been proposed for the organization of evaluation and decision processes in prefrontal circuitry and their putative neuronal and molecular bases. The models all include an implementation and simulation of an elementary reward mechanism. Their central hypothesis is that tentative rules of behavior, which are coded by clusters of active neurons in prefrontal cortex, are selected or rejected based on an evaluation by this reward signal, which may be conveyed, for instance, by the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons with which the prefrontal cortex is densely interconnected. At the molecular level, the reward signal is postulated to be a neurotransmitter such as dopamine, which exerts a global modulatory action on prefrontal synaptic efficacies, either via volume transmission or via targeted synaptic triads. Negative reinforcement has the effect of destabilizing the currently active rule-coding clusters; subsequently, spontaneous activity varies again from one cluster to another, giving the organism the chance to discover and learn a new rule. Thus, reward signals function as effective selection signals that either maintain or suppress currently active prefrontal representations as a function of their current adequacy. Simulations of this variation-selection have successfully accounted for the main features of several major tasks that depend on prefrontal cortex integrity, such as the delayed-response test, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Tower of London test and the Stroop test. For the more complex tasks, we have found it necessary to supplement the external reward input with a second mechanism that supplies an internal reward; it consists of an auto-evaluation loop which short-circuits the reward input from the exterior. This allows for an internal evaluation of covert motor intentions without actualizing them as behaviors, by simply testing them covertly by comparison with memorized former experiences. This element of architecture

  20. Mapping Diversity of Publication Patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities: An Approach Making Use of Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik T. Verleysen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a method for systematically mapping diversity of publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities in terms of publication type, publication language and co-authorship. Design/methodology/approach: In a follow-up to the hard partitioning clustering by Verleysen and Weeren in 2016, we now propose the complementary use of fuzzy cluster analysis, making use of a membership coefficient to study gradual differences between publication styles among authors within a scholarly discipline. The analysis of the probability density function of the membership coefficient allows to assess the distribution of publication styles within and between disciplines. Findings: As an illustration we analyze 1,828 productive authors affiliated in Flanders, Belgium. Whereas a hard partitioning previously identified two broad publication styles, an international one vs. a domestic one, fuzzy analysis now shows gradual differences among authors. Internal diversity also varies across disciplines and can be explained by researchers' specialization and dissemination strategies. Research limitations: The dataset used is limited to one country for the years 2000-2011; a cognitive classification of authors may yield a different result from the affiliation-based classification used here. Practical implications: Our method is applicable to other bibliometric and research evaluation contexts, especially for the social sciences and humanities in non-Anglophone countries. Originality/value: The method proposed is a novel application of cluster analysis to the field of bibliometrics. Applied to publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities, for the first time it systematically documents intra-disciplinary diversity.

  1. Science Outreach and the Religious Public: The Source Makes All the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, G. R.; Hill, C.; Wolgemuth, K.

    2017-12-01

    Public resistance to well established scientific understanding has been a persistent problem in the US. Decades of improved educational materials, upgraded K-12 standards, and several successful court battles to curb anti-science influences did little to change the percentage of Americans resistant to even considering the evidence for subjects such as evolution or ancient Earth history. Research in the social sciences suggests that one reason has been a failure to recognize the importance of the source of information. Studies have documented that people are more receptive to challenging viewpoints when the advocate (the source) is recognized as a member of their own group or "tribe." The personal worldview or group-identity of an expert can determine how willing an audience is to consider the argument, much more so than the expert's scientific credentials. For a religious audience, this means that the quality of educational materials and the strength of an argument may be irrelevant if delivered by someone known to be dismissive of fundamental religious beliefs. In contrast, significant inroads have been realized with the religious public when scientists of faith have taken a pro-science message to members of their own religious affiliations. Encouraging stories are coming from outreach efforts of organizations and programs such as BioLogos, American Scientific Affiliation, Solid Rock Lectures, and AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion. Secular scientists interested in outreach can benefit greatly by keeping a short list of resources (blogs, books, speakers) by religious scientists advocating for the legitimacy of modern science, or by directly teaming with scientists of faith. A recent example from our own efforts includes an 11 author book, The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth, aimed primarily at the Christian public to explain why Noah's flood does not explain the planet's complex geology. Eight authors are Christians and three are not.

