WorldWideScience

Sample records for network making public

  1. Making media public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke; Gaber, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on two related street screening initiatives, Tahrir Cinema and Kazeboon, which took place in Egypt mainly between 2011 and 2013. Based on long-term ethnographic studies and activist work, we explore street screenings as place-making and describe how participants at street scr...... because they made media engage with and take place within everyday spaces that the revolution aims to liberate and transform, and because the screenings’ public and illegal manner at times embodied events portrayed in the images....

  2. Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: a social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi-Nooraie Reza; Dobbins Maureen; Brouwers Melissa; Wakefield Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. Methods The ...

  3. Patient satisfaction point-of-care technology makes media waves. Public relations campaign heightens presence for GetWell:)Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    GetWell:)Network, a Bethesda, MD-based interactive patient care provider, had the right tool. What it didn't have was the means to get the word out about that tool. So in September 2006, the provider tapped Waltham, MA-based healthcare public relations agency Schwartz Communications to design and execute a national media relations campaign about the PatientLife:)System, GetWell's interactive educational bedside tool.

  4. Making technology public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross; Johannsen, Nis; Strand, Dixi Louise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Through an analysis of a demonstration video presenting a new national e-health portal, this paper aims to explore the assumptions and limitations of the concept of “script” and suggests a different approach to analysing the moral order of technology design. Design/methodology/approach ...... secure the future of the technology and organisation behind it. Research limitations/implications – The paper extends the script metaphor beyond a limited designer-technology-user configuration and argues that scripts in the paraphernalia of technologies also can and should be “de...... public. Empirically it contributes to the discussion of transformed patient identities following in the wake of implementation and use of ICT in the health care sector. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  5. Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: a social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Brouwers, Melissa; Wakefield, Patricia

    2012-05-16

    Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. The staff were invited to respond to an online questionnaire inquiring about information seeking behavior, identification of colleague expertise, and friendship status. Three networks were developed based on the 170 participants. Overall shape, key indices, the most central people and brokers, and their characteristics were identified. The network analysis showed a low density and localized information-seeking network. Inter-personal connections were mainly clustered by organizational divisions; and people tended to limit information-seeking connections to a handful of peers in their division. However, recognition of expertise and friendship networks showed more cross-divisional connections. Members of the office of the Medical Officer of Health were located at the heart of the department, bridging across divisions. A small group of professional consultants and middle managers were the most-central staff in the network, also connecting their divisions to the center of the information-seeking network. In each division, there were some locally central staff, mainly practitioners, who connected their neighboring peers; but they were not necessarily connected to other experts or managers. The methods of social network analysis were useful in providing a systems approach to understand how knowledge might flow in an organization. The findings of this study can be used to identify early adopters of knowledge translation interventions, forming Communities of Practice, and potential internal knowledge brokers.

  6. Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: a social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi-Nooraie Reza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. Methods The staff were invited to respond to an online questionnaire inquiring about information seeking behavior, identification of colleague expertise, and friendship status. Three networks were developed based on the 170 participants. Overall shape, key indices, the most central people and brokers, and their characteristics were identified. Results The network analysis showed a low density and localized information-seeking network. Inter-personal connections were mainly clustered by organizational divisions; and people tended to limit information-seeking connections to a handful of peers in their division. However, recognition of expertise and friendship networks showed more cross-divisional connections. Members of the office of the Medical Officer of Health were located at the heart of the department, bridging across divisions. A small group of professional consultants and middle managers were the most-central staff in the network, also connecting their divisions to the center of the information-seeking network. In each division, there were some locally central staff, mainly practitioners, who connected their neighboring peers; but they were not necessarily connected to other experts or managers. Conclusions The methods of social network analysis were useful in providing a systems approach to understand how knowledge might flow in an organization. The findings of this study can be used to identify early adopters of knowledge translation interventions, forming

  7. The evolution of social networks through the implementation of evidence-informed decision-making interventions: a longitudinal analysis of three public health units in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Marin, Alexandra; Hanneman, Robert; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2015-12-03

    We studied the evolution of information-seeking networks over a 2-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented to promote evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) in three public health units in Ontario, Canada. We tested whether engagement of staff in the intervention and their EIDM behavior were associated with being chosen as information source and how the trend of inter-divisional communications and the dominance of experts evolved over time. Local managers at each health unit selected a group of staff to get engage in Knowledge Broker-led workshops and development of evidence summaries to address local public health problems. The staff were invited to answer three online surveys (at baseline and two annual follow-ups) including name generator questions eliciting the list of the staff they would turn to for help integrating research evidence into practice. We used stochastic actor-oriented modeling to study the evolution of networks. We tested the effect of engagement in the intervention, EIDM behavior scores, organizational divisions, and structural dynamics of social networks on the tendency of staff to select information sources, and the change in its trend between year 1 and year 2 of follow-up. In all the three health units, and especially in the two units with higher levels of engagement in the intervention, the network evolved towards a more centralized structure, with an increasing significance of already central staff. The staff showed greater tendencies to seek information from peers with higher EIDM behavior scores. In the public health unit that had highest engagement and stronger leadership support, the engaged staff became more central. In all public health units, the engaged staff showed an increasing tendency towards forming clusters. The staff in the three public health units showed a tendency towards limiting their connections within their divisions. The longitudinal analysis provided us with a means to study the

  8. Networks and Networking: The Public Administrative Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Published in 1997, the article “Treating Networks Seriously: Practical and Research-Based Agendas in Public Administration” outlined the importance of networks for the field of public administration and suggested a series of research agendas that should be pursued. That argument has received

  9. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  10. Scaling in public transport networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Ferber

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the statistical properties of public transport networks. These networks are defined by a set of public transport routes (bus lines and the stations serviced by these. For larger networks these appear to possess a scale-free structure, as it is demonstrated e.g. by the Zipf law distribution of the number of routes servicing a given station or for the distribution of the number of stations which can be visited from a chosen one without changing the means of transport. Moreover, a rather particular feature of the public transport network is that many routes service common subsets of stations. We discuss the possibility of new scaling laws that govern intrinsic properties of such subsets.

  11. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    through roaming agreements o Clearinghouse IP eXchange o Satellite hub station o VSAT terminals o Transport network (backhaul) o Lawful intercept...Mobile Network VPN Virtual Private Network VQiPS Video Quality in Public Safety VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal WAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi

  13. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is stil...

  14. Data for decision making in networked health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bourret

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, nowadays we live in a networked society: a society of information, knowledge and services (Castells, 1996, with strong specificities in the Health field (Bourret, 2003, Silber, 2003. The World Health Organization (WHO has outlined the importance of information for improving health for all. However, financial resources remain limited. Health costs represent 11% of GNP in France, Germany, Switzerland and Canada, 14% in the USA, and 7.5% in Spain and the United Kingdom. Governments, local powers, health or insurance organizations therefore face difficult choices in terms of opportunities and priorities, and for that they need specific and valuable data. Firstly, this paper provide a comprehensive overview of our networked society and the appointment of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies and Health (in other words e-Health in a perspective of needs and uses at the micro, meso, and macro levels. We point out the main challenges of development of Nationwide Health Information Network both in the US, UK and France. Then we analyze the main issues about data for Decision Making in Networked Health: coordination and evaluation. In the last sections, we use an Information System perspective to investigate the three interoperability layers (micro, meso and macro. We analyze the requirements and challenges to design an interoperability global architecture which supports different kinds of interactions; then we focus on the harmonization efforts provided at several levels. Finally, we identify common methodological and engineering issues.

  15. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  16. From networked publics to issue publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    that the complex connectivity of the web puts user privacy at risk and enables the enclosure of public debate in virtual echo chambers. Our first argument is that these concerns are united by a set assumptions coming from liberal political philosophy that are rarely made explicit. As a second contribution...

  17. Public Health Triangulation to inform decision-making in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, N; Van Casteren, V; Goderis, G; Wens, J; Moreels, S; Vanthomme, K; De Clercq, E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a nation-wide ambulatory care complex intervention (the "care trajectory program") on quality of care in Belgium. We used the three-step public health triangulation method described in this paper and data from four different data sources: a national reimbursement database, an electronic patient record-based general practitioner network, the Belgian general practitioner sentinel network, and a new national registry for care trajectory patients. By applying our method and using the available evidence, we identified key findings that have been accepted by experts and stakeholders. We also produced timely recommendations for the decision-making process, four years after the start of the care trajectory program.

  18. Public participation in the process of local public health policy, using policy network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-11-01

    To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.

  19. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  20. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  1. The publics and the government of life in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is an analysis of the relationship between the publics, analyzed by Gabriel Tarde and the government of practices of life, studied by Michel Foucault in the context of social networks, making a comparison between the practices of this kind of social grouping in the early twentieth century with its update in the social networks context in the twenty-first century. Initially we investigate the relationship between a private company with its public, identifying the salient elements of the first moments of this type of social grouping. Then the practices of control of life are identified in the context of the early twentieth century and then their transformation in the context of the social networks. The conclusion points out how the publics have become components of the government of life in the context of social networks in their articulation with contemporary neoliberalism.

  2. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  3. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-01-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of...

  4. Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Godinez, Melanie A.

    2010-08-31

    On March 10, 2010 the workshop titled Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety was held in Seattle, WA. The objective of this workshop was to showcase ways social media networking technologies can be used to support emergency management and public safety operations. The workshop highlighted the current state of social networking and where this dynamic engagement is heading, demonstrated some of the more commonly used technologies, highlighted case studies on how these tools have been used in a variety of jurisdictions and engaged the private sector on how these tools might serve as a conduit for two way communication between with the public sector to address regional recovery issues and decision making.

  5. On Incentive Compatibility and Budget Balancedness in Public Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Holstroem (1979) showed that Groves' schemes are the unique incentive compatible transfer schemes for public decision making problems if the domain of preferences is smoothly connected. In this paper we will show that this result can be extended to public decision making problems with a connected

  6. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  7. Making Public Pasts: Cultural Dialogue and Negotiation in Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Rodrigo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In The Collective Memory, Maurice Halbwachs (1950/1980 asserts there is a close relationship between memory and space, in that memory is not just a matter of consciously lived time but of socially lived space and the collective representation of that space. The city, for Halbwachs, is an image of collective memory. Relationships between individuals and between groups are established with regard to the artefacts of the city. Collective memory could not be maintained and passed on from one generation to the next were it not able to reside in physical objects of remembrance such as spaces of public commemoration. This paper examines the way in which public spaces of commemoration shape a consensual view of the past through the mediation of complex political, personal, cultural and aesthetic forces.

  8. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties...

  9. Simulating public private networks as evolving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deljoo, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Public-private service networks (PPSN) consist of social and technology components. Development of PPSN is ill-understood as these are dependent on a complex mix of interactions among stakeholders and their technologies and is influenced by contemporary developments. The aim of this paper is to

  10. Documentary shows how public employment is making cities safer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In an engaging new documentary film, researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation share their insights of how a public employment program in South Africa is making cities safer and more inclusive.

  11. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  12. Networks in the Making of Faroese Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    , that large networks of early philologists and clergymen are overlooked by Faroese memory politics –following the master narrative of the Faroese nationbuilding, starting with 1846, when Hammersheimb ‘created’ the Faroese written language. But we need to put on another frame of perspectives to explain and map......, many of these Danish clerics created the institutional infrastructure and social ambience that gave birth to Faroese letters in Copenhagen. But Hammersheimb is still the one commemorated on banknotes, monuments, stamps and in official commemorative events as a true cultural saint, by leading poets like...... J.H.O. Djurhuus while still alive. But he had help from prior network of mainly clerics that paved the way....

  13. Making "stuff" happen through public participation and consensus building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool

    2000-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on public participation in ecosystem-based planning suggests an enlarging need to determine what makes public participation successful and what criteria are useful in identifying when a consensus has been reached. These two questions were investigated in research involving two small planning areas on the Bitterroot National Forest. It was...

  14. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  15. Social Networks and Decision Making for Clandestine Unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the role of social networks in promoting clandestine abortions. This study investigated the role social networks play in decision making for and facilitation of clandestine abortions. It was a mixed method study in which 320 women treated for complications of unsafe abortions were interviewed in a cross ...

  16. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  17. Understanding Decision Making through Complexity in Professional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon Shing Kenneth Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The attitudes of general practitioners (GP play an influential role in their decision making about patient treatment and care. Considering the GP-patient encounter as a complex system, the interactions between the GP and their personal network of peers give rise to “aggregate complexity,” which in turn influences the GP’s decisions about patient treatment. This study models aggregate complexity and its influence in decision making in primary care through the use of social network metrics. Professional network and attitudinal data on decision making responsibility from 107 rural GPs were analysed. Social network measures of “density” and “inclusiveness” were used for computing the “interrelatedness” of components within such a “complex system.” The “number of components” and “degree of interrelatedness” were used to determine the complexity profiles, which was then used to associate with responsibility in decision making for each GP. GPs in simple profiles (i.e., with low components and interactions in contrast to those in nonsimple profiles, indicate a higher responsibility for the decisions they make in medical care. This study suggests that social networks-based complexity profiles are useful for understanding decision making in primary care as it accounts for the role of influence through the professional networks of GPs.

  18. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-12-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  19. Making "social" safer: are Facebook and other online networks becoming less hazardous for health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Major concerns about privacy have limited health professionals' usage of popular social networking sites such as Facebook. However, the landscape of social media is changing in favor of more sophisticated privacy controls that enable users to more carefully manage public and private information. This evolution in technology makes it potentially less hazardous for health professionals to consider accepting colleagues and patients into their online networks, and invites medicine to think constructively about how social media may add value to contemporary healthcare.

  20. Pendular behavior of public transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Mirian M.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Mello, Bernardo A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a methodology that bears close resemblance to the Fourier analysis of the first harmonic to study networks subjected to pendular behavior. In this context, pendular behavior is characterized by the phenomenon of people's dislocation from their homes to work in the morning and people's dislocation in the opposite direction in the afternoon. Pendular behavior is a relevant phenomenon that takes place in public transport networks because it may reduce the overall efficiency of the system as a result of the asymmetric utilization of the system in different directions. We apply this methodology to the bus transport system of Brasília, which is a city that has commercial and residential activities in distinct boroughs. We show that this methodology can be used to characterize the pendular behavior of this system, identifying the most critical nodes and times of the day when this system is in more severe demanded.

  1. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy the growing wireless demand and improve network efficiency. Decision-making is the main function of the radio resources management process as it determines the radio parameters that control the use of these resources. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision-making scheme (ADMS) for radio resources management of different types of network applications including: power consuming, emergency, multimedia, and spectrum sharing. ADMS exploits genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool for decision-making. It consists of the several objective functions for the decision-making process such as minimizing power consumption, packet error rate (PER), delay, and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Simulation results and test bed evaluation demonstrate ADMS functionality and efficiency.

  2. [The role of information in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Public health, prevention, health education and health promotion are inseparable from the concepts of information and communication. Information should respond as much as possible to the needs of professionals, decision-makers, and consumers who are more and more concerned and conscious of its importance in light of "information overload", various dissemination channels and the multiplicity of its sources. There are numerous issues at stake ranging from comprehension, to the validation of health information, health education, health promotion, prevention, decision-making, as well as issues related to knowledge and power. Irrespective of the type of choice to be made, the need for information, knowledge, and know-how is inseparable from that of other tools or regulatory measures required for decision-making. Information is the same as competence, epidemiological and population data, health data, scientific opinion, and expert conferences--all are needed to assist in decision-making. Based on the principle of precaution, information must increasingly take into account the rejection of a society which often reasons on the basis of a presumption of zero-risk, in an idealistic manner, and which also excludes the possibility of new risks. The consumer positions himself as the regulator of decisions, specifically those with regard to the notion of acceptable level of risk. All of the actors involved in the health system are or become at one moment or another public health decision-makers. Their decision might be based either on an analytical approach, or on an intuitive approach. Although the act of decision-making is the least visible part of public health policy, it is certainly the driving force. This process should integrate the perspective of all of the relevant players, including consumers, who are currently situated more and more frequently at the heart of the health system. Public health decision-making is conducted as a function of political, strategic and

  3. Making public health nutrition relevant to evidence-based action

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, E; Rayner, M; Thorogood, M.; Margetts, B.; Hooper, L; Summerbell, C; Dowler, E.; Hewitt, G; Robertson, A; Wiseman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public health nutrition enjoyed many breakthroughs in the\\ud 20th century – from the discovery of vitamins and the\\ud metabolic roles of some 60 macro- and micronutrients, to\\ud the effects of maternal and childhood diet on health over\\ud the life course. Moreover, the food shortages in the UK that\\ud were experienced during World War II gave the first\\ud opportunity to show that nutritional science could make a\\ud valuable contribution to public policy. However, public\\ud health nutrition is...

  4. Public goods games on adaptive coevolutionary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Elgar; Shapiro, Avi M.

    2017-07-01

    Productive societies feature high levels of cooperation and strong connections between individuals. Public Goods Games (PGGs) are frequently used to study the development of social connections and cooperative behavior in model societies. In such games, contributions to the public good are made only by cooperators, while all players, including defectors, reap public goods benefits, which are shares of the contributions amplified by a synergy factor. Classic results of game theory show that mutual defection, as opposed to cooperation, is the Nash Equilibrium of PGGs in well-mixed populations, where each player interacts with all others. In this paper, we explore the coevolutionary dynamics of a low information public goods game on a complex network in which players adapt to their environment in order to increase individual payoffs relative to past payoffs parameterized by greediness. Players adapt by changing their strategies, either to cooperate or to defect, and by altering their social connections. We find that even if players do not know other players' strategies and connectivity, cooperation can arise and persist despite large short-term fluctuations.

  5. Documentary shows how public employment is making cities safer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... In an engaging new documentary film, researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation share their insights of how a public employment program in South Africa is making cities safer and more inclusive. In The Role of the Orange Farm CWP in preventing violence, researchers and ...

  6. Preferences for political decision-making processes and issue publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political

  7. Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia, along the highway between the towns of Akaki and Modjo are located, several clusters of development projects. Some of these clusters are located amidst the farming community. In this study public participation in environmental decision-making processes at the local level is assessed as part ...

  8. Emergent decision-making in biological signal transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helikar, Tomáš; Konvalina, John; Heidel, Jack; Rogers, Jim A.

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of biochemical intracellular signal transduction networks has led to speculation that the high degree of interconnectivity that exists in these networks transforms them into an information processing network. To test this hypothesis directly, a large scale model was created with the logical mechanism of each node described completely to allow simulation and dynamical analysis. Exposing the network to tens of thousands of random combinations of inputs and analyzing the combined dynamics of multiple outputs revealed a robust system capable of clustering widely varying input combinations into equivalence classes of biologically relevant cellular responses. This capability was nontrivial in that the network performed sharp, nonfuzzy classifications even in the face of added noise, a hallmark of real-world decision-making. PMID:18250321

  9. Network systems and groupware for public facilities; Network system to groupware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torimaru, K.; Kubo, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, K. [Osaki Computer Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-10

    This paper outlines solutions for network systems and groupware for the infrastructure of information systems in public facilities. With regard to network systems, Fuji Electric's network solutions including requirements of public facilities and application examples are described. With regard to groupware, the status of groupware used for raising efficiency in public facilities and groupware packages marketed by Fuji Electric. (author)

  10. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...... societies, China and Denmark. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed entrepreneurs in China, Denmark and elsewhere. Analyses reconfirm the global tendencies and show that, China in contrast to Denmark, public sphere networking is sparser, but private sphere networking is denser. Innovation...

  11. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs' networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...... societies, China and Denmark. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed entrepreneurs in China, Denmark and elsewhere. Analyses reconfirm the global tendencies and show that, China in contrast to Denmark, public sphere networking is sparser, but private sphere networking is denser. Innovation...

  12. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities, lac...... evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended.......The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities......, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU...

  13. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  14. Quantum stochastic walks on networks for decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ismael; Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments report violations of the classical law of total probability and incompatibility of certain mental representations when humans process and react to information. Evidence shows promise of a more general quantum theory providing a better explanation of the dynamics and structure of real decision-making processes than classical probability theory. Inspired by this, we show how the behavioral choice-probabilities can arise as the unique stationary distribution of quantum stochastic walkers on the classical network defined from Luce’s response probabilities. This work is relevant because (i) we provide a very general framework integrating the positive characteristics of both quantum and classical approaches previously in confrontation, and (ii) we define a cognitive network which can be used to bring other connectivist approaches to decision-making into the quantum stochastic realm. We model the decision-maker as an open system in contact with her surrounding environment, and the time-length of the decision-making process reveals to be also a measure of the process’ degree of interplay between the unitary and irreversible dynamics. Implementing quantum coherence on classical networks may be a door to better integrate human-like reasoning biases in stochastic models for decision-making.

  15. Using NASA Environmental Data to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this collaboration are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, and deliver the data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. These data can be linked spatially and temporally to public health data, such as mortality and disease morbidity, for further analysis and decision making. Three daily environmental data sets have been developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the time period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer reviewed publications. To date, two of the data sets have been released to the public in CDC

  16. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  17. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  18. Variability of Fiber Elastic Moduli in Composite Random Fiber Networks Makes the Network Softer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Picu, Catalin

    2015-03-01

    Athermal fiber networks are assemblies of beams or trusses. They have been used to model mechanics of fibrous materials such as biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Elasticity of these networks has been studied in terms of various microstructural parameters such as the stiffness of their constituent fibers. In this work we investigate the elasticity of composite fiber networks made from fibers with moduli sampled from a distribution function. We use finite elements simulations to study networks made by 3D Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The resulting data collapse to power laws showing that variability in fiber stiffness makes fiber networks softer. We also support the findings by analytical arguments. Finally, we apply these results to a network with curved fibers to explain the dependence of the network's modulus on the variation of its structural parameters.

  19. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  20. Quantum-Like Bayesian Networks for Modeling Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eMoreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore an alternative quantum structure to perform quantum probabilistic inferences to accommodate the paradoxical findings of the Sure Thing Principle. We propose a Quantum-Like Bayesian Network, which consists in replacing classical probabilities by quantum probability amplitudes. However, since this approach suffers from the problem of exponential growth of quantum parameters, we also propose a similarity heuristic that automatically fits quantum parameters through vector similarities. This makes the proposed model general and predictive in contrast to the current state of the art models, which cannot be generalized for more complex decision scenarios and that only provide an explanatory nature for the observed paradoxes. In the end, the model that we propose consists in a nonparametric method for estimating inference effects from a statistical point of view. It is a statistical model that is simpler than the previous quantum dynamic and quantum-like models proposed in the literature. We tested the proposed network with several empirical data from the literature, mainly from the Prisoner's Dilemma game and the Two Stage Gambling game. The results obtained show that the proposed quantum Bayesian Network is a general method that can accommodate violations of the laws of classical probability theory and make accurate predictions regarding human decision-making in these scenarios.

  1. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  2. Going Public: Networking Globally and Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Rural sociologists figure prominently in the move towards public sociology. The paper takes up Michael Burawoy's call for public sociology and discusses what rural sociologists have to offer to publics and how we stand to gain as a discipline in working with publics. The paper argues that rural sociologists' ability to adopt a cosmopolitan view…

  3. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  4. CosmoQuest: Making the public your students and collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela; Buxner, Sanlyn; Grier, Jennifer; Richardson, Matthew; CosmoQuest Team

    2018-01-01

    CosmoQuest is a second generation citizen science project that makes it possible for NASA Subject Matter Experts to engage the public as both learners and collaborators in research. Engaging the public in publishable science is termed “Citizen Science.” This is a powerful technique for accomplishing research projects and tasks that require many minds and eyes to complete. While some projects may use undergraduates for help, others simply have too many images or too much data for a small population to sort through. CosmoQuest is a platform that enables scientists to take advantage of already existing science tools to engage the public in their research and to acquire the data analysis they need. Citizen scientists, like students, need their experience properly scaffolded to their understanding, and they require mentoring and training to succeed.This presentation focuses on methods for focusing research projects for successful citizen science engagement, and determining what scaffolding must be built to support citizen education and engagement.This presentation will help you understand how to transform your research project into a successful citizen science engagement. We will also present a flowchart to help you define: what is required, how to focus on what science does and doesn’t work, and what support your project requires. The content presented will allow you to successfully implement a project within the CosmoQuest facility, and determine what educational support you should provide or request aid to provide.

  5. Sovereign public debt crisis in Europe. A network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, David; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolving network structure of the quarterly public debt-to-GDP ratio from 2000 to 2014. By applying tools and concepts coming from complex systems we study the effects of the global financial crisis over public debt network connections and communities. Two main results arise from this analysis: firstly, countries public debts tend to synchronize their evolution, increasing global connectivity in the network and dramatically decreasing the number of communities. Secondly, a disruption in previous structure is observed at the time of the shock, emerging a more centralized and less diversify network topological organization which might be more prone to suffer contagion effects. This last fact is evidenced by an increasing tendency in countries of similar level of public debt to be connected between them, which we have quantified by the network assortativity.

  6. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  7. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  8. Public Libraries and the Librarians : Making A Difference In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , roles of public libraries in Nigeria, collection development of public libraries and categories of resources in public libraries. The paper also defined the concept of public librarian and his roles. It further discussed the concept of information and ...

  9. Evolving neural networks for strategic decision-making problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Nate; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2009-04-01

    Evolution of neural networks, or neuroevolution, has been a successful approach to many low-level control problems such as pole balancing, vehicle control, and collision warning. However, certain types of problems-such as those involving strategic decision-making-have remained difficult for neuroevolution to solve. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that such problems are difficult because they are fractured: The correct action varies discontinuously as the agent moves from state to state. A method for measuring fracture using the concept of function variation is proposed and, based on this concept, two methods for dealing with fracture are examined: neurons with local receptive fields, and refinement based on a cascaded network architecture. Experiments in several benchmark domains are performed to evaluate how different levels of fracture affect the performance of neuroevolution methods, demonstrating that these two modifications improve performance significantly. These results form a promising starting point for expanding neuroevolution to strategic tasks.

  10. Personalised Networks of Influence in Public Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to look into Italian PR practitioners' opinions on whether or not specific social networks, the personalized networks of influence, are perceived to be as one of the main strategic resources and the degree of relevance they give to such networks. Personalised networks...... gathered through an online, close-ended questionnaire. This study is based on the analysis of the survey data on personal influence....... of influence are also tested with Italian journalists to verify whether or not other communication-related professions consider important to have personalised networks of influence and whether or not this relevance is perceived similar to that of PR practitioners. The data of this study was gleaned from...

  11. Expanding delivery system research in public health settings: lessons from practice-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Hogg, Rachel A

    2012-11-01

    Delivery system research to identify how best to organize, finance, and implement health improvement strategies has focused heavily on clinical practice settings, with relatively little attention paid to public health settings-where research is made more difficult by wide heterogeneity in settings and limited sources of existing data and measures. This study examines the approaches used by public health practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to expand delivery system research and evidence-based practice in public health settings. Practice-based research networks employ quasi-experimental research designs, natural experiments, and mixed-method analytic techniques to evaluate how community partnerships, economic shocks, and policy changes impact delivery processes in public health settings. In addition, network analysis methods are used to assess patterns of interaction between practitioners and researchers within PBRNs to produce and apply research findings. Findings from individual PBRN studies elucidate the roles of information exchange, community resources, and leadership and decision-making structures in shaping implementation outcomes in public health delivery. Network analysis of PBRNs reveals broad engagement of both practitioners and researchers in scientific inquiry, with practitioners in the periphery of these networks reporting particularly large benefits from research participation. Public health PBRNs provide effective mechanisms for implementing delivery system research and engaging practitioners in the process. These networks also hold promise for accelerating the translation and application of research findings into public health settings.

  12. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  13. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  14. Spectrum handoff scheme with multiple attributes decision making for optimal network selection in cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is envisaged that in future Cognitive Radio (CR networks deployment, multiple radio access networks may coexist. The networks may have different characteristics in terms of multiple attributes. CRs will have choices of selecting the optimal network out of the available networks. Optimal network selection is a challenging task that can be performed by spectrum handoff with Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM. The spectrum handoff decision with MADM provides wider and optimal choice with quality of service. This motivates the devolopment of a spectrum handoff scheme with MADM methods such as simple additive weighting, a technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution, a grey relational analysis and a cost function based method, which is the objective of this study. The CR preferences are based on voice, video and data services, called triple play services. The numerical results show that all MADM methods are effective for selecting the optimal network for spectrum handoff with a reduced complexity for the spectrum handoff decision. The paper shows that the proposed spectrum handoff scheme can be effectively implemented to select the optimal network according to triple play services in CR networks.

  15. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  16. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  17. Social network analysis of public health programs to measure partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2014-12-01

    In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  19. Integrating public transort networks in the axial model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a first step in the development of a model that integrates public transport networks with the space syntax axial model, towards a network model that can describe the multi?modal movement structure of a city and study its patterns and flows. It describes the method for building an

  20. M2M Optimizations in Public Mobile Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norp, A.H.J.; Landais, B.

    2012-01-01

    Many M2M applications use public telecommunications networks to transfer data from M2M devices to an M2M server. These telecommunications networks will have to be adapted to cope with the traffic generated by the projected growth of M2M applications. In the near future, many more devices will be

  1. Artificial Neural Networks in Mammography Interpretation and Diagnostic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ayer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening mammography is the most effective means for early detection of breast cancer. Although general rules for discriminating malignant and benign lesions exist, radiologists are unable to perfectly detect and classify all lesions as malignant and benign, for many reasons which include, but are not limited to, overlap of features that distinguish malignancy, difficulty in estimating disease risk, and variability in recommended management. When predictive variables are numerous and interact, ad hoc decision making strategies based on experience and memory may lead to systematic errors and variability in practice. The integration of computer models to help radiologists increase the accuracy of mammography examinations in diagnostic decision making has gained increasing attention in the last two decades. In this study, we provide an overview of one of the most commonly used models, artificial neural networks (ANNs, in mammography interpretation and diagnostic decision making and discuss important features in mammography interpretation. We conclude by discussing several common limitations of existing research on ANN-based detection and diagnostic models and provide possible future research directions.

  2. Artificial neural networks in mammography interpretation and diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Turgay; Chen, Qiushi; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective means for early detection of breast cancer. Although general rules for discriminating malignant and benign lesions exist, radiologists are unable to perfectly detect and classify all lesions as malignant and benign, for many reasons which include, but are not limited to, overlap of features that distinguish malignancy, difficulty in estimating disease risk, and variability in recommended management. When predictive variables are numerous and interact, ad hoc decision making strategies based on experience and memory may lead to systematic errors and variability in practice. The integration of computer models to help radiologists increase the accuracy of mammography examinations in diagnostic decision making has gained increasing attention in the last two decades. In this study, we provide an overview of one of the most commonly used models, artificial neural networks (ANNs), in mammography interpretation and diagnostic decision making and discuss important features in mammography interpretation. We conclude by discussing several common limitations of existing research on ANN-based detection and diagnostic models and provide possible future research directions.

  3. PUBLIC DECISION-MAKING IN THE CIVIL SOCIETY CONSTRAINTS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Ramona LOBONȚ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency with which individuals are assessed as having competences to influence decisions taken by the authorities is an indicator of the extent to which they consider their own society as being democratic. This paper is outlined from the 2013 Eurobarometer survey in witch Romania "emphasize" through the lowest level of organizations membership, only 3-4% of respondents declaring themselves members of NGOs, although 66% of Romanian state that they share values and interests of organizations and they have confidence that they act right in order to influence public decisions. In this paper we tried to observe which are most effective ways to influence policy making for Romanians. It can notice that there is a proportion of over 75% in terms of voting in local and national elections, respectively a proportion of over 65% in the degree of attachment of Romanians towards the NGOs. However, the contradictions are obvious because turnout fell in the last 10 years below 50% in terms of parliamentary elections.

  4. Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals pending approval are implemented, there will be a rapid increase in the use of liquefied natural gas in the United States. The facilities required include liquefaction plants, large ocean-going tankers, import-receiving terminals, storage depots, and gas-transmission pipelines. A description is presented of the risks and impacts presented by LNG operations in the near future. The safety issues are summarized and the origins of public concern in two LNG facilities siting disputes are examined. Some of the important criteria that need to be evaluated for responsible decision making are suggested. On balance, the overall risks of LNG supply systems are probably less than those of some energy systems now in use. Nevertheless, continued attention to the potential risks is needed to ensure that this remains true.

  5. [Analysing a public health service network's managerial competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Riveros, Patricia C; Leyton-Pavez, Carolina E; Saldia-Barahona, Héctor

    2009-12-01

    Analysing the effectiveness of training-action methodology in developing and strengthening the skills required by public health network managerial staff. The study evaluated an educational programme (pre- and post- evaluation being applied within the programme's framework and conditions, without controlled conditions) in which 37 managerial staff from the Talcahuano Health Service Network (forming part of the Public Health Assistance Network) participated in the Managerial Team Training programme, 2007 and 2008, run by the Bío-Bío University's Entrepreneurial Science Faculty in Chile. A skill-based self-evaluation instrument was applied on two different occasions. The results revealed a lack of management skills-based training in network managerial teams and the need for it through training-action methodology which stimulates such needed managerial skills. Acquiring these skills will lead to providing users with a quality service through better management practice in public health establishments.