  2. Energy-political decision making and public opinion. Energiepolitische Entscheidungsfindung und oeffentliche Meinung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, L

    1989-09-01

    The author reminds us briefly of the general aims of an energy policy, and shows for the nuclear energy, how the public valued this kind of energy very differently in the course of approximately three decades: The evaluation shifted from the phase of 'euphoria', via the phase of 'scepticism, ideology and agitation' and the phase of 'realism' to the phase of 'renewed controversy'. It is about time to return to appropriate criteria of evaluation for all kinds of energy, which requires intensive and differentiated persuasion of all involved in the energy field. The author presents the areas of such persuasion activities. (orig.).

  3. Multi-criteria decision making : AHP method applied for network bridge prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allah Bukhsh, Zaharah; Stipanovic, Irina; Klanker, Giel; Hoj, Niels; Imam, Boulent; Xenidis, Yiannis; Mandić Ivanković, Ana

    2017-01-01

    In bridge management systems, multi-objective decision-making has emerged as a decision support technique to integrate various technical information and stakeholder values. Different multicriteria decision making techniques and tools have been developed in the last three decades. This paper presents

  4. Patient participation in decision making on biomedical research: changing the network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron - Flinterman, J.F.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Bunders - Aelen, J.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Participation of end users in decision-making on science is increasingly practiced, as witnessed by the growing body of scientific literature on case evaluations. In the biomedical field, however, end-user participation in decision-making is rare. Some scholars argue that because patients are

  5. CREATION OF THE SHUGHNANI DISCOURSE OF PUBLIC SPHERE IN THE MEDIA AND SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П Ш Абдулхамидова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shughnani, one of the Pamiri languages of Tajikistan, is a minority language, and has no written script. Socio-economic and political changes in the lives of language speakers have affected the functioning of this small language, which was previously devoid of social significance. In the late 1980s, ideas began to emerge about the expansion of its functions, and attempts were made to use it in print media, television and radio. Observation of the functional development of Shugnani in these media led to the hypothesis of the emergence of a public sphere discourse, where it is possible to raise problems of social importance, and discuss them to search for eventual solutions. The main purpose of the article is to study attempts to create a discourse of the public sphere for Shugnani, in media and on the Facebook social network. The theoretical and methodological approaches of the study are based on the concept of the pub-lic sphere of Habermas, using the Critical Discourse Analysis paradigm (Fairclough. The data for the study were taken from Shughnani print media, from speeches on television and radio, and from postings by members of Shughnani Facebook groups. The findings reveal that the Shughnani presence in the media is limited, and construction of public opinion is more successfully carried out via Shughnani groups on Facebook. Analysis of the discursive practices involved shows that, despite the slow development of a media presence, the establishment of public discourse occurs through the creation of verbal units which have a journalistic character. Shugnani-speaking groups on Facebook contribute to the strengthening of the posi-tion of the language, through the formulation and discussion of issues relevant to members of the language community and the creation of language units that enhance confidence in the use of non-written Shugnani in the public sphere.

  6. Non-equilibrium physics of neural networks for leaning, memory and decision making: landscape and flux perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    Cognitive behaviors are determined by underlying neural networks. Many brain functions, such as learning and memory, can be described by attractor dynamics. We developed a theoretical framework for global dynamics by quantifying the landscape associated with the steady state probability distributions and steady state curl flux, measuring the degree of non-equilibrium through detailed balance breaking. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. Both landscape and flux determine the kinetic paths and speed of decision making. The kinetics and global stability of decision making are explored by quantifying the landscape topography through the barrier heights and the mean first passage time. The theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental observations: more errors occur under time pressure. We quantitatively explored two mechanisms of the speed-accuracy tradeoff with speed emphasis and further uncovered the tradeoffs among speed, accuracy, and energy cost. Our results show an optimal balance among speed, accuracy, and the energy cost in decision making. We uncovered possible mechanisms of changes of mind and how mind changes improve performance in decision processes. Our landscape approach can help facilitate an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms of cognitive processes and identify the key elements in neural networks.

  7. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  8. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  9. Math on a sphere: Making use of public displays in mathematics and programming education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eisenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Science on a Sphere (SoS is a compelling educational display installed at numerous museums and planetariums around the world; essentially the SoS display is a large spherical surface on which multicolor high-resolution depictions of (e.g. planetary weather maps may be depicted. Fascinating as the SoS display is, however, it is in practice restricted to the use of museum professionals; students (and for that matter, older museum visitors are unable to create their own displays for the surface. This paper describes a working software system, Math on a Sphere (MoS, that democratizes the SoS display by providing a simple programming interface to the public, over the World Wide Web. Briefly, our system allows anyone to write programs for spherical graphics patterns, and then to upload those programs at a planetarium or museum site and see the result on the giant sphere. This paper describes the implementation of the MoS system; sketches a sample project; and concludes with a more wide-ranging discussion of our user testing to date, as well as strategies for empowering children and students with greater control of public displays.

  10. Public participation in energy related decision making: Six case studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, F.; Cole, J.; Kloman, E.; McCabe, J.; Sawicki, P.

    1977-12-01

    Each of the six case studies documents public participation in Federal and/or state governmental decisions related to energy facility siting. Four of the cases involved decisions on specific facilities at specific sites, namely: (1) various state and federal licensing procedures for the Seabrook, New Hampshire nuclear facility; (2) the Maine Environmental Improvement Commission's denial of a permit for an oil refinery on Sears Island in Penobscot Bay; (3) the Atomic Energy Commission's amendment to the license for the Big Rock Point, Michigan, nuclear reactor to allow an increased level of plutonium-enriched fuel use; (4) the AEC's review, arising from disclosure of a geological fault, of the North Anna River, Virginia, nuclear facility. A fifth case documents a series of public meetings conducted in Pennsylvania by the Governor's Energy Council to consider the energy park concept. The sixth study was a narrative history and analysis of RM-50-1, a rulemaking proceeding conducted by the AEC in 1972 and 73 on emergency core cooling system operating standards.

  11. Informed decision making about predictive DNA tests: arguments for more public visibility of personal deliberations about the good life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenink, Marianne; van der Burg, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Since its advent, predictive DNA testing has been perceived as a technology that may have considerable impact on the quality of people's life. The decision whether or not to use this technology is up to the individual client. However, to enable well considered decision making both the negative as well as the positive freedom of the individual should be supported. In this paper, we argue that current professional and public discourse on predictive DNA-testing is lacking when it comes to supporting positive freedom, because it is usually framed in terms of risk and risk management. We show how this 'risk discourse' steers thinking on the good life in a particular way. We go on to argue that empirical research into the actual deliberation and decision making processes of individuals and families may be used to enrich the environment of personal deliberation in three ways: (1) it points at a richer set of values that deliberators can take into account, (2) it acknowledges the shared nature of genes, and (3) it shows how one might frame decisions in a non-binary way. We argue that the public sharing and discussing of stories about personal deliberations offers valuable input for others who face similar choices: it fosters their positive freedom to shape their view of the good life in relation to DNA-diagnostics. We conclude by offering some suggestions as to how to realize such public sharing of personal stories.