  6. Evolution of a vertebrate social decision-making network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2012-06-01

    Animals evaluate and respond to their social environment with adaptive decisions. Revealing the neural mechanisms of such decisions is a major goal in biology. We analyzed expression profiles for 10 neurochemical genes across 12 brain regions important for decision-making in 88 species representing five vertebrate lineages. We found that behaviorally relevant brain regions are remarkably conserved over 450 million years of evolution. We also find evidence that different brain regions have experienced different selection pressures, because spatial distribution of neuroendocrine ligands are more flexible than their receptors across vertebrates. Our analysis suggests that the diversity of social behavior in vertebrates can be explained, in part, by variations on a theme of conserved neural and gene expression networks.

  7. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  8. Digital Networked Information Society and Public Health: Problems and Promises of Networked Health Communication of Lay Publics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Nam

    2018-01-01

    This special issue of Health Communication compiles 10 articles to laud the promise and yet confront the problems in the digital networked information society related to public health. We present this anthology of symphony and cacophony of lay individuals' communicative actions in a digital networked information society. The collection of problems and promise of the new digital world may be a cornerstone joining two worlds-pre- and postdigital network society-and we hope this special issue will help better shape our future states of public health.

  9. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  11. Radio making waves in the italian diaspora: Public sphere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deterritorialised publics of diaspora are conceptually quite different from the homogenous nationally bound public originally conceived to participate in Habermas' public sphere. However, with globalisation and parallel advances in media technologies the qualities of diasporic communication increasingly come to ...

  12. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  13. Sub*culture: Exploring the dynamics of a networked public

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lindgren

    2013-01-01

    The sub scene, an online community for creating and distributing subtitle files for pirated movies and TV series, is a culture wherein the knowledge of a number of contributors is pooled. I describe the cultural and social protocols that shape the sub scene, with a focus on the linguistic and social exchange that characterizes this particular networked public. Analysis of the linguistic exchange shows that the sub scene is about networked collaboration, but one under a relatively strict socia...

  14. Physics of the Mind:. Opinion Dynamics and Decision Making Processes Based on a Binary Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new theory of the human mind. The formation of human mind is considered as a collective process of the mutual interaction of people via exchange of opinions and formation of collective decisions. We investigate the associated dynamical processes of the decision making when people are put in different conditions including risk situations in natural catastrophes when the decision must be made very fast or at national elections. We also investigate conditions at which the fast formation of opinion is arising as a result of open discussions or public vote. Under a risk condition the system is very close to chaos and therefore the opinion formation is related to the order disorder transition. We study dramatic changes which may happen with societies which in physical terms may be considered as phase transitions from ordered to chaotic behavior. Our results are applicable to changes which are arising in various social networks as well as in opinion formation arising as a result of open discussions. One focus of this study is the determination of critical parameters, which influence a formation of stable mind, public opinion and where the society is placed "at the edge of chaos". We show that social networks have both, the necessary stability and the potential for evolutionary improvements or self-destruction. We also show that the time needed for a discussion to take a proper decision depends crucially on the nature of the interactions between the entities as well as on the topology of the social networks.

  15. Medical Student Decision Making Regarding Pursuit of a Public Health Degree

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarland, Sarah L; Meyers, Peter; Sautter, Robin; Honsvall, Amanda; Prunuske, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Few US medical school graduates receive a public health degree. We sought to identify factors involved in medical students' decisions to pursue dual medical and public health degrees and describe the decision-making process...

  16. The Dutch sentinel practice network: relevance for public health policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, A.I.M.; Fracheboud, J.; Zee, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    The Dutch sentinal practice network: relevance for public health policy, considers the now 20-year history of the Continuous Morbidity Registration Sentinel Stations the Netherlands. The book consists of two parts. In the first part general aspects are discussed: the origin of the project at the end

  17. Public Management and Educational Performance: The Impact of Managerial Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A 5-year performance analysis of managers in more than 500 school districts used a nonlinear, interactive, contingent model of management. Empirical support was found for key elements of the network-management portion of the model. Results showed that public management matters in policy implementation, but its impact is often nonlinear. (Contains…

  18. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both clean'' and dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  20. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ``clean`` and ``dirty``; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  1. Making the case for a 'fifth wave' in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, P; Carlisle, S; Hannah, M; Reilly, D; Lyon, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper will argue that the UK has seen several phases of public health improvement since the Industrial Revolution, and that each of these can be linked to major shifts in thinking about the nature of society and health itself. The authors are not, however, attempting to delineate firm sequences of events (or imply causality) as this would require a level of analysis of the relationship between economy, society and culture which is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is suggested that each phase of health improvement can be thought of in metaphorical terms as a 'wave'. The first wave is associated with great public works and other developments arising from social responses to the profound disruptions which followed the Industrial Revolution. The second wave saw the emergence of medicine as science. The third wave involved the redesign of our social institutions during the 20th Century and gave birth to the welfare state. The fourth wave has been dominated by efforts to combat disease risk factors and the emergence of systems thinking. Although a trough of public health activity continues from each wave, none exerts the same impact as when it first emerged. This paper will discuss the complex challenges of obesity, inequality and loss of wellbeing, together with the broader problems of exponential growth in population, money creation and energy usage. As exponential growth is unsustainable on a finite planet, inevitable change looms. Taken together, these analyses suggest that a fifth wave of public health development is now needed; one which will need to differ radically from its forerunners. The authors invite others to join them in envisioning its nature and in furthering the debate about future public health. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimedia Fusion for Public Security in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public security is a widespread disastrous phenomenon that constitutes a grave threat. Although information fusion of video sensor networks for public security has been studied extensively, multimedia fusion in heterogeneous sensor networks or its application in public security remains a challenge and central goal in the field of information fusion. In this study, to realize the detection, monitoring, and intelligent alarm of such hazards, we develop a graph-based real-time schema for studying the dynamic structure of heterogeneous sensors for public security. In the proposed schema, data fusion algorithms based on data-driven aspects of fusion are explored to locate the optimal sensing ranges of sensor nodes in a network with heterogeneous targets. In addition, we propose a framework incorporating useful contextual and temporal cues for public security alarm, explore its conceptualizations, benefits, and challenges, and analyze the correlations of the target motion elements in the multimedia sensor stream. The experimental results show that the new method offers a better way of intelligent alarm that cannot be achieved by existing schemes.

  3. Mentors: Making a Difference in Our Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas W.

    This book describes the success of mentor programs and of individuals such as Hillary Clinton, Barbara Bush, Bill Cosby, and Arnold Schwarzenegger among many others, who have worked as mentors in public schools. The first section describes the work of Eugene Lang and his "I Have a Dream" program. The second section describes the work of…

  4. Library Partnerships: Making Connections between School and Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Tasha

    2009-01-01

    Connecting to share ideas, resources, and programs offers school and public libraries an exciting means of achieving their own goals as well as those of the community at large. In this timely guide, young adult library consultant Tasha Squires delves into the many possible avenues for partnership, from summer reading programs to book talks to…

  5. Making public-private partnerships work in Nigeria | Erumebor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's huge infrastructure de cit remains a major obstacle to improved living standards, enterprise development and sustained economic growth. Among many other nancing models, Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) present a preferred option for long term infrastructure provision and development adopted by many ...

  6. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: making the workplace healthier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Scott, Courtney; D'Souza, Preethy; James, Lesley; Mehrotra, Anushka; Petticrew, Mark; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Durand, Mary Alison; Mays, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership which aims to improve public health by addressing issues such as health at work. This paper analyses the RD health at work pledges in terms of their likely effectiveness and added value. A review of evidence on the effectiveness of the RD 'health at work' pledges to improve health in the workplace; analysis of publically available data on signatory organizations' plans and progress towards achieving the pledges; and assessment of the likelihood that workplace activities pledged by signatories were brought about by participating in the RD. The 'health at work' pledges mostly consist of information sharing activities, and could be more effective if made part of integrated environmental change at the workplace. The evaluation of organizations' plans and progress suggests that very few actions (7%) were motivated by participation in the RD, with most organizations likely (57%) or probably (36%) already engaged in the activities they listed before joining the RD. The RD's 'health at work' pledges are likely to contribute little to improving workplace health as they stand but could contribute more if they were incorporated into broader, coherent workplace health strategies.

  7. Preserving South Africa's Paper Trail and Making Public Records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to public records and archives in South Africa is diminishing rapidly largely due to inadequate preservation strategies and a dearth of knowledge of archival preservation techniques. Inadequate attention is being paid to preservation as a collection management strategy. Continued access to South African archives is ...

  8. Public psychiatry fellowships: a developing network of public-academic collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Melle, Stephanie; Mangurian, Christina; Ali, Osman M; Giggie, Marisa A; Hadley, Trevor; Lewis, Marshall E; Runnels, Patrick; Sowers, Wesley; Steiner, Jeanne L; Trujillo, Manuel; Ranz, Jules M

    2012-09-01

    In response to the expanding public behavioral health care system, a network of 15 public-community psychiatry fellowships has developed over the past six years. The fellowship directors meet yearly to sustain and develop fellowships to recruit and retain psychiatrists in the public sector. This column describes five types of public-academic collaborations on which the fellowships are based. The collaborations focus on structural and fiscal arrangements; recruitment and retention; program evaluation, program research, and policy; primary care integration; and career development. These collaborations serve to train psychiatrists who will play a key role in the rapidly evolving health care system.

  9. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  10. Using Social Network Analysis to Assess Mentorship and Collaboration in a Public Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Belza, Basia; Leith, Katherine; Allen, Peg; Coe, Norma B; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-08-20

    Addressing chronic disease burden requires the creation of collaborative networks to promote systemic changes and engage stakeholders. Although many such networks exist, they are rarely assessed with tools that account for their complexity. This study examined the structure of mentorship and collaboration relationships among members of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) using social network analysis (SNA). We invited 97 HAN members and partners to complete an online social network survey that included closed-ended questions about HAN-specific mentorship and collaboration during the previous 12 months. Collaboration was measured by examining the activity of the network on 6 types of products: published articles, in-progress manuscripts, grant applications, tools, research projects, and presentations. We computed network-level measures such as density, number of components, and centralization to assess the cohesiveness of the network. Sixty-three respondents completed the survey (response rate, 65%). Responses, which included information about collaboration with nonrespondents, suggested that 74% of HAN members were connected through mentorship ties and that all 97 members were connected through at least one form of collaboration. Mentorship and collaboration ties were present both within and across boundaries of HAN member organizations. SNA of public health collaborative networks provides understanding about the structure of relationships that are formed as a result of participation in network activities. This approach may offer members and funders a way to assess the impact of such networks that goes beyond simply measuring products and participation at the individual level.

  11. Signaling networks: information flow, computation, and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeloglu, Evren U; Iyengar, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Signaling pathways come together to form networks that connect receptors to many different cellular machines. Such networks not only receive and transmit signals but also process information. The complexity of these networks requires the use of computational models to understand how information is processed and how input-output relationships are determined. Two major computational approaches used to study signaling networks are graph theory and dynamical modeling. Both approaches are useful; network analysis (application of graph theory) helps us understand how the signaling network is organized and what its information-processing capabilities are, whereas dynamical modeling helps us determine how the system changes in time and space upon receiving stimuli. Computational models have helped us identify a number of emergent properties that signaling networks possess. Such properties include ultrasensitivity, bistability, robustness, and noise-filtering capabilities. These properties endow cell-signaling networks with the ability to ignore small or transient signals and/or amplify signals to drive cellular machines that spawn numerous physiological functions associated with different cell states. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Public ideologies and personal meaning-making in postcolonial Grenada

    OpenAIRE

    Shemer, Noga

    2012-01-01

    This ethnography of the small Eastern Caribbean nation of Grenada explores what it means to today's post-Revolution generation to be Grenadian. The dissertation is both a study of postcolonial nationalism and a person-centered exploration of meaning-making in the face of complex national narratives. Through an analysis of ethnographic data collected during fieldwork from 2006-2009, I examine the dynamics between dominant ideologies about the nation and the personal worlds of youth as they mak...

  13. Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Ellsworth

    2012-01-01

    Social network analysis is now widely used to investigate the dynamics of infectious disease spread from person to person. Vaccination dramatically disrupts the disease transmission process on a contact network, and indeed, sufficiently high vaccination rates can disrupt the process to such an extent that disease transmission on the network is effectively halted. Here, we build on mounting evidence that health behaviors - such as vaccination, and refusal thereof - can spread through social networks through a process of complex contagion that requires social reinforcement. Using network simulations that model both the health behavior and the infectious disease spread, we find that under otherwise identical conditions, the process by which the health behavior spreads has a very strong effect on disease outbreak dynamics. This variability in dynamics results from differences in the topology within susceptible communities that arise during the health behavior spreading process, which in turn depends on the topolo...

  14. The Role of Mental Models in the Public Policy Decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Mental Models in the Public Policy Decision-making Process: The Case Study of Ghana. S Zeka. Abstract. Whether in developed, transitioning, or developing countries, the public policy decision-making process poses a challenge, and in some cases contributes to a bellicose relationship between government ...

  15. Leadership and Decision-Making Practices in Public versus Private Universities in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…

  16. It's meaning making stupid! Succes of public leadership during flash crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boin et al. (International Review of Public Administration, 18, 2013, 79) and others propose that public crisis leadership consists of several core tasks, among which crisis decision-making and meaning making stand out in “flash crises.” We however argue that successful leadership during a sudden

  17. On the ethical analysis of value issues in public decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature, methodology, importance and implications of an ethical analysis of value issues pertaining to public decision-making is not evident. In this paper I would like to address these issues by posing the following questions: - Why is it important to focus on values in any process of public decision-making? - What is the ...

  18. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach.

  19. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  20. Sub*culture: Exploring the dynamics of a networked public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lindgren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sub scene, an online community for creating and distributing subtitle files for pirated movies and TV series, is a culture wherein the knowledge of a number of contributors is pooled. I describe the cultural and social protocols that shape the sub scene, with a focus on the linguistic and social exchange that characterizes this particular networked public. Analysis of the linguistic exchange shows that the sub scene is about networked collaboration, but one under a relatively strict social code. The analysis of the social exchange is structured according to Quentin Jones's definition of a virtual settlement. There is a minimum level of interactivity, as well as a variety of communicators, on the sub scene. It can also be described as a virtual common public place where computer-mediated interaction takes place, both in the form of coordination networks and of expert/user networks. Furthermore, it has a minimum level of sustained membership. The culture of the sub scene simultaneously bears characteristics of socialized and alienated cyberculture, which should not be perceived as a contradiction. The development of Internet culture is always happening within the full complexity of society as a whole, and the interplay between unity and discord must be seen as the basis for the social integration of any group.

  1. What makes corruption in the public procurement process awful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Osei-Afoakwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.

  2. Making Public Policies Work: Between Responsiveness and Convergence of Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Gabriela POPESCU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights two concepts: responsive government and policy agenda – as a result of convergence between citizens’ priorities and governmental and parliamentary activity –, and tries to find evidence to prove a relationship of mutual conditioning between the two concepts. The purpose for such a research is justified by the need for a “vision of the future”, a concept devoid of academic rigor and, therefore, difficult to define, but which emphasizes, on one hand, the force of a clear strategic intent and, on the other hand, the irreplaceable role in achieving this vision of public policy to meet the legitimate expectations of citizens. On one side, responsiveness in the context of a system can be defined as an outcome that can be achieved when institutions and institutional relationships are designed in such a way that they are cognizant and respond appropriately to the universally legitimate expectations of the citizens. On the other side, we can detect a policy agenda that represents a common place of convergence between citizens’ priorities and governmental and parliamentary activity. This convergence is a guarantee that the citizens will receive appropriate and opportune responses to their demands. In other words, the convergence agenda involves the existence of a responsive government.

  3. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making.

  4. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Suri

    Full Text Available A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  5. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2011-03-11

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  6. Mobile Network Data for Public Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Nuria; Matic, Aleksandar; Frias-Martinez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then, it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief, and, recently, public health. In this paper, we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health. PMID:26301211

  7. [Artificial neural networks for decision making in urologic oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remzi, M; Djavan, B

    2007-06-01

    This chapter presents a detailed introduction regarding Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and their contribution to modern Urologic Oncology. It includes a description of ANNs methodology and points out the differences between Artifical Intelligence and traditional statistic models in terms of usefulness for patients and clinicians, and its advantages over current statistical analysis.

  8. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  9. Blogging as Popular History Making, Blogs as Public History: The Singapore Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Blogging is a twenty-first century phenomenon that has heralded an age where ordinary people can make their voices heard in the public sphere of the Internet. This article explores blogging as a form of popular history making; the blog as a public history document; and how blogging is transforming the nature of public history and practice of history making in Singapore. An analysis of two Singapore ‘historical’ blogs illustrates how blogging is building a foundation for a more participatory historical society in the island nation. At the same time, the case studies also demonstrate the limitations of blogging and blogs in challenging official versions of history.

  10. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  11. Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health: Capacity Building for Public Health Students at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa A. Wahabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation of research evidence into public health programs is lagging in Eastern Mediterranean Region. Graduate level public health curriculum at King Saud University (KSU, College of Medicine, Riyadh, is designed to equip students to integrate best available evidence in public health decision making. The objectives of study were to explore students’ opinion about the evidence based public health (EBPH courses and to survey the knowledge, opinion, and attitude of the students towards EBPH and perceived barriers for implementation of EBPH in decision making in public health. EBPH courses are designed based on a sequential framework. A survey was conducted at the completion of EBPH courses. Forty-five graduate students were invited to complete a validated self-administered questionnaire. It included questions about demography, opinion, and attitude towards EBPH and perceived barriers towards implementation of EBPH in the work environment. The response rate was 73%. Mean age of students was 30.1 (SD 2.3 years, and 51% were males. More than 80% had sound knowledge and could appreciate the importance of EBPH. The main perceived barriers to incorporate EBPH in decision making were lack of system of communication between researchers and policy makers and scarcity of research publications related to the public health problems.

  12. Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health: Capacity Building for Public Health Students at King Saud University in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Mohamed, Ashry G; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Zakaria, Nasriah; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2015-01-01

    Translation of research evidence into public health programs is lagging in Eastern Mediterranean Region. Graduate level public health curriculum at King Saud University (KSU), College of Medicine, Riyadh, is designed to equip students to integrate best available evidence in public health decision making. The objectives of study were to explore students' opinion about the evidence based public health (EBPH) courses and to survey the knowledge, opinion, and attitude of the students towards EBPH and perceived barriers for implementation of EBPH in decision making in public health. EBPH courses are designed based on a sequential framework. A survey was conducted at the completion of EBPH courses. Forty-five graduate students were invited to complete a validated self-administered questionnaire. It included questions about demography, opinion, and attitude towards EBPH and perceived barriers towards implementation of EBPH in the work environment. The response rate was 73%. Mean age of students was 30.1 (SD 2.3) years, and 51% were males. More than 80% had sound knowledge and could appreciate the importance of EBPH. The main perceived barriers to incorporate EBPH in decision making were lack of system of communication between researchers and policy makers and scarcity of research publications related to the public health problems.

  13. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  14. Making public television social? Public service broadcasting and the challenges of social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how the rise of social media affects European public service broadcasting (PSB), particularly in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. We explore the encounter of "social" and "public" on three levels: the level of institution, professional practice, and content. After

  15. Model for the integrated network? Rehabilitation makes a good candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, F J; Baum, C S

    1995-01-01

    Rehabilitation is a good model for an integrated delivery network (IDN). Because it is an integral part of the treatment plans of a diverse group of medical specialties, rehab often plays a pivotal role in patients' recovery. Since its focus is on functional outcomes, rehab is compatible with a capitated payment system. In addition, rehab entered the managed care arena before other "product lines," so rehab providers have experience with diverse reimbursement conditions. And although rehab encompasses all levels of care, it is not too large to function as a model for a full-scale IDN. There are four key stages in the development of a rehab IDN: A strong leader with a clear vision organizes a working committee composed of the key leaders of each entity involved in rehab: hospitals, nursing homes, home health, and others. The committee begins to design the proposed network. Though the committee may study other IDNs, its focus is on its own organization's needs and objectives. A master plan addressing systems gaps and opportunities throughout the IDN is drawn up. Integral to the plan is a schedule according to which each of the network's components will be integrated. The master plan is implemented. The working committee determines the IDN's final structure and names the members of the management team.

  16. Exploiting Publication Contents and Collaboration Networks for Collaborator Recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Kong

    Full Text Available Thanks to the proliferation of online social networks, it has become conventional for researchers to communicate and collaborate with each other. Meanwhile, one critical challenge arises, that is, how to find the most relevant and potential collaborators for each researcher? In this work, we propose a novel collaborator recommendation model called CCRec, which combines the information on researchers' publications and collaboration network to generate better recommendation. In order to effectively identify the most potential collaborators for researchers, we adopt a topic clustering model to identify the academic domains, as well as a random walk model to compute researchers' feature vectors. Using DBLP datasets, we conduct benchmarking experiments to examine the performance of CCRec. The experimental results show that CCRec outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and F1 score.

  17. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    This paper has point of departure in a planning process on energy infrastructure in Denmark and focuses on a particular public hearing meeting characterised by trenchant opposition and distrust to the authorities among the public. It points at the need to understand the interaction between author...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....... authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...

  18. Using Open Research Data for Public Policy Making : Opportunities of Virtual Research Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk-van Eijk, AMG; Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele; Yin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Governments and publicly-funded research organisations increasingly make research data available openly. Researchers can use this data in Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to conduct multidisciplinary data-driven research and to obtain new insights potentially for governmental policy-making.

  19. The distribution of decision making. The case of a flexible public transport system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the cockpit model for public policy planning has been largely replaced by a model of distributed decision making. Taking a dramaturgical perspective on politics, this article follows issues when they are displaced between different settings for decision making. A typology of five different

  20. Wavelet Network Model Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Forecasting Temperature Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiao-hua; Chen, Xiao-juan

    2015-01-01

    Due to nonlinear and multiscale characteristics of temperature time series, a new model called wavelet network model based on multiple criteria decision making (WNMCDM) has been proposed, which combines the advantage of wavelet analysis, multiple criteria decision making, and artificial neural network. One case for forecasting extreme monthly maximum temperature of Miyun Reservoir has been conducted to examine the performance of WNMCDM model. Compared with nearest neighbor bootstrapping regr...

  1. TANDEM: A Trust-Based Agent Framework for Networked Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-10

    TANDEM: a trust -based agent framework for networked decision making Sibel Adalı1 • Kevin Chan2 • Jin-Hee Cho2 Published online: 10 September 2015...nodes and links in the net- work can have differing capacity, modeled by agents’ ability to accomplish tasks and their trust for each other. The trust ...offs in team performance and interaction between different parameters. Keywords Agent based modeling Networks Decision making Trust 1

  2. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    governments but they also pose new challenges for policy-makers and public administrators who are not yet familiar with design concepts, principles and methods beyond problem-solving. Despite the many linkages between and among design, designing, policy-making and policy implementation, we have yet to clarify...... how and what makes design relevant to policy-makers and public managers. Although policy-making, in its essence, constitutes a design activity, policy-making is not widely discussed in design terms. Literature on policy-making processes and policy design has treated design almost exclusively...... that could “achieve more humanizing outcomes” (Lynch 1965) and meaningfully transform government. Problem-solving design is then contrasted with design as inquiry. The paper concludes that a more sophisticated understanding of design concepts, methods and practices in policy-making is a condition...

  3. Open government reforms: The challenge of making public consultations meaningful in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Guillán, Aránzazu; Taxell, Nils

    2015-01-01

    A strong dialogue between government and civil society provides a sound foundation for open government reforms in Croatia. The adoption and implementation of commitments aimed at strengthening public consultations in policy-making responds to long-term priorities of both government and civil society. There is visible progress in citizen participation, as well as in the number of public consultations held and comments received. However, the overall level of public involvement is still low...

  4. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Villamagna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas, both public and private, are critical tools to protect biodiversity and deliver important ecosystem services (ES to society. Although societal benefits from such ES are increasingly used to promote public support of conservation, the number of beneficiaries, their identity, and the magnitude of benefits are largely unknown for the vast majority of conservation areas in the United States public-private conservation network. The location of conservation areas in relation to people strongly influences the direction and magnitude of ES flows as well as the identity of beneficiaries. We analyzed benefit zones, the areas to which selected ES could be conveyed to beneficiaries, to assess who benefits from a typical conservation network. Better knowledge of ES flows and beneficiaries will help land conservationists make a stronger case for the broad collateral benefits of conservation and help to address issues of social-environmental justice. To evaluate who benefits the most from the current public-private conservation network, we delineated the benefit zones for local ES (within 16 km that are conveyed along hydrological paths from public (federal and state and private (easements conservation lands in the states of North Carolina and Virginia, USA. We also discuss the challenges and demonstrate an approach for delineating nonhydrological benefits that are passively conveyed to beneficiaries. We mapped and compared the geographic distribution of benefit zones within and among conservation area types. We further compared beneficiary demographics across benefit zones of the conservation area types and found that hydrological benefit zones of federal protected areas encompass disproportionately fewer minority beneficiaries compared to statewide demographic patterns. In contrast, benefit zones of state protected areas and private easements encompassed a much greater proportion of minority beneficiaries (~22-25%. Benefit zones

  5. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation areas, both public and private, are critical tools to protect biodiversity and deliver important ecosystem services (ES) to society. Although societal benefits from such ES are increasingly used to promote public support of conservation, the number of beneficiaries, their identity, and the magnitude of benefits are largely unknown for the vast majority of conservation areas in the United States public-private conservation network. The location of conservation areas in relation to people strongly influences the direction and magnitude of ES flows as well as the identity of beneficiaries. We analyzed benefit zones, the areas to which selected ES could be conveyed to beneficiaries, to assess who benefits from a typical conservation network. Better knowledge of ES flows and beneficiaries will help land conservationists make a stronger case for the broad collateral benefits of conservation and help to address issues of social-environmental justice. To evaluate who benefits the most from the current public-private conservation network, we delineated the benefit zones for local ES (within 16 km) that are conveyed along hydrological paths from public (federal and state) and private (easements) conservation lands in the states of North Carolina and Virginia, USA. We also discuss the challenges and demonstrate an approach for delineating nonhydrological benefits that are passively conveyed to beneficiaries. We mapped and compared the geographic distribution of benefit zones within and among conservation area types. We further compared beneficiary demographics across benefit zones of the conservation area types and found that hydrological benefit zones of federal protected areas encompass disproportionately fewer minority beneficiaries compared to statewide demographic patterns. In contrast, benefit zones of state protected areas and private easements encompassed a much greater proportion of minority beneficiaries (~22–25%). Benefit zones associated with

  6. [Local public health networks. Apropos of an experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, Joan; Bocio, Ana; Ferràs, Joaquim; Margalef, Jordi; Osanz, Anna C; Serrano, Mónica; Sentenà, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Public health action on a territory is complex and requires the involvement of multiple actors, who do not always act coordinately. Networks of organizations structures including the whole of the local actors facilitate the generation of synergies and enable greater effectiveness and efficiency of the joint action from the different actors on a same landscape. We present 3 years experience of four Public Health Committees in a region of Catalonia (Spain), composed by the main actors in public health planning. Each of the committees is organized on a plenary and working groups on issues arising from the regional health diagnosis, and coincident with the Health Plan of the Region. Coordination in no case implies the loss or dilution of the firm of the actor generator of intervention initiative in public health, but their empowerment and collaboration by the other actors. In conclusion welcomes the creation of a culture of collaboration and synergies between the different organizations concerned. Lack of specificity is observed in establishing operational objectives, and the need for greater coordination and involvement of the components of the various working groups. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Publication patterns in developmental psychology: Trends and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Darja; Hamilton, Ian S

    2017-08-01

    Interest in publication patterns has been steady. Journals have instituted policies in an effort to curb bias and provide globally representative research. This study aimed to examine if publication patterns were present in two developmental psychology journals. It also explored the social networks of prominent authors and the prevalence of informal author-editor relationships, searching for any potential power groups. Data were taken from empirical articles published between 2005 and 2014 in Child Development (CD) and The International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC) data points were geographical authorship affiliation, informal author relationships as established by co-publishing, and connections to journal editors via identical affiliation. Results confirmed the previously established North American dominance in published research. In CD a strongly interlinked social network was identified between authors over the 10 years, with 15 chief influentialists binding groups of authors together. Results suggest that patterns are still present in published research in the realm of developmental psychology. To conclude, the potential implications of these patterns within developmental psychology are presented. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. From Social Network (Centralized vs. Decentralized) to Collective Decision-Making (Unshared vs. Shared Consensus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones – star network vs. equal network - led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies. PMID:22393416

  9. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  10. Utilization of extended bayesian networks in decision making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, Edward M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leishman, Deborah A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network tool (called IKE for Integrated Knowledge Engine) has been developed to assess the probability of undesirable events. The tool allows indications and observables from sensors and/or intelligence to feed directly into hypotheses of interest, thus allowing one to quantify the probability and uncertainty of these events resulting from very disparate evidence. For example, the probability that a facility is processing nuclear fuel or assembling a weapon can be assessed by examining the processes required, establishing the observables that should be present, then assembling information from intelligence, sensors and other information sources related to the observables. IKE also has the capability to determine tasking plans, that is, prioritize which observable should be collected next to most quickly ascertain the 'true' state and drive the probability toward 'zero' or 'one.' This optimization capability is called 'evidence marshaling.' One example to be discussed is a denied facility monitoring situation; there is concern that certain process(es) are being executed at the site (due to some intelligence or other data). We will show how additional pieces of evidence will then ascertain with some degree of certainty the likelihood of this process(es) as each piece of evidence is obtained. This example shows how both intelligence and sensor data can be incorporated into the analysis. A second example involves real-time perimeter security. For this demonstration we used seismic, acoustic, and optical sensors linked back to IKE. We show how these sensors identified and assessed the likelihood of 'intruder' versus friendly vehicles.

  11. Selected aspects of the logistics network of public hospitals in the competitive market of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majchrzak-Lepczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The below considerations provide an overview of the issues of sustainable development, logistics, to financial engineering instruments and the role of intellectual capital in the process of transformation of public hospitals. The aim of this research was to assess the competitiveness of the network of public hospitals in the market of health services based on literature studies, as well as empirical research. Methods: Empirical study using a questionnaire survey was conducted in the period from January 2007 to December 2011, in the area of Warmia and Mazury, Pomerania and Wielkopolska. The goal of this questionnaire survey was to know the medical staff reviews issues related to adaptation to the nature of the network of public hospitals methods and logistics tools, sustainable development, corporate social responsibility - CSR. The study was carried out in 104 public hospitals, on a sample of 8975 respondents. Results and conclusions: Analysis of the completed study showed that the logistic processes and their improvement in the health sector play a significant role. The surveyed entities explicitly draw attention to the need for information systems,  pro-environment activities, access to information, or the use of GS1 global standards. These tools allow you to increase the efficiency of supply chains, ensuring not only tracking and tracing of products from the manufacturer to the patient, but also enabling better protection against making a mistake or counterfeit products.

  12. Public Affairs Decision Making in the U.S. Air Force: An Application of Multiattribute Utility Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Prabu; Pierson, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on public relations decision making and public relations theory. Examines decision making by United States Air Force public affairs personnel. Finds that only 48% of the decisions fit the public relations excellence criteria of accommodation and long-term relationship building. Finds also a negative correlation between…

  13. Hybrid Multicast Transmission for Public Safety Network in 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the application of wireless multicast technology in public safety network (PSN in future wireless communication system. The hybrid unicast/multicast transmission system is proposed and analyzed in 3D massive multi-input multioutput (MIMO channel. The mutual coupling channel model is adopted under the different antenna array configuration scenarios. The proposed hybrid system adopts multicast beamforming in the multicast groups as well as multiuser-MIMO (MU-MIMO linear precoding in the unicast group to increase system throughput. The null space method based interference cancellation is further performed between each group to eliminate signal leakage generated from each group. Comparisons between two types of antenna array configurations, different channel models, linear precoding as well as multicast beamforming, and user grouping strategies for multicast services are presented and analyzed by simulation.

  14. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce......Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... passenger delay compared to the standard industry practice, while also distributing delay more equally over passengers, at the same operating budget. The results are robust under different assumptions about passenger route choice behavior. Computational experiments show that the proposed formulation...

  15. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  16. Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making : Insights from the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mykkänen, Markus; Vos, Marita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the contribution of public relations practitioners to organizational decision making and, in particular, how this has been seen in peer-reviewed journals over the last 10 years. After a literature search, 38 articles originating from 26 different journals were further analyzed using thematic analysis. The period investigated ranged from the start of 2002 to October 2012. In the general literature on the roles of public relations practitio...

  17. Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that

  18. Tourette syndrome: a disorder of the social decision-making network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Roger L

    2017-08-22

    Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions. These features include the natural history of tic expression, with typical onset of tics around ages 5 to 7 years and exacerbation during the peri-pubertal years, marked sex disparity with higher male prevalence, and the characteristic distribution of tics. The latter are usually repetitive, somewhat stereotyped involuntary eye, facial and head movements, and phonations. A major functional role of eye, face, and head movements is social signalling. Prior work in social neuroscience identified a phylogenetically conserved network of sexually dimorphic subcortical nuclei, the Social Behaviour Network, mediating many social behaviours. Social behaviour network function is modulated developmentally by gonadal steroids and social behaviour network outputs are stereotyped sex and species specific behaviours. In 2011 O'Connell and Hofmann proposed that the social behaviour network interdigitates with the basal ganglia to form a greater network, the social decision-making network. The social decision-making network may have two functionally complementary limbs: the basal ganglia component responsible for evaluation of socially relevant stimuli and actions with the social behaviour network component responsible for the performance of social acts. Social decision-making network dysfunction can explain major features of the neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome may be a disorder of social communication resulting from

  19. Community views and perspectives on public engagement in health technology assessment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2017-03-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to describe community views and perspectives on public engagement processes in Australian health technology assessment (HTA) decision making. Methods Six focus groups were held in Sydney (NSW, Australia) as part of a broad program of work on public engagement and HTA. Eligible participants were aged ≥18 years and spoke English. Participants were asked about their views and perspectives of public engagement in the HTA decision-making process, with responses analysed using a public participation framework. Results Fifty-eight participants aged 19-71 years attended the focus groups. Responses from the public indicated that they wanted public engagement in HTA to include a diversity of individuals, be independent and transparent, involve individuals early in the process and ensure that public input is meaningful and useful to the process. This was consistent with the public participation framework. Perceived shortcomings of the current public engagement process were also identified, namely the lack of awareness of the HTA system in the general population and the need to acknowledge the role different groups of stakeholders or 'publics' can have in the process. Conclusions The public do see a role for themselves in the HTA decision-making process. This is distinct to the involvement of patients and carers. It is important that any future public engagement strategy in this field distinguishes between stakeholder groups and outline approaches that will involve members of the public in the decision-making process, especially if public expectations of involvement in healthcare decision-making continue to increase. What is known about this topic? The views and perspectives of patients and consumers are important in the HTA decision-making process. There is a move to involve the broader community, particularly as decisions become increasingly complex and resources more scarce. What does this paper add? It not been known to what

  20. Who runs public health? A mixed-methods study combining qualitative and network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; de Vocht, Frank; Money, Annemarie; Everett, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Persistent health inequalities encourage researchers to identify new ways of understanding the policy process. Informal relationships are implicated in finding evidence and making decisions for public health policy (PHP), but few studies use specialized methods to identify key actors in the policy process. We combined network and qualitative data to identify the most influential individuals in PHP in a UK conurbation and describe their strategies to influence policy. Network data were collected by asking for nominations of powerful and influential people in PHP (n = 152, response rate 80%), and 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed using a framework approach. The most influential PHP makers in this conurbation were mid-level managers in the National Health Service and local government, characterized by managerial skills: controlling policy processes through gate keeping key organizations, providing policy content and managing selected experts and executives to lead on policies. Public health professionals and academics are indirectly connected to policy via managers. The most powerful individuals in public health are managers, not usually considered targets for research. As we show, they are highly influential through all stages of the policy process. This study shows the importance of understanding the daily activities of influential policy individuals.

  1. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the principle of complexity management as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model developed within the project.

  2. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the Principle of Complexity Management (PCM as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model (DMM developed within the project.

  3. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency. PMID:26609303

  4. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency.

  5. The plethora of publics and their participation in policy making: How can they properly participate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper examines the theoretical bases of publics and stakeholder participation in decision making, with special attention to mixed issues, including federal government actions such as remedial action programs and hazardous facility sitings. Empowerment associated with participation is addressed, focusing on differences between power and authority.

  6. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  7. The Need for Advanced Public Transport Information Services When Making Transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.; Chorus, C.; Van Sloten, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Specific attention is given to the role of making transfers in the decision to acquire specific types of information. Intercity

  8. 77 FR 17001 - USDA Public Stakeholder Meeting: Match Making in the Biofuels Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... USDA Public Stakeholder Meeting: Match Making in the Biofuels Value Chain AGENCY: Office of the Chief... understanding of the biofuels supply chain links between all those involved in feedstock production and the... a short profile of each section of the supply chain and representatives from the participating...

  9. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  10. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  11. Task-dependent reorganization of functional connectivity networks during visual semantic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Douw, Linda; Takaya, Shigetoshi; Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI is widely used to study task-related changes in neuronal activity as well as resting-state functional connectivity. In this study, we explore task-related changes in functional connectivity networks using fMRI. Dynamic connectivity may represent a new measure of neural network robustness that would impact both clinical and research efforts. However, prior studies of task-related changes in functional connectivity have shown apparently conflicting results, leading to several competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between task-related and resting-state brain networks. We used a graph theory-based network approach to compare functional connectivity in healthy subjects between the resting state and when performing a clinically used semantic decision task. We analyzed fMRI data from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects. While three nonoverlapping, highly intraconnected functional modules were observed in the resting state, an additional language-related module emerged during the semantic decision task. Both overall and within-module connectivity were greater in default mode network (DMN) and classical language areas during semantic decision making compared to rest, while between-module connectivity was diffusely greater at rest, revealing a more widely distributed pattern of functional connectivity at rest. The results of this study suggest that there are differences in network topology between resting and task states. Specifically, semantic decision making is associated with a reduction in distributed connectivity through hub areas of the DMN as well as an increase in connectivity within both default and language networks.

  12. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen; Mowat, David

    2012-02-20

    Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM). However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27) with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services), fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  13. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Italian public health care organizations: specialization, institutional deintegration, and public networks relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Mario; De Pietro, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Italian National Health Service (INHS) has undergone profound changes over the past three decades. With establishment of the INHS in 1978--a tax-based public health care system with universal coverage--one of the underlying principles was integration. The recognition of health and health care as requiring integrated answers led to the creation of a single public organization, the Local Health Unit, responsible for the health status of the population of its catchment area. At the beginning of the 1990s, the scenario radically changed. The creation of hospital trusts, the development of quasi-market mechanisms and management control tools, the adoption of a prospective payment system for reimbursing health care providers--all were signs of deintegration and institutional unbundling. Two structural changes have deeply sustained this deintegration: patients' empowerment and the increased possibilities for outsourcing practices. In more recent years, a new reintegration effort has occurred, often led by regional governments and based on institutional cooperation and network relationships. However, the earlier structural changes require innovative approaches and solutions if public health care organizations want to retain their leading role.

  15. Health and wellbeing boards: public health decision making bodies or political pawns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Z; McCafferty, S

    2017-02-01

    Health and Wellbeing boards in England are uniquely constituted; embedded in the local authorities with membership drawn from a range of stakeholders and partner organizations. This raises the question of how decision making functions of the boards reflects wider public health decision making, if criteria are applied to decision making, and what prioritization processes, if any, are used. Qualitative research methods were employed and five local boards were approached, interview dyads were conducted with the boards Chair and Director of Public Health across four of these (n = 4). Three questions were addressed: how are decisions made? What are the criteria applied to decision making? And how are criteria then prioritized? A thematic approach was used to analyse data identifying codes and extracting key themes. Equity, effectiveness and consistency with strategies of board and partners were most consistently identified by participants as criteria influencing decisions. Prioritization was described as an engaged and collaborative process, but criteria were not explicitly referenced in the decision making of the boards which instead made unstructured prioritization of population sub-groups or interventions agreed by consensus. Criteria identified are broadly consistent with those used in wider public health practice but additionally incorporated criteria which recognizes the political siting of the boards. The study explored the variety in different board's approaches to prioritization and identified a lack of clarity and rigour in the identification and use of criteria in prioritization processes. Decision making may benefit from the explicit inclusion of criteria in the prioritization process. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 31 CFR 351.84 - Does Public Debt make any reservations as to issue of Series EE savings bonds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt make any... PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.84 Does Public Debt make any reservations as to issue of Series EE savings bonds? We may reject any application...

  17. 31 CFR 359.69 - Does Public Debt make any reservations as to issue of Series I savings bonds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt make any... PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.69 Does Public Debt make any reservations as to issue of Series I savings bonds? We may reject any application...

  18. 31 CFR 363.179 - Does Public Debt make any reservations as to the conversion of an eligible savings bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt make any... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.179 Does Public Debt make any reservations as to the conversion of an eligible...

  19. Manufacturing Consent for Privatization in Public Education: The Rise of a Social Finance Network in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy; Sen, Vicheth; Fallon, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Multiple forms of privatization are emerging in the Canadian public sector, including public-private partnerships. This article focuses on one approach to public-private partnerships called "social finance," and a network of public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that promotes social finance as a means of funding public…

  20. Fuzzy decision trees as a decision-making framework in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benčina Jože

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic approaches to making decisions in the public sector are becoming very common. Most often, these approaches concern expert decision models. The expansion of the idea of the development of e-participation and e-democracy was influenced by the development of technology. All stakeholders are supposed to participate in decision making, so this brings a new feature to the decision-making process, in which amateurs and non-specialists are participating decision making instead of experts. To be able to understand the needs and wishes of stakeholders, it is not enough to vote for alternatives - it is important to participate in solution-finding and to express opinions about the important elements of these matters. The solution presented in this paper concerns fuzzy decision-making framework. This framework combines the advantages of the introduction of the decision-making problem in a tree structure and the possibilities offered by the flexibility of the fuzzy approach. The possibilities of implementation of the framework in practice are introduced by case studies of investment projects appraisal in a community and assessment of efficiency and effectiveness of public institutions.

  1. Improving transportation networks: Effects of population structure and decision making policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Martí, Federico; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-07-03

    Transportation networks are one of the fundamental tools for human society to work, more so in our globalized world. The importance of a correct, efficient design of a transportation network for a given region or country cannot be overstated. We here study how network design is affected by the geography of the towns or nuclei to be connected, and also by the decision process necessary to choose which connections should be improved (in a generic sense) first. We begin by establishing that Delaunay networks provide an efficient starting point for the network design and at the same time allow us to introduce a computationally amenable model. Subsequent improvements lead to decentralized designs in geographies where towns are more or less homogeneously distributed, whereas radial designs arise when there is a core-periphery distribution of nodes. We also show that optimization of Delaunay networks outperforms that of complete networks at a lower cost, by allowing for a proper selection of the links to improve. In closing, we draw conclusions relevant to policy making applied to designing transportation networks and point our how our study can be useful to identify mechanisms relevant to the historical development of a region.

  2. Shared decision making in public mental health care: perspectives from consumers living with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work regarding decision making in mental health suggests that mental health consumers have better outcomes when their preferences are integrated into quality of life decisions. A wealth of research, however, indicates that providers have difficulty predicting what their clients' priorities are. This study investigates consumer decision-making preferences and understanding of construction of decisions in community mental health. People living with severe mental illness being treated in the public mental health care system (N=16) participated in qualitative interviews regarding case management decision making as a part of a larger study investigating a decision support system to facilitate shared decision making. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and cross-case thematic analyses were conducted. Mental health consumers generally endorse a "shared" style of decision making. When asked what "shared" means, however, consumers describe a two-step process which first prioritizes autonomy, and if that is not possible, defers to case managers' judgment. Consumers also primarily focused on the relationship and affective components of decision making, rather than information-gathering or deliberating on options. Finally, when disagreements arose, consumers primarily indicated they handled them. Mental health consumers may have a different view of decision making than the literature on shared decision making suggests. Mental health consumers may consciously decide to at least verbally defer to their case managers, and remain silent about their preferences or wishes.

  3. A Case for Open Network Health Systems: Systems as Networks in Public Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grant Rhodes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community Participation Act (2014, local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or “innovate.” But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder. The aim was to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of local PMH services. The investigation concluded that no specific failure by an individual professional or service provider facility led to the murder. Instead, also as a result of the Participation Act that severed communication lines between individuals and organizations, information sharing failures were likely to have reduced system level capacity to identify risks. The methods and analytical frameworks employed to reach this conclusion, also lead to discussion as to the plausibility of an unconventional solution. If improving communication is the primary problem, non-hierarchical information, and organizational networks arise as possible and innovative system solutions. The proposal for debate is that traditional “health system” definitions, literature and narratives, and operating assumptions in public (mental health are ‘locked in’ constraining technical and organization innovations. If we view a “health system” as an adaptive system of economic and social “networks,” it becomes clear that the current orthodox solution, the so-called integrated health system, typically results in a “centralized hierarchical” or “tree” network. An overlooked alternative that breaks out of the established policy narratives is the view of a ‘health systems’ as a non-hierarchical organizational structure or

  4. Collaborative Tools for e-Participation across Networks: The Comuno Networking Site for Public Governance and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaschesky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents collaborative tools for public participation across multiple networking sites. The tools are part of the Comuno networking site for public governance and services, which is particularly targeted at the public sector (currently in alpha testing at http://comuno.org. The Broadcast tool allows cross-posting content from Comuno to a wide variety of other networking sites, such as Facebook or Twitter. The UserFeed and TopicFeed tools build RSS feeds from content published by a specific user or under a specific topic. The LifeStream tool gathers a user’s activities across multiple networking sites in the private account section at Comuno. These tools and related aspects of the Comuno networking site are discussed and presented in the context of deliberation and opinion-forming in a Swiss bilingual city.

  5. Categorization and decision-making in a neurobiologically plausible spiking network using a STDP-like learning rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Michael; Dutt, Nikil D; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the human brain is able to efficiently perceive and understand a visual scene is still a field of ongoing research. Although many studies have focused on the design and optimization of neural networks to solve visual recognition tasks, most of them either lack neurobiologically plausible learning rules or decision-making processes. Here we present a large-scale model of a hierarchical spiking neural network (SNN) that integrates a low-level memory encoding mechanism with a higher-level decision process to perform a visual classification task in real-time. The model consists of Izhikevich neurons and conductance-based synapses for realistic approximation of neuronal dynamics, a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) synaptic learning rule with additional synaptic dynamics for memory encoding, and an accumulator model for memory retrieval and categorization. The full network, which comprised 71,026 neurons and approximately 133 million synapses, ran in real-time on a single off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). The network was constructed on a publicly available SNN simulator that supports general-purpose neuromorphic computer chips. The network achieved 92% correct classifications on MNIST in 100 rounds of random sub-sampling, which is comparable to other SNN approaches and provides a conservative and reliable performance metric. Additionally, the model correctly predicted reaction times from psychophysical experiments. Because of the scalability of the approach and its neurobiological fidelity, the current model can be extended to an efficient neuromorphic implementation that supports more generalized object recognition and decision-making architectures found in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethical issues in case study publication: "making our case(s)" ethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David B; Fitchett, George

    2011-01-01

    As chaplains develop richly detailed case studies for publication, ethical questions about case study construction and publication are emerging. Concerns about seeking patients' permission to publish material about them suggest additional questions and raise broad confidentiality and privacy issues. Confidentiality-related practices in health care and psychotherapy provide the most extensive guidance for chaplains, but healthcare chaplaincy has roots in religious and professional traditions with distinct notions of confidentiality that deserve consideration. Single case studies do not appear to be "research" requiring informed consent, yet their publication exposes patients to some risk of harm. Obtaining the patient's/"case study subject's" permission to publish, disguising non-essential information, and allowing the patient to review the case study can mitigate the risks. Striking a balance between protecting patients and providing sufficient detail to make case studies useful is a central ethical challenge of case study publication.

  7. Visualizing Public Opinion in Croatia Based on Available Social Network Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševa, Jurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade advances of computer technologies have lead towards a technological reality where the line between information consumers and information producers is blurred. This technological omnipresence allows for unprecedented data creation capabilities. Based on various data sources, it seems humans have fully embraced data-generating activities. One such activity is using online social network applications, like Facebook or Twitter in almost all aspects of their lives. One of the main features of online social network applications is perceived freedom of speech, individuality and privacy, even though every application has some special features. Therefore, content generated using these services presents the public with interesting insights in private life of people and their attitudes towards public affairs. Social network applications are active the most during specific public events aimed at the massive public. Due to its brevity, ease of use and frequency, Twitter is an interesting social network application for research and analysis. Other than allowing almost exclusively short messages (up to 140 characters, a tweet (a Twitter post can contain location of the message sender as well as a graphic to accompany the textual message. The textual part of the message may contain so called hashtags – keywords used for indexing and easy identification of a subject the message is related to. These hashtags allow us to group messages related to a specific event. Recent governmental elections held in Croatia were very popular amongst the Croatian Twitter community. Usage of hashtags allowed us to identify the right messages and thus most-used words to describe this event and potentially identify how people felt when talking, i.e. writing, about politics and the held elections. Furthermore, geolocation information, optionally embedded in a tweet, makes it possible to analyze which keywords were used in which parts of Croatia, all pertaining to

  8. Using social network analysis to examine the decision-making process on new vaccine introduction in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, C B; Privor-Dumm, L; Aina, M; Pate, A M; Reis, R; Gadhoke, P; Levine, O S

    2012-05-01

    The decision-making process to introduce new vaccines into national immunization programmes is often complex, involving many stakeholders who provide technical information, mobilize finance, implement programmes and garner political support. Stakeholders may have different levels of interest, knowledge and motivations to introduce new vaccines. Lack of consensus on the priority, public health value or feasibility of adding a new vaccine can delay policy decisions. Efforts to support country-level decision-making have largely focused on establishing global policies and equipping policy makers with the information to support decision-making on new vaccine introduction (NVI). Less attention has been given to understanding the interactions of policy actors and how the distribution of influence affects the policy process and decision-making. Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science technique concerned with explaining social phenomena using the structural and relational features of the network of actors involved. This approach can be used to identify how information is exchanged and who is included or excluded from the process. For this SNA of vaccine decision-making in Nigeria, we interviewed federal and state-level government officials, officers of bilateral and multilateral partner organizations, and other stakeholders such as health providers and the media. Using data culled from those interviews, we performed an SNA in order to map formal and informal relationships and the distribution of influence among vaccine decision-makers, as well as to explore linkages and pathways to stakeholders who can influence critical decisions in the policy process. Our findings indicate a relatively robust engagement of key stakeholders in Nigeria. We hypothesized that economic stakeholders and implementers would be important to ensure sustainable financing and strengthen programme implementation, but some economic and implementation stakeholders did not appear centrally on

  9. Novel approach to make concrete structures self-healing using porous network concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Schlangen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers proposed self healing mechanism using hollow fibres and or microcapsule containing a modifying agent dispersed in the concrete to prolong its service life and make it more durable. A novel self healing concrete concept is proposed in this paper by using porous network concrete

  10. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Caught in the Net: The Network-Entrepreneurship Connection in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Ori

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between public schools' networks and strategies of entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The Public School Entrepreneurship Inventory (PSEI) and a questionnaire on schools' networks were administered to a stratified, random sample of teachers and principals from 140 Israeli…

  12. Networks of innovation or networks of opportunity? The making of the Spanish antibiotics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Nuria

    2004-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is a typically research-intensive, first world-industry. This article seeks to explain why it has been so difficult for late industrialised nations to reproduce the networks of innovation on which the design and manufacturing of new drugs has historically based, and why alternative concepts are needed in order to understand the dynamics of science-based industries in emerging countries. The article analyses the development of the Spanish antibiotics industry, build after the World War II under the strong influence of the new international order and Spain's political framework, academic traditions and business groups. Focusing on the long-term relationships established between two Spanish companies (Antibióticos SA and Compañía Española de Penicilina y Antibióticos, CEPA), their American technological partners (Schenley and Merck), and their social and scientific environment, the article identifies networks of opportunity as the key institutional arrangement of this new industry in Spain. Opportunity (as opposed to innovation) networks are thus proposed to conceptualise the development of technologically complex industries in the European periphery.

  13. Instructional Applications of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN): Thomas Jefferson On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett-Smith, Stephanie

    The motivational value of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN), specifically the Thomas Jefferson On-line discussion group, is examined in this study. The instructional value of the network with respect to student motivation in fourth grade students of varied ability was gauged through observation of actual hands-on network experience,…

  14. Neuron Networks and Trees of Decision-making for Prediction of Eficiency in Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with models for prediction of students eficiency with the help of neuron networks and decision-making classifcation trees and then with the analysis of factors that infuence the efciency of students. A created model, based on demographic data of students as well as their behaviour and attitudes toward learning, tries to classify student in one of the two efciency categories. Te efciency is measured by the average of marks during studies. Various architectures of neuron networks have been trained and tested and the best model is obtained with the help of stratifed perceptron network. Te trees of decisi- on-making ofered a signifcantly better accuracy than neuron networks and we suggest their using due to their being a more precise method for the set of observed data. A sensitivity analysis of output variables on the input ones carried out with neuron networks refers to the fact that preliminary exams, attendance of exercises, importance of marks to students, and scholarships are among the most signifcant factors for the efciency of students. Te trees of decision-making separated the most signifcant variables: the time spent in learning, attendance of exercises and the sorts of materials from which students learn. Future researches, with the increased number of input variables and enlargement of the pattern and methodological expansion of other artifcial intelligence techniques and statistical methods, would make possible to create more succe- ssful model to be the basis for building the support system of decision-making in university level education.

  15. Making sense of information in noisy networks: human communication, gossip, and distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Mark E; Lamb, Alex; Shultz, Susanne; Olsen, Megan

    2013-01-21

    Information from others can be unreliable. Humans nevertheless act on such information, including gossip, to make various social calculations, thus raising the question of whether individuals can sort through social information to identify what is, in fact, true. Inspired by empirical literature on people's decision-making when considering gossip, we built an agent-based simulation model to examine how well simple decision rules could make sense of information as it propagated through a network. Our simulations revealed that a minimalistic decision-rule 'Bit-wise mode' - which compared information from multiple sources and then sought a consensus majority for each component bit within the message - was consistently the most successful at converging upon the truth. This decision rule attained high relative fitness even in maximally noisy networks, composed entirely of nodes that distorted the message. The rule was also superior to other decision rules regardless of its frequency in the population. Simulations carried out with variable agent memory constraints, different numbers of observers who initiated information propagation, and a variety of network types suggested that the single most important factor in making sense of information was the number of independent sources that agents could consult. Broadly, our model suggests that despite the distortion information is subject to in the real world, it is nevertheless possible to make sense of it based on simple Darwinian computations that integrate multiple sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  17. The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison School of Journalism and Mass Communication (United States)], E-mail: scheufele@wisc.edu; Lewenstein, Bruce V. [Cornell University, Department of Communication and Department of Science and Technology Studies (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We report findings from a national telephone survey on levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward nanotechnology that demonstrate how people make decisions about emerging technologies. Our findings confirm previous research that suggests that people form opinions and attitudes even in the absence of relevant scientific or policy-related information. In fact, our data show that cognitive shortcuts or heuristics - often provided by mass media - are currently a key factor in influencing how the public thinks about nanotechnology and about its risks and benefits, and in determining the level of support among the public for further funding for research in this area.

  18. [Research Networks in Public Health: Requirements for Sustainability and Effectiveness - a Sociological Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Holger; Ohlmeier, Silke

    2017-11-01

    The Public Health White Paper draws up a vision of public health as a living, decentralized network that can help improve the health of the population in a sustained fashion. However, the central question remains open as to which prerequisites public health networks should fulfill in order to be effective in the long term. The aim of this paper is to provide a sociological view of the issue and offer some discussion ideas. Parsons' structural functionalism leads to the thesis that science networks in public health require structures that ensure that the 4 basic functions of viable social networks - (1) adaptation, (2) goal attainment, (3) integration and (4) latent pattern maintenance - are fulfilled. On this theoretical basis, suggestions are made to establish functional formal structures in public health networks. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Modelling the public opinion transmission on social networks under opinion leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuozhi; Li, Meng; Ji, Wanwan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Social Network Analysis (SNA), the social network model of opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission is explored. The hot event, A Female Driver Was Beaten Due To Lane Change, has characteristics of individual short-term and non-government intervention, which is used to data extraction, and formed of the network structure on opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission. And the evolution mechanism are analyzed in the three evolutionary situations. Opinion leaders influence micro-blogging public opinion on social network evolution model shows that this type of network public opinion transmission is largely constrained by opinion leaders, so the opinion leaders behavior supervising on the spread of this public opinion is pivotal, and which has a guiding significance.

  20. Information-sharing ethical dilemmas and decision-making for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chisato; Ota, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Information sharing is one of the most important means of public health nurses collaborating with other healthcare professionals and community members. There are complicated ethical issues in the process. To describe the ethical dilemmas associated with client information sharing that Japanese public health nurses experience in daily practice and to clarify their decision-making process to resolve these dilemmas. Data were collected using a three-phase consensus method consisting of semi-structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires and a group interview. We surveyed administrative public health nurses in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 administrative public health nurses, and the self-administered questionnaires were sent to all 899 administrative public health nurses. The group interview was carried out with eight administrative public health nurses. Ethical approval was granted by the ethics committee of the School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan (8-158, 9-130). Information-sharing ethical dilemmas occurred most often when clients' decisions did not coincide with the nurses' own professional assessments, particularly when they faced clinical issues that were inherently ambiguous. In their decision-making processes, nurses prioritised 'protection of health and life'. These findings suggest that, above all, they sought to address urgent risks to clients' lives while upholding the principle of client autonomy as much as possible. In such cases, the nurses made decisions regarding whether to share information about the client depending on the individual situation. Public health nurses should protect the client's health while taking into consideration their relationship with the client. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas identified by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC and the Birds Directive (79/409/EC - recently replaced by the Directive 2009/147/EC - in order to ensure the long-term protection of endangered species in their natural habitats in European Union (EU territory. EU Member States are responsible for developing and implementing the procedures defined by Habitats Directive, but there are no specific recommendations about participation of stakeholders and local community in the decision-making process. Consequently, each country has adopted a different participatory strategy taking into account the principles of integration approach. The integration approach is based on combining human activities and nature conservation purposes in the same area or, at least, in areas in close proximity. In Italy, the implementation of Natura 2000 network was developed at local level (Regions and Autonomous Provinces using different approaches and procedures. Starting from these considerations, the aim of the study was to analyse the stakeholders’ involvement process during the implementation of Habitats Directive in Italy and the management of Natura 2000 sites. This study was realized using three main criteria with the respective indicators: (1 inclusiveness of participatory process; (2 democracy of participatory process; (3 cooperation and conflicts during the implementation process of Natura 2000 network. The data were collected through the administration by email of a semi-structured questionnaire to 56 stakeholders divided in four main groups of interest (public administrations, universities and research centres, environmental associations, private organizations. The results of the survey show that the participatory process was characterized by a low level of inclusiveness despite the existence

  2. Network Biology (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    networkbiology@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Network Biology ISSN 2220-8879 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/rss.xml E-mail: networkbiology@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope NETWORK BIOLOGY (ISSN 2220-8879; CODEN NBEICS is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of network biology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Network Biology. It dedicates to the latest advances in network biology. The goal of this journal is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and promote the research work in these fast moving areas. The topics to be covered by Network Biology include, but are not limited to: •Theories, algorithms and programs of network analysis •Innovations and applications of biological networks •Ecological networks, food webs and natural equilibrium •Co-evolution, co-extinction, biodiversity conservation •Metabolic networks, protein-protein interaction networks, biochemical reaction networks, gene networks, transcriptional regulatory networks, cell cycle networks, phylogenetic networks, network motifs •Physiological networksNetwork regulation of metabolic processes, human diseases and ecological systems •Social networks, epidemiological networks •System complexity, self-organized systems, emergence of biological systems, agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, neural network modeling, and other network-based modeling, etc. We are also interested in short communications that clearly address a specific issue or completely present a new ecological network, food web, or metabolic or gene network, etc. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, networkbiology@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal

  3. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to their countries of origin. The findings are based on a collaborative research project that involved knowledge institutes and African diaspora organizations in the Netherlands. The data consist of 3...

  4. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  5. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Decision Making Process for Constructing Low-Energy Buildings in the Public Housing Sector in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Wahlström

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The built environment accounts for a significant share of energy consumption and energy efficiency in this sector is important for the Swedish environmental objectives. Only a limited share of the total new construction of multifamily houses are constructed as low-energy buildings. Current building regulations lay down requirements for energy efficiency for new construction, and these will be tightened further in the future. Public housing companies often aim to be at the forefront, and the public housing sector has now built half of Sweden’s low-energy blocks of flats. Many public housing companies have tried, but it is uncertain if they will, or have, the possibilities to construct low-energy buildings on a large scale. Twenty public housing companies around Sweden have been interviewed with the aim of identifying obstacles and possibilities to be forerunners and build better than required by the building regulations. The study shows that the public housing companies build better than the law demands and intend to continue doing so. Low-energy buildings are particularly suitable in central locations where land is attractive and the required returns lower. The driving motivation is to be at the forefront and to build green. The new pressure to increase house building can lead to a risk of energy and quality issues being passed over. For the increase in the construction of low-energy buildings to continue, extended, shared and comparable decision making support for the public housing companies is needed.

  7. Not all patients want to participate in decision making. A national study of public preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Wendy; Kao, Audiey; Kuby, Alma; Thisted, Ronald A

    2005-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine calls for physicians to engage patients in making clinical decisions, but not every patient may want the same level of participation. 1) To assess public preferences for participation in decision making in a representative sample of the U.S. population. 2) To understand how demographic variables and health status influence people's preferences for participation in decision making. A population-based survey of a fully representative sample of English-speaking adults was conducted in concert with the 2002 General Social Survey (N= 2,765). Respondents expressed preferences ranging from patient-directed to physician-directed styles on each of 3 aspects of decision making (seeking information, discussing options, making the final decision). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of demographic variables and health status to preferences. Nearly all respondents (96%) preferred to be offered choices and to be asked their opinions. In contrast, half of the respondents (52%) preferred to leave final decisions to their physicians and 44% preferred to rely on physicians for medical knowledge rather than seeking out information themselves. Women, more educated, and healthier people were more likely to prefer an active role in decision making. African-American and Hispanic respondents were more likely to prefer that physicians make the decisions. Preferences for an active role increased with age up to 45 years, but then declined. This population-based study demonstrates that people vary substantially in their preferences for participation in decision making. Physicians and health care organizations should not assume that patients wish to participate in clinical decision making, but must assess individual patient preferences and tailor care accordingly.

  8. The Public Manager 2.0 : Preparing the Social Media Generation for a Networked Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Mergel, Ines

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the design of a new student-centered information management course to teach the effective use of social media technologies in the public sector as part of public affairs programs. The goal of this “Government 2.0” course is to provide students with analytical and technological skills to navigate the challenges future public managers are facing in a networked workplace. Social media technologies, such as wikis, blogs, microblogging services, or social networking sites, ha...

  9. Social network and decision-making in primates: a report on Franco-Japanese research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Pelé, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Sociality is suggested to evolve as a strategy for animals to cope with challenges in their environment. Within a population, each individual can be seen as part of a network of social interactions that vary in strength, type and dynamics (Sueur et al. 2011a). The structure of this social network can strongly impact upon not only on the fitness of individuals and their decision-making, but also on the ecology of populations and the evolution of a species. Our Franco-Japanese collaboration allowed us to study social networks in several species (Japanese macaques, chimpanzees, colobines, etc.) and on different topics (social epidemiology, social evolution, information transmission). Individual attributes such as stress, rank or age can affect how individuals take decisions and the structure of the social network. This heterogeneity is linked to the assortativity of individuals and to the efficiency of the flow within a network. It is important, therefore, that this heterogeneity is integrated in the process or pattern under study in order to provide a better resolution of investigation and, ultimately, a better understanding of behavioural strategies, social dynamics and social evolution. How social information affects decision-making could be important to understand how social groups make collective decisions and how information may spread throughout the social group. In human beings, road-crossing behaviours in the presence of other individuals is a good way to study the influence of social information on individual behaviour and decision-making, for instance. Culture directly affects which information - personal vs social - individuals prefer to follow. Our collaboration contributed to the understanding of the relative influence of different factors, cultural and ecological, on primate, including human, sociality.

  10. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  11. Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita A. Jami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A wider use of renewable energy is emerging as a viable solution to meet the increasing demand for global energy while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, current literature on renewable energy, particularly on wind power, highlights the social barriers and public opposition to renewable energy investment. One solution to overcome the public opposition, which is recommended by scholars, is to deploy a collaborative approach. Relatively little research has specifically focused on the role of effective communication and the use of a knowledge-broker in collaborative decision-making. This study attempts to fill this gap through the proposition of a participatory framework that highlights the role of the knowledge-broker in a wind project decision-making process. In this paper, five illustrative wind projects in Ontario are used to highlight the current situation with public participation and to address how the proposed framework could have improved the process. Based on the recommended collaborative framework, perception must shift from the dominant view of the public as “a risk to be managed” towards “a resource that can be tapped”. The developers need to improve sharing what they know and foster co-learning around questions and concerns.

  12. Feed forward neural network for prediction of end blow oxygen in LD converter steel making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narra Rajesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi layered feed forward neural network model is being developed for the prediction of end blow oxygen in the LD converter using a two step process. In the first step intermediate stopping temperature is being predicted and using this as an input the end blow oxygen is predicted. In both the cases two hidden layers had given the best results compared to the single layer neural network. Intermediate and end blow temperatures played a vital role in end blow oxygen and intermediate stopping temperature predictions. The model acts a guide for the operator and thereby enhances the yield of the converter steel making process.

  13. Developmental changes of neuronal networks associated with strategic social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Elisabeth; Schmalor, Antonia; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Galka, Andreas; Möhring, Jan; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2014-04-01

    One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of public communication in decision making for waste management infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Richard; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2017-12-01

    Modern waste management provision seeks to meet challenging objectives and strategies while reflecting community aspirations and ensuring cost-effective compliance with statutory obligations. Its social acceptability, which affects both what systems (infrastructure) can be put in place and to what extent their implementation will be successful, is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, often not well understood. In light of the growing evidence that decisions to build new infrastructure are often contested by the public, there is a clear need to understand the role of scientific evidence in public perception, particularly as environmental infrastructure delivery is often objected to by the public on environmental grounds. In this paper the need for waste management infrastructure is reviewed, and the way its delivery in the UK has evolved is used as an example of the role of public perception in the planning and delivery of waste facilities. Findings demonstrate the vital role of public communication in waste management infrastructure delivery. Public perception must be taken into account early in the decision making process, with the public informed and engaged from the start. There is a pressing need for people not simply to accept but to understand and appreciate the need for infrastructure, the nature of infrastructure investments and development, the costs and the benefits involved, and the technological aspects. Scientific evidence and literacy have a critical role to play, facilitating public engagement in a process that empowers people, allowing them to define and handle challenges and influence decisions that will impact their lives. Problem ownership, and an increased probability of any solutions proposed being selected and implemented successfully are potential benefits of such approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Node making process in network meta-analysis of non-pharmacological treatment are poorly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2017-11-28

    Identify methods to support the node-making process in network meta-analyses (NMAs) of non-pharmacological treatments. We proceeded in two stages. First, we conducted a literature review of guidelines and methodological articles about NMAs to identify methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. Second, we conducted a systematic review of NMAs of non-pharmacological treatments to extract methods used by authors to support their node-making process. MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched to identify articles assessing NMA guidelines or methodology intended for NMA authors. MEDLINE, CENTRAL and EMBASE were searched to identify reports of NMAs including at least one non-pharmacological treatment. Both searches involved articles available from database inception to March 2016. From the methodological review, we identified and extracted methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. From the systematic review, the reporting of the network was assessed as long as the method described supported the node-making process. Among the 116 articles retrieved in the literature review, 12 (10%) discussed the concept of lumping or splitting interventions in NMAs. No consensual method was identified during the methodological review, and expert consensus was the only method proposed to support the node-making process. Among 5187 references for the systematic review, we included 110 reports of NMAs published between 2007 and 2016. The nodes were described in the introduction section of 88 reports (80%), which suggested that the node content might have been a priori decided before the systematic review. Nine reports (8.1%) described a specific process or justification to build nodes for the network. Two methods were identified: 1) fit a previously published classification and 2) expert consensus. Despite the importance of NMA in the delivery of evidence when several interventions are available for a single indication, recommendations on the reporting of the node-making

  16. LEPA: A Lightweight and Efficient Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From smart watch to remote healthcare system, wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs play an important role in modern healthcare system. However, the weak capacity of devices has limited WBSNs development. Considering the huge processing and storage capacity of the cloud, it can be merged with WBSNs to make up for the deficiencies of weak capacity. Based on this consideration, the concept of cloud-assisted WBSNs has been proposed recently. In contrast to generic data, the data in cloud-assisted WBSNs will be used for providing medical diagnosis, so the integrity of data is very important because any modification will result in severe consequences such as misdiagnosis. The public auditing scheme could provide an efficient solution to check the data integrity remotely without downloading them. However, the traditional public auditing scheme for cloud cannot be used directly due to the high data density and weak processing capacity in WBSNs. So, in this paper, we proposed a lightweight and efficient public auditing scheme, LEPA, for cloud-assisted WBSNs. Compared with similar schemes, the WBSNs’ client only needs to do one symmetrical encryption with low computational cost in LEPA. Security proof shows that LEPA can resist two types of adversaries in random oracle model. The efficiency evaluation also shows that LEPA outperforms previous proposals.

  17. The impact of public housing on social networks: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig E; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Burkhauser, Susan; Schwartz, Heather

    2014-09-01

    We assessed whether 2 types of public housing-scattered among market-rate housing developments or clustered in small public housing projects-were associated with the perceived health and health behaviors of residents' social networks. Leveraging a natural experiment in Montgomery County, Maryland, in which residents were randomly assigned to different types of public housing, we surveyed 453 heads of household in 2011. We asked residents about their own health as well as the perceived health of their network members, including their neighbors. Residents in scattered-site public housing perceived that their neighbors were more likely to exercise than residents of clustered public housing (24.7% of network members vs 14.0%; P housing have a modest impact on the health composition of one's social network, suggesting the importance of housing policy for health.

  18. Constructing a clinical decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, C.; Moores, M.; Deegan, T.; Gibbs, A.; Poulsen, M.; Harden, F.; Mengersen, K.

    2014-03-01

    A decision-making framework for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is being developed using a Bayesian Network (BN) to graphically describe, and probabilistically quantify, the many interacting factors that are involved in this complex clinical process. Outputs of the BN will provide decision-support for radiation therapists to assist them to make correct inferences relating to the likelihood of treatment delivery accuracy for a given image-guided set-up correction. The framework is being developed as a dynamic object-oriented BN, allowing for complex modelling with specific subregions, as well as representation of the sequential decision-making and belief updating associated with IGRT. A prototype graphic structure for the BN was developed by analysing IGRT practices at a local radiotherapy department and incorporating results obtained from a literature review. Clinical stakeholders reviewed the BN to validate its structure. The BN consists of a sub-network for evaluating the accuracy of IGRT practices and technology. The directed acyclic graph (DAG) contains nodes and directional arcs representing the causal relationship between the many interacting factors such as tumour site and its associated critical organs, technology and technique, and inter-user variability. The BN was extended to support on-line and off-line decision-making with respect to treatment plan compliance. Following conceptualisation of the framework, the BN will be quantified. It is anticipated that the finalised decision-making framework will provide a foundation to develop better decision-support strategies and automated correction algorithms for IGRT.

  19. Public Cardiac Arrest Characteristics in Enclosed Pedestrian Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Minha; Demirtas, Derya; Buick, Jason E.; Ng, Amy; Feldman, Michael J.; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cities around the world have underground or above-ground enclosed networks for pedestrian travel, representing unique environments for studying out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and resuscitation. The characteristics of OHCAs that occur in such networks are unknown. Objective: To

  20. Research on Evaluation Method Based on Modified Buckley Decision Making and Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng-pu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel evaluation method, which can be applied in the field of risk assessment, project management, cause analysis, and so forth. Two core technologies are used in the method, namely, modified Buckley Decision Making and Bayesian Network. Based on the modified Buckley Decision Making, the fuzzy probabilities of element factors are calibrated. By the forward and backward calculation of Bayesian Network, the structure importance, probability importance, and criticality importance of each factor are calculated and discussed. A numerical example of risk evaluation for dangerous goods transport process is given to verify the method. The results indicate that the method can efficiently identify the weakest element factor. In addition, the method can improve the reliability and objectivity for evaluation.

  1. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  2. Performance indicators and decision making for outsourcing public health laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Moraes, Ricardo Montes de; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2012-06-01

    To develop performance indicators for outsourcing clinical laboratory services, based on information systems and public administrative records. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, the public health laboratory network comprised 33 laboratories with automated equipment (but no integrated information system), 90 primary care units (where sample collection was performed) and 983 employees. Information records were obtained from the administrative records of the Budget Information System for Public Health and the Outpatient and Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System. Performance indicators (production, productivity, usage and costs) were generated from data collected routinely from 2006 to 2008. The variations in production, costs and unit prices for tests were analyzed by Laspeyres and Paasche indices, which specifically measure laboratory activity, and by the Consumer Price Index from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. A total of 10,359,111 tests were performed in 2008 (10.6% increase over 2006), and the test/employee ratio grew by 8.6%. The costs of supplies, wages and providers increased by 2.3%, 45.4% and 18.3%, respectively. The laboratory tests per visit and hospitalizations increased by 10% and 20%, respectively. The direct costs totaled R$ 63.2 million in 2008, representing an increase of 22.2% in current values during the period analyzed. The direct costs deflated by the Brazilian National Consumer Price Index (9.5% for the period) showed an 11.6% increase in production volumes. The activity-specific volume index, which considers changes in the mix of tests, showed increases of 18.5% in the test price and 3.1% in the production volume. The performance indicators, particularly the specific indices for volume and price of activity, constitute a baseline of performance potential for monitoring private laboratories and contractors. The economic performance indicators demonstrated the need for network

  3. Overview of Aro Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    This program brings together researchers from disparate disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, not only are new and rewarding solutions sought and obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that is, the human dimension of complex networks, but, in addition, collaborations are established that would not otherwise have formed given the traditional disciplinary compartmentalization of research. This program develops the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the physical and human (cognitive and social) domains as they relate to human decision making. The strategy is to extend the recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes that appear to be characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. We also pursue understanding of the phenomenon of synchronization, whose mathematical formulation has recently provided insight into how complex networks reach accommodation and cooperation. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require computer simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process.

  4. Public Knowledge, Private Minds: Meaning Making on the Pathways of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pryce R.

    Every day people are inundated with news reports about the latest scientific research. The ways in which these texts enlighten or misinform the general public is a central question in both the research literature and discussions in popular culture. However, both research and popular discussion often take on deficit views of these texts, and the capabilities of readers to critically engage with them, and treat them as static, one-way conduits that transfer information to a passive audience. In contrast, I advocate treating popular science texts as the result of a chain of consumption and production that are actively shaped by the varied perspectives of scientists, communicators, and members of the general public. My work envisions all of these actors as science learners who simultaneously act as both producers and consumers of science, and who interact with one another through in-the-moment meaning making. This dissertation examines how the meaning of scientific research is filtered and transformed in moments of interaction and knowledge construction as it moves along this pathway of science communication from scientists to the general public. I present the results of a study that attempts to follow pieces of recent scientific research as they work their way from scientists to publication as popular science news stories, and ultimately to the public. To that end, I collected data from three types of actors involved in the paths of science communication, as well as the texts they read and generate. These actors include (1) the scientists who performed the research, (2) the reporters tasked with writing about it for popular dissemination, and (3) members of the public who must read and interpret the research. The texts I analyze include: peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, university-produced news briefs, popular press science stories, and various text-based conversations between scientists and reporters. Through an analysis of texts, individual interviews, and

  5. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  6. What Does It Mean to Have an N of 1? Art Making, Education, Research, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  7. Playing a role – but which one ? : how public service motivation and professionalism affect decision-making in dilemma situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who work in the public sector see themselves confronted with conflicting values, contradictory demands, and the need to serve an at times difficult to define ‘public interest’. This book contributes to our understanding of what drives public service professionals’ decision-making in

  8. Making the Case: Workforce, Education, Public Outreach and Communications as Mission-Critical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Gordon K.; Brewer, Janesse; Dawson, Sandra; Program Organizing Committee "Making the Case" workshop 2017

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, next-generation science projects will never see first light, or will lose their “right to operate” if they are unable to be responsive to emerging societal values and interests. Science projects with a robust and professional Workforce, Education, Public Outreach and Communications (WEPOC) architecture are able to engage and welcome public discourse about science, trade-offs, and what it means to be a good neighbor in a community. In this talk I will update the latest WEPOC efforts for TMT & NASA projects at Caltech/IPAC, and highlight how WEPOC has entered the critical path for many large, international science projects. I will also present a draft working document being developed by many of the world's largest astronomy and high-energy physics WEPOC leaders as an outcome from a "Making the Case" conference held at Caltech in spring 2017.

  9. Mobile data offloading via urban public transportation networks

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qiankun

    2017-01-01

    Mobile data traffic is increasing at an exponential rate with the proliferation of mobile devices and easy access to large contents such as video. Traffic demand is expected to soar in the next 5 years and a new generation of mobile networks (5G) is currently being developed to address the looming bandwidth crunch. However, significant 5G deployments are not expected until 2020 or even beyond. As such, any solution that offloads cellular traffic to other available networks is of high interest...

  10. Mural art as a media on making urban kampung's public space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Dalhar; Widyarko, Widyarko; Nadia Ilmiani, Ajeng

    2017-12-01

    The lack of public space is one of the main problems in the big cities in Indonesia. Urban kampungas part of the city is also no exception. Rapid growth on population sparks uncontrollable physical development that erode open space inside urbankampung. Sometimes, what is left is just neglected space which don‟t „live‟ and far from the definition of public space. Mural art has been existed since the beginning of human civilization. Now, it has evolved into one of the popular urban art. The previous research has proven that the process of urban art making through participatory approach could trigger community interaction in a space. Interaction itself is a main factor that may trigger the establishmentof a public space. With the same method, this research attempts to build mural in a neglected space inside urbankampung named Palsigunung. After all of the process done, the space still haven‟t changed from the previous condition, which is still a neglected space. Together with facilitator, kampung‟s residents need to be involved identifying the problem and also the solution to the lack of public space in their kampung. Particularly for urban kampungPalsigunung, the needed solution might not be mural.

  11. Dialogue Police, Decision Making, and the Management of Public Order During Protest Crowd Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    to facilitate peaceful protest through dialogue and communication. This paper reports upon a critical ‘test case’ for this ‘new approach’ by analysing the policing of a series of protests against Government policy across 3 days that surrounded a Government party conference in Sheffield, a large city...... making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis...... for theory and practice are discussed....

  12. An Appraisal of Social Network Theory and Analysis as Applied to Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Pitts, Stephanie R

    2017-03-20

    The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics. Next steps for the field are outlined and the need for funding is emphasized. Recently developed network analysis techniques, technological innovations in communication, and changes in theoretical perspectives to include a focus on social and environmental behavioral influences have created opportunities for new theory and ever broader application of social networks to public health topics.

  13. Decision-making in irrigation networks: Selecting appropriate canal structures using multi-attribute decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzade, Zeinab; Pagsuyoin, Sheree A; Ponnambalam, Kumaraswamy; Monem, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    The stiff competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural production sectors makes it necessary to have effective management of irrigation networks in farms. However, the process of selecting flow control structures in irrigation networks is highly complex and involves different levels of decision makers. In this paper, we apply multi-attribute decision making (MADM) methodology to develop a decision analysis (DA) framework for evaluating, ranking and selecting check and intake structures for irrigation canals. The DA framework consists of identifying relevant attributes for canal structures, developing a robust scoring system for alternatives, identifying a procedure for data quality control, and identifying a MADM model for the decision analysis. An application is illustrated through an analysis for automation purposes of the Qazvin irrigation network, one of the oldest and most complex irrigation networks in Iran. A survey questionnaire designed based on the decision framework was distributed to experts, managers, and operators of the Qazvin network and to experts from the Ministry of Power in Iran. Five check structures and four intake structures were evaluated. A decision matrix was generated from the average scores collected from the survey, and was subsequently solved using TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. To identify the most critical structure attributes for the selection process, optimal attribute weights were calculated using Entropy method. For check structures, results show that the duckbill weir is the preferred structure while the pivot weir is the least preferred. Use of the duckbill weir can potentially address the problem with existing Amil gates where manual intervention is required to regulate water levels during periods of flow extremes. For intake structures, the Neyrpic® gate and constant head orifice are the most and least preferred alternatives, respectively. Some advantages

  14. NASA Water-Cycle Solutions Networks and Community of Practice Approaches to enhance Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, W.; Ward, J.; Cox, E. L.; Lawford, R. G.; Matthews, D.; Houser, P.; Doherty, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has created the Asian Water Cycle Initiative regional network for South Asia and NASA has launched two networks to enhance the rapid transitioning of scientific achievements and NASA technology into operational use. All three networks meet a new type of scientific challenge by providing strong linkage among the scientific communities, the space agencies, and decision makers. We focus here on the two NASA-sponsored networks that carry out complementary approaches: WaterNet focused on large-scale national/international collaborations; North Olympic Peninsula Solution Network developed a local proof of concept project first, then began integration and collaboration at progressively larger scales, culminating with a national-level discourse via the National Association of Resource, Conservation and Development councils (NARC&DC). The ultimate goals of both groups were to bring NASA Science and Technology products to organizations/groups to improve decision making and to create collaborations and networks that would extend beyond the parent groups and expand and continue to be sustainable, after the original projects were completed. This paper provides a summary of lessons learned. The primary objective of the NOPSN is to bring NASA science and technology tools to watershed managers to improve the scientific basis of decision making in NASA national application areas of water management, agricultural efficiency, and ecological forecasting. To achieve this objective, the NOPSN team first developed and implemented a local proof-of-concept project for the Dungeness River, Washington, to improve water forecasting. The team then developed local and regional collaborations with water resource managers, stakeholder groups, and local, state, and federal agencies to identify environmental issues, challenges, and needs that could be addressed with NASA technology. Finally,through its partnership with NARC&D, it provided the NOPSN

  15. Medical decision-making system of ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiyakumari, N; Rajendran, P; Madheswaran, M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a medical decision-making system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound carotid artery images. The proposed method categorizes the subjects into normal, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases. Two contours are extracted for each and every preprocessed ultrasound carotid artery image. Two types of contour extraction techniques and multilayer back propagation network (MBPN) system have been developed for classifying carotid artery categories. The results obtained show that MBPN system provides higher classification efficiency, with minimum training and testing time. The outputs of decision support system are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. MBPN system with contour extraction algorithms and preprocessing scheme helps in developing medical decision-making system for ultrasound carotid artery images. It can be used as secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  16. Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, April). Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community. Presentation at the Learning Analystic and Knowelege (LAK13), Leuven, Belgium.

  17. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Health implications of social networks for children living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Schwartz, Heather L; Griffin, Beth Ann; Burkhauser, Susan; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to examine whether: (1) the health composition of the social networks of children living in subsidized housing within market rate developments (among higher-income neighbors) differs from the social network composition of children living in public housing developments (among lower-income neighbors); and (2) children's social network composition is associated with children's own health. We found no significant differences in the health characteristics of the social networks of children living in these different types of public housing. However, social network composition was significantly associated with several aspects of children's own health, suggesting the potential importance of social networks for the health of vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An exploratory analysis of network characteristics and quality of interactions among public health collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Varda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships, in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement.

  20. Identifying public health policymakers' sources of information: comparing survey and network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn A; de Vocht, Frank; Money, Annemarie; Everett, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that policymakers often use personal contacts to find information and advice. However, the main sources of information for public health policymakers are not known. This study aims to describe policymakers' sources of information. A questionnaire survey of public health policymakers across Greater Manchester (GM) was carried out (response rate 48%). All policy actors above Director level involved in public health policy (finding, analyzing or producing information, producing or implementing policy) in GM were included in the sampling frame. Respondents were provided with a list of sources of information and asked which they used (categorical data) and to name specific individuals who acted as sources of information (network data). Data were analyzed using frequencies and network analysis. The most frequently chosen sources of information from the categorical data were NICE, government websites and Directors of Public Health. However, the network data showed that the main sources of information in the network were actually mid-level managers in the NHS, who had no direct expertise in public health. Academics and researchers did not feature in the network. Both survey and network analyses provide useful insights into how policymakers access information. Network analysis offers practical and theoretical contributions to the evidence-based policy debate. Identifying individuals who act as key users and producers of evidence allows academics to target actors likely to use and disseminate their work.

  1. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  2. 76 FR 46359 - Announcing the Nineteenth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Announcing the Nineteenth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... members of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. CIREN is a collaborative effort to conduct...

  3. Public Safety Networks--Examining Mimetic, Complexity, and Legacy Effects on Interorganizational Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine information systems-enabled interorganizational collaborations called public safety networks--their proliferation, information systems architecture, and technology evolution. These networks face immense pressures from member organizations, external stakeholders, and environmental contingencies. This…

  4. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  5. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  6. [Do media reports and public brochures facilitate informed decision making about cervical cancer prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer-Gromen, A; Bodemer, N; Müller, S M; Gigerenzer, G

    2011-11-01

    With the introduction and recommendation of the new HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination in 2007, cervical cancer prevention has evoked large public interest. Is the public able to make informed decisions on the basis of media reports and brochures? To answer this question, an analysis of media coverage of HPV vaccination (Gardasil®) and Pap (Papanicolaou) screening was conducted from 2007-2009, which investigated the minimum requirement of completeness (pros and cons), transparency (absolute numbers), and correctness (references concerning outcome, uncertainty, magnitude) of the information. As a bench mark, facts boxes with concise data on epidemiology, etiology, benefits, harms, and costs were compiled in advance. Although all vaccination reports and brochures covered the impact of prevention, only 41% provided concrete numbers on effectiveness (90/220) and 2% on absolute risk reductions for the cancer surrogate dysplasia (5/220), whereby none of the latter numbers was correct. The prevention potential was correctly presented once. Only 48% (105/220) mentioned pros and cons. With regard to screening, 20% (4/20) provided explicit data on test quality and one expressed these in absolute numbers, while 25% (5/20) reported the prevention potential; all given numbers were correct. Finally, 25% (5/20) mentioned the possibility of false positive results. Minimum requirements were fulfilled by 1/220 vaccination and 1/20 screening reports. At present, informed decision making based on media coverage is hardly possible.

  7. Problems of Using Femtocells in Public Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Žvinys

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of femtocells connected into a single macro network infrastructure. Different problems and possible solutions were discussed. The paper is focused on two separate benefits, which HNB could bring an operator and user. Femtocells are especially appealing due to the freedom of installation, increased macro network capacity, femto zone rates and etc. They provide users with better service quality, including voice service and higher throughput; while operators can reduce their network deployment expenditures. On the other hand, unplanned deployment, mobility issues and different types of user groups can cause a headache both for operators and customers. The analysis demonstrated that the majority of features of femtocells from the operator’s point of view were positive. Looking from the user’s point of view, most of shortcomings are difficult to remove. Positive and negative features both for operators and clients are presented in the HNB model.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Geoscience Education and Public Outreach AND CRITERION 2: MAKING A BROADER IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlino, M.; Scotchmoor, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    The geosciences influence our daily lives and yet often go unnoticed by the general public. From the moment we listen to the weather report and fill-up our cars for the daily commute, until we return to our homes constructed from natural resources, we rely on years of scientific research. The challenge facing the geosciences is to make explicit to the public not only the criticality of the research whose benefits they enjoy, but also to actively engage them as partners in the research effort, by providing them with sufficient understanding of the scientific enterprise so that they become thoughtful and proactive when making decisions in the polling booth. Today, there is broad recognition within the science and policy community that communication needs to be more effective, more visible, and that the public communication of the scientific enterprise is critical not only to its taxpayer support, but also to maintenance of a skilled workforce and the standard of living expected by many Americans. In 1997, the National Science Board took the first critical step in creating a cultural change in the scientific community by requiring explicit consideration of the broader impacts of research in every research proposal. The so-called Criterion 2 has catalyzed a dramatic shift in expectations within the geoscience community and an incentive for finding ways to encourage the science research community to select education and public outreach as a venue for responding to Criterion 2. In response, a workshop organized by the University of California Museum of Paleontology and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) was held on the Berkeley campus May 11-13, 2005. The Geoscience EPO Workshop purposefully narrowed its focus to that of education and public outreach. This workshop was based on the premise that there are proven models and best practices for effective outreach strategies that need to be identified and shared with research scientists. Workshop

  9. MobiHealth: Ambulant Patient Monitoring Over Public Wireless Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantas, D.; van Halteren, Aart; Bults, Richard G.A.; Wac, K.E.; Jones, Valerie M.; Widya, I.A.; Herzog, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    The use of health BANs together with advanced wireless communications enables remote management of chronic conditions and detection of health emergencies whilst maximising patient mobility. MobiHealth1,2 has developed a generic Body Area Network (BAN) for healthcare and an m-health service platform.

  10. Public Orchestration, Social Networks, and Transnational Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    that a social network analytical perspective on orchestration can improve our understanding of how governments and international organizations can shape transnational environmental governance. Through a case study of aviation, we provide two contributions to these debates: first, we propose four analytical...

  11. The Making of a Sustainable Wireless City? Mapping Public Wi-Fi Access in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global information economy, ready access to the Internet is critical to a city’s competitiveness, which has prompted a number of cities to launch plans to establish wireless networks. Most literature on the development of wireless cities focuses on cities in Western countries, and few have discussed how Chinese cities have adopted wireless technologies in their urban infrastructure development efforts. This paper examines recent development and spatial distribution of public Wi-Fi access in Shanghai, a leading business hub in China. We mapped Wi-Fi hotspots through the government sponsored “i-Shanghai” project and China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC. We find that while telecommunication providers have been proactively deploying WLAN (wireless local area network,a proxy of public Wi-Fi or wireless access hotspots in Shanghai, neither government sponsored WLAN hotspots nor facilities established by CMCC could cover the old traditional neighborhoods in the central city and sub-districts in remote rural areas. We also address the development of a more sustainable wireless city in Shanghai with a particular focus on digital divide and social equity issues.

  12. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  13. Development of public power transportation and distribution networks; Developpement des reseaux publics de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    This circular deals with the development of the French public power transportation network, but also with projects of public distribution networks with a voltage greater or equal to 63 kV. The following points are successively evoked: the planing of the development of the public power transportation network, the preliminary study of the advisability of projects of high and very high voltage power systems, the discussion of projects, the environmental integration of project, and the accompanying measures. (J.S.)

  14. Awareness of evidence-based practices by organizations in a publicly funded smoking cessation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provan, K.; Beagles, J.; Mercken, L.; Leischow, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence-based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the United States, working to get people to quit

  15. 47 CFR 68.110 - Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and terminal equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility of the public switched telephone... Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.110 Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and... maintain uninterrupted service. (c) Availability of inside wiring information. Any available technical...

  16. Enhancing Public Participation to Improve Natural Resources Science and its Use in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Shapiro, C. D.; Liu, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The need for broader understanding and involvement in science coupled with social technology advances enabling crowdsourcing and citizen science have created greater opportunities for public participation in the gathering, interpretation, and use of geospatial information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing guidance for USGS scientists, partners, and interested members of the public on when and how public participation can most effectively be used in the conduct of scientific activities. Public participation can provide important perspectives and knowledge that cannot be obtained through traditional scientific methods alone. Citizen engagement can also provide increased efficiencies to USGS science and additional benefits to society including enhanced understanding, appreciation, and interest in geospatial information and its use in decision making.The USGS guidance addresses several fundamental issues by:1. Developing an operational definition of citizen or participatory science.2. Identifying the circumstances under which citizen science is appropriate for use and when its use is not recommended. 3. Describing structured processes for effective use of citizen science. 4. Defining the successful application of citizen science and identifying useful success metrics.The guidance is coordinated by the USGS Science and Decisions Center and developed by a multidisciplinary team of USGS scientists and managers. External perspectives will also be incorporated, as appropriate to align with other efforts such as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing Toolkit for the Federal government. The guidance will include the development of an economic framework to assess the benefits and costs of geospatial information developed through participatory processes. This economic framework considers tradeoffs between obtaining additional perspectives through enhanced participation with costs associated from obtaining

  17. Making better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Peter W.; Madonna, Fabio; Schulz, Joerg; Oakley, Tim; Ingleby, Bruce; Rosoldi, Marco; Tramutola, Emanuele; Arola, Antti; Buschmann, Matthias; Mikalsen, Anna C.; Davy, Richard; Voces, Corinne; Kreher, Karin; De Maziere, Martine; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2017-11-01

    There are numerous networks and initiatives concerned with the non-satellite-observing segment of Earth observation. These are owned and operated by various entities and organisations often with different practices, norms, data policies, etc. The Horizon 2020 project GAIA-CLIM is working to improve our collective ability to use an appropriate subset of these observations to rigorously characterise satellite observations. The first fundamental question is which observations from the mosaic of non-satellite observational capabilities are appropriate for such an application. This requires an assessment of the relevant, quantifiable aspects of the measurement series which are available. While fundamentally poor or incorrect measurements can be relatively easily identified, it is metrologically impossible to be sure that a measurement series is correct. Certain assessable aspects of the measurement series can, however, build confidence in their scientific maturity and appropriateness for given applications. These are aspects such as that it is well documented, well understood, representative, updated, publicly available and maintains rich metadata. Entities such as the Global Climate Observing System have suggested a hierarchy of networks whereby different subsets of the observational capabilities are assigned to different layers based on such assessable aspects. Herein, we make a first attempt to formalise both such a system-of-systems networks concept and a means by which to, as objectively as possible, assess where in this framework different networks may reside. In this study, we concentrate on networks measuring primarily a subset of the atmospheric Essential Climate Variables of interest to GAIA-CLIM activities. We show assessment results from our application of the guidance and how we plan to use this in downstream example applications of the GAIA-CLIM project. However, the approach laid out should be more widely applicable across a broad range of application

  18. Making better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Thorne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous networks and initiatives concerned with the non-satellite-observing segment of Earth observation. These are owned and operated by various entities and organisations often with different practices, norms, data policies, etc. The Horizon 2020 project GAIA–CLIM is working to improve our collective ability to use an appropriate subset of these observations to rigorously characterise satellite observations. The first fundamental question is which observations from the mosaic of non-satellite observational capabilities are appropriate for such an application. This requires an assessment of the relevant, quantifiable aspects of the measurement series which are available. While fundamentally poor or incorrect measurements can be relatively easily identified, it is metrologically impossible to be sure that a measurement series is correct. Certain assessable aspects of the measurement series can, however, build confidence in their scientific maturity and appropriateness for given applications. These are aspects such as that it is well documented, well understood, representative, updated, publicly available and maintains rich metadata. Entities such as the Global Climate Observing System have suggested a hierarchy of networks whereby different subsets of the observational capabilities are assigned to different layers based on such assessable aspects. Herein, we make a first attempt to formalise both such a system-of-systems networks concept and a means by which to, as objectively as possible, assess where in this framework different networks may reside. In this study, we concentrate on networks measuring primarily a subset of the atmospheric Essential Climate Variables of interest to GAIA–CLIM activities. We show assessment results from our application of the guidance and how we plan to use this in downstream example applications of the GAIA–CLIM project. However, the approach laid out should be more widely applicable across

  19. A model of choice a public transit network by data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of public transit network design belongs to the class of NP hard combinatorial optimization problem. Since optimal solution of this problem is difficult to discover, many heuristic algorithms have been proposed in the literature. By applying various heuristic algorithms to one problem instance, various solutions could be generated. We assume, in this paper, that decisions related to public transit network choice should be made in the presence of trade-offs between two or more conflicting objectives (usually, the passengers' and operator's interests are in conflict. In this paper, we propose the model for public transit network choice. The proposed model is based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The proposed model is tested on the one of the best known benchmark examples for the transit network design problem.

  20. Reversal of Alcohol-Induced Dysregulation in Dopamine Network Dynamics May Rescue Maladaptive Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S; Clark, Jeremy J

    2016-03-30

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents, promoting the development of substance use disorders and compromised decision-making in adulthood. We have previously demonstrated, with a preclinical model in rodents, that adolescent alcohol use results in adult risk-taking behavior that positively correlates with phasic dopamine transmission in response to risky options, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that adolescent alcohol use may produce maladaptive decision-making through a disruption in dopamine network dynamics via increased GABAergic transmission within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Indeed, we find that increased phasic dopamine signaling after adolescent alcohol use is attributable to a midbrain circuit, including the input from the pedunculopontine tegmentum to the VTA. Moreover, we demonstrate that VTA dopamine neurons from adult rats exhibit enhanced IPSCs after adolescent alcohol exposure corresponding to decreased basal dopamine levels in adulthood that negatively correlate with risk-taking. Building on these findings, we develop a model where increased inhibitory tone on dopamine neurons leads to a persistent decrease in tonic dopamine levels and results in a potentiation of stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine release that may drive risky choice behavior. Based on this model, we take a pharmacological approach to the reversal of risk-taking behavior through normalization of this pattern in dopamine transmission. These results isolate the underlying circuitry involved in alcohol-induced maladaptive decision-making and identify a novel therapeutic target. One of the primary problems resulting from chronic alcohol use is persistent, maladaptive decision-making that is associated with ongoing addiction vulnerability and relapse. Indeed, studies with the Iowa Gambling Task, a standard measure of risk-based decision-making, have reliably shown that alcohol-dependent individuals make riskier, more maladaptive

  1. ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS AND BALANCED SCORECARD APPLIED TO THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Reis dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of public health systems is an issue of great concern. After all, to assure people's quality of life, public health systems need different kinds of resources. Balanced Scorecard provides a multi-dimensional evaluation framework. This paper presents the application of the Analytic Network Process and Balanced Scorecard in the performance evaluation of a public health system in a typical medium-sized Southeastern town in Brazil.

  2. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  3. [The cost in calculating transport noise disturbances in public decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, E

    2001-09-01

    The public decision-making methods in transport are based on cost-benefit analysis, by which the consequences of the decision (standards for vehicles, new infrastructures...) are converted in monetary amounts and compared to the cost of implementation of the decision. But some of these consequences, especially those related to environment, are not directly expressed in monetary terms. The article aims at offsetting this difficulty in the case of noise. The possible methods for getting money values of noise are presented; it is shown that the estimates to which they lead are coherent and consistent. Then a comparison is made between the present procedures and the procedures which could be implemented, and it is shown that large gains of efficiency could be obtained.

  4. Make Teaching More Professional: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Americans want higher professional requirements for teachers and believe teacher pay is too low, but they don't like tenure, according to the newest PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes To­ward the Public Schools. Public school parents trust and have confidence in the nation's teachers, and they said communicating with their child's teacher…

  5. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  6. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  7. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julie A; Clayton, Paula F; Dove, Cassandra; Funchess, Tanya; Jones, Ellen; Perveen, Ghazala; Skidmore, Brandon; Sutton, Victor; Worthington, Sarah; Baker, Elizabeth A; Deshpande, Anjali D; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-03-09

    While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM) to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA) to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability) in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence-based. The survey can serve as a valuable tool for other health

  8. Octopamine neuromodulatory effects on a social behavior decision-making network in Drosophila males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Certel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Situations requiring rapid decision-making in response to dynamic environmental demands occur repeatedly in natural environments. Neuromodulation can offer important flexibility to the output of neural networks in coping with changing conditions, but the contribution of individual neuromodulatory neurons in social behavior networks remains relatively unknown. Here we manipulate the Drosophila octopaminergic system and assay changes in adult male decision-making in courtship and aggression paradigms. When the functional state of OA neural circuits is enhanced, males exhibit elevated courtship behavior towards other males in both behavioral contexts. Eliminating the expression of the male form of the neural sex determination factor, Fruitless (Fru(M, in three OA suboesophageal ganglia (SOG neurons also leads to increased male-male courtship behavior in these same contexts. We analyzed the fine anatomical structure through confocal examination of labeled single neurons to determine the arborization patterns of each of the three Fru(M-positive OA SOG neurons. These neurons send processes that display mirror symmetric, widely distributed arbors of endings within brain regions including the ventrolateral protocerebra, the SOG and the peri-esophageal complex. The results suggest that a small subset of OA neurons have the potential to provide male selective modulation of behavior at a single neuron level.

  9. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’ in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  10. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J.; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’) in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  11. Local Tiled Deep Networks for Recognition of Vehicle Make and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongbin; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle analysis involves license-plate recognition (LPR), vehicle-type classification (VTC), and vehicle make and model recognition (MMR). Among these tasks, MMR plays an important complementary role in respect to LPR. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for MMR using local tiled deep networks. The frontal views of vehicle images are first extracted and fed into the local tiled deep networks for training and testing. A local tiled convolutional neural network (LTCNN) is proposed to alter the weight sharing scheme of CNN with local tiled structure. The LTCNN unties the weights of adjacent units and then ties the units k steps from each other within a local map. This architecture provides the translational, rotational, and scale invariance as well as locality. In addition, to further deal with the colour and illumination variation, we applied the histogram oriented gradient (HOG) to the frontal view of images prior to the LTCNN. The experimental results show that our LTCNN framework achieved a 98% accuracy rate in terms of vehicle MMR. PMID:26875983

  12. Local Tiled Deep Networks for Recognition of Vehicle Make and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle analysis involves license-plate recognition (LPR, vehicle-type classification (VTC, and vehicle make and model recognition (MMR. Among these tasks, MMR plays an important complementary role in respect to LPR. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for MMR using local tiled deep networks. The frontal views of vehicle images are first extracted and fed into the local tiled deep networks for training and testing. A local tiled convolutional neural network (LTCNN is proposed to alter the weight sharing scheme of CNN with local tiled structure. The LTCNN unties the weights of adjacent units and then ties the units k steps from each other within a local map. This architecture provides the translational, rotational, and scale invariance as well as locality. In addition, to further deal with the colour and illumination variation, we applied the histogram oriented gradient (HOG to the frontal view of images prior to the LTCNN. The experimental results show that our LTCNN framework achieved a 98% accuracy rate in terms of vehicle MMR.

  13. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  14. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating the totality of food and nutrition evidence for public health decision making and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Juan L; Byers, Tim; Djordjevic, Darinka; Hentges, Eric; King, Janet; Klurfeld, David; Llewellyn, Craig; Milner, John; Skrypec, Daniel; Weed, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation and integration of epidemiological studies detecting weak associations (RR nutrition and food safety communities. The 2008 ILSI North America "Decision-Making for Recommendations and Communication Based on Totality of Food-Related Research" workshop provided an overview of epidemiological methods, and case-study examples of how weak associations have been incorporated into decision making for nutritional recommendations. Based on the workshop presentations and dialogue among the participants, three clear strategies were provided for the use of weak associations in informing nutritional recommendations for optimal health. First, enable more effective integration of data from all sources through the use of genetic and nutritional biomarkers; second, minimize the risk of bias and confounding through the adoption of rigorous quality-control standards, greater emphasis on the replication of study results, and better integration of results from independent studies, perhaps using adaptive study designs and Bayesian meta-analysis methods; and third, emphasize more effective and truthful communication to the public about the evolving understanding of the often complex relationship between nutrition, lifestyle, and optimal health.

  16. Decision Making Patterns in Territorial Public Administration: The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel Cotae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main mechanisms fuelling the process of territorial development both on local and regional levels is cooperation. It is distinguished as one fundamental priority for the European Union in terms of operational aspirations. Local initiative and decision making patterns are contributing processes for the regional and sub-regional level, as they target the ‘integrated’ feature of sustainable territorial development policies. In an attempt to address the role of these mechanisms in relation to their contribution towards delineating a new regional development model, existing theories on planned behaviour, new regionalism and decision-making in public administration are investigated. Following a set of innovative but rather less complex studies portraying the factors influencing the municipalities to associate, we hypothesize that there may be other elements accounting for these intentions expressed by the local authorities. These can be furthermore aggregated within a territorial intention model. The study aims to thoroughly define a set of secondary factors influencing the association intentions in local administrative units while subsequently underlining the potential of this dimension to define an alternative regional development model.

  17. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Engaging the public in healthcare decision-making: quantifying preferences for healthcare through citizens' juries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuffham, Paul A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Kendall, Elizabeth; Burton, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Littlejohns, Peter; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2014-05-02

    The optimal approach to engage the public in healthcare decision-making is unclear. Approaches range from deliberative citizens' juries to large population surveys using discrete choice experiments. This study promotes public engagement and quantifies preferences in two key areas of relevance to the industry partners to identify which approach is most informative for informing healthcare policy. The key areas identified are optimising appropriate use of emergency care and prioritising patients for bariatric surgery. Three citizens' juries will be undertaken-two in Queensland to address each key issue and one in Adelaide to repeat the bariatric surgery deliberations with a different sample. Jurors will be given a choice experiment before the jury, immediately following the jury and at approximately 1 month following the jury. Control groups for each jury will be given the choice experiment at the same time points to test for convergence. Samples of healthcare decision-makers will be given the choice experiment as will two large samples of the population. Jury and control group participants will be recruited from the Queensland electoral roll and newspaper advertisements in Adelaide. Population samples will be recruited from a large research panel. Jury processes will be analysed qualitatively and choice experiments will be analysed using multinomial logit models and its more generalised forms. Comparisons between preferences across jurors predeliberation and postdeliberation, control participants, healthcare decision-makers and the general public will be undertaken for each key issue. The study is approved by Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee (MED/10/12/HREC). Findings of the juries and the choice experiments will be reported at a workshop of stakeholders to be held in 2015, in reports and in peer reviewed journals.

  19. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings. 383.3 Section 383.3 Patents... LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR SUBSCRIPTION TRANSMISSIONS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY NEW SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES § 383.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of...

  20. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL... performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings. 382.12 Section 382.12 Patents... Licensee for the public performance of sound recordings pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(2) and the making of...

  1. The Effects of Making Performance Information Public: Evidence from Los Angeles Teachers and a Regression Discontinuity Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Leopold S. Bergman; Hill, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In theory, the publication of performance ratings may improve performance through reputation concerns and peer effects or impede performance by demoralizing employees. This paper uses school-district data and a regression discontinuity design to answer how consumers and employees respond to making performance information public. We find that high-performing students sorted into classrooms with highly-rated teachers as a result of publication. Teachers who were published do not perform better ...

  2. Public representation in water management -- A network analysis of organization and public perceptions in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany B. Cutts; Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson; Shade T. Shutters

    2015-01-01

    To better accomplish their mission of an informed public, environmental education organizations often exchange ideas, share financing, and distribute overhead through collaboration. Yet it remains to be seen whether benefits of these collaborations extend to the public. We examine two possible benefits: the ability of the organizations to act as representatives of the...

  3. From exclusion to inclusion in public innovation support?: Innovative practices in bottom-up networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    ... – such as women, services industries and service innovations – could be acknowledged by the use of a bottom-up approach in innovation research in a way that helps make public innovation support more inclusive...

  4. Comparing public service motivation within various Europe countries: do institutional environments make a difference ? Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, W.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816; Steijn, B.; Egger-Peitler, I; Hammerschmid, G; Meyer, R.; Camilleri, E; Cerase, F; Leisink, P.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071055266; Ritz, A; Hondeghem, A

    2009-01-01

    The motivation of public servants in general (Behn 1995), and public service motivation (PSM) in particular (Perry and Hondeghem 2008b), have always been important issues in public administration and public management research. In recent years, research on public service motivation has made

  5. An extreme events laboratory to provide network centric collaborative situation assessment and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panulla, Brian J.; More, Loretta D.; Shumaker, Wade R.; Jones, Michael D.; Hooper, Robert; Vernon, Jeffrey M.; Aungst, Stanley G.

    2009-05-01

    Rapid improvements in communications infrastructure and sophistication of commercial hand-held devices provide a major new source of information for assessing extreme situations such as environmental crises. In particular, ad hoc collections of humans can act as "soft sensors" to augment data collected by traditional sensors in a net-centric environment (in effect, "crowd-sourcing" observational data). A need exists to understand how to task such soft sensors, characterize their performance and fuse the data with traditional data sources. In order to quantitatively study such situations, as well as study distributed decision-making, we have developed an Extreme Events Laboratory (EEL) at The Pennsylvania State University. This facility provides a network-centric, collaborative situation assessment and decision-making capability by supporting experiments involving human observers, distributed decision making and cognition, and crisis management. The EEL spans the information chain from energy detection via sensors, human observations, signal and image processing, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, multi-sensor data fusion, visualization and analytics, and modeling and simulation. The EEL command center combines COTS and custom collaboration tools in innovative ways, providing capabilities such as geo-spatial visualization and dynamic mash-ups of multiple data sources. This paper describes the EEL and several on-going human-in-the-loop experiments aimed at understanding the new collective observation and analysis landscape.

  6. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delay Tolerant Networking over the Metropolitan Public Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bujari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss MDTN: a delay tolerant application platform built on top of the Public Transportation System (PTS and able to provide service access while exploiting opportunistic connectivity. Our solution adopts a carrier-based approach where buses act as data collectors for user requests requiring Internet access. Simulations based on real maps and PTS routes with state-of-the-art routing protocols demonstrate that MDTN represents a viable solution for elastic nonreal-time service delivery. Nevertheless, performance indexes of the considered routing policies show that there is no golden rule for optimal performance and a tailored routing strategy is required for each specific case.

  8. The South Eastern Europe Health Network: A model for regional collaboration in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ruseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-country alliances, articulated through regional approaches, have increasingly been used to drive economic development and social progress in the past several decades. The South Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN stands out among these types of initiatives for the tangible improvements it has achieved in regional governance for health, with several important lessons for public health leaders worldwide. This review paper, written by several key participants in SEEHN operation, follows the main milestones in network development, including its foundation under the Stability Pact’s Initiative for Social Cohesion and the three ministerial forums that have shaped its evolution, in order to show how it can constitute a model for regional collaboration in public health. Herewith we summarise the main accomplishments of the network and highlight the keys to its success, drawing lessons that both international bodies and other regions may use in their own design of collaborative initiatives in health and in other areas of public policy.

  9. Automatic Publication of a MIS Product to GeoNetwork: Case of the AIS Indexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    problem, then the MEF file is available for manual import to GeoNetwork. The output of this operation is the absolute path of the created MEF file. 2.3...computation. Since the AIS reception index application is implemented in Java, a Java interface was required to launch the GNP. The Publisher constructor ...product on GeoNetwork. This would reduce the overhead associated to the production of metadata at each manual publication. The following sections

  10. Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Paletto A.; Graziani A; Brescancin F; De_Meo I

    2017-01-01

    Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas identified by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (79/409/EC) - recently replaced by the Directive 2009/147/EC - in order to ensure the long-term protection of endangered species in their natural habitats in European Union (EU) territory. EU Member States are responsible for developing and implementing the...

  11. Knowledge translation strategies to improve the use of evidence in public health decision making in local government: intervention design and implementation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Waters, Elizabeth; Dobbins, Maureen; Anderson, Laurie; Moore, Laurence; Petticrew, Mark; Clark, Rachel; Pettman, Tahna L; Burns, Catherine; Moodie, Marjorie; Conning, Rebecca; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-10-09

    Knowledge translation strategies are an approach to increase the use of evidence within policy and practice decision-making contexts. In clinical and health service contexts, knowledge translation strategies have focused on individual behavior change, however the multi-system context of public health requires a multi-level, multi-strategy approach. This paper describes the design of and implementation plan for a knowledge translation intervention for public health decision making in local government. Four preliminary research studies contributed findings to the design of the intervention: a systematic review of knowledge translation intervention effectiveness research, a scoping study of knowledge translation perspectives and relevant theory literature, a survey of the local government public health workforce, and a study of the use of evidence-informed decision-making for public health in local government. A logic model was then developed to represent the putative pathways between intervention inputs, processes, and outcomes operating between individual-, organizational-, and system-level strategies. This formed the basis of the intervention plan. The systematic and scoping reviews identified that effective and promising strategies to increase access to research evidence require an integrated intervention of skill development, access to a knowledge broker, resources and tools for evidence-informed decision making, and networking for information sharing. Interviews and survey analysis suggested that the intervention needs to operate at individual and organizational levels, comprising workforce development, access to evidence, and regular contact with a knowledge broker to increase access to intervention evidence; develop skills in appraisal and integration of evidence; strengthen networks; and explore organizational factors to build organizational cultures receptive to embedding evidence in practice. The logic model incorporated these inputs and strategies with a

  12. Making healthy public policy; developing the science by learning the art: an ecological framework for policy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1987-01-01

    During the 1980s increasing attention has been given to the view that a vast array of public policies have great potential for health promotion and that this potential ought to be developed. After briefly discussing the basis for this concept and its policy implications, this article turns to a major corequisite for making healthy public policy a political reality: learning how to do it. Where healthy public policy exists, how did it happen? This is a question that calls for a new generation of policy studies, one that is relevant to advocates of healthy public policy within and outside governments. An ecological framework of policy-making is proposed for such studies, delineating the social climate, key players, and strategic action. From it, operational indicators and study methods are suggested, in order to learn some general principles, within a real-world context, of how to develop public policies that are healthful.

  13. Preferences for engagement in health technology assessment decision-making: a nominal group technique with members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    To identify characteristics (factors) about health technology assessment (HTA) decisions that are important to the public in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken and the reasons for these choices. Focus groups using a nominal group technique to identify and rank factors relevant to public engagement in HTA decision-making. Thematic analysis was also undertaken to describe reasons underpinning participants' choices and rankings. Members of the Australian general public. 58 people, aged 19-71 years participated in 6 focus groups. 24 factors were identified by participants that were considered important in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken. These factors were individually ranked and grouped into 4 themes to interpret preferences for engagement. Members of the public were more likely to think public engagement was needed when trade-offs between benefits and costs were required to determine 'value', uncertainties in the evidence were present, and family members and/or carers were impacted. The role of public engagement was also seen as important if the existent system lacked transparency and did not provide a voice for patients, particularly for conditions less known in the community. Members of the public considered value, impact, uncertainty, equity and transparency in determining when engagement should be undertaken. This indicates that the public's preferences on when to undertake engagement relate to both the content of the HTA itself as well as the processes in place to support HTA decision-making. By understanding these preferences, decision-makers can work towards more effective, meaningful public engagement by involving the public in issues that are important to them and/or improving the processes around decision-making. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. [Ethical and philosophical dimensions of decision-making in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémy, F

    2008-01-01

    Decisions in public health, or in individual health care, are taken by people (individuals or collective) for other people (individuals or collective). Human values, that is to say what is connected to Ethics, should be to the fore, de jure. Too often, under the pretext that they refer to subjectivity, they appear only after very many technical considerations. The latter, in a scientist society, are supposed to deserve a claim to objectivity, this being of course illusory. The author, placing himself in the line of Levinas, Ricoeur, and also of Kant, for whom the "What must I do?" is the most fundamental question any human being has to face, develops four reasons which plead for the pre-eminence of ethics as the foundation of decisions in a policy for public health. 1) He reminds us the intangible values, which are on one side uniqueness and universality of mankind, and on the other side the singularity of the human person. 2) He insists on the ethical wreck which threatens the whole health- and healthcare systems. 3) He sets out some results of modern neurophysiological research (AR Damasio's work), joining an intuition of Aristoteles: the decision making process implies two phases: deliberation the aim of which is to list the different possible actions to undertake, then the choice between those actions. Damasio shows that the lack of emotions inhibits the choice, especially when decision implies human values. 4) Finally, he insists, after E. Morin, on the practical and theoretical difficulties in taking a "good" decision, and on what Morin calls "ecology of action". The results of a decision may completely escape from the decision-makers aims, very often for unexpected social and psychological reasons.

  15. An Australian childhood obesity summit: the role of data and evidence in 'public' policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, S A; Develin, E; Grove, N; Zwi, A B

    2005-07-20

    Overweight and obesity in Australia has risen at an alarming rate over the last 20 years as in other industrialised countries around the world, yet the policy response, locally and globally, has been limited. Using a childhood obesity summit held in Australia in 2002 as a case study, this paper examines how evidence was used in setting the agenda, influencing the Summit debate and shaping the policy responses which emerged. The study used multiple methods of data collection including documentary analysis, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion and media analysis. The resulting data were content analysed to examine the types of evidence used in the Summit and how the state of the evidence base contributed to policy-making. Empirical research evidence concerning the magnitude of the problem was widely reported and largely uncontested in the media and in the Summit debates. In contrast, the evidence base for action was mostly opinion and ideas as empirical data was lacking. Opinions and ideas were generally found to be an acceptable basis for agreeing policy action coupled with thorough evaluation. However, the analysis revealed that the evidence was fiercely contested around food advertising to children and action agreed was therefore limited. The Summit demonstrated that policy action will move forward in the absence of strong research evidence. Where powerful and competing groups contest possible policy options, however, the evidence base required for action needs to be substantial. As with tobacco control, obesity control efforts are likely to face ongoing challenges around the nature of the evidence and interventions proposed to tackle the problem. Overcoming the challenges in controlling obesity will be more likely if researchers and public health advocates enhance their understanding of the policy process, including the role different types of evidence can play in influencing public debate and policy decisions, the interests and tactics of the

  16. The availability of public information for insurance risk decision-making in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nigel; Gibbs, Mark; Chadwick, Ben; Foote, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    At present, there is a wealth of hazard and exposure data which cannot or is not being full used by risk modelling community. The reasons for this under-utilisation of data are many: restrictive and complex data policies and pricing, risks involved in information sharing, technological shortcomings, and variable resolution of data, particularly with catastrophe models only recently having been adjusted to consume high-resolution exposure data. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of common modelling practices and applications for climate and geo-hazard risk assessment, all of which would be highly relevant to public policy, disaster risk management and financial risk transfer communities. This paper will present a methodology to overcome these obstacles and to review the availability of hazard data at research institutions in a consistent format. Such a methodology would facilitate the collation of hazard and other auxiliary data, as well as present data within a geo-spatial framework suitable for public and commercial use. The methodology would also review the suitability of datasets and how these could be made more freely available in conjunction with other research institutions in order to present a consistent data standard. It is clear that an understanding of these different issues of data and data standards have significant ramifications when used in Natural Hazard Risk Assessment. Scrutinising the issue of data standards also allows the data to be evaluated and re-evaluated for its gaps, omissions, fitness, purpose, availability and precision. Not only would there be a quality check on data, but it would also help develop and fine-tune the tools used for decision-making and assessment of risk.

  17. Networking expertise: discursive coalitions and collaborative networks of experts in a public creationism controversy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Experts do play a particular role in public socio-scientific debates, even more so if they form heterogeneous coalition with other actors and experts. A case study about a public science education controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution/creationism in the UK press is used to investigate in detail how connections and coalitions between experts and other actors involved in the controversy emerged and played out. The research focuses on the question of what role collaborative and other networks of experts played in terms of influence, visibility, credibility, consensus and weight of argument. Issues that are considered in the research are the status of the members of the coalitions forming during the debate and how it is displayed in media representations and letters and petitions, and also how these networks and coalitions of experts perform in relation to each other.

  18. Should public libraries be networked with the parent service or not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The National and University Library performs the role of the parent service for all types of libraries, that is also for public libraries. According to the Act on Librarianship, public libraries perform some tasks of the parent service on the horizontal level for alllibraries in a certain area. The analysis of the performance of public libraries in the last decade, carried out at the national parent service shows that the majority of advisory work was aimed at better working conditions in public libraries which are, by themselves, the platform enabling the performance of parent tasks. The analysis reveals that in the last decade, the primary aim of public libraries was their own functioning and development of their network, and to a much lesser extent concem for other libraries in their respective areas.Social changes also endangered the organization of libraries in a network, and it was not always the founders who initiated changes, doubt and despair showed up also in the libraries themselves. On the other hand, quick social changes, development of technology, diminished interest in reading and endeavours for free information access advocate networking of libaries and the maintenance of that network by parent service. The existent endeavours of the parent service for the development of libraries can serve for the reassessmentof the preservation and reinforcementoflinks among libraries in a network following modemized organization. The formation of an advisory body of representatives of public libraries should reinforce the power of advisory service for public libraries in its endeavours for better working conditions and professiona1ization of their performance.

  19. Implementation of evidence-informed practice through central network actors; a case study of three public health units in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Nooraie, Reza; Marin, Alexandra; Hanneman, Robert; Lohfeld, Lynne; Dobbins, Maureen

    2017-03-15

    Workforce development is an important aspect of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) interventions. The social position of individuals in formal and informal social networks, and the relevance of formal roles in relation to EIDM are important factors identifying key EIDM players in public health organizations. We assessed the role of central actors in information sharing networks in promoting the adoption of EIDM by the staff of three public health units in Canada, over a two-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented. A multi-faceted and tailored intervention to train select staff applying research evidence in practice was implemented in three public health units in Canada from 2011 to 2013. Staff (n = 572) were asked to identify those in the health unit whom they turned to get help using research in practice, whom they considered as experts in EIDM, and friends. We developed multi-level linear regression models to predict the change in EIDM behavior scores predicted by being connected to peers who were central in networks and were engaged in the intervention. Only the group of highly engaged central actors who were connected to each other, and the staff who were not engaged in the intervention but were connected to highly engaged central actors significantly improved their EIDM behavior scores. Among the latter group, the staff who were also friends with their information sources showed a larger improvement in EIDM behavior. If engaged, central network actors use their formal and informal connections to promote EIDM. Central actors themselves are more likely to adopt EIDM if they communicate with each other. These social communications should be reinforced and supported through the implementation of training interventions as a means to promoting EIDM.

  20. Performance Analysis of Public Transport Systems in Nanjing Based on Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Ding, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wei, Shan-Sen

    The urban public transport network (UPTN) in Nanjing is characterized by a complex network with topological pedestals. The empirical data indicates that it is a small-world network. Under malicious attack to the high connectivity nodes of the network, the average path-length will increase 2.5 times, the reliability and traffic capacity of the UPTN will greatly decline, and the travel expenditure will distinctively increase. The topological significance of stations and routes are redefined to help assess the small-world property of UPTNs, so as to improve city transportation. It is also found that if the urban rail transit, such as metro, is introduced to the UPTN, then the topological diameter of the network is reduced, and its structure is optimized.

  1. Intergenerational Social Networks and Health Behaviors Among Children Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Schwartz, Heather; Thornton, Rachel Johnson; Griffin, Beth Ann; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Burkhauser, Susan; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2015-11-01

    In a survey of families living in public housing, we investigated whether caretakers' social networks are linked with children's health status. In 2011, 209 children and their caretakers living in public housing in suburban Montgomery County, Maryland, were surveyed regarding their health and social networks. We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between the perceived health composition of caretaker social networks and corresponding child health characteristics (e.g., exercise, diet). With each 10% increase in the proportion of the caretaker's social network that exercised regularly, the child's odds of exercising increased by 34% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.34; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 1.69) after the caretaker's own exercise behavior and the composition of the child's peer network had been taken into account. Although children's overweight or obese status was associated with caretakers' social networks, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for caretakers' own weight status. We found that caretaker social networks are independently associated with certain aspects of child health, suggesting the importance of the broader social environment for low-income children's health.

  2. Insights Into Collaborative Networks Of Nonprofit, Private, And Public Organizations That Address Complex Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Rachel A; Varda, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    Community networks that include nonprofit, public, and private organizations have formed around many health issues, such as chronic disease management and healthy living and eating. Despite the increases in the numbers of and funding for cross-sector networks, and the growing literature about them, there are limited data and methods that can be used to assess their effectiveness and analyze their designs. We addressed this gap in knowledge by analyzing the characteristics of 260 cross-sector community health networks that collectively consisted of 7,816 organizations during the period 2008-15. We found that nonprofit organizations were more prevalent than private firms or government agencies in these networks. Traditional types of partners in community health networks such as hospitals, community health centers, and public health agencies were the most trusted and valued by other members of their networks. However, nontraditional partners, such as employer or business groups and colleges or universities, reported contributing relatively high numbers of resources to their networks. Further evidence is needed to inform collaborative management processes and policies as a mechanism for building what the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation describes as a culture of health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Using Data to Inform Decision Making in Recruitment of Prospective Public Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Alam, Amina; Krudysz, Margaret A.; Hernandez, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare recruitment methods for prospective students to the public health programs at the CUNY School of Public Health. Recruitment data on prospective Masters and Doctoral Public Health students were gathered during the period of July 2014 to July 2015, using 4 recruitment methods: Schools of Public Health…

  4. How social network structure affects decision-making in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Battesti, Marine; Klenschi, Elizabeth; Bousquet, Christophe A H; Sueur, Cedric; Mery, Frederic

    2016-03-16

    Animals use a number of different mechanisms to acquire crucial information. During social encounters, animals can pass information from one to another but, ideally, they would only use information that benefits survival and reproduction. Therefore, individuals need to be able to determine the value of the information they receive. One cue can come from the behaviour of other individuals that are already using the information. Using a previous extended dataset, we studied how individual decision-making is influenced by the behaviour of conspecifics in Drosophila melanogaster. We analysed how uninformed flies acquire and later use information about oviposition site choice they learn from informed flies. Our results suggest that uninformed flies adjust their future choices based on how coordinated the behaviours of the informed individuals they encounter are. Following social interaction, uninformed flies tended either to collectively follow the choice of the informed flies or to avoid it. Using social network analysis, we show that this selective information use seems to be based on the level of homogeneity of the social network. In particular, we found that the variance of individual centrality parameters among informed flies was lower in the case of a 'follow' outcome compared with the case of an 'avoid' outcome. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Computer aided decision making for heart disease detection using hybrid neural network-Genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabasadi, Zeinab; Alizadehsani, Roohallah; Roshanzamir, Mohamad; Moosaei, Hossein; Yarifard, Ali Asghar

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the most rampant causes of death around the world and was deemed as a major illness in Middle and Old ages. Coronary artery disease, in particular, is a widespread cardiovascular malady entailing high mortality rates. Angiography is, more often than not, regarded as the best method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease; on the other hand, it is associated with high costs and major side effects. Much research has, therefore, been conducted using machine learning and data mining so as to seek alternative modalities. Accordingly, we herein propose a highly accurate hybrid method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. As a matter of fact, the proposed method is able to increase the performance of neural network by approximately 10% through enhancing its initial weights using genetic algorithm which suggests better weights for neural network. Making use of such methodology, we achieved accuracy, sensitivity and specificity rates of 93.85%, 97% and 92% respectively, on Z-Alizadeh Sani dataset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. BSE and variant CJD: emerging science, public pressure and the vagaries of policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William D

    2013-05-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was first recognized in 1987 in the United Kingdom and ultimately spread to cattle across Europe and to the Middle East, North America and Japan through the movement of infected animals and contaminated meat and bone meal. The human expression of BSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), likewise was first identified in the UK and now has been observed in many countries due to human exposure to BSE contaminated products or to vCJD contaminated human tissues through transplantation and injection. BSE provides an example of an emerging infectious disease that demonstrates the challenges of policy-making in the face of rapidly changing science and public outrage pushing for action. Lessons learned through the BSE epidemic include: (1) beware of facts as new science continues to emerge; (2) complex issues rarely have simple solutions; (3) evaluate epidemics from a macro-epidemiologic perspective to understand their complexity and devise effective risk management strategies; (4) options always exist for prevention/control; (5) risk communications play a vital role before and during an emerging disease epidemic; and (6) risk management progress involves both science and politics. Adoption of One Health approaches involving systems thinking and shared leadership hold the most promise for effectively managing complex emergency global health issues like BSE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  8. The manual of strategic economic decision making using Bayesian belief networks to solve complex problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...

  9. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  10. Beyond a complete failure : The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between

  11. Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013). Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community. In M. d'Aquin, S. Dietze, H. Drachsler, E. Herder, & D. Taibi (Eds.), Linked data challenge, Learning Analytic and Knowledge (LAK13) (pp. 6-10). Vol. 974, Leuven,

  12. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  13. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...

  14. Making Sense of Public Policy in a Fragmented World: the Search for Solutions and the Limits of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores innovation, learning and change in an environment where the historical moment of ‘New Public Management’ (NPM) has given way to unprecedented fluidity in public policy and decision making. To begin, we examine key elements of the post-NPM environment, where foundational approaches (in theory and practice) can be challenged either by innovation or by default to previous positions: both trends are evident in the incoherence of policy responses to the global economic crisis. ...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1130 - How do I make my siting analysis available to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...) Distribute your siting analysis and revised materials separation plan to the main public libraries in the... location of the public libraries where the public can find your siting analysis and revised materials...

  16. Livelihood Networks and Decision-making Among Congolese Young People in Formal and Informal Refugee Contexts in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Clark

    2006-01-01

    Refugee young people who are without their biological parents are often assumed to be among the most disempowered members of displaced populations. This paper interrogates this assumption by exploring Congolese young people’s access to decision-making in a variety of household contexts in Kampala and Kyaka II refugee settlement, western Uganda. Using a network approach to household and family, research findings reveal shrinking networks, increasing delinkage between household and family, and ...

  17. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January through December 1974. [deep space network, Apollo project, information theory, and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Formalized technical reporting is described and indexed, which resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The five classes of publications included are technical reports, technical memorandums, articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, special publications, and articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by author, subject, and publication type and number.

  18. Networking of Public Health Microbiology Laboratories Bolsters Europe’s Defenses against Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Albiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing. Cooperation among the European laboratory networks in the past 7 years has proved successful in strengthening epidemic preparedness by enabling adaptive capabilities for rapid detection of emerging pathogens across Europe. In partnership with food safety authorities, international public health agencies and learned societies, ECDC-supported laboratory networks have also progressed harmonization of routinely used antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, thereby significantly advancing the quality, comparability and precision of microbiological information gathered by ECDC for surveillance for zoonotic diseases and multidrug-resistant pathogens in Europe. ECDC continues to act as a catalyst for sustaining continuous practice improvements and strengthening wider access to laboratory capacity across the European Union. Key priorities include optimization and broader use of rapid diagnostics, further integration of whole-genome sequencing in surveillance and electronic linkage of laboratory and public health systems. This article highlights some of the network contributions to public health in Europe and the role that ECDC plays managing these networks.

  19. Surge Analysis during Making-Operation of Circuit Breaker in 345kV Network of KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Song, W.P.; Ohk, T.H.; Kim, D.S. [HYOSUNG CORPORATION (Korea); Moon, B.S. [KEPCO (Korea); Kho, H.S. [Kyoungnam University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    We have reviewed the making surge of GCB without closing resistor of Sanchung Power Plant in 345kV network of KEPCO. In 345kV GCB with closing resistor (520Ohm) to suppress the making-surge of circuit breaker. But, in this case of Sanchung power plant, we didn't insert the closing resistor between the contacts of circuit breaker even though it is 345kV network because we thought there was no problem as the length of transmission line between Sanchung power plant and Ueryoung Substation is very short (about 46km). But, KEPCO didn't accept this design and than we had to the making-surge analysis of line between Sanchung and Ueryoung. By the analysis results, we knew that the max making-surge was below the design criteria KEPCO's network (2.3pu) with thinking all con of network, substations and GIS. Consequ KEPCO has accepted the design of HYOSUNG 345kV GIS-CB without closing resistors in network between Sanchung and Ueryoung. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  20. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density.

  1. A conceptual framework for negotiating public involvement in municipal waste management decision-making in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim; Longhurst, Philip; Jude, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making. The study addressed questions of perception, interests, the decision context, the means of engagement and the necessary resources and capacity for adopting a participatory decision process. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the research produced an empirical framework for negotiating the mode and level of public involvement in waste management decision-making. The framework captures and builds on theories of public involvement and the experiences of practitioners, and offers guidance for integrating analysis and deliberation with public groups in different waste management decision contexts. Principles in the framework operate on the premise that the decision about 'more' and 'better' forms of public involvement can be negotiated, based on the nature of the waste problem and wider social context of decision-making. The collection of opinions from the wide range of stakeholders involved in the study has produced new insights for the design of public engagement processes that are context-dependent and 'fit-for-purpose'; these suggest a need for greater inclusivity in the case of contentious technologies and high levels of uncertainty regarding decision outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 46154 - Announcing the Twentieth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Announcing the Twentieth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) AGENCY..., and then click on Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) in the box on the left. The... notice announces the Twentieth Public Meeting of members of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering...

  3. The Making of a Sustainable Wireless City? Mapping Public Wi-Fi Access in Shanghai

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingfeng Wang; Felix Haifeng Liao; Juan Lin; Li Huang; Chengcheng Gu; Yehua Dennis Wei

    2016-01-01

      In the context of the global information economy, ready access to the Internet is critical to a city's competitiveness, which has prompted a number of cities to launch plans to establish wireless networks...

  4. Nation-Building without Mortar? Public Participation in Higher Education Policy-Making in South Africa. Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article tests a case study of public participation in the decision-making about restructuring South Africa's large cohort of higher education institutions, as inherited in 1994, against theories of South Africa's new democracy. It shows that people formally outside the higher education policy sector--students, academics, parents and the…

  5. Can public managers make their welfare organizations adapt to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    2014-01-01

    of the provision of the services to the citizens with disabilities and/or social disadvantages. The result has implications, especially for public management in praxis. The case study shows that the managers’ most important managerial tool to make their organizations adapt to the new landscape is the challenging...

  6. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs...

  7. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  8. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  9. Making the Case for Laws That Improve Health: A Framework for Public Health Law Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Swanson, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Wood, Jennifer; Mello, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    Context: Public health law has received considerable attention in recent years and has become an essential field in public health. Public health law research, however, has received less attention. Methods: Expert commentary. Findings: This article explores public health law research, defined as the scientific study of the relation of law and legal practices to population health. The article offers a logic model of public health law research and a typology of approaches to studying the effects of law on public health. Research on the content and prevalence of public health laws, processes of adopting and implementing laws, and the extent to which and mechanisms through which law affects health outcomes can use methods drawn from epidemiology, economics, sociology, and other disciplines. The maturation of public health law research as a field depends on methodological rigor, adequate research funding, access to appropriate data sources, and policymakers’ use of research findings. Conclusions: Public health law research is a young field but holds great promise for supporting evidence-based policymaking that will improve population health. PMID:20579282

  10. Mapping quorum sensing onto neural networks to understand collective decision making in heterogeneous microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Boedicker, James Q.

    2017-08-01

    Microbial communities frequently communicate via quorum sensing (QS), where cells produce, secrete, and respond to a threshold level of an autoinducer (AI) molecule, thereby modulating gene expression. However, the biology of QS remains incompletely understood in heterogeneous communities, where variant bacterial strains possess distinct QS systems that produce chemically unique AIs. AI molecules bind to ‘cognate’ receptors, but also to ‘non-cognate’ receptors found in other strains, resulting in inter-strain crosstalk. Understanding these interactions is a prerequisite for deciphering the consequences of crosstalk in real ecosystems, where multiple AIs are regularly present in the same environment. As a step towards this goal, we map crosstalk in a heterogeneous community of variant QS strains onto an artificial neural network model. This formulation allows us to systematically analyze how crosstalk regulates the community’s capacity for flexible decision making, as quantified by the Boltzmann entropy of all QS gene expression states of the system. In a mean-field limit of complete cross-inhibition between variant strains, the model is exactly solvable, allowing for an analytical formula for the number of variants that maximize capacity as a function of signal kinetics and activation parameters. An analysis of previous experimental results on the Staphylococcus aureus two-component Agr system indicates that the observed combination of variant numbers, gene expression rates and threshold concentrations lies near this critical regime of parameter space where capacity peaks. The results are suggestive of a potential evolutionary driving force for diversification in certain QS systems.

  11. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  12. To Infinity and Beyond ...: Heterarchical Governance, the Teach for All Network in Europe and the Making of Profits and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Antonio; Bailey, Patrick L. J.; Ball, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the increasing commercialisation of education through the empirical case of Teach For All, a network of social enterprises which is spreading a new model of teacher training across Europe and around the world. This model, which is supported and funded by a heterogeneous mix of public institutions and private sector…

  13. The Use of Social Networking Sites for Public Health Practice and Research: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kate; Echavarría, Maria I; Joe, Jonathan; Neogi, Tina; Turner, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have the potential to increase the reach and efficiency of essential public health services, such as surveillance, research, and communication. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify the use of SNSs for public health research and practice and to identify existing knowledge gaps. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of articles related to public health and SNSs using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL to search for peer-reviewed publications describing the use of SNSs for public health research and practice. We also conducted manual searches of relevant publications. Each publication was independently reviewed by 2 researchers for inclusion and extracted relevant study data. Results A total of 73 articles met our inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=50) were published in the final 2 years covered by our search. In all, 58 articles were in the domain of public health research and 15 were in public health practice. Only 1 study was conducted in a low-income country. Most articles (63/73, 86%) described observational studies involving users or usages of SNSs; only 5 studies involved randomized controlled trials. A large proportion (43/73, 59%) of the identified studies included populations considered hard to reach, such as young individuals, adolescents, and individuals at risk of sexually transmitted diseases or alcohol and substance abuse. Few articles (2/73, 3%) described using the multidirectional communication potential of SNSs to engage study populations. Conclusions The number of publications about public health uses for SNSs has been steadily increasing in the past 5 years. With few exceptions, the literature largely consists of observational studies describing users and usages of SNSs regarding topics of public health interest. More studies that fully exploit the communication tools embedded in SNSs and study their potential to produce significant effects

  14. Making Connections: Using Social Network Analysis for Program Evaluation. Issue Brief. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a methodological approach to measuring and mapping relationships. It can be used to study whole networks, all of the ties within a defined group, or connections that individuals have in their personal communities. The resulting graph-based structures illustrate the composition and effectiveness of networks on a…

  15. Making and Moving Publics: Stuart Hall's Projects, Maximal Selves and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    An extraordinary educator and public intellectual, Stuart Hall's career as a scholar, activist, teacher and mentor has touched almost every field in the social sciences and humanities. Paradoxically, education rarely claims him as an educator. Stuart Hall's refusal to see publics as given, fixed or settled matters with clear or final demarcations…

  16. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  17. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  18. Google Scholar makes it Hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306025; van Kreveld, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07492253X

    2014-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal prole pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are the

  19. Google Scholar makes it hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Kreveld, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal profile pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are

  20. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  1. How Public Universities Close Budget Gaps Matters for States. Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Alicia; Roza, Marguerite; Murphy, Patrick; Gross, Betheny

    2012-01-01

    When the Great Recession took its toll on state budgets, public universities felt the pain. Many public universities attempted to offset reductions in state funds by raising tuition, shifting admission spots to more out-of-state students, and, in some cases, increasing enrollment. For a given budget gap, these three strategies should be weighted…

  2. A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bernard B; Narimanov, Evgenii E

    2006-05-01

    We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

  3. Fuzzy bi-criteria decision making approach for supplier selection and distribution network planning in supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    selection process is carried out on the bases of multi factors therefore it is considered as a multi criteria decision problem. The model presented in the paper is using the analytic network process (ANP), a multi criteria decision making technique for supplier selection. To obtain the best coordination...

  4. Intra-Organizational Two-Mode Networks Analysis of a Public Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ujwary-Gil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of intra-organizational and two-mode networks of knowledge, resources and tasks. Each of these networks consists of a human and non-human actor in the terminology of the actor-network theory (ANT, or of only non-human actors. This type of research is rare in the theory of organization and management, even though the first article on meta-networks dates back to nearly two decades ago (Krackhardt & Carley, 1998. The article analyses the prominences and ties between particular network nodes (actors, knowledge, resources and tasks, assessing their effective use in an organization. The author selected a public organization operating in the university education sector, where saturation with communication, resource and knowledge-sharing are relatively high. The application of the network analysis provides a totally different perspective on an organization, taking into account the inter-relationship, which allows a holistic (complex outlook on the analyzed object. Especially, as it measures particular nodes as related to one another, not as isolated variables, as in classical research, where observations are independent.

  5. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  6. Making the right connections: biological networks in the light of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Christopher G; Pinney, John W

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of how evolution acts on biological networks remains patchy, as is our knowledge of how that action is best identified, modelled and understood. Starting with network structure and the evolution of protein–protein interaction networks, we briefly survey the ways in which network evolution is being addressed in the fields of systems biology, development and ecology. The approaches highlighted demonstrate a movement away from a focus on network topology towards a more integrated view, placing biological properties centre-stage. We argue that there remains great potential in a closer synergy between evolutionary biology and biological network analysis, although that may require the development of novel approaches and even different analogies for biological networks themselves. PMID:19722181

  7. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  8. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  9. Tweet against Nazis? Twitter, power, and networked publics in anti-fascist protests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Neumayer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the question of power in networked publics on Twitter in anti-fascist protests. The study is based on the results of an analysis of tweets, that are part of a data-set of three qualitative case studies about nationalist demonstrations in Germany, accompanied by counter-protests of anti-fascist groups, NGOs, and civil society. The question asked within this framework is how Twitter is used in the power struggles of the anti-fascist counter protests. The article concludes with the identification of tactics, practices, and strategies by activists for contesting power but also the reproduction of power on Twitter in interplay between functionalities of the technology and the political, i.e. socio-cultural, context. This leads us to a discussion about power in and between networked publics as part of a communication spiral in a larger media environment.

  10. Tweet against Nazis? Twitter, power, and networked publics in anti-fascist protests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Neumayer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the question of power in networked publics on Twitter in anti-fascist protests. The study is based on the results of an analysis of tweets, that are part of a data-set of three qualitative case studies about nationalist demonstrations in Germany, accompanied by counter-protests of anti-fascist groups, NGOs, and civil society. The question asked within this framework is how Twitter is used in the power struggles of the anti-fascist counter protests. The article concludes with the identification of tactics, practices, and strategies by activists for contesting power but also the reproduction of power on Twitter in interplay between functionalities of the technology and the political, i.e. socio-cultural, context. This leads us to a discussion about power in and between networked publics as part of a communication spiral in a larger media environment.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NETWORK INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC AND STATE STRUCTURES IN SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Pastovenskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The developmental tendencies of secondary education management system are considered in the article. It was established, that an effective management of the educational systems can be attained on the basis of delegation of administrative functions from state to self-governmental, educational and public structures. The conclusion was made that the network interactions of the community management structures with vertical state structures being constructed from top to bottom, and the vertical of self-governing bodies being built from the bottom to the top, will provide the educational system with stability as well as the opportunities for effective development. It was emphasized, that modern cloud technology output network interactions of state, self-governmental, educational and public structures in the secondary education management to a new level.

  12. User-based representation of time-resolved multimodal public transportation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandretti, Laura; Gauvin, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal transportation systems can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated to distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geolocalised transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data. Here, our aim is to provide a novel user-based methodological framework to represent public transportation systems considering the total travel time, its variability across the schedule, and taking into account the number of transfers necessary. Using this framework we analyse public transportation systems in several French municipal areas. We incorporate travel routes and times over multiple transportation modes to identify efficient transportation connections and non-trivial connectivity patterns. The proposed method ...

  13. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wyber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods: Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions: Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities.

  14. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R; Weaver, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities.

  15. Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen

    . The literature shows a lot of effort in modelling route choices of car users, which has benefitted from increasingly accurate GPS devices to track vehicles and increasingly precise map-matching algorithms to translate the GPS points into routes on GIS networks. However, the literature shows scarce effort...... with the new questions collects detailed information about access modes, stations, lines, departure and arrival times, trip purposes, transfers, and egress modes. In order to analyse travellers’ preferences in the multimodal network, about 6,000 observations from the Greater Copenhagen Area were collected...... and processed in this study. The characteristics of the collected data are analysed and the actual choices of the public transport passengers are revealed in the thesis. The data were map-matched to the GIS network of the area and quality controlled in a multi-step procedure. From the choice set generation...

  16. Analysis of Greedy Decision Making for Geographic Routing for Networks of Randomly Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Israr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous and self-organizing wireless ad-hoc communication networks for moving objects consist of nodes, which use no centralized network infrastructure. Examples of moving object networks are networks of flying objects, networks of vehicles, networks of moving people or robots. Moving object networks have to face many critical challenges in terms of routing because of dynamic topological changes and asymmetric networks links. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the deployment of moving nodes. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of the Greedy Decision method (position aware distance based algorithm for geographic routing for network nodes moving according to the random waypoint mobility model. The widely used GPSR (Greedy Packet Stateless Routing protocol utilizes geographic distance and position based data of nodes to transmit packets towards destination nodes. In this paper different scenarios have been tested to develop a concrete set of recommendations for optimum deployment of distance based Greedy Decision of Geographic Routing in randomly moving objects network

  17. Transport system, telecommunication networks and public services in Romania between 1990 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Talanga

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper present some problems of the developement and geographical repartition of the transport system, telecommunication networks and public services in Romania in the last part of the 20th century and their influence on the settlement system. A hierarchy of Romania’s towns in terms of transport rates are based on three categories of criteria: geographical position, demographic size and transport specialization level.

  18. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  19. Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

    2014-01-01

    This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion.

  20. A Public-Private Partnership Improves Clinical Performance In A Hospital Network In Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria; Jack, Brian; Nkabane-Nkholongo, Elizabeth Limakatso; Vian, Taryn

    2015-06-01

    Health care public-private partnerships (PPPs) between a government and the private sector are based on a business model that aims to leverage private-sector expertise to improve clinical performance in hospitals and other health facilities. Although the financial implications of such partnerships have been analyzed, few studies have examined the partnerships' impact on clinical performance outcomes. Using quantitative measures that reflected capacity, utilization, clinical quality, and patient outcomes, we compared a government-managed hospital network in Lesotho, Africa, and the new PPP-managed hospital network that replaced it. In addition, we used key informant interviews to help explain differences in performance. We found that the PPP-managed network delivered more and higher-quality services and achieved significant gains in clinical outcomes, compared to the government-managed network. We conclude that health care public-private partnerships may improve hospital performance in developing countries and that changes in management and leadership practices might account for differences in clinical outcomes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Integrating the Totality of Food and Nutrition Evidence for Public Health Decision Making and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Navia, Juan L.; Byers, Tim; Djordjevic, Darinka; Hentges, Eric; King, Janet; Klurfeld, David; Llewellyn, Craig; Milner, John; Skrypec, Daniel; Weed, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation and integration of epidemiological studies detecting weak associations (RR < 2) with data from other study designs (e.g., animal models and human intervention trials) is both challenging and vital for making science-based dietary recommendations in the nutrition and food safety communities. The 2008 ILSI North America “Decision-Making for Recommendations and Communication Based on Totality of Food-Related Research” workshop provided an overview of epidemiological methods, a...

  2. Equity at Scale: How Public Charter School Networks Can Innovate and Improve Services for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul T.; Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2015-01-01

    When public charter schools first opened in the early 1990s, each was unique and independent. But as successful public charter schools continued to grow and expand their impact beyond a single site, and as organizations developed school designs that could be implemented at multiple locations, networks of public charter schools emerged. The public…

  3. Chains, Shops and Networks: Official Statistics and the Creation of Public Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asle Rolland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns offi cial statistics, particularly as produced by the NSIs. Their contribution to the society is considered well captured by the concept of public value. Official statistics create value for the democracy as foundation for evidence-based politics. Democracies and autocracies alike need statistics to govern the public. Unique for the democracy is the need of statistics to govern the governors, for which the independence of the NSI is crucial. Three ways of creating public value are the value chain, the value shop and the value network. The chain is appropriate for the production, the shop for the interpretation and the network for the dissemination of statistics. Automation reduces the need to rely on the value chain as core business model. Thereto automation increases the statistical output, which in turn increases the need of shop and network activities. Replacing the chain with the shop as core model will elevate the NSIs from commodity producers to a processing industry.

  4. Making the Most out of Direct-Access Network Attached Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorova, Alexandra; Magoutis, Kostas; Addetia, Salimah; Seltzer, Margo

    2003-01-01

    The performance of high-speed network-attached storage applications is often limited by end-system overhead, caused primarily by memory copying and network protocol processing. In this paper, we examine alternative strategies for reducing overhead in such systems. We consider optimizations to remote procedure call (RPC)-based data transfer using either remote direct memory access (RDMA) or network interface support for pre-posting of application receive buffers. We demonstrate that b...

  5. Improving transportation networks: Effects of population structure and decision making policies

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo-Mart?, Federico; S?nchez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Transportation networks are one of the fundamental tools for human society to work, more so in our globalized world. The importance of a correct, efficient design of a transportation network for a given region or country cannot be overstated. We here study how network design is affected by the geography of the towns or nuclei to be connected, and also by the decision process necessary to choose which connections should be improved (in a generic sense) first. We begin by establishing that Dela...

  6. Linking NASA Environmental Data with a National Public Health Cohort Study and a CDC On-Line System to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; hide

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely-sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county, state or regional level as per users need and downloaded in tabular, graphical, and map formats. The

  7. Breast cancer publication network: profile of co-authorship and co-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer

  8. Toward more effective regional networks: a multi-method study on top-down stimulated networks within the Dutch public-policy areas of education and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaster, E.

    2015-01-01

    Regional networks have become a popular way for the Dutch central government to translate national ambitions into regional policies and actions. This thesis focuses on regional networks in the public-policy fields of education and employment, which consist of various actors, including schools, local

  9. Interorganizational networks in public transport: a multicase study in different cities of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the expansion of the debate on inter-organizational networks for conducting a study of exploratory and qualitative in a group of transportation companies passenger-pole and three cities of a metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul The goal is understand how the passenger carriers in the cities analyzed, operate in a network. For this, we used the model proposed by Marcon and Moinet (2001, which ranks the inter-organizational relationships, and model and Balestrin Vershoore (2006, which deals with benefits in interorganizational networks. To achieve the objective of this study were collected through interviews with managers of transport companies and document analysis, using the technique of content analysis a posteriori. The results of these tests have drawn the picture of the performance of carriers in the network in the cities studied. We developed a report of cases crossed that define the possible inter-relationships as formal and horizontal, between the main benefits of network operation, there was the implementation of electronic ticketing system and gains in representation before public interaction.

  10. Unpacking complexity in public health interventions with the Actor-Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Angèle; Potvin, Louise

    2016-08-04

    This article proposes a sociologically informed theoretical and methodological framework to address the complexity of public health interventions (PHI). It first proposes three arguments in favour of using the Actor-Network Theory (ANT) for the framework. ANT: (1) deals with systems made of human and non-human entities and proposes a relational view of action; (2) provides an understanding of the intervention-context interactions and (3) is a tool for opening the intervention's black box. Three principles derived from ANT addressing theoretical problems with conceptualisation of PHI as complex systems are proposed: (1) to focus on the process of connecting the network entities instead of their stabilised form; (2) both human and non-human entities composing networks have performative capacities and (3) network and intervention shape one another. Three methodological guidelines are further derived: (1) the researcher's task consists in documenting the events that transform the network and intervention; (2) events must be ordered chronologically to represent the intervention's evolution and (3) a broad range of data is needed to capture complex interventions' evolution. Using ANT as a guide, this paper helps reconcile technicist and social views of PHI and provides a mean to integrate process and effect studies of interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Media and Public Ability to Participate In Scientific Decision-making: Using Nanotechnology as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Jen Shih

    2015-01-01

    As the paradigm of science communication transferred from a one-way, deficit model to an approach that emphasizes public participation and dialogue, citizens in the modern society have thus assumed different civic abilities. These civic abilities include basic knowledge about science, understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of science, and the ability to make decisions regarding future development of emerging technologies. Because people rely mostly on the media for scientific ...

  12. Canceled connections: Lesion-derived network mapping helps explain differences in performance on a complex decision-making task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterer, Matthew J.; Bruss, Joel; Boes, Aaron D.; Voss, Michelle W.; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of patients with brain damage have highlighted a broad neural network of limbic and prefrontal areas as important for adaptive decision-making. However, some patients with damage outside these regions have impaired decision-making behavior, and the behavioral impairments observed in these cases are often attributed to the general variability in behavior following brain damage, rather than a deficit in a specific brain-behavior relationship. A novel approach, lesion-derived network mapping, uses healthy subject resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) data to infer the areas that would be connected with each patient’s lesion area in healthy adults. Here, we used this approach to investigate whether there was a systematic pattern of connectivity associated with decision-making performance in patients with focal damage in areas not classically associated with decision-making. These patients were categorized a priori into “impaired” or “unimpaired” groups based on their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Lesion-derived network maps based on the impaired patients showed overlap in somatosensory, motor and insula cortices, to a greater extent than patients who showed unimpaired IGT performance. Akin to the classic concept of “diaschisis” (von Monakow, 1914), this focus on the remote effects that focal damage can have on large-scale distributed brain networks has the potential to inform not only differences in decision-making behavior, but also other cognitive functions or neurological syndromes where a distinct phenotype has eluded neuroanatomical classification and brain-behavior relationships appear highly heterogeneous. PMID:26994344

  13. Making the right connections: Network biology and plant immune system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie E. McCormack

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis has been a recent focus in biological sciences due to its ability to synthesize global visualizations of cellular processes and predict functions based on inferences from network properties. A protein–protein interaction network, or interactome, captures the emergent cellular states from gene regulation and environmental conditions. Given that proteins are involved in extensive local and systemic molecular interactions such as signaling and metabolism, understanding protein functions and interactions are essential for a systems view of biology. However, in plant sciences these network-based approaches to data integration have been few and far between due to limited data, especially protein–protein interaction data. In this review, we cover network construction from experimental data, network analysis based on topological properties, and finally we discuss advances in networks in plants and other organisms in a comparative approach. We focus on applications of network biology to discover the dynamics of host–pathogen interactions as these have potential agricultural uses in improving disease resistance in commercial crops.

  14. Developing a Precareer Network: An Exercise in Identifying, Using, and Making Investments in Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Karen A.; Walsh, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the use of experiential exercises to encourage exploration of professional networks shows that such exercises are effective and provide value for students seeking to enter or navigate careers. Often students in the early phase of their undergraduate experience are unaware of the process involved in building a professional network or…

  15. How public home care officers reason when making a needs assessment for food distribution to homebound elderly persons in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2013-05-22

    Food distribution (FD) is a part of the public social and care service in Sweden aiming to prevent improper food intake for persons that they are unable to do their own shopping, and prepare their own meals, and in that way ensure reasonable standard of living. Before a person can be granted the FD service, from any municipality, an assessment of their individual requirements has to be made by a public home care officer. The aim of this study was to explore how public home care officers reason when they make a needs assessment for homebound elderly people. The data was collected through individual interviews (n=18). The transcribed interview material was analysed by means of the grounded theory method. The findings showed that the public home care officers were confronted with many challenges when making an assessment of a person's individual needs. They are influenced by their subjective feelings related to their personal views as to what should be the right solution for the individual. However, they remained aware that they needed to be guided by the legal requirements.  Further, they described that the level of an individual's living standard is a leading concept in the governing laws that they need to interpret. Interpretation of this concept is very subjective with the possible consequence that an assessment result may lead to inefficient support. In conclusion, the concept of a reasonable standard of living needs to be clearly defined, decision regarding FD should not take long time, need assessment and decision should be based on the whole picture behind each individual case and there are needs to develop general guidelines for making needs assessment. The findings in this study have implications for public administration, nursing and gerontology.

  16. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine's outreach to the public health workforce: 2001–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdill, Keith W.; Ruffin, Angela B.; Stavri, P. Zoë

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The paper provides an overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine's (NN/ LM's) outreach to the public health workforce from 2001 to 2006. Description: NN/LM conducts outreach through the activities of the Regional Medical Library (RML) staff and RML-sponsored projects led by NN/LM members. Between 2001 and 2006, RML staff provided training on information resources and information management for public health personnel at national, state, and local levels. The RMLs also contributed significantly to the Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce collaboration. Methods: Data were extracted from telephone interviews with directors of thirty-seven NN/LM-sponsored outreach projects directed at the public health sector. A review of project reports informed the interviews, which were transcribed and subsequently coded for emergent themes using qualitative analysis software. Results: Analysis of interview data led to the identification of four major themes: training, collaboration, evaluation of outcomes, and challenges. Sixteen subthemes represented specific lessons learned from NN/LM members' outreach to the public health sector. Conclusions: NN/LM conducted extensive information-oriented outreach to the public health workforce during the 2001-to-2006 contract period. Lessons learned from this experience, most notably the value of collaboration and the need for flexibility, continue to influence outreach efforts in the current contract period. PMID:17641766

  17. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine's outreach to the public health workforce: 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdill, Keith W; Ruffin, Angela B; Stavri, P Zoë

    2007-07-01

    The paper provides an overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine's (NN/ LM's) outreach to the public health workforce from 2001 to 2006. NN/LM conducts outreach through the activities of the Regional Medical Library (RML) staff and RML-sponsored projects led by NN/LM members. Between 2001 and 2006, RML staff provided training on information resources and information management for public health personnel at national, state, and local levels. The RMLs also contributed significantly to the Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce collaboration. Data were extracted from telephone interviews with directors of thirty-seven NN/LM-sponsored outreach projects directed at the public health sector. A review of project reports informed the interviews, which were transcribed and subsequently coded for emergent themes using qualitative analysis software. Analysis of interview data led to the identification of four major themes: training, collaboration, evaluation of outcomes, and challenges. Sixteen subthemes represented specific lessons learned from NN/LM members' outreach to the public health sector. NN/LM conducted extensive information-oriented outreach to the public health workforce during the 2001-to-2006 contract period. Lessons learned from this experience, most notably the value of collaboration and the need for flexibility, continue to influence outreach efforts in the current contract period.

  18. Children’s Lead Exposure: A Multimedia Modeling Analysis to Guide Public Health Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s National Drinking Water Advis...

  19. FILMING AYAT-AYAT CINTA: The Making of a Muslim Public Sphere in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nuril Huda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the film’s public screening of the novel Ayat-ayat Cinta shapes an Indonesian Muslim public sphere in which the notion of religious authority is re-created. It operates on three levels: first, the audiences’ perception of the film as a da`wah and their reactions toward the film’s contents; second, the rivalry between the novel writer and the film director on particular issues distancing the film from its novel version; and third, the public debates on the issue of polygamy revealed by the film. The paper finds out that the film Ayat-ayat Cinta has arguably invited Muslim people to have their religious teaching in cinema. More importantly, the wide publication of the film on the internet and mass media has enabled all individuals to take part in the debates raised by the film. In these debates, participation is widely open to all, and argumentation is not based on superiority.

  20. Decision making at the frontline: Exploring coping with moral conflicts during public service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, E.; Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; Musheno, M.

    2015-01-01

    Moral conflicts, where a person is confronted with two or more clashing values, norms or responsibilities, are common in public service delivery. Choosing one is realized at the cost of the other(s). Frontline professionals, such as physicians and police officers, often experience clashes over the

  1. Decision‐making at the frontline: exploring coping with moral conflicts during public service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vink (Evelien); L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); M. Musheno (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMoral conflicts, where a person is confronted with two or more clashing values, norms or responsibilities, are common in public service delivery. Choosing one is realized at the cost of the other(s). Frontline professionals, such as physicians and police officers, often experience

  2. Spatializing Environmental Education: Critical Territorial Consciousness and Radical Place-Making in Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In this case study of an environmental education (EE) program run in public schools of Rio de Janeiro, I use a constructivist spatial analytic to interrogate notions of space, place, and territory in critical EE practices. I examine the connections between socioenvironmental relations, counter-hegemonic political activity, and education by delving…

  3. Youth, Privacy and Online Media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Jørgensen, Rikke Frank

    2015-01-01

    The right to privacy is a fundamental human right defined in international and regional human rights instruments. As such it has been included as a core component of key legislature and policy proceedings throughout the brief history of the World Wide Web. While it is generally recognized in public...

  4. Making the Blue Zones: Neoliberalism and nudges in public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the ideological and political origins of a place-based and commercial health promotion effort, the Blue Zones Project (BZP), launched in Iowa in 2011. Through critical discourse analysis, I argue that the BZP does reflect a neoliberalization of public health, but as an "actually existing neoliberalism" it emerges from a specific policy context, including dramatic health sector policy changes due to the national Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare; a media discourse of health crisis for an aging Midwestern population; and an effort to refashion Iowa cities as sites of healthy and active living, to retain and attract a creative class of young entrepreneurs. The BZP employs many well-known mechanisms of neoliberal governance: the public-private partnership; competition among communities for "public" funds; promotion of an apolitical discourse on individual responsibility and ownership of health; decentralizing governance to the "community" level; and marketing, branding, and corporate sponsorship of public projects. The BZP exemplifies the process of "neoliberal governmentality," by which individuals learn to govern themselves and their "life projects" in line with a market-based rationality. However, with its emphasis on "nudging" individuals towards healthy behaviors through small changes in the local environment, the BZP reflects the rise of "libertarian paternalism," a variant of neoliberalism, as a dominant ideology underlying contemporary health promotion efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Making Michigan Right-to-Work: Implementation Problems in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how public school districts responded to Michigan's 2012 "right-to-work" law. It describes the key findings from reviews of more than 500 teacher collective bargaining agreements. It also raises several questions about the legality of some union contracts with regard to this new law. Approximately 75 percent of…

  6. Demographic Changes on Public Education for Culturally Diverse Exceptional Learners: Making Teacher Preparation Programs Accountable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    2009-01-01

    The changing demographics in public schools have called for strategic changes in how students in general and special education are educated. While this trend is increasingly becoming apparent, many educators and leaders are still entrenched in traditional methods of learning and teaching. As a result, culturally diverse exceptional students…

  7. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  8. The role of the social network in contraceptive decision-making among young, African American and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn; Simon, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Understanding reasons for contraception decisions is critical to improving our ability to reduce rates of unintended pregnancies. We used an in-depth qualitative approach to examine the contraceptive decision-making process, with special attention to the role of the social network, among a group of young, postpartum urban minority women. Brief surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 consenting postpartum women. In-person one-on-one interviews were then reviewed for themes using an iterative process. Qualitative analysis techniques identifying emergent themes were applied to interview data. In this cohort of African American (63%) and Hispanic (37%) women (median age, 26), 73% had unplanned pregnancies. The social network, including friends, mothers, and partners, were key sources of contraception myths, misconceptions, and vicarious experiences. Women also utilized media, including the internet, as an additional source of information. Information relayed by the social network had a direct influence on contraceptive decisions for many women. The experiences and opinions of the social network influence contraceptive decisions in this population of young, minority women. The social network, including friends, family members, and media sources, is a key source of contraceptive information for many women. Comprehensive contraception counseling should explore the experiences and opinions of the patient's social network to the extent possible. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Success nonetheless : Making public utilities work in small-scale democracies despite difficult capital conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the study of politics is dedicated to identifying the circumstances under which democracy will flourish. Putnam made a major contribution to this field through his concept of social capital as developed in Making Democracy Work. Putnam found that communities with a high number of

  10. kNOw Fear: Making Rural Public Spaces Safe for Women and Girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will identify specific pathways of gender-based violence prevention and deliver an intervention model where both young women and men will come together to change attitudes, transform gender-regressive norms and practices, and contribute to making local governance institutions accountable to women's safety in rural ...

  11. #DDOD Use Case: Make VBM (Value-Based Payment Modifier) reporting for all groups publicly available

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request to make Value-Based Payment Modifier (VBM) reporting more transparent for everyone. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that...

  12. When America Makes, America Works: A Successful Public Private 3D Printing (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    institute continues to expand. In 2015, America Makes launched a pilot satellite center at the University of Texas in El Paso, a center of innova- tion for...Incubator (ranked the Number One university- associated business incubator in the world by the Univer - sity Business Incubator Index), in partnership

  13. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  14. Education & Public Outreach: Odman: Universe Awareness: Making young children aware of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödman, Carolina

    2007-08-01

    Carolina Ödman makes the case for UNAWE, a means to share the inspiration and wonder of the universe and modern science with the very young. Some of them will become the talented scientists of the future; all of them should have wider horizons as adults.

  15. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How to make complexity look simple? Conveying ecosystems restoration complexity for socio-economic research and public engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Glenk, Klaus; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people's livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem's information in a way that is accessible to the wider public. In this paper we take up this challenge with the ultimate aim of contributing to making a step change in science's contribution to ecosystems restoration practice. Using peatlands as a paradigmatically complex ecosystem, we put in place a transdisciplinary process to articulate a description of the processes and outcomes of restoration that can be understood widely by the public. We provide evidence of the usefulness of the process and tools in addressing four key challenges relevant to restoration of any complex ecosystem: (1) how to represent restoration outcomes; (2) how to establish a restoration reference; (3) how to cope with varying restoration time-lags and (4) how to define spatial units for restoration. This evidence includes the way the process resulted in the creation of materials that are now being used by restoration practitioners for communication with the public and in other research contexts. Our main contribution is of an epistemological nature: while ecosystem services-based approaches have enhanced the integration of academic disciplines and non-specialist knowledge, this has so far only followed one direction (from the biophysical underpinning to the description of ecosystem services and their appreciation by the public). We propose that it is the mix of approaches and epistemological directions (including from the public to the

  17. Making The Most Of The Archive: Commercial Exploitation Of The Digital Archive On Contemporary Italian Network TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barra, Luca; Scaglioni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    abstractIn the last 20 years, Italian television has discovered the richness and profitability of its enormous archives. Many new programmes have been broadcast on public and commercial television, making extensive use of historical fragments taken from previously aired shows. This essay explores

  18. Salt and public health: contested science and the challenge of evidence-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Johns, David Merritt; Galea, Sandro

    2012-12-01

    For more than four decades, starting in the late 1960s, a sometimes furious battle has raged among scientists over the extent to which elevated salt consumption has adverse implications for population health and contributes to deaths from stroke and cardiovascular disease. Various studies and trials have produced conflicting results. Despite this scientific controversy over the quality of the evidence implicating dietary salt in disease, public health leaders at local, national, and international levels have pressed the case for salt reduction at the population level. This article explores the development of this controversy. It concludes that the concealment of scientific uncertainty in this case has been a mistake that has served neither the ends of science nor good policy. The article poses questions that arise from this debate and frames the challenges of formulating evidence-based public health practice and policy, particularly when the evidence is contested.

  19. Making public housing safer in France :the gentle rise of Situational Crime Prevention ? (November 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Levan

    2005-01-01

    From the mid-1990s onwards, the rather pragmatic resort to situational crime prevention by the public housing management1, as a means to alleviate urban dysfunctions that are otherwise conducive to the proliferation of crime and disorder in `difficult-to-let' distressed neighbourhoods, has gradually become commonplace in France. What is to account for this recent trend ? How then to reconcile the normalization of intrusive abstract situational systems with the joint objective of enhancing com...

  20. Hydro power potentials of water distribution networks in public universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adebola KOYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Universities in Southwestern Nigeria are densely populated student-resident campuses, so that provision of regular potable water and electricity are important, but power supply is not optimally available for all the necessary activities. This study assesses the hydropower potential of the water distribution networks in the Universities, with the view to augmenting the inadequate power supplies. The institutions with water distribution configuration capable of accommodating in-pipe turbine are identified; the hydropower parameters, such as the flow characteristics and the pipe geometry are determined to estimate the water power. Global positioning device is used in estimating the elevations of the distribution reservoirs and the nodal points. The hydropower potential of each location is computed incorporating Lucid® Lift-based spherical turbine in the pipeline. From the analysis, the lean and the peak water power are between 1.92 – 3.30 kW and 3.95 – 7.24 kW, respectively, for reservoir-fed distribution networks; while, a minimum of 0.72 kW is got for pipelines associated with borehole-fed overhead tanks. Possible applications of electricity generation from the water distribution networks of the public universities are recommended.

  1. Public stigma in intellectual disability: do direct versus indirect questions make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S

    2015-10-01

    Stigma may negatively impact individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, most studies in the field have been based on the use of direct measurement methods for assessing stigma. This study examined public stigma towards individuals with ID within a representative sample of the Israeli public by comparing direct versus indirect questioning. Vignette methodology was utilised with two questionnaire versions. In the direct questionnaire (n = 306), the participants were asked how they would think, feel and behave if a man with ID asked them a question in a public place. In the indirect questionnaire (n = 301), the participants were asked to report how a hypothetical 'other man' would think, feel and behave in the same situation. Higher levels of stigma were reported among participants that answered the indirect questionnaire version. Furthermore, among those participants that answered the indirect questionnaire version, subjective knowledge of ID was a less important correlate of stigma than for those participants that answered the direct questionnaire. Several explanations are suggested for the finding that indirect questioning elicits more negative stigmatic attitudes. Among others, indirect questioning may be a more appropriate methodology for eliciting immediate beliefs. Furthermore, the results call for implementing a comprehensive, multi-level programme to change stigma. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Informing the implementation of evidence-informed decision making interventions using a social network analysis perspective; a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Nooraie, Reza; Lohfeld, Lynne; Marin, Alexandra; Hanneman, Robert; Dobbins, Maureen

    2017-02-08

    Workforce development is an important aspect of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) interventions. The structure of formal and informal social networks can influence, and be influenced, by the implementation of EIDM interventions. In a mixed methods study we assessed the outcomes of a targeted training intervention to promote EIDM among the staff in three public health units in Ontario, Canada. This report focuses on the qualitative phase of the study in which key staff were interviewed about the process of engagement in the intervention, communications during the intervention, and social consequences. Senior managers identified staff to take part in the intervention. Engagement was a top-down process determined by the way organizational leaders promoted EIDM and the relevance of staff's jobs to EIDM. Communication among staff participating in the workshops and ongoing progress meetings was influential in overcoming personal and normative barriers to implementing EIDM, and promoted the formation of long-lasting social connections among staff. Organization-wide presentations and meetings facilitated the recognition of expertise that the trained staff gained, including their reputation as experts according to their peers in different divisions. Selective training and capacity development interventions can result in forming an elite versus ordinary pattern that facilitates the recognition of in-house qualified experts while also strengthening social status inequality. The role of leadership in public health units is pivotal in championing and overseeing the implementation process. Network analysis can guide and inform the design, process, and evaluation of the EIDM training interventions.

  3. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 6, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, dealer incentives for AFV sales, and news from the Automakers.

  4. Public Discourse, Community Concerns, and Civic Engagement: Exploring Black Social Networking Traditions on BlackPlanet.com

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Dara N

    2007-01-01

    ...’ online networks are used to foster some level of civic engagement. Participation analysis, content analysis, and a thematic analysis were used to analyze public discussions on the site’s community forums...

  5. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damien Contandriopoulos; Francois Benoit; Denise Bryant-Lukosius; Annie Carrier; Nancy Carter; Raisa Deber; Arnaud Duhoux; Trisha Greenhalgh; Catherine Larouche; Bernard-Simon Leclerc; Adrian Levy; Ruth Martin-Misener; Katerina Maximova; Kimberlyn McGrail; Candace Nykiforuk; Noralou Roos

    2017-01-01

    ...) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3...

  6. Social Sensor Analytics: Making Sense of Network Models in Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Chase P.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Sathanur, Arun V.; Sego, Landon H.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-07-27

    Social networks can be thought of as noisy sensor networks mapping real world information to the web. Owing to the extensive body of literature in sensor network analysis, this work sought to apply several novel and traditional methods in sensor network analysis for the purposes of efficiently interrogating social media data streams from raw data. We carefully revisit our definition of a social media signal from previous work both in terms of time-varying features within the data and the networked nature of the medium. Further, we detail our analysis of global patterns in Twitter over the months of November 2013 and June 2014, detect and categorize events, and illustrate how these analyses can be used to inform graph-based models of Twitter, namely using a recent network influence model called PhySense: similar to PageRank but tuned to behavioral analysis by leveraging a sociologically inspired probabilistic model. We ultimately identify forms of information dissemination via analysis of time series and dynamic graph spectra and corroborate these findings through manual investigation of the data as a requisite step in modeling the diffusion process with PhySense. We hope to sufficiently characterize global behavior in a medium such as Twitter as a means of learning global model parameters one may use to predict or simulate behavior on a large scale. We have made our time series and dynamic graph analytical code available via a GitHub repository https://github.com/cpatdowling/salsa and our data are available upon request.

  7. To be involved or not to be involved: a survey of public preferences for self-involvement in decision-making involving mental capacity (competency) within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daveson, B.A.; Bausewein, C.; Murtagh, F.E.M.; Calanzani, N.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.; Cohen, J.; Simon, S.T.; Deliens, L.; Bechinger-English, D.; Hall, S.; Koffman, J.; Lopes Ferreira, P.; Toscani, F.; Gysels, M.; Ceulemans, L.; Haugen, D.F.; Gomes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Council of Europe has recommended that member states of European Union encourage their citizens to make decisions about their healthcare before they lose capacity to do so. However, it is unclear whether the public wants to make such decisions beforehand. Aim: To examine public

  8. To be involved or not to be involved: A survey of public preferences for self-involvement in decision-making involving mental capacity (competency) within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daveson, B.A.; Bausewein, C.; Murtagh, F.E.M.; Calanzani, N.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.; Cohen, J.; Simon, S.T.; Deliens, L.; Bechinger-English, D.; Hall, S.; Koffman, J.; Ferreira, P.L.; Toscani, F.; Gysels, M.; Ceulemans, L.; Haugen, D.F.; Comes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Council of Europe has recommended that member states of European Union encourage their citizens to make decisions about their healthcare before they lose capacity to do so. However, it is unclear whether the public wants to make such decisions beforehand. Aim: To examine public

  9. Mapping Diversity of Publication Patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities: An Approach Making Use of Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik T. Verleysen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a method for systematically mapping diversity of publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities in terms of publication type, publication language and co-authorship. Design/methodology/approach: In a follow-up to the hard partitioning clustering by Verleysen and Weeren in 2016, we now propose the complementary use of fuzzy cluster analysis, making use of a membership coefficient to study gradual differences between publication styles among authors within a scholarly discipline. The analysis of the probability density function of the membership coefficient allows to assess the distribution of publication styles within and between disciplines. Findings: As an illustration we analyze 1,828 productive authors affiliated in Flanders, Belgium. Whereas a hard partitioning previously identified two broad publication styles, an international one vs. a domestic one, fuzzy analysis now shows gradual differences among authors. Internal diversity also varies across disciplines and can be explained by researchers' specialization and dissemination strategies. Research limitations: The dataset used is limited to one country for the years 2000-2011; a cognitive classification of authors may yield a different result from the affiliation-based classification used here. Practical implications: Our method is applicable to other bibliometric and research evaluation contexts, especially for the social sciences and humanities in non-Anglophone countries. Originality/value: The method proposed is a novel application of cluster analysis to the field of bibliometrics. Applied to publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities, for the first time it systematically documents intra-disciplinary diversity.

  10. Building a multimodal network and determining individual accessibility by public transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette

    2016-01-01

    time thresholds. The method is used successfully to create a multimodal travel-time network model of the Capital Region of Denmark comprising bus, train, light rail, metro, and ferry as well as integrating walking or cycling to stops. Here, the individual accessibility is defined as accessibility areas......The increased availability of transit schedules from web sites or travel planners as well as more disaggregate data has led to a growing interest in creating individual public transportation accessibility measures. However, used extensively, standard GIS software does not have direct capabilities...... to integrate transit schedules into multimodal networks and measure space–time-based accessibility. This has caused authors to either simplify travel time elements or develop tools to overcome these challenges. In this paper we aim to describe and implement a method that enables integrating time-table data...

  11. How innovation drivers, networking and leadership shape public sector innovation capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    2017-01-01

    The need to understand innovation in public sector environments is growing. There is also a need to build theory, test it empirically and compare across jurisdictions. This article aims to understand the factors that have an impact on innovation capacity. It examines the self-rated innovation...... capacity of three European city governments – Barcelona, Copenhagen and Rotterdam – in regard to innovation drivers (structures, processes and contextual factors), external networking (levels of communication outside the municipality) and leadership qualities. Results from an online survey of senior...... administrators in the cities (n¼323) was used to empirically analyse the relationships between these using a structural equation model. Leadership has a stronger effect than innovation drivers and external networking on self-rated innovation capacity for these three city governments....

  12. A Low-Carbon-Based Bilevel Optimization Model for Public Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the demand of low-carbon transportation, this paper studies the optimization of public transit network based on the concept of low carbon. Taking travel time, operation cost, energy consumption, pollutant emission, and traffic efficiency as the optimization objectives, a bilevel model is proposed in order to maximize the benefits of both travelers and operators and minimize the environmental cost. Then the model is solved with the differential evolution (DE algorithm and applied to a real network of Baoji city. The results show that the model can not only ensure the benefits of travelers and operators, but can also reduce pollutant emission and energy consumption caused by the operations of buses, which reflects the concept of low carbon.

  13. A methodological approach to the analysis of egocentric social networks in public health research: a practical example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djomba Janet Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on social networks in public health focuses on how social structures and relationships influence health and health-related behaviour. While the sociocentric approach is used to study complete social networks, the egocentric approach is gaining popularity because of its focus on individuals, groups and communities.

  14. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  15. Trial registration for public trust: making the case for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several pharmaceutical companies have been shown to have withheld negative clinical trial results from the public. These incidents have resulted in a concerted global effort to register all trials at inception, so that all subsequent results can be tracked regardless of whether they are positive or negative. These trial registration policies have been driven in large part by concern about the pharmaceutical sector. The medical device industry is much smaller, and different from the pharmaceutical industry in some fundamental ways. This paper examines the issues surrounding registration of device trials and argues that these differences with pharmaceutical should not exempt device trials from registration.

  16. An interactive web tool for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke eSpan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual opinion function for eight dementia-related life domains. The aim of this study was to gain insight in the user friendliness of the DecideGuide, user acceptance and satisfaction, and participants’ opinion of the DecideGuide for making decisions.Materials and methodsA 5-month field study included four dementia-care networks (19 participants in total. The data derived from structured interviews, observations, and information that participants logged in the DecideGuide. Structured interviews took place at the start, middle, and end of the field study with people with dementia, informal caregivers, and case managers. Results1. The user friendliness of the chat and individual opinion functions was adequate for case managers and most informal caregivers. Older participants, with or without dementia, had some difficulties using a tablet and the DecideGuide. The deciding together function does not yet provide adequate instructions for all. The user interface needs simplification. 2. User acceptance and satisfaction: everybody liked the chat’s easy communication, handling difficult issues for discussion, and the option of individual opinions. 3. The DecideGuide helped participants structure their thoughts. They felt more involved and shared more information about daily issues than before. ConclusionParticipants found the DecideGuide valuable in decision-making. The chat function seems powerful in helping members engage with one another constructively. Such engagement is a prerequisite for making shared decisions. Regardless of participants’ use of the tool, they saw the DecideGuide's added value.

  17. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries...... to a rationalist model with elements of the mixed model, and that this has increased legitimacy and support only to a limited extent. For future processes in other countries, we recommend stronger elements of the mixed model, and more careful considerations about stakeholder identification processes; how to adapt...

  18. Simultaneous Optimization of Road Tolls and Tradable Credits in Public-private Mixed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a hybrid management policy of road tolls and tradable credits in mixed road networks with both public and private roads. In the public sub-network, a tradable credit scheme is applied to mitigate traffic congestion. In the private sub-network, tolls are collected by the private company, but the toll levels and toll locations are determined by the government. The purpose of toll charge is two-fold: on the one hand, the government uses it as a tool for mitigating congestion; on the other hand, a threshold of revenue should be guaranteed for the profitability of the private company. A bi-level programming model is formulated to minimize the total travel time in the network by taking into account the user equilibrium travel behaviour and the revenue requirement of private firms. To obtain a  global optimum solution, the bi-level model is transformed into an equivalent single-level mixed integer linear program that can be easily solved with commercial software. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the mixed management schemes can achieve favourable targets, namely, joint implementation of road tolls and tradable credits can effectively mitigate traffic congestion and meanwhile maintain reasonable revenue for the private company.

  19. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries - a systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, Hilde P E M; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru; Quanjel, Marcel; Dulf, Diana; Glümer, Charlotte; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M

    2017-02-03

    Facilitating and enhancing interaction between stakeholders involved in the policymaking process to stimulate collaboration and use of evidence, is important to foster the development of effective Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) policies. Performing an analysis of real-world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes of these European country cases. A systems analysis of the local HEPA policymaking process was performed in three European countries involved in the 'REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity' (REPOPA) project, resulting in three schematic models showing the main stakeholders and their relationships. The models were used to compare the systems, focusing on implications with respect to collaboration and use of evidence in local HEPA policymaking. Policy documents and relevant webpages were examined and main stakeholders were interviewed. The systems analysis in each country identified the main stakeholders involved and their position and relations in the policymaking process. The Netherlands and Denmark were the most similar and both differed most from Romania, especially at the level of accountability of the local public authorities for local HEPA policymaking. The categories of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and

  20. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  1. Making a Difference in Malawi and Zambia Through Health Education and Public Health Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redican, Kerry J; Abbas, Kaja; Elvinger, Francois; Hosig, Kathy; Marmagas, Susan West; Chitsulo, Phindile; Kelly, Patricia; Burton, John; Tlou, Josiah; Carter-Tod, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year U.S. Department of State-funded project* was conducted with the purpose of engaging health professionals from Malawi and Zambia who are actively involved in health care and health education for marginalized populations to develop, implement, and evaluate health education and public health interventions/programs. Twenty-six health professionals from Malawi and Zambia, referred to as Global Health Fellows, participated in the 2-year program, of which the main training component was conducted in the United States. Fellows were exposed to health education and public health best practices and developed an action plan to address a health problem of concern in their respective communities/countries. After completion of the program, Fellows received $300 to implement their action plans. Teams of Americans involved in the training program participated in follow-up visits to Malawi and Zambia to observe real-time progress on Fellows' respective action plans. The project was successful in creating an educational experience focused on health education best practices as well as implementation of action plans to address selected health problems in Malawi and Zambia.

  2. Legislating Weight Loss: Are Antiobesity Public Health Policies Making an Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Malana; Hertelendy, Attila J

    2016-06-01

    Obesity affects America's children both in childhood and into their adult years. Unfortunately, a long history of public policy has done little to effectively reduce obesity among children. Federal programs including the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children have proven to be less than effective in reducing obesity rates among school-aged children. Studies find that children participating in these programs are more likely to be overweight than their brown-bag peers while nutritional targets are missed. Various iterations of school-based nutrition programs have proven to be ineffective and wasteful, yet policy leaders continue to consume tax dollars with their implementation. Although strict guidelines for evaluating scientific evidence were historically used to ensure rigorous reviews were conducted, recent relaxation of those guidelines jeopardizes the integrity of the scientific platform. Consequently, recommendations that were once rooted in science may be less reliable due to a compromise of the scientific literature review process, and the conclusions drawn by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee may be somewhat questionable. Public policy must be augmented by scientific evidence and any further obesity reduction initiatives must be well-grounded in research that has been rigorously reviewed and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  3. Math on a sphere: Making use of public displays in mathematics and programming education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eisenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Science on a Sphere (SoS is a compelling educational display installed at numerous museums and planetariums around the world; essentially the SoS display is a large spherical surface on which multicolor high-resolution depictions of (e.g. planetary weather maps may be depicted. Fascinating as the SoS display is, however, it is in practice restricted to the use of museum professionals; students (and for that matter, older museum visitors are unable to create their own displays for the surface. This paper describes a working software system, Math on a Sphere (MoS, that democratizes the SoS display by providing a simple programming interface to the public, over the World Wide Web. Briefly, our system allows anyone to write programs for spherical graphics patterns, and then to upload those programs at a planetarium or museum site and see the result on the giant sphere. This paper describes the implementation of the MoS system; sketches a sample project; and concludes with a more wide-ranging discussion of our user testing to date, as well as strategies for empowering children and students with greater control of public displays.

  4. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenan M. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  5. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  6. Explaining the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelcher, Chris; Klijn, Erik-Hans; Kübler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (United Kingdom), whereas a more complementary role of governance networks prevails in consensus democracies (Switzerland). However, in consensus democracies characterized by a context of strong associationalism (the Netherlands and Denmark), the spread of governance networks in public policy making...

  7. Gezi Movement and the Networked Public Sphere: A Comparative Analysis in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article draws on Gezi protests that took place in Turkey during the summer of 2013, inquiring the extent to which they were part of a global cycle of contention that has shocked the world the last 5 years. In this regard, concepts and constructs of social movement, new media, networking, and public sphere provide analytical tools to probe into the area. Issues that are addressed and critically discussed include the evaluation of the contemporary protest movements in terms of the global diffusion of neoliberal capitalism, the intersection of social media and collective action, and the critical reflection on the interplay between physical and mediated facets of action.

  8. Efficiency Analysis of Integrated Public Hospital Networks in Outpatient Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Barrios, Miguel Angel; Escorcia-Caballero, Juan P; Sánchez-Sánchez, Fabián; De Felice, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella

    2017-09-07

    Healthcare systems are evolving towards a complex network of interconnected services due to the increasing costs and the increasing expectations for high service levels. It is evidenced in the literature the importance of implementing management techniques and sophisticated methods to improve the efficiency of healthcare systems, especially in emerging economies. This paper proposes an integrated collaboration model between two public hospitals to reach the reduction of weighted average lead time in outpatient internal medicine department. A strategic framework based on value stream mapping and collaborative practices has been developed in real case study settled in Colombia.

  9. Using Neural Networks in Decision Making for a Reconfigurable Electro Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino, Carl D.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate applicability and advantages of a neural network approach for evaluating the performance of an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). The EMA in question was intended for the X-37 Advanced Technology Vehicle. It will have redundant components for safety and reliability. The neural networks for this application are to monitor the operation of the redundant electronics that control the actuator in real time and decide on the operating configuration. The system we proposed consists of the actuator, sensors, control circuitry and dedicated (embedded) processors. The main purpose of the study was to develop suitable hardware and neural network capable of allowing real time reconfiguration decisions to be made. This approach was to be compared to other methods such as fuzzy logic and knowledge based systems considered for the same application. Over the course of the project a more general objective was the identification of the other neural network applications and the education of interested NASA personnel on the topic of Neural Networks.

  10. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Héricé, C.; Khalil, R.; Moftah, M.; Boraud, T.; Guthrie, M.J.; Garenne, A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used

  11. An evaluation of the National Public Health Leadership Institute--1991-2006: part II. Strengthening public health leadership networks, systems, and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umble, Karl; Baker, Edward L; Diehl, Sandra J; Haws, Susan; Steffen, David; Frederick, Steve; Woltring, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The year-long National Public Health Leadership Institute's (PHLI) goals are to develop the capacity of individual leaders and networks of leaders so that both can lead improvements in public health systems, infrastructure, and population health. To evaluate PHLI's impact on networks, systems, and infrastructure. Senior leaders from government, health care, associations, and other organizations who graduated from PHLI between 1992 and 2006. Retreats; readings, conference calls, and webinars; personal assessments, feedback, and coaching; and action learning projects. A cross-sectional survey sent in 2007 to all leaders from the program's first 15 cohorts. Between 1992 and 2006, PHLI graduated 806 leaders. Of the 646 graduates located, 393 (61%) responded, for an overall response rate of 49% (393/806). Telephone interviews of 35 key informants were also conducted. Graduates fostered changes in systems, policies, organizations, and programs and frequently described these changes as resulting from their work as or with networks. Many graduates formed an informal national network of "thought leaders" and volunteered with professional associations to help in creating methods for improving systems and infrastructure. At the state level, graduates worked as informal networks and with associations to restructure services, reorganize agencies, catalyze new laws, and develop programs. Locally, graduates developed coalitions, fostered new laws, and improved programs, among other changes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's multiyear sponsorship of a national program fostered national networks among "thought leaders" who helped to lead the development and diffusion of numerous innovations. Public health leadership development program sponsors should foster collaborative leadership by engaging leaders in systems thinking, team leadership, dialogue, conflict resolution, and negotiation, recommend using networks for sustained personal and system development, and link

  12. Does calling alcoholism an illness make a difference? The public image of alcoholism in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Anna Paola; Preti, Antonio; Moro, Maria Francesca; Giua, Alice; Sini, Giulia; Piras, Martina; Pintus, Mirra; Pintus, Elisa; Manca, Annaraffaela; Cannas, Glenda; Cossu, Giulia; Angermeyer, Matthias Claus; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Using data from a population survey in two communities in the region of Sardinia, Italy, we examined the association between illness definition and attribution of personal characteristics to people with alcoholism. Quota samples, stratified by gender and age, were drawn from the general population (males: 48%; mean age 48±18; range: 15-90). A fully-structured interview was conducted face-to-face with 404 respondents. The assessment of the public view of 'alcoholics' was measured by their reactions to stimulus words rated on bipolar scales, and defined with adjectives with opposite meanings at each end. 322 participants (80%) rated the 'alcoholic' as 'ill'. The definition of the 'alcoholic' as being ill showed a statistically higher odd of stigma across all the dimensions of personal attributes. The expectation that people adopting the illness model would tend to blame less those afflicted for their condition and, consequently, stigmatize them less, was not confirmed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Moon Zoo: Making the public part of a crater survey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, D.; Daus, C.; Lehan, C.; Robbins, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science website launched in May 2010 and invited the public to annotate images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Tasks included marking the edges of craters with an ellipse tool, indicating where linear features (e.g. scarps) and special types of craters (e.g. dark haloed) are located with a box, and rating the number of boulders in an image. The goal of this project is to create crater and feature catalogues for large areas of the moon. In addition to doing science, Moon Zoo also seeks to educate its audience through educational content, to engage them through social media, and to understand them through research into their motivations and behaviors.

  14. Children's Lead Exposure: A Multimedia Modeling Analysis to Guide Public Health Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Brown, James

    2017-09-12

    Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) recommended establishment of a "health-based, household action level" for lead in drinking water based on children's exposure. The primary objective was to develop a coupled exposure-dose modeling approach that can be used to determine what drinking water lead concentrations keep children's blood lead levels (BLLs) below specified values, considering exposures from water, soil, dust, food, and air. Related objectives were to evaluate the coupled model estimates using real-world blood lead data, to quantify relative contributions by the various media, and to identify key model inputs. A modeling approach using the EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS)-Multimedia and Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) models was developed using available data. This analysis for the U.S. population of young children probabilistically simulated multimedia exposures and estimated relative contributions of media to BLLs across all population percentiles for several age groups. Modeled BLLs compared well with nationally representative BLLs (0-23% relative error). Analyses revealed relative importance of soil and dust ingestion exposure pathways and associated Pb intake rates; water ingestion was also a main pathway, especially for infants. This methodology advances scientific understanding of the relationship between lead concentrations in drinking water and BLLs in children. It can guide national health-based benchmarks for lead and related community public health decisions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1605.

  15. Non-equilibrium physics of neural networks for leaning, memory and decision making: landscape and flux perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    Cognitive behaviors are determined by underlying neural networks. Many brain functions, such as learning and memory, can be described by attractor dynamics. We developed a theoretical framework for global dynamics by quantifying the landscape associated with the steady state probability distributions and steady state curl flux, measuring the degree of non-equilibrium through detailed balance breaking. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. Both landscape and flux determine the kinetic paths and speed of decision making. The kinetics and global stability of decision making are explored by quantifying the landscape topography through the barrier heights and the mean first passage time. The theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental observations: more errors occur under time pressure. We quantitatively explored two mechanisms of the speed-accuracy tradeoff with speed emphasis and further uncovered the tradeoffs among speed, accuracy, and energy cost. Our results show an optimal balance among speed, accuracy, and the energy cost in decision making. We uncovered possible mechanisms of changes of mind and how mind changes improve performance in decision processes. Our landscape approach can help facilitate an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms of cognitive processes and identify the key elements in neural networks.

  16. Academic Social Networks: How the web is changing our way to make and communicate researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaiuti Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Networking is not only essential for success in academia, but it should also be seen as a natural component of the scholarly profession. Research is typically not a purely individualistic enterprise. Academic social network sites give researchers the ability to publicise their research outputs and connect with each other. This work aims to investigate the use done by Italian scholars of 11/D2 scientific field. The picture presented shows a realistic insight into the Italian situation, although since the phenomenon is in rapid evolution results are not stable and generalizable.

  17. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  18. Dynamic afferent synapses to decision-making networks improve performance in tasks requiring stimulus associations and discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjaily, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals must often make opposing responses to similar complex stimuli. Multiple sensory inputs from such stimuli combine to produce stimulus-specific patterns of neural activity. It is the differences between these activity patterns, even when small, that provide the basis for any differences in behavioral response. In the present study, we investigate three tasks with differing degrees of overlap in the inputs, each with just two response possibilities. We simulate behavioral output via winner-takes-all activity in one of two pools of neurons forming a biologically based decision-making layer. The decision-making layer receives inputs either in a direct stimulus-dependent manner or via an intervening recurrent network of neurons that form the associative layer, whose activity helps distinguish the stimuli of each task. We show that synaptic facilitation of synapses to the decision-making layer improves performance in these tasks, robustly increasing accuracy and speed of responses across multiple configurations of network inputs. Conversely, we find that synaptic depression worsens performance. In a linearly nonseparable task with exclusive-or logic, the benefit of synaptic facilitation lies in its superlinear transmission: effective synaptic strength increases with presynaptic firing rate, which enhances the already present superlinearity of presynaptic firing rate as a function of stimulus-dependent input. In linearly separable single-stimulus discrimination tasks, we find that facilitating synapses are always beneficial because synaptic facilitation always enhances any differences between inputs. Thus we predict that for optimal decision-making accuracy and speed, synapses from sensory or associative areas to decision-making or premotor areas should be facilitating. PMID:22457467

  19. Are pricing and reimbursement decision-making criteria aligned with public preferences regarding allocation principles in the Polish healthcare sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Given growing interest in multicriteria decision making and multiple cost-effectiveness thresholds' approach, it was decided to investigate its usefulness in Poland. The pricing and reimbursement (P&R) regulations were reviewed and a cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst nurses. The study investigated whether P&R rules are aligned with the preferences of healthcare professional towards the concept of equity. The references to aversion to inequalities in health and capacity to benefit were recognized as the most and least important principle respectively by the group of nurses. Different weightings of health gain dependent on disease severity were accepted by half of the study's population. In the review of legal acts, references to capacity to benefit were frequently found. The opposite was registered for other concepts of equity. There is room for further improvement with respect to the alignment between the Polish P&R decision making criteria and public preferences regarding allocation principles.

  20. Leo Szilard Lecturship Award: How can physicists help the public make better decisions about science and technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Joel

    2016-03-01

    For more than 40 years the APS has worked to improve governmental decision-making, mainly through the Congressional Science and Technology Fellowship program and through occasional studies of important science and technology issues. How productive have these been? How can the APS and other professional societies more effectively combat anti-science propaganda and help the public develop better-informed views about science and technology? How can individual scientists communicate scientific concepts in a more understandable and engaging way? How can we encourage young scientists and students to participate in creating a scientifically responsible future?

  1. The Negative Impact of Legislation Pitfalls on Meaningful Public Participation, Efficient Policy-Making and Effective Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ALMĂȘAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on emphasizing howa variety of apparently irrelevant legislationimperfections may induce significant misunderstandingsregarding the real spirit of democraticgovernance, corrupting the practice of activecitizenship in the policy-making processes anddepriving the Romanian public administration ofan important and valuable instrument for efficientgovernance and implementation of sustainabledecisions. The authors chose to analyze aspectsof the related legislation, as it represents afundamental element needed for the developmentof active citizenship. This article is the result of alarger on-going research on the phenomena ofpublic participation and policy dialogue that aimsto provide a more accurate understanding ofactive citizenship mechanisms and to investigatethe existence of a deliberative conscience at thelevel of the Romanian society.

  2. CREATION OF THE SHUGHNANI DISCOURSE OF PUBLIC SPHERE IN THE MEDIA AND SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П Ш Абдулхамидова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shughnani, one of the Pamiri languages of Tajikistan, is a minority language, and has no written script. Socio-economic and political changes in the lives of language speakers have affected the functioning of this small language, which was previously devoid of social significance. In the late 1980s, ideas began to emerge about the expansion of its functions, and attempts were made to use it in print media, television and radio. Observation of the functional development of Shugnani in these media led to the hypothesis of the emergence of a public sphere discourse, where it is possible to raise problems of social importance, and discuss them to search for eventual solutions. The main purpose of the article is to study attempts to create a discourse of the public sphere for Shugnani, in media and on the Facebook social network. The theoretical and methodological approaches of the study are based on the concept of the pub-lic sphere of Habermas, using the Critical Discourse Analysis paradigm (Fairclough. The data for the study were taken from Shughnani print media, from speeches on television and radio, and from postings by members of Shughnani Facebook groups. The findings reveal that the Shughnani presence in the media is limited, and construction of public opinion is more successfully carried out via Shughnani groups on Facebook. Analysis of the discursive practices involved shows that, despite the slow development of a media presence, the establishment of public discourse occurs through the creation of verbal units which have a journalistic character. Shugnani-speaking groups on Facebook contribute to the strengthening of the posi-tion of the language, through the formulation and discussion of issues relevant to members of the language community and the creation of language units that enhance confidence in the use of non-written Shugnani in the public sphere.

  3. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating a train-the-trainer approach for improving capacity for evidence-based decision making in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, Laura; Brownson, Carol A; Jacob, Rebekah R; Baker, Elizabeth A; Jones, Ellen; Baumann, Carsten; Deshpande, Anjali D; Gillespie, Kathleen N; Scharff, Darcell P; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-12-12

    Evidence-based public health gives public health practitioners the tools they need to make choices based on the best and most current evidence. An evidence-based public health training course developed in 1997 by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis has been taught by a transdisciplinary team multiple times with positive results. In order to scale up evidence-based practices, a train-the-trainer initiative was launched in 2010. This study examines the outcomes achieved among participants of courses led by trained state-level faculty. Participants from trainee-led courses in four states (Indiana, Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas) over three years were asked to complete an online survey. Attempts were made to contact 317 past participants. One-hundred forty-four (50.9 %) reachable participants were included in analysis. Outcomes measured include frequency of use of materials, resources, and other skills or tools from the course; reasons for not using the materials and resources; and benefits from attending the course. Survey responses were tabulated and compared using Chi-square tests. Among the most commonly reported benefits, 88 % of respondents agreed that they acquired knowledge about a new subject, 85 % saw applications for the knowledge to their work, and 78 % agreed the course also improved abilities to make scientifically informed decisions at work. The most commonly reported reasons for not using course content as much as intended included not having enough time to implement evidence-based approaches (42 %); other staff/peers lack training (34 %); and not enough funding for continued training (34 %). The study findings suggest that utilization of course materials and teachings remains relatively high across practitioner groups, whether they were taught by the original trainers or by state-based trainers. The findings of this study suggest that train-the-trainer is an effective method for broadly disseminating evidence-based public health

  5. Making the Long Tail Visible: Social Networking Sites and Independent Music Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Michael; Rafferty, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate users' knowledge and use of social networking sites and folksonomies to discover if social tagging and folksonomies, within the area of independent music, aid in its information retrieval and discovery. The sites examined in this project are MySpace, Lastfm, Pandora and Allmusic. In addition,…

  6. Decision-making neural circuits mediating social behaviors : An attractor network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-López, Julián; Ramirez-Moreno, David F; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2017-06-29

    We propose a mathematical model of a continuous attractor network that controls social behaviors. The model is examined with bifurcation analysis and computer simulations. The results show that the model exhibits stable steady states and thresholds for steady state transitions corresponding to some experimentally observed behaviors, such as aggression control. The performance of the model and the relation with experimental evidence are discussed.

  7. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  8. Reflections of Students' Language Usage in Social Networking Sites: Making or Marring Academic English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairaj, Saraswathy; Hoon, Er Pek; Roy, Swagata Sinha; Fong, Pok Wei

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a major form of communication in today's day and age whereby language use has been impacted in various areas especially in that of learning and teaching. Young users use literally half their week engaging in SNSs communication, thereby giving rise to a brand of internet slang which is entirely their own.…

  9. Hidden in plain sight: a crowdsourced public art contest to make automated external defibrillators more visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Griffis, Heather M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Kilaru, Austin S; Sellers, Allison M; Hershey, John C; Hill, Shawndra S; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Debski, Margaret M; Padrez, Kevin A; Becker, Lance B; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing study to promote awareness about automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their locations. The Defibrillator Design Challenge was an online initiative that asked the public to create educational designs that would enhance AED visibility, which took place over 8 weeks, from February 6, 2014, to April 6, 2014. Participants were encouraged to vote for AED designs and share designs on social media for points. Using a mixed-methods study design, we measured participant demographics and motivations, design characteristics, dissemination, and Web site engagement. Over 8 weeks, there were 13 992 unique Web site visitors; 119 submitted designs and 2140 voted. The designs were shared 48 254 times on Facebook and Twitter. Most designers-voters reported that they participated to contribute to an important cause (44%) rather than to win money (0.8%). Design themes included: empowerment, location awareness, objects (e.g., wings, lightning, batteries, lifebuoys), and others. The Defibrillator Design Challenge engaged a broad audience to generate AED designs and foster awareness. This project provides a framework for using design and contest architecture to promote health messages.

  10. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  11. Public Lecture | Making the most of your presentation | By Jean-Luc Doumont | 26 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Making the most of your presentation, by Dr. Jean-Luc Doumont (Principiae).   Thursday 26 June 2014 from 14:30 to 16:30 at CERN (4-3-006 - TH Conference Room) Want to participate? Apply here. Strong presentation skills are a key to success for engineers and scientists, yet many of these do not exploit their potential to reach the audience. Systematic as they can be in their work, they go at it intuitively, with much good will but with results that could be much better. In this talk, Dr. Doumont proposes a systematic way to prepare and deliver an oral presentation: he covers structure, slides, and delivery, as well as stage fright. An engineer (Louvain) and PhD in applied physics (Stanford), Dr. Jean-Luc Doumont is acclaimed worldwide for his no-nonsense approach, his highly applicable, often life-changing recommendations on a wide range of topics, and Trees, maps, and theorems, his book about “effective communication for rational minds”. He had his first rese...

  12. User-based representation of time-resolved multimodal public transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandretti, Laura; Karsai, Márton; Gauvin, Laetitia

    2016-07-01

    Multimodal transportation systems, with several coexisting services like bus, tram and metro, can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where the different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated with distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geo-localized transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data. Here, we provide a novel user-based representation of public transportation systems, which combines representations, accounting for the presence of multiple lines and reducing the effect of spatial embeddedness, while considering the total travel time, its variability across the schedule, and taking into account the number of transfers necessary. After the adjustment of earlier techniques to the novel representation framework, we analyse the public transportation systems of several French municipal areas and identify hidden patterns of privileged connections. Furthermore, we study their efficiency as compared to the commuting flow. The proposed representation could help to enhance resilience of local transportation systems to provide better design policies for future developments.

  13. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héricé, Charlotte; Khalil, Radwa; Moftah, Marie; Boraud, Thomas; Guthrie, Martin; Garenne, André

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used these properties to develop and extend a connectionist model at a spiking neuron level based on a previous rate model approach. This model is demonstrated on decision-making tasks that have been studied in primates and the electrophysiology interpreted to show that the decision is made in two steps. To model this, we have used two parallel loops, each of which performs decision-making based on interactions between positive and negative feedback pathways. This model is able to perform two-level decision-making as in primates. We show here that, before learning, synaptic noise is sufficient to drive the decision-making process and that, after learning, the decision is based on the choice that has proven most likely to be rewarded. The model is then submitted to lesion tests, reversal learning and extinction protocols. We show that, under these conditions, it behaves in a consistent manner and provides predictions in accordance with observed experimental data.

  14. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-08-22

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor

  15. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  16. An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.

  17. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Infectious Diseases and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN. PMID:24403542

  18. Making Quality Health Websites a National Public Health Priority: Toward Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Theresa; Broderick, Jordan; Harris, Linda M; Wu, Huijuan; Hilfiker, Sandra Williams

    2016-08-02

    Most US adults have limited health literacy skills. They struggle to understand complex health information and services and to make informed health decisions. The Internet has quickly become one of the most popular places for people to search for information about their health, thereby making access to quality information on the Web a priority. However, there are no standardized criteria for evaluating Web-based health information. Every 10 years, the US Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) develops a set of measurable objectives for improving the health of the nation over the coming decade, known as Healthy People. There are two objectives in Healthy People 2020 related to website quality. The first is objective Health Communication and Health Information Technology (HC/HIT) 8.1: increase the proportion of health-related websites that meet 3 or more evaluation criteria for disclosing information that can be used to assess information reliability. The second is objective HC/HIT-8.2: increase the proportion of health-related websites that follow established usability principles. The ODPHP conducted a nationwide assessment of the quality of Web-based health information using the Healthy People 2020 objectives. The ODPHP aimed to establish (1) a standardized approach to defining and measuring the quality of health websites; (2) benchmarks for measurement; (3) baseline data points to capture the current status of website quality; and (4) targets to drive improvement. The ODPHP developed the National Quality Health Website Survey instrument to assess the quality of health-related websites. The ODPHP used this survey to review 100 top-ranked health-related websites in order to set baseline data points for these two objectives. The ODPHP then set targets to drive improvement by 2020. This study reviewed 100 health-related websites. For objective HC/HIT-8.1, a total of 58 out of 100 (58.0%) websites met 3 or

  19. Use of Bayesian Networks to Analyze Port Variables in Order to Make Sustainable Planning and Management Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Molina Serrano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic, social and political environment, society demands a greater variety of outcomes from the public logistics sector, such as efficiency, efficiency of managed resources, greater transparency and business performance. All of them are an indispensable counterpart for its recognition and support. In case of port planning and management, many variables are included. Use of Bayesian Networks allows to classify, predict and diagnose these variables and even to estimate the subsequent probability of unknown variables, basing on the known ones. Research includes a data base with more than 40 variables, which have been classified as smart port studies in Spain. Then a network was generated using a non-cyclic conducted grafo, which shows port variable relationships. As conclusion, economic variables are cause of the rest of categories and they represent a parent role in the most of cases. Furthermore, if environmental variables are known, subsequent probability of social variables can be estimated.

  20. U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps pharmacists: making a difference in advancing the nation's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Louis; Wick, Jeannette; Figg, William Douglas; McClelland, Robert H; Shiber, Michael; Britton, James E; Ngo, Diem-Kieu H; Borders-Hemphill, Vicky; Mead, Christina; Zee, Jerry; Huntzinger, Paul

    2009-01-01

    To describe how U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) pharmacists serving in jobs that are normal for them, but considerably different than those found in the private sector, are making a difference in advancing the nation's health. Pharmacists who serve in the Commissioned Corps of PHS fill roles that are considerably different than their counterparts in the private sector. Their work takes them out from behind the counter and into the world. Pharmacy officers advance the health and safety of the nation by their involvement in the delivery of direct patient care to medically underserved people, national security, drug vigilance, research, and policy-making endeavors. PHS pharmacists fill essential public health leadership and service roles throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and certain non-HHS federal agencies and programs. The Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Indian Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, and U.S. Coast Guard are among the many federal agencies in which pharmacy officers are assigned. In each setting, PHS pharmacists find traditional roles augmented with assignments and challenges that broaden the scope of their practice.

  1. U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps Pharmacists: Making a Difference in Advancing the Nation’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Louis; Wick, Jeannette; Figg, William Douglas; McClelland, Robert H.; Shiber, Michael; Britton, James E.; Ngo, Diem-Kieu H.; Borders-Hemphill, Vicky; Mead, Christina; Zee, Jerry; Huntzinger, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe how pharmacy officers in the Commissioned Corps are making a difference in protecting, promoting, and advancing health and safety of the Nation. Summary Pharmacists who serve in the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service fill roles that are considerably different than their counterparts in the private sector. Their work takes them out from behind the counter and into the world. Pharmacy officers advance the health and safety of the Nation by their involvement in the delivery of direct patient care to medically underserved people, national security, drug vigilance, research and policy-making endeavors. PHS pharmacists fill essential public health leadership and service roles throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and certain non-HHS federal agencies and programs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons, Health Resources and Services Administration, Food and Drug Administration, United States Coast Guard, Indian Health Service, and National Institutes of Health are among the many federal agencies where pharmacy officers are assigned. Conclusion In each setting, pharmacists find traditional roles augmented with assignments and challenges that broaden the scope of their practice. PMID:19443327

  2. Context-Driven Decision Making in Network-Centric Operations: Agent-Based Intelligent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Transfer Systems and Computer Networks Losev Gennady M. PhD. Computer and Information Systems and Problem of Information Protection Vorobyov Vladimir I

  3. Making connections: global production networks, standards, and embeddedness in the mobile-telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hess; Coe, Neil M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigate the contemporary restructuring of the mobile-telecommunications industry with the use of a global production networks (GPNs) perspective. After a brief conceptual discussion of GPN, standard setting and embeddedness, their analysis proceeds in four further stages. First, they consider how technological change has driven the development of complex mobile telecommunications GPNs in a sector previously characterised by relatively linear and simple value chains. Second, th...

  4. Direct interaction with the public: making it a "serious game" with role playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Samuela; Lombardi, Salvatore; Jones, David; Pearce, Jonathan; Persoglia, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia; Gemeni, Vassiliki; Svendsen Skriung, Camilla; Bigi, Sabina; Franzese, Carmela; Riley, Nick; McConnell, Brian; Volpi, Valentina; Donda, Federica

    2014-05-01

    opportunity to interact with scientists; written materials such as scientific brochures were made available for each participant and one computer per table. 13 researchers were present of which 2 social researchers, who managed the session. The others took turns at the tables, at regular intervals, participating to the discussion and providing information. Before the workshop, preparation activities took place through group work, to share and define the outcomes of the research, in relation to the objective of their communication to a not academic public. It was part of this work an integration function deployed by the social researchers which took into account both content and emotional aspects of communication issues. The outcomes of the workshop were twofold, on one side the participants could learn and find out about CO2 storage impact, on another side the researchers could experience themselves in a direct interaction with a variety of participants from different backgrounds and learn and get input from them for their work on such an important topic.

  5. Certificateless Public Auditing with Privacy Preserving for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With cloud computing being integrated with wireless body area networks, the digital ecosystem called cloud-assisted WBAN was proposed. In cloud-assisted medical systems, the integrity of the stored data is important. Recently, based on certificateless public key cryptography, He et al. proposed a certificateless public auditing scheme for cloud-assisted WBANs. But He et al.’s scheme is not a scheme with privacy preserving. After many checks on some of the same data blocks, the auditor can derive these data blocks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless public auditing scheme with privacy preserving for cloud-assisted WBANs. In the proof phase of the proposed scheme, the proof information is protected from being directly exposed to the auditor. So, the curious auditor could not derive the data blocks. We also prove that the proposed scheme is secure in the random oracle model under the assumption that the Diffie-Hellman problem is hard, and we give a comparison of the proposed scheme with He et al.’s scheme in terms of security and computation cost.

  6. Making Network Markets in Education: The Development of Data Infrastructure in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of data infrastructure in Australian schooling with a specific focus on interoperability standards that help to make new markets for education data. The conceptual framework combines insights from studies of infrastructure, economic markets and digital data. The case of the Australian National Schools…

  7. Developing a decision-making framework for levels of logistics outsourcing in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a decision-making framework for outsourcing levels of logistics activities. These are: execution level of basic activities (such as transportation, warehousing); value-added activities; planning and control level of activities (such as transportation

  8. Joint operational decision-making in collaborative transportation networks: The role of IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper addresses horizontal supply chain collaboration among autonomous freight carriers in the less-than-truckload industry. The main purpose of the paper is to identify and explain the challenges with joint operational decision-making in this context and investigate the precise role

  9. Cortical network dynamics of perceptual decision-making in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, M.; Engel, A.K.; Donner, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how

  10. Dynamic control of ROV`s making use of the neural network concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Yuki; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Kidoushi, Hideki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    An attempt is made to combine the classical controller with the concept of neural network, the result of which is a control system that they have named the Robust Adaptive Neural-net Controller (RANC). The RANC identifies the dynamic characteristics of the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) including its ambient environment involving cyclic disturbances such as forces induced by waves, and organizes automatically an optimized controller. A tank experiment is described in which the RANC is set to maintain a model ROV at a prescribed depth of water under artificially generated wave disturbance.

  11. Multi-channel Dual Clocks three-dimensional probability Random Multiple Access protocol for Wireless Public Bus Networks based on RTS/CTS mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sheng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A MAC protocol for public bus networks, called Bus MAC protocol, designed to provide high quality Internet service for bus passengers. The paper proposed a multi-channel dual clocks three-demission probability random multiple access protocol based on RTS/CTS mechanism, decreasing collisions caused by multiple access from multiple passengers. Use the RTS/CTS mechanism increases the reliability and stability of the system, reducing the collision possibility of the information packets to a certain extent, improves the channel utilization; use the multi-channel mechanism, not only enables the channel load balancing, but also solves the problem of the hidden terminal and exposed terminal. Use the dual clocks mechanism, reducing the system idle time. At last, the different selection of the three-dimensional probabilities can make the system throughput adapt to the network load which could realize the maximum of the system throughput.

  12. Fusion and Sense Making of Heterogeneous Sensor Network and Other Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT A DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT PI Team has proposed to utilize an adaptive...Investigators ( PI and Co- PIs ): Shen Zhongxiang, Mao Kezhi - e-mail address : ekzmao@ntu.edu.sg - Institution: Nanyang Technological University - Mailing...divided into grids to obtain the average sub- region feature values . PHOW features are extracted at multiple scales on multiple pyramid levels and

  13. GOFC-GOLD/LCLUC/START Regional Networking: building capacity for science and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Vadrevu, K.; Gutman, G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the international GOFC-GOLD Program and START, with core funding from the NASA LCLUC program and ESA have been developing regional networks of scientists and data users for scientific capacity building and sharing experience in the use and application of Earth Observation data. Regional networks connect scientists from countries with similar environmental and social issues and often with shared water and airsheds. Through periodic regional workshops, regional and national projects are showcased and national priorities and policy drivers are articulated. The workshops encourage both north-south and south-south exchange and collaboration. The workshops are multi-sponsored and each include a training component, targeting early career scientists and data users from the region. The workshops provide an opportunity for regional scientists to publish in peer-reviewed special editions focused on regional issues. Currently, the NASA LCLUC program funded "South and Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI)" team is working closely with the USAID/NASA SERVIR program to implement some capacity building and training activities jointly in south/southeast Asian countries to achieve maximum benefit.

  14. From Agent-based models to network analysis (and return): the policy-making perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Magda; Terna, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    An important perspective use of Agent-based models (ABMs) is that of being employed as tools to support decision systems in policy-making, in the complex systems framework. Such models can be usefully employed at two different levels: to help in deciding (policy-maker level) and to empower the capabilities of people in evaluating the effectiveness of policies (citizen level). Consequently, the class of ABMs for policymaking needs to be both quite simple in its structure and highly sophisticat...

  15. Adolescents' risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; Padrón, Iván; de Vega, Manuel; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents' risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old) read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug) or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog). Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind (ToM). In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (ventral striatum). Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC) and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole). Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions (bilateral MTG) and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area). Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others' perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in

  16. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence strategy. In addition, we highlight Russian decision-making and messaging through four distinct past and future scenarios along the spectrum of...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  17. Adolescents’ risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José eRodrigo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines by means of fMRI the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents’ risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog. Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG, right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind. In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active (right ACC, bilateral DLPFC, bilateral OFC, whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (VS. Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole. Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in theory of mind related regions (bilateral middle temporal gyrus and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area. Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others’ perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in social contexts that incorporate the role of emotional and social cognition processes.

  18. On the Impact of using Public Network Communication Infrastructure for Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The high penetration of renewable generation (ReGen) plants in the electric supply necessitates online voltage control support and coordination of ReGen plants in the distribution grid. This imposes a high responsibility on the communication network infrastructure in order to ensure a resilient...... voltage controlled distribution system. A cost effective way to connect the ReGen plants to the control center is to consider the existing public network infrastructure. This paper, therefore, illustrates the impact of using the existing public network communication infrastructure for online voltage...... control support and coordination of ReGen plants in medium voltage distribution systems. Further, by using an exemplary benchmark grid area in Denmark as a base case that includes flexible ReGen plants, we introduce several test cases and evaluate network performance in terms of latencies in the signals...

  19. Sharing data for public health research by members of an international online diabetes social network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa R Weitzman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance and response to diabetes may be accelerated through engaging online diabetes social networks (SNs in consented research. We tested the willingness of an online diabetes community to share data for public health research by providing members with a privacy-preserving social networking software application for rapid temporal-geographic surveillance of glycemic control.SN-mediated collection of cross-sectional, member-reported data from an international online diabetes SN entered into a software application we made available in a "Facebook-like" environment to enable reporting, charting and optional sharing of recent hemoglobin A1c values through a geographic display. Self-enrollment by 17% (n = 1,136 of n = 6,500 active members representing 32 countries and 50 US states. Data were current with 83.1% of most recent A1c values reported obtained within the past 90 days. Sharing was high with 81.4% of users permitting data donation to the community display. 34.1% of users also displayed their A1cs on their SN profile page. Users selecting the most permissive sharing options had a lower average A1c (6.8% than users not sharing with the community (7.1%, p = .038. 95% of users permitted re-contact. Unadjusted aggregate A1c reported by US users closely resembled aggregate 2007-2008 NHANES estimates (respectively, 6.9% and 6.9%, p = 0.85.Success within an early adopter community demonstrates that online SNs may comprise efficient platforms for bidirectional communication with and data acquisition from disease populations. Advancing this model for cohort and translational science and for use as a complementary surveillance approach will require understanding of inherent selection and publication (sharing biases in the data and a technology model that supports autonomy, anonymity and privacy.

  20. Communication inequalities and public health implications of adult social networking site use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.

  1. Randomly biased investments and the evolution of public goods on interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2017-08-01

    Deciding how to allocate resources between interdependent systems is significant to optimize efficiency. We study the effects of heterogeneous contribution, induced by such interdependency, on the evolution of cooperation, through implementing the public goods games on two-layer networks. The corresponding players on different layers try to share a fixed amount of resources as the initial investment properly. The symmetry breaking of investments between players located on different layers is able to either prevent investments from, or extract them out of the deadlock. Results show that a moderate investment heterogeneity is best favorable for the evolution of cooperation, and random allocation of investment bias suppresses the cooperators at a wide range of the investment bias and the enhancement effect. Further studies on time evolution with different initial strategy configurations show that the non-interdependent cooperators along the interface of interdependent cooperators also are an indispensable factor in facilitating cooperative behavior. Our main results are qualitatively unchanged even diversifying investment bias that is subject to uniform distribution. Our study may shed light on the understanding of the origin of cooperative behavior on interdependent networks.

  2. A cost analysis of public cord blood banks belonging to the Italian Cord Blood Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupella, Simonetta; Bianchi, Maria; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Lombardini, Letizia; Giornetti, Andrea; Marano, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Grazzini, Giuliano; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2017-04-13

    Public cord blood banking is currently managed in Italy by a network of 19 regional cord blood banks coordinated by the National Blood Centre and the National Transplant Centre. A cost analysis was carried out within the Italian network to determine the relationship between cost of cord blood collection and banking and size of the bank inventory, which ranged from 106 to 9,341 units on December 31st, 2012. The 19 banks were invited to report costs incurred in 2012 related to cord blood unit collection, transportation, biological validation, characterisation, manipulation, cryopreservation, storage, data management, and general costs. Missing information on selected items was replaced with standardised costs represented by average data obtained from the reporting banks. Eight banks (52%) participated in the study. Average costs were determined in the three banks with inventories of >3,000 units vs the three banks with inventories of banking costs per unit were lower in the larger banks than in the smaller banks (average collection costs: € 119.25 and € 151.31, respectively; average banking costs: € 3,614.15 and € 8,158.37, respectively). The study outlined an inverse relationship between the costs of cord blood collection and banking and the size of the bank inventory, suggesting that scale economies could be obtained through centralisation of banking activities.

  3. Can evolutionary design of social networks make it easier to be 'green'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Janis L; Crain, Rhiannon L; Reeve, H Kern; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-09-01

    The social Web is swiftly becoming a living laboratory for understanding human cooperation on massive scales. It has changed how we organize, socialize, and tackle problems that benefit from the efforts of a large crowd. A new, applied, behavioral ecology has begun to build on theoretical and empirical studies of cooperation, integrating research in the fields of evolutionary biology, social psychology, social networking, and citizen science. Here, we review the ways in which these disciplines inform the design of Internet environments to support collective pro-environmental behavior, tapping into proximate prosocial mechanisms and models of social evolution, as well as generating opportunities for 'field studies' to discover how we can support massive collective action and shift environmental social norms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Media and Public Ability to Participate In Scientific Decision-making: Using Nanotechnology as A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Shih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the paradigm of science communication transferred from a one-way, deficit model to an approach that emphasizes public participation and dialogue, citizens in the modern society have thus assumed different civic abilities. These civic abilities include basic knowledge about science, understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of science, and the ability to make decisions regarding future development of emerging technologies. Because people rely mostly on the media for scientific information, the role of the media in cultivating civic responsibility warrants investigation. Using nanotechnology as a case study, this study aims to examine whether the media can build an informed citizenry and are helpful in people’s decision-making process. The analysis is based on a nationally representative telephone survey (N= 918. The findings indicate that attention to science news on TV has a direct and positive effect on support for nanotechnology. It also exerts an indirect effect by increasing risk perception. Attention to science news on newspapers increases the level of nano knowledge, which, in turn, heightens benefit perception and support. However, the effect of the Internet is subtler. Its effect on knowledge and support depends on education or age. The results of this study suggest that different media platforms play different roles in cultivating the necessary abilities people need in modern, scientific society. By understanding the differential role of the media, science communicators not only can choose appropriate channels for effective communication, but can develop strategies to better use the media as helpful tools in public science education.

  6. Local School Board Members Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…

  7. Sentiment Diffusion of Public Opinions about Hot Events: Based on Complex Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hao

    Full Text Available To study the sentiment diffusion of online public opinions about hot events, we collected people's posts through web data mining techniques. We calculated the sentiment value of each post based on a sentiment dictionary. Next, we divided those posts into five different orientations of sentiments: strongly positive (P, weakly positive (p, neutral (o, weakly negative (n, and strongly negative (N. These sentiments are combined into modes through coarse graining. We constructed sentiment mode complex network of online public opinions (SMCOP with modes as nodes and the conversion relation in chronological order between different types of modes as edges. We calculated the strength, k-plex clique, clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality of the SMCOP. The results show that the strength distribution obeys power law. Most posts' sentiments are weakly positive and neutral, whereas few are strongly negative. There are weakly positive subgroups and neutral subgroups with ppppp and ooooo as the core mode, respectively. Few modes have larger betweenness centrality values and most modes convert to each other with these higher betweenness centrality modes as mediums. Therefore, the relevant person or institutes can take measures to lead people's sentiments regarding online hot events according to the sentiment diffusion mechanism.

  8. Sentiment Diffusion of Public Opinions about Hot Events: Based on Complex Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoqing; An, Haizhong; Zhang, Lijia; Li, Huajiao; Wei, Guannan

    2015-01-01

    To study the sentiment diffusion of online public opinions about hot events, we collected people's posts through web data mining techniques. We calculated the sentiment value of each post based on a sentiment dictionary. Next, we divided those posts into five different orientations of sentiments: strongly positive (P), weakly positive (p), neutral (o), weakly negative (n), and strongly negative (N). These sentiments are combined into modes through coarse graining. We constructed sentiment mode complex network of online public opinions (SMCOP) with modes as nodes and the conversion relation in chronological order between different types of modes as edges. We calculated the strength, k-plex clique, clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality of the SMCOP. The results show that the strength distribution obeys power law. Most posts' sentiments are weakly positive and neutral, whereas few are strongly negative. There are weakly positive subgroups and neutral subgroups with ppppp and ooooo as the core mode, respectively. Few modes have larger betweenness centrality values and most modes convert to each other with these higher betweenness centrality modes as mediums. Therefore, the relevant person or institutes can take measures to lead people's sentiments regarding online hot events according to the sentiment diffusion mechanism.

  9. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required.

  10. Public Participation or Social Grooming: A Quantitative Content Analysis of a Local Social Network Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Tanaka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically investigate the structure of a local social network site (SNS by means of a quantitative content analysis. Local SNSs have recently increased in Japan. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication has supported city governments to set up local SNSs with the aim of encouraging public participation of citizens in municipal areas. However, the users of SNSs do not necessarily seem to utilize government-driven local SNSs for this purpose. The authors apply concepts of public participation and social grooming to study a local SNS. A quantitative content analysis was conducted to investigate users’ activity and latent factors that influence them. The result showed three findings. Firstly, the content of a local SNS might relate to three latent factors, namely, social grooming, civic participation, and political participation. Second, the former two factors could relate to users’ emotions. Third, compared to male users, female users might provide content that is more emotional and may be affected by the former two factors.

  11. Growth surveillance in the context of the Primary Public Healthcare Service Network in Brazil: literature review

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    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to identify and analyze the scientific literature on child growth monitoring in the context of the primary public healthcare service network in Brazil, focusing on the main problems detected in studies. Methods: the review was based on searches ofSciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases to identify articles published between 2006 and 2014. The articles were categorized according to the analytical categories of structure (items needed to carry out primary activities or work processes (set of activities and procedures used in the management of resources. Results: of the 16 articles included in this review, only six dealt with structure and, in these, thetraining of professionals and availability of protocols were the most frequently identified problems. Processes, addressed in 15 articles, highlighted the underutilization of Child Health Handbook to record growth measurements and the adoption of guidelines on the basis of notes taken. Conclusions: the difficulties found demonstrate the everyday circumstances of the public health service which have a detrimental effect on growth surveillance.

  12. System evaluation of logistics performance: Proposal for a supply network in a Public Higher Education Institution

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    Alberto de Oliveira Cardoso Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent quest for efficiency in public companies in Brazil was one of the motives to elaborate this paper, which had a public Institution of Higher Education (IHE as its subject of study. The IHE profiled possesses a multi-campus structure and the distribution of its consumer items is performed by the institution’s own warehouse. Through field research, it became apparent that the supply of these items had some problems, such as items out of stock, orders with delayed delivery, items past their shelf life etc. Therefore, this paper article aimed to propose an evaluation system of the logistical services at the IHE studied, based on performance indicators developed from mangers’ perceptions about the problems occurring in the distribution of consumer items. In addition, an index, calculated from diverse indicators, was proposed which would be able to express the performance of the logistics service of the IHE studied, and reflect the perceptions of the main users of this service. It is understood that the solution proposed here can be applied to any two-echelon supply network.

  13. Clinical validation of a public health policy-making platform for hearing loss (EVOTION): protocol for a big data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakis, Giorgos; Kikidis, Dimitris; Koloutsou, Nina; Murdin, Louisa; Bibas, Athanasios; Ploumidou, Katherine; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2018-02-15

    The holistic management of hearing loss (HL) requires an understanding of factors that predict hearing aid (HA) use and benefit beyond the acoustics of listening environments. Although several predictors have been identified, no study has explored the role of audiological, cognitive, behavioural and physiological data nor has any study collected real-time HA data. This study will collect 'big data', including retrospective HA logging data, prospective clinical data and real-time data via smart HAs, a mobile application and biosensors. The main objective is to enable the validation of the EVOTION platform as a public health policy-making tool for HL. This will be a big data international multicentre study consisting of retrospective and prospective data collection. Existing data from approximately 35 000 HA users will be extracted from clinical repositories in the UK and Denmark. For the prospective data collection, 1260 HA candidates will be recruited across four clinics in the UK and Greece. Participants will complete a battery of audiological and other assessments (measures of patient-reported HA benefit, mood, cognition, quality of life). Patients will be offered smart HAs and a mobile phone application and a subset will also be given wearable biosensors, to enable the collection of dynamic real-life HA usage data. Big data analytics will be used to detect correlations between contextualised HA usage and effectiveness, and different factors and comorbidities affecting HL, with a view to informing public health decision-making. Ethical approval was received from the London South East Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0789), the Hippokrateion Hospital Ethics Committee (1847) and the Athens Medical Center's Ethics Committee (KM140670). Results will be disseminated through national and international events in Greece and the UK, scientific journals, newsletters, magazines and social media. Target audiences include HA users, clinicians, policy-makers and the

  14. Engaging the Canadian public on reimbursement decision-making for drugs for rare diseases: a national online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Burgess, Michael; Mitton, Craig; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-05-26

    Funding of drugs for rare diseases (DRDs) requires decisions that balance fairness for all individuals within the healthcare system with compassion for affected individuals. Our study objective was to conduct a national online survey to determine the Canadian public's perspective, including regional variations, associated with DRD decision-making. The survey collected responses from 1631 Canadians. Respondents were asked to rank at least three and up to five DRD decision-making priorities, out of a total of eight priorities presented. They were also asked to compare and rate their agreement level on a 5-point Likert scale with four funding scenarios described. The frequency of each priority, independent of where it was ranked in relation to the other priorities, was calculated. Regression analyses were conducted to measure the association between respondents' demographics and selected priorities with their agreement level for each funding scenario. Among the survey respondents, Improved Quality of Life and Effective Health Care were most frequently selected as top priorities. Also, 79.2% of respondents agreed with equal access to DRDs across Canada, and 73.0% agreed with DRD funding if additional expenses are justified in the DRD's cost-effectiveness. Approximately half agreed to pay for DRDs independent of their effectiveness. There were no geographic differences in priorities. Selecting Effective Health Care in the top priorities was positively associated with both prioritizing other programs over programs for rare diseases and DRD funding only if deemed as cost-effective. Respondents, who selected National Access as one of the top priorities, were less likely to agree to fund DRDs only if deemed as cost-effective and were more likely to agree with the scenario to provide national access to DRDs. The survey results suggest the level of public support for funding decisions and programs that incorporate assessment of the effectiveness of drugs for improving quality

  15. Time for a paradigm shift in how we transfer knowledge? Making the case for translational science and public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    By any measure, our efforts to protect and restore the environment have failed to keep pace with environmental change, despite extraordinary scientific advances. Clearly there is a problem in knowledge transfer, which is often blamed on limited public awareness, misunderstanding or even apathy. Whether it's moving research to practice, informing policy, or educating the public on the environmental challenges of our time, our track record is poor. A major part of our failure lies in how scientists and practitioners understand (or misunderstand) and practice knowledge transfer. What actually drives knowledge acquisition and the motivation to gain knowledge, and what does this say about the methods used for knowledge transfer? Is the problem a supply issue (deficit of knowledge) or a demand issue (personal relevance)? The false assumptions that spin out of how we conceptualize knowledge acquisition lead to investment in knowledge transfer balanced heavily in "science communication" and "awareness raising" activities that tend to be unidirectional, top-down, and rarely linked to personal interests. Successful adaptation to environmental change requires a theoretical and practical understanding of coupled natural-human systems as well as advances in bridging knowledge systems and the science-society gap. To be effective, this means a "translational science" approach that promotes the capture and integration of scientific and local knowledge, addresses the influences of scale (biophysically, socially, institutionally), encourages mutual learning among all parties, and builds capacity as part of the process. The facilitation and translation of information and meanings among stakeholders can lead to the co-production of knowledge, more informed decision making, and in a very pragmatic way, more effective use of assessments and other products of scientific discovery. The purpose of this presentation is to shed light on what underlies the majority of investment in knowledge

  16. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

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    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when

  17. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive

  18. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  19. Reorganization of hydrogen bond network makes strong polyelectrolyte brushes pH-responsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Jun; Hua, Zan; Tian, Kangzhen; Kou, Ran; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Shuji; Luo, Yi; Craig, Vincent S J; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes have found extensive practical applications owing to their rich pH-responsive properties. In contrast, strong polyelectrolytes have long been regarded as pH-insensitive based on the well-established fact that the average degree of charging of strong polyelectrolyte chains is independent of pH. The possible applications of strong polyelectrolytes in smart materials have, thus, been severely limited. However, we demonstrate that almost all important properties of strong polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs), such as chain conformation, hydration, stiffness, surface wettability, lubricity, adhesion, and protein adsorption are sensitive to pH. The pH response originates from the reorganization of the interchain hydrogen bond network between the grafted chains, triggered by the pH-mediated adsorption-desorption equilibrium of hydronium or hydroxide with the brushes. The reorganization process is firmly identified by advanced sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Our findings not only provide a new understanding of the fundamental properties of SPBs but also uncover an extensive family of building blocks for constructing pH-responsive materials.

  20. High-frequency oscillations in distributed neural networks reveal the dynamics of human decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G Guggisberg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relative timing of numerous brain regions involved in human decisions that are based on external criteria, learned information, personal preferences, or unconstrained internal considerations. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG and advanced signal analysis techniques, we were able to non-invasively reconstruct oscillations of distributed neural networks in the high-gamma frequency band (60–150 Hz. The time course of the observed neural activity suggested that two-alternative forced choice tasks are processed in four overlapping stages: processing of sensory input, option evaluation, intention formation, and action execution. Visual areas are activated fi rst, and show recurring activations throughout the entire decision process. The temporo-occipital junction and the intraparietal sulcus are active during evaluation of external values of the options, 250–500 ms after stimulus presentation. Simultaneously, personal preference is mediated by cortical midline structures. Subsequently, the posterior parietal and superior occipital cortices appear to encode intention, with different subregions being responsible for different types of choice. The cerebellum and inferior parietal cortex are recruited for internal generation of decisions and actions, when all options have the same value. Action execution was accompanied by activation peaks in the contralateral motor cortex. These results suggest that high-gamma oscillations as recorded by MEG allow a reliable reconstruction of decision processes with excellent spatiotemporal resolution.