  12. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  13. Results from a psychometric assessment of a new tool for measuring evidence-based decision making in public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Ferreira Hino, Adriano Akira; Allen, Peg; McQueen, Amy; Jacob, Rebekah R; Baker, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-02-01

    In order to better understand how to improve evidence-based decision making (EBDM) in state health departments, measurement tools are needed to evaluate changes in EBDM. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a new measurement tool to assess EBDM in public health practice settings. A questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested and refined in an iterative process with the input of public health practitioners with the aim of identifying a set of specific measures representing different components of EBDM. Data were collected in a national survey of state health department chronic disease practitioners. The final dataset (n=879) for psychometric testing was comprised of 19 EBDM items that were first examined using exploratory factor analysis, and then confirmatory factor analysis. The final model from confirmatory factor analysis includes five latent factors representing components of EBDM: capacity for evaluation, expectations and incentives for EBDM, access to evidence and resources for EBDM, participatory decision making, and leadership support and commitment. This study addresses the need for empirically tested and theory-aligned measures that may be used to assess the extent to which EBDM is currently implemented, and further, to gauge the success of strategies to improve EBDM, in public health settings. This EBDM measurement tool may help identify needed supports for enhanced capacity and implementation of effective strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenan M. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  15. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  16. Public Reporting of Hospital-Level Cancer Surgical Volumes in California: An Opportunity to Inform Decision Making and Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance

    2016-10-01

    Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.

  17. User-based representation of time-resolved multimodal public transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandretti, Laura; Karsai, Márton; Gauvin, Laetitia

    2016-07-01

    Multimodal transportation systems, with several coexisting services like bus, tram and metro, can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where the different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated with distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geo-localized transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data. Here, we provide a novel user-based representation of public transportation systems, which combines representations, accounting for the presence of multiple lines and reducing the effect of spatial embeddedness, while considering the total travel time, its variability across the schedule, and taking into account the number of transfers necessary. After the adjustment of earlier techniques to the novel representation framework, we analyse the public transportation systems of several French municipal areas and identify hidden patterns of privileged connections. Furthermore, we study their efficiency as compared to the commuting flow. The proposed representation could help to enhance resilience of local transportation systems to provide better design policies for future developments.

  18. Public awareness and disaster risk reduction: just-in-time networks and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Linkov, Faina; Shubnikov, Eugene; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2008-01-01

    Improving public awareness through education has been recognized widely as a basis for reducing the risk of disasters. Some of the first disaster just-in-time (JIT) education modules were built within 3-6 days after the south Asia tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, and the Bam, Pakistan, and Indonesia earthquakes through a Supercourse. Web monitoring showed that visitors represented a wide spectrum of disciplines and educational levels from 120 developed and developing countries. Building disaster networks using an educational strategy seizes the opportunity of increased public interest to teach and find national and global expertise in hazard and risk information. To be effective, an expert network and a template for the delivery of JIT education must be prepared before an event occurs, focusing on developing core materials that could be customized rapidly, and then be based on the information received from a recent disaster. The recyclable process of the materials would help to improve the quality of the teaching, and decrease the time required for preparation. The core materials can be prepared for disasters resulting from events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, floods, and bioterrorism.

  19. The Ethics of Rural Place-Making: Public Space, Poetics, and the Ontologies of Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Potter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The small settlement of Hopetoun in the Victoria’s north-east – Mallee country – is oriented physically, economically and socially around Lake Laschelle. Large signs map the way for the tourist to its edge, where boat ramps and picnic sites await. And yet there is no water here and has been none for years. The presence of water in its absence is palpable. Over three years I followed water around the drought-ridden Mallee, a participant in a creative research project that sought to poetically recollect and assemble stories from this country as an experiment in place-making. Via collaborative practice between artists, with local community, and with the material environment of the Mallee itself, this still ongoing project brings poetic practice to bear on questions of political urgency – drought, climate change, community distress – usually the province of the techno and social sciences. In a land cultivated to take note of water’s absence, the project began to assemble its presence. This paper discusses this project as a methodological experiment that raises unsettling questions about the ethics of place-making in a context of post-colonial environmental change.

  20. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-08-22

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor