WorldWideScience

Sample records for network legal studies

  1. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  2. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered.

  3. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  4. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  5. Legal Network report calls for decriminalization of prostitution in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2005-12-01

    In December 2005 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released Sex, work, rights: reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. The report examines the ways in which the prostitution-related provisions of the Criminal Code, and their enforcement, have criminalized many aspects of sex workers' lives and have promoted their social marginalization. Evidence indicates that the criminal law has contributed to health and safety risks, including the risk of HIV infection, faced by sex workers. The Legal Network calls for the decriminalization of prostitution in Canada, and for other legal and policy reforms that respect the human rights and promote the health of sex workers. Despite the report's Canadian focus, its human rights analysis is relevant to the situation of sex workers in other countries where prostitution is illegal and sex workers face rights abuses. In this article, Glenn Betteridge, the principal author of the report, briefly sets out the case for law reform.

  6. Legal Effects of Link Sharing in Social Networks

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    Eugenio Gil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing among individuals has changed deeply with the advent of social networks in the environment of Web 2.0. Every user has the possibility of publishing what he or she deems of interest for their audience, regardless of the origin or authorship of the piece of knowledge. It is generally accepted that as the user is sharing a link to a document or video, for example, without getting paid for it, there is no point in worrying about the rights of the original author. It seems that the concepts of authorship and originality is about to disappear as promised the structuralists fifty years ago. Nevertheless the legal system has not changed, nor have the economic interests concerned. This paper explores the last developments of the legal system concerning these issues.

  7. Introduction: Legal Form and Cultural Symbol – Music, Copyright and Information Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmer, Martin; Pratt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Writers in information and communication studies often assume the stability of\\ud objects under investigation: network nodes, databases, information. Legal writers in\\ud the intellectual property tradition often assume that cultural artefacts exist as objects\\ud prior to being governed by copyright law. Both assumptions are fallacious. This\\ud introduction conceptualises the relationship of legal form and cultural symbol.\\ud Starting from an understanding of copyright law as part of systems o...

  8. The study of legal argumentation in argumentation theory and legal theory: approaches and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of how argumentation theorists, philosophers, legal theorists and legal philosophers approach questions about the standards for the correctness of legal argumentation. Ideas about the analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation, developed by influential

  9. Means to improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence: An empirical legal study on legislation and legal offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marotta, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how recent legal reforms and the creation of legal offices in Argentina may improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence. The paper looks into the way the judicial system developed to provide suitable options for victims of

  10. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

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    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  11. Legal Risks for Students Using Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa; Lindsay, David; Phillips, Michael

    2010-01-01

    There are significant privacy, intellectual property, copyright and disclosure risks associated with the ill-considered use of social networking sites, however, the implementation of regulatory actions may also undermine the social and emerging educational utility of social networking sites for young people. Inevitably the burden of dealing with…

  12. A Legal Reasoning Component of a Network Security Command and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    systems for controlling the remote management of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and other network components and subsystems cannot...regulatory team is also logged in to C3IOS either directly or indirectly via remote management software. The legal database is also available to all

  13. A General Structure for Legal Arguments about Evidence Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Lagnado, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A Bayesian network (BN) is a graphical model of uncertainty that is especially well suited to legal arguments. It enables us to visualize and model dependencies between different hypotheses and pieces of evidence and to calculate the revised probability beliefs about all uncertain factors when any piece of new evidence is presented. Although BNs…

  14. Anthropological Approach to the Study of Russian Legal Traditions

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    Marina V. Ignatieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes emergence of an anthropological approach to the study of legal traditions in Russia. It is shown that the first works belong to the 40-50-th years. XIX century. Characterized work KD Kavelin and MM Kovalevsky. For example, the works of MM Kovalevsky, dedicated to legal traditions and customs of the peoples of the Caucasus and, above all, Ossetians, shows their evolution.

  15. Towards enhanced public access to legal information : A proposal for official networked one-stop legal information websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitee, Leesi Ebenezer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This article identifies the publishing of fragments of legal information on multiple, isolated official legal information websites (OLIWs) as the major factor underlying the existing problems in locating the available official online legal information of all levels of government (national,

  16. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes; Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos

    2015-06-01

    This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the characteristic of social vulnerability, must be included in the system. In addition to the theoretical contribution to the reverse logistics network problem, this study aids in decision-making for public managers who have limited technical and administrative capacities for the management of solid wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laws of Language and Legal Language: A Study of Legal Language in Some Indonesian Regulations

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    Shidarta Shidarta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal language must follow the laws of language (grammar that widely known and commonly used by the public, including groups of the scientist. Legal language on the other hand also recognizes specific terminologies. These terminologies were introduced by jurists or by legislative power holders. Accordingly, legal language became the product of legal doctrines or political decisions. The problems arose when a number of compositions and legal terms turned out to be elusive, convoluted, and ambiguous due to the pattern of writing that was once done and because of certain considerations. This article proposed reviewing the factors that result in problems. The author presented a solution to observe using hermeneutic methods of law and legal reasoning. The author argued that the text of the law was not neutral since it was trapped not only by the laws of language but also by the perspective of the interpreters as they believed such a perspective was based on the guidance of legal science. By using legal hermeneutics can be checked the depth of the meaning of the law; while over the legal reasoning can be seen its rationale according to legal science.

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marijuana: A Study Of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study in general indicate that while the total group expressed a significantly favorable attitude toward the legalizing of marijuana; at the same time there appeared to be no significant relationship between social class and the attitude variable in question. (Author)

  19. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

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    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  20. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes, E-mail: giovane.ferri@aluno.ufes.br [Department of Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Espírito Santo – UFES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, Km 60, Bairro Litorâneo, São Mateus, ES, 29.932-540 (Brazil); Diniz Chaves, Gisele de Lorena, E-mail: gisele.chaves@ufes.br [Department of Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Espírito Santo – UFES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, Km 60, Bairro Litorâneo, São Mateus, ES, 29.932-540 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos, E-mail: glaydston@pet.coppe.ufrj.br [Transportation Engineering Programme, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco H, Sala 106, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We propose a reverse logistics network for MSW involving waste pickers. • A generic facility location mathematical model was validated in a Brazilian city. • The results enable to predict the capacity for screening and storage centres (SSC). • We minimise the costs for transporting MSW with screening and storage centres. • The use of SSC can be a potential source of revenue and a better use of MSW. - Abstract: This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the

  1. Disciplinary values in legal discourse: a corpus study

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    Ruth Breeze

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The last 20 years have seen increasing interest in the way in which meaning is made in different professional and academic disciplines. Central to this issue is the notion of disciplinary values, that is, qualities which define what is prized or stigmatised by different professional communities. In the present paper, the notion of disciplinary values is used to examine the way legal writers communicate meaning in different genres. To this end, six adjective/adverb sets which have a prominent place in legal discourse (“clear/ly”, “important/ly”, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” are identified. Their collocates and semantic preferences are studied in four 500,000-word corpora consisting of texts from the area of commercial law: academic journal articles, case law, legislation, and legal documents. Although the frequency and use of “clear/ly” and “important/ly” appear not to differ greatly from those found in other corpora of written and academic written texts such as the British National Corpus (BNC and the British Academic Written English corpus (BAWE, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” were found to be salient in some or all of the subcorpora. The reasons for this are then analysed within the framework of disciplinary values. These words appear to convey attributes that have particular importance in the legal profession, reflecting disciplinary values that cross the boundaries between various written genres.

  2. How to Integrate Student Internships into Legal Studies Research and Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Jill O.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to answer the "how" and "why" of a Legal Studies internship experience at a public university. Internship is an integral part of student learning. Although the Faculty/Organizers conducted a free legal clinic for five years previous, this case study discusses a first time internship attempt by faculty…

  3. Do legal frameworks direct merger outcomes? A study of the legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the legal challenges and contestations embedded in five recent cases of higher education mergers in South Africa. I am aware that there are a number of forms of mergers. For the purposes of this article I use the term as one that is descriptive of a policy decision. Where necessary I make a brief distinction ...

  4. Looking At: Future Studies, Legal Education, Women's Studies, Mini-Courses, Global Studies, School Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, CO.

    Six issues of a current awareness bulletin published occasionally by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies are combined in this document. The various issues, written in 1973 and 1974, deal with emerging topics of interest in future studies, legal education, womens studies, minicourses, global studies, and school ethnography. Each four page…

  5. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  6. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-04-01

    Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Large scale, retrospective study. General practice in Belgium. A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005-2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met.

  7. Modeling complex metabolic reactions, ecological systems, and financial and legal networks with MIANN models based on Markov-Wiener node descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; López-Díaz, Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-27

    The use of numerical parameters in Complex Network analysis is expanding to new fields of application. At a molecular level, we can use them to describe the molecular structure of chemical entities, protein interactions, or metabolic networks. However, the applications are not restricted to the world of molecules and can be extended to the study of macroscopic nonliving systems, organisms, or even legal or social networks. On the other hand, the development of the field of Artificial Intelligence has led to the formulation of computational algorithms whose design is based on the structure and functioning of networks of biological neurons. These algorithms, called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), can be useful for the study of complex networks, since the numerical parameters that encode information of the network (for example centralities/node descriptors) can be used as inputs for the ANNs. The Wiener index (W) is a graph invariant widely used in chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs and to study complex networks. In this work, we explore for the first time the possibility of using Markov chains to calculate analogues of node distance numbers/W to describe complex networks from the point of view of their nodes. These parameters are called Markov-Wiener node descriptors of order k(th) (W(k)). Please, note that these descriptors are not related to Markov-Wiener stochastic processes. Here, we calculated the W(k)(i) values for a very high number of nodes (>100,000) in more than 100 different complex networks using the software MI-NODES. These networks were grouped according to the field of application. Molecular networks include the Metabolic Reaction Networks (MRNs) of 40 different organisms. In addition, we analyzed other biological and legal and social networks. These include the Interaction Web Database Biological Networks (IWDBNs), with 75 food webs or ecological systems and the Spanish Financial Law Network (SFLN). The calculated W

  8. Broadening the Legal Academy, the Study of Customary Law: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Scotland. Email Anne.Griffiths@ed.ac.uk. Date published. 26 October 2017. Editor Prof P du Plessis. How to cite this article. Griffiths A "Broadening the Legal. Academy ... established legal curriculum that had to be up and running within a very ... and apply them to the creation of courses that in the case of family law would.

  9. Political and legal approach to contemporary local democracies collisions` studies

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    K. M. Burya

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that heuristic potential of political and legal approach in political science research is based on the possibility to solve genuine issues that contain the means of the legal provision of political institutions and the impact of these institutions on the normative context.

  10. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  11. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies

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    Bambang Sutrisno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is among the developing countries that are struggling to develop in the field of industrial development. The logical consequence of any development process, especially industrial development is the emergence of associated impacts that greatly affect the durability and sustainability of the environment. Developing the equitable industry in order to create public welfare is important. However, maintaining the security and preservation of the environment is also very important, because it is only with the availability of a good environment and healthy living that human beings can perform daily living. The availability of good and healthy environment is the constitutional responsibility of the government, as well as part of the human rights of all citizens which must be given by the State. Efforts to create a good environment and healthy living will be effective if controlled by State government and institutions who understand the objective conditions on the ground. In this regard, the granting of the authority on environmental control to regional government autonomously is the right, very smart policy choice. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 27-58. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.98

  12. Semantic Relations between Legal Terms. A Case Study of the Intralingual Relation of Synonymy

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    Matulewska Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to present a possibility of parametrising legal terminology in order to reveal semantic and systemic relations at the intralingual and interlingual levels. The scope of the research comprises selected legal terminology from the following legal systems: Polish, British, American and European Union. The research methods used include: (i the analysis of comparable texts, (ii the method of parametrisation of the legal linguistic reality, (iii the concept of adjusting translation to the communicative needs and requirements of the recipient community. The research hypothesis is that parametrisation of legal terminology in respect of semantic and systemic relations may be a useful tool in organising and comparing terminology for the purpose of legal translation. First the relation of synonymy binding terms at the intralingual and interlingual levels in the light of systemic and genre-related relations is discussed. The proposal is illustrated with examples of legal terms and the networks of relations binding them in English and Polish. The conclusions are that such an approach is systematic and provides a translator with information necessary to render communicatively efficient translations.

  13. Women's legal knowledge: a case study of Mexican urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Izabal, L M

    1995-06-01

    In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.

  14. Legal and ethical issues in neonatal nursing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Victoria; Ellis, Catherine; Strumidlo, Laura

    2016-06-29

    Neonatal nurses regularly face complex legal and ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the hypothetical case of Jack, a two-day-old infant diagnosed with trisomy 13 (syndrome), a life-limiting condition. Jack's prognosis is poor, and he is not expected to live past two weeks of age. The legal and ethical perspectives of withholding life-sustaining treatment in infants and children will be explored through the application of ethical frameworks, as well as statute and case law relevant to children and adolescent nursing. The article also discusses the neonatal nurse's role, with reference to local and national guidelines.

  15. Empirical Scientific Research and Legal Studies Research--A Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…

  16. (Virtual) Water-repellent Law? Why Legal Studies Should Be Brought Into the Virtual Water Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Virtual water studies are a marvelous example of the much praised "interdisciplinary approach", efficaciously intertwining many threads woven by scholars of very diverse fields of research. After all, if water is an object of biological interest and the word "virtual" becomes especially significant in the framework of the international trade flows, why should agronomists and economists not work together? And, with them, hydrologists, environmental engineers, network analysis experts… either working side by side or, at least, following one another's steps. Browsing the relevant academic literature one may notice that a vast array of disciplines is dealing with the topic. As a consequence, it may come as a surprise that lawyers seem to have remained almost deaf to the charming call of virtual water. A social science thoroughly "social" even if sometimes deemed (also by its practitioners) akin to humanities - and for this reason not always timely in catching the hints by hard sciences - law has a lot to say about virtual water and its manifold aspects. And it is so, in my opinion, in at least two respects. First of all, legal provisions can be determinants of social facts no less than other types of norms, such as physical or economic laws. Law shapes the human behavior by giving incentives or establishing constraints to the conduct of virtually any kind of social actor, be they farmers needing to decide what to grow, entrepreneurs willing to invest in the water market, or governments requested to address their communities' problems. All of them will make their choices in consideration of the costs, opportunities, and limits set by a number of regulations. In the second place, and strictly connected with the first reason, law may offer some answers to the challenges that virtual water and, more in general, the water-food nexus bring with them. In fact, understanding the way legal provisions affect the taking of decisions in the water sector, one may try to devise

  17. Medico-legal analysis of legal complaints in bariatric surgery: a 15-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchtan, Lucile; Kassir, Radwan; Sastre, Bernard; Gouillat, Christian; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Bartoli, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Bariatric surgery for severe obesity has become an effective and accepted treatment for sustained weight loss. The aim of our study was to analyze the complications and issues raised by the experts on which jury or judges' decisions were made for the different types of bariatric surgery. University Hospital, France. We have carried out a retrospective study of 59 expert review dossiers over a period of 15 years (1999-2014) on the different types of bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band [LAGB], sleeve gastrectomy [SG], Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB], vertical banded gastroplasty [VBG], and gastric plication [GP]). Of the cases, 81% were women and the average age was 39 years old (range 19 to 68 years). Among the procedures giving rise to the complaints, 40% were for LAGB, 28% for RYGB, and 23% for SG. The most common initial complications were perforations (30%), fistulae (27%), bowel obstruction (14%), vascular injuries (9.5%), and infections (peritonitis, pleurisy, abscesses, and so forth) (8%). Revision surgery was required in 78% of patients, and perioperative complications accounted for 28.5% of dossiers. The experts concluded that fault had occurred in 40% of case. Negligence arising from an error deemed to be an act of negligence was found in 30% of cases, 67% of which were because of delayed diagnosis. Major long-term complications accounted for 8% of dossiers and minor long-term complications for 22%. Forty-seven percent of patients completely recovered. Delayed diagnosis was the main error established by the experts. Surgeons should remain vigilant postoperatively after every bariatric surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Legal Frontiers in the Global Dissemination of Technology and Knowledge: Three Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    This article explores a few alternatives to the traditional legal and economic theories regarding the problem of global dissemination of knowledge and technology to developing countries. In particular, it examines three cases in which the classical notion of intellectual property rights seems...... to have been exploited in favor of developing countries, both through its conventional application and through more flexible views of such legal institution. The first case deals with the phenomenon of peer production through electronic networks; the second discusses the regulation of trademarks...... in the context of collective rights; and finally, the third case tackles the recent problem of the so-called "abandonwares" and its implications of economic and legal nature....

  19. A Study of Counselors' Legal Challenges and Their Perceptions of Their Ability to Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY A. HERM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors explore the results of a study that assessed the types and frequency of legal issues encountered by counselors and counselors’ perceptions of their ability to respond to these issues. They also assessed whether the participants’ perceptions were related to practice setting, years of experience, completion of a course in ethics, recent completion of continuing education in ethics or legal issues, state licensure status, certification by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC, and highest degree earned. Results demonstrate that counselors feel most prepared to deal with situations encountered most often, but that school counselors do not feel as prepared to face most ethical and legal issues.

  20. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  1. Litigation to execution in legal labour relationships. Study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Lucian Radulescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enforced execution is the legal way by which the Creditor under an enforceable order protects his rights by resorting to coercive force of the state. When the Debtor does not comply voluntarily, the Creditor may appeal to the Bailiff to commence the enforced execution in all manner prescribed by law. Of course, the start of compulsory execution is limited by the conditions of admissibility imperatively specified in the law, principally the condition to exist an enforceable order owned by the Creditor. Regarding the order to be enforced, it can be represented either by an enforceable or final judgement, with provisional enforcement or any other document that can be enforced. Procedurally, the provisions of Art.712 of the Civil Procedure Code allow the introduction by a Creditor who has a litigation to execution against the execution itself, against the Closures issued by the Bailiff, and against any other act of enforcement. Jurisdiction of the Court in this matter will be of the Executor Court or the Court in whose district the Debtor is situated, on the date of the appeal. The appeal of the Debtor questions the Parties not only over the acts of execution because the appeal is also allowed over the explanations relative to the meaning, scope or application of the enforceable order, but in the conditions limited by the legal nature of this order. Thus, according to the law when enforceable order is not issued by a Court or Arbitration may be invoked before an Executor Court including reasons of fact or law which could not be discussed during an earlier trial, in the first instance or in an appeal. Basically, if enforced execution is under an enforceable order that is not from a Court, these reasons can be invoked when there is no other processual mean for its abolition. There also can be submitted a complaint against the Closure by which was upheld the appeal for an enforced execution, and the act of execution concerning the division of the

  2. Short Legal Study on “British Exit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Stancu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After waiting nearly 13 years to become member of the European Union (EU, the United Kingdom, by the referendum in June 2016, it wants to be the first country leaving the European construction structures. However, the manner by which it was decided to exit the EU, namely the “referendum” raises many legal constitutional debates within the United Kingdom, even to the admission of the possibility to invoke the nullity of the vote of the British people. However, the London Government reaffirmed their desire to abandon the European ship. Thus, engaging the technical procedures for negotiating the conclusion of exiting from the EU cannot be sustained for too long. However, the future relationship between the European Union and Britain gives rise to many uncertainties. It puts in question the type of framework agreement which will regulate the cooperation between the EU and the UK. Maybe it will take as a model the existing agreement, such as that between the Union and the Switzerland or Russia, or it will be preferred the agreement “sur mesure” (customized according to their interests? Also, another question is that of knowing the effects of exiting, in terms of international relations. The European Union is party to various international treaties, the United Kingdom, through its membership, has enjoyed the benefits of these international agreements. Since the Union is no longer serving as interface, should Britain renegotiate bilaterally these treaties? To all these questions we will give an objective answer in this article.

  3. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDY OF THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN RUSSIA AND CHINA. RUSSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM’ INFLUENCE ON THE CHINESE LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Yu Kolmakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features, similarities and differences of the legal systems of Russia and China and reveals that Russia is a more democratic state compared to China in the field of protection of the freedom of speech. The author concludes that Russia can influence China by methods of international treaties which allow cooperation between states with different state and social orders and by promoting the ideas of the freedom of expression through research exchanges.

  4. Legal Pluralism and the Continuing Quest for Legal Certainty in Ecuador: A Case Study from the Andean Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon Thomas, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325784760

    2012-01-01

    In 1998 Ecuador constitutionally recognised the use of customary law alongside national law, through which a situation of formal (de jure) legal pluralism came into being. However, rules that would define the personal, territorial and material jurisdiction of both forms of law have never been

  5. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study tw...

  6. "The Social Network" and the Legal Environment of Business: An Opportunity for Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Aaron Sorkin has a passion for words--his signature movie and television scripts are fast talking, jargon laced, word pictures that are instantly recognizable. "The Social Network," Sorkin's 2011 Academy Award Winning movie about the founding of Facebook, Inc., offers more than just witty banter; it provides an ideal teaching platform for…

  7. Extracting scenarios from a Bayesian network as explanations for legal evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charlotte s.; Prakken, Hendrik; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In order to make an informed decision in a criminal trial, conclusions about what may have happened need to be derived from the available evidence. Recently, Bayesian networks have gained popularity as a probabilistic tool for rea- soning with evidence. However, in order to make sense of a

  8. Doctoral Studies in Romania: Admission Procedures, Social, and Legal Aspects of Doctoral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents a concise and up-to-date report of doctoral studies in Romania, with a special emphasis on legal and social aspects. The author also argues that in order to be sustainable, the reform of doctoral studies should be substantiated by the differentiation of universities, reliable post-doctoral programmes, and a substantive…

  9. Studying Dynamics in Business Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Anderson, Helen; Havila, Virpi

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory on network dynamics using the concepts of role and position from sociological theory. Moreover, the theory is further tested using case studies from Denmark and Finland......This paper develops a theory on network dynamics using the concepts of role and position from sociological theory. Moreover, the theory is further tested using case studies from Denmark and Finland...

  10. Estimate and prospective studies on Peruvian environmental legal system after Río + 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to explain core ideas resulting from processes of which Peruvian environmental legal system is derived; it is morean overview rather than a system characterization, as well as a perspective or sampling foresight representing Río +20 process meaning. In that sense, it examines the modern environmental regulations rising context and provides a brief retrospective of Peruvian environmental legal system development and prospective studies within the frame of green economy paradigms and the environmental governance, presenting only three prospective references aschallenges and trends on: Climate and Energy Law, a new legal Framework for a Green Economy and Sustainable Enterprise, and finally, stressing emphatically on mega-cities, Conurbation and Land use Planning issues given little attention usually law renders to this matters.

  11. Family legal status and health: Measurement dilemmas in studies of Mexican-origin children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R S; Landale, Nancy S; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2015-08-01

    Family legal status is a potentially important source of variation in the health of Mexican-origin children. However, a comprehensive understanding of its role has been elusive due to data limitations and inconsistent measurement procedures. Using restricted data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we investigate the implications of measurement strategies for estimating the share of children in undocumented families and inferences about how legal status affects children's health. The results show that inferences are sensitive to how this "fundamental cause" is operationalized under various combinatorial approaches used in previous studies. We recommend alternative procedures with greater capacity to reveal how the statuses of both parents affect children's well-being. The results suggest that the legal statuses of both parents matter, but the status of mothers is especially important for assessments of child health. The investigation concludes with a discussion of possible explanations for these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Legal Status and Health: Measurement Dilemmas in Studies of Mexican-Origin Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R.S.; Landale, Nancy S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Family legal status is a potentially important source of variation in the health of Mexican-origin children. However, a comprehensive understanding of its role has been elusive due to data limitations and inconsistent measurement procedures. Using restricted data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we investigate the implications of measurement strategies for estimating the share of children in undocumented families and inferences about how legal status affects children's health. The results show that inferences are sensitive to how this “fundamental cause” is operationalized under various combinatorial approaches used in previous studies. We recommend alternative procedures with greater capacity to reveal how the statuses of both parents affect children's well-being. The results suggest that the legal statuses of both parents matter, but the status of mothers is especially important for assessments of child health. The investigation concludes with a discussion of possible explanations for these findings. PMID:26056934

  13. Relatives' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy: a study from South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D

    2008-04-01

    Relatives of deceased persons on whose bodies a medico-legal autopsy had been performed at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India were personally asked to complete a questionnaire. The aim of study was to determine surviving family members' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy. The majority of the relatives showed a positive attitude towards forensic autopsy but were not aware of the detailed procedure of the autopsy. They wanted sufficient information to be provided before the autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results i.e. the cause of death. It was concluded that sufficient relevant explanations given before the autopsy improves the relatives' acceptance and helps alleviate the suffering of the bereaved. The experience and opinions of relatives may help an autopsy surgeon in more effective management of medico-legal cases.

  14. Legal Education Beyond Dogmatism: A Case Study Based on Nussbaum Humanist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Paletta Guedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a critical account of Brazilian legal education, devoted to official language and lack of reflexiveness. Any attempt to innovate deserves to be researched. The focus of the study is the discipline “Legal Institutions” taught at the UFJF, which adopts innovative pedagogical methods, especially movies and online platform. Using Martha Nussbaum concept of “cultivating humanity”, empirical-qualitative research was implemented, investigating if this method developed in the students the capacities Nussbaum describes. The data and the qualitative analysis indicate that those innovations have been successful in developing those capacities

  15. Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kuiken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from the consumer side to system management. However, such a solution needs to be contemplated from different angles before it can be implemented in practice. To this end, this article considers a case study of the Amsterdam ArenA stadium and its surrounding network where flexibility is expected to be available to support the network in the future. The article studies the technical aspects of using this flexibility to determine to what extent, despite the different, orthogonal goals, the available flexibility can be used by various stakeholders in scenarios with a large load from electric vehicle charging points. Furthermore, a legal study is performed to determine the feasibility of the technical solutions proposed by analysing current European Union (EU and Dutch law and focusing on the current agreements existing between the parties involved. The article shows that flexibility in the network provided by Amsterdam ArenA is able to significantly increase the number of charging points the network can accommodate. Nonetheless, while several uses of flexibility are feasible under current law, the use of flexibility provided by electric vehicles specifically faces several legal challenges in current arrangements.

  16. MEDICO LEGAL STUDY OF HOMICIDE BY FIREARMS AND EXPLOSIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: Though homicide, in general seems universal, the type and pattern are specific to particular societies and particular times. OBJECTIVE : Medicolegal study of homicide by firearms and explosives. METHODS: The present study comprised of 100 (one hundred) cases of homicidal firearms and explosives deaths drawn from the medicolegal autopsies held in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine accompanied by sufficient number of...

  17. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  18. Parental Alienation Syndrome in Italian legal judgments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavadera, Anna Lubrano; Ferracuti, Stefano; Togliatti, Marisa Malagoli

    2012-01-01

    The present study highlights the characteristics of separated families in Italy for whom Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) has been diagnosed during court custody evaluations. The study analyzed the psychological reports of 12 court-appointed expert evaluations of families for whom PAS had been diagnosed. Twelve evaluations that did not receive the PAS diagnosis served as a control group. A specific coding system was used for data analysis. The results indicated that the alienating parents were always the parents who had custody of the children. Children who were diagnosed with PAS were predominantly the only child in the family, had identity problems and manifested manipulative behavior. The consultant in these cases suggested individual psychotherapy for the children and recommended foster care to the Social Services agency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. “Situation” in the study of moral and legal consciousness: From theory to techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V E Grebneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The multidimensional structure of legal consciousness, in which the norms of different orders collide, and the intricate intertwining of cognitive, emotive and behavioral components cannot be described in just one system of representations. This article considers conceptual bases of the study of moral and legal consciousness on the example of value-cognitive dilemmas. The author presents interpretations of the concept “situation” in the works of Russian and Western scientists, identifies its general theoretical bases and analyzes its potential in the study of moral and legal consciousness; suggests as one of the ways to find and identify determinants of moral and legal consciousness identification of specific decisions made by individuals in a variety of small-scale short situations in the given frame and normatively determined, because in the situational dilemma a social agent, whatever decision he makes, needs a rational reason and justification. The author describes the process of designing a technique on the basis of vignette-method and the method of controlled projection for the study of the conflict of multiple rationalities implying different models of justification in the structure of value choice.

  20. THE LEGAL APPROACH TO HISTORIC PRESERVATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION LAWS IN NEW YORK AND HONG KONG

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG, Jie Jane

    2015-01-01

    To explore the significance of historic preservation in metropolitan cities and disparities in the legal system to preservation, this paper conducts a comparative study of Hong Kong and New York. To begin with, it provides an overview of the historic preservation legal system in New York and Hong Kong and outlines the major preservation laws respectively in two cities. It pinpoints the key difference of the two legal systems: historic preservation in New York is shaped by four tiers of laws o...

  1. Temporal clauses with conditional value in legal language (contrastive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Svobodová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a summary of a qualitative and quantitative linguistic investigation of the Portuguese and Brazilian Penal Code, and contains important results pertaining to the temporal clauses introduced by the connector quando. We focused on its semantic conditional features, suggesting the name pseudo-temporal clauses for these hypotactic constructions and observe the relation between the occurrence of different verbal modes and the semantic interpretation. We verify, in both the texts, the temporal clauses introduced by quando have an evident conditional value. On the other side, the compared texts are different regarding the selection of the verbal mode. The Portuguese Penal Code preferred, evidently, the subjunctive mode and in the Brazilian one the indicative mode. We explained this divergence by semantic and pragmatic factors.

  2. Identification of Skills Standards for Entry Level Legal Office Support Staff in Urban Oklahoma: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese Ward, Tonya Maria

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to use industry experts to identify critical skills or competencies perceived by the legal profession to be required by competent team members in the legal office environment. Specifically, this study focused on fulfilling this purpose in the context of urban Oklahoma, where a large number…

  3. Legal pluralism and the continuing quest for legal certainty in Ecuador: A case study from the Andean Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simon Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 Ecuador constitutionally recognised the use of customary law alongside national law, through which a situation of formal (de jure legal pluralism came into being. However, rules that would define the personal, territorial and material jurisdiction of both forms of law have never been approved and no case law has yet been developed. There is still no general agreement regarding the proper scope to be granted indigenous authorities for the administration of customary law. The purpose of this article is to shed light on that ongoing challenge by focusing on its practical implications at the local level. Starting with an historical overview of how legal pluralism has been dealt with over the last 500 years, this article proceeds to examine the contemporary situation, including an interpretation of a recent homicide which occurred in the indigenous parish of Zumbahua. The indigenous proceedings in this case support this article’s thesis that the absence of coordinating rules, and the resulting legal uncertainty, may be leading to increasingly punitive measures by indigenous authorities. En 1998 Ecuador reconoció constitucionalmente el uso del derecho consuetudinario a la par que la legislación nacional. Así, entró en vigor una situación de pluralismo legal formal (de jure. Sin embargo, nunca se ha aprobado la normativa que defina la jurisdicción personal, territorial y material de ambas formas de derecho, y todavía no se ha desarrollado jurisprudencia al respecto. Todavía no se ha llegado a un acuerdo general en lo que respecta al alcance adecuado, de forma que se garantice a las autoridades indígenas la administración del derecho consuetudinario. El propósito de este artículo es arrojar luz sobre esta situación, centrándose en sus implicaciones prácticas en el ámbito local. Empezando por un análisis histórico del pluralismo jurídico en los últimos 500 años, este artículo pasa a analizar la situación contempor

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE COMBINED MEDICINES CONTAINING DEXTROPROPOXYPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scientific studies in recent years in the field of pharmaceutical law and forensic pharmacy indicate the existence of cause-effect relationships of various kinds of addictive dependence and illegal circulation of certain groups of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients. Illegal production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances from the combined drugs containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients is of particular concern because these medicines are in legal trade in the pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine and used by patients in the treatment of pain of various etiologies, with colds, dry cough and others. Purpose of the work is to carry out organizational and legal studies of the legal circulation of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient – dextropropoxyphene. Materials and methods. Research material were legal documents, instructions for medical use of combined medicines, forensic and pharmaceutical practice, scientific literature sources and Internet sites. In carrying out organizational and legal studies were used conventional regulatory, documentary, retrospective, forensic and pharmaceutical comparative graphical analysis methods. Results and discussion. In the course of the organizational and legal research on the characteristics of the legal handling controlled drugs that contain controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient - dekstropropoksyfen found that to date its circulation is regulated by the Order of the Ministry of healthcare of Ukraine from 19.07.2005. №360 «On approval of the rules of writing prescriptions and requirements, orders for drugs and medical products, the Procedure for sale of drugs and medical supplies from pharmacies and their structural subdivisions and Instruction on storage, accounting and disposal of prescription forms and claims-orders» According to the requirements of this order all combined

  5. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    While the utilization of a microgrid for local power reliability during grid outage and emergencies is a well-known benefit, the integration of microgrids with the broader electrical distribution system will allow for seamless interaction with distribution system operations, contributing to resource and economic optimization, enhanced reliability and resiliency, and improved power quality. By virtue of integration with the distribution system, multiple microgrids should be networked and collectively known as networked microgrids. As a follow-up to the work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a microgrid controller [the Complete System-level Efficient and Interoperable Solution for Microgrid Integrated Controls (CSEISMIC)], the main goal of this work is to identify the next steps for bringing microgrid research to the utility industry, particularly as a resource for enhancing efficiency, reliability, and resilience. Various R&D needs for the integration of microgrids into the distribution system have been proposed, including interconnection types, communications, control architectures, quantification of benefits, functional requirements, and various operational issues.

  6. Legal framework of corporate governance in Romania and Greece: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Iulia ȚARȚAVULEA (DIEACONESCU)

    2015-01-01

    This study has the scope of presenting the legal framework regarding corporate governance in Romania and Greece. The main objective is to analyse the content of corporate governance regulations by identifying the principles that are implemented in laws and CG codes. The study is structured in three parts: the first presents a synthesis of the main official documents on the subject in both countries, the second part is an analysis of the content of corporate governance regulations and the thir...

  7. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  8. Law in everyday life and death: a socio-legal study of chronic disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Simon; Kitzinger, Celia; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses, from a socio-legal perspective, the question of the significance of law for the treatment, care and the end-of-life decision making for patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. We use the phrase ‘chronic disorders of consciousness’ as an umbrella term to refer to severely brain-injured patients in prolonged comas, vegetative or minimally conscious states. Based on an analysis of interviews with family members of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness, we explore the images of law that were drawn upon and invoked by these family members when negotiating the situation of their relatives, including, in some cases, the ending of their lives. By examining ‘legal consciousness’ in this way (an admittedly confusing term in the context of this study,) we offer a distinctly sociological contribution to the question of how law matters in this particular domain of social life. PMID:26041944

  9. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families.

  10. Understanding the relationship between sales of legal cigarettes and deaths: A case-study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Iglesias, Roberto Magno; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Szklo, Moysés; Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has experienced a large decline in cigarette consumption in the last 25years. However, the most recent annual reports from the tobacco industry market leader in Brazil did not show a decrease in its gross profits. This is particularly important because tobacco industry donations/sponsorships come directly from the industry's reported gross-profits and are used to subvert health policies. The aim of the present study was to estimate (i) tobacco industry's gross-profit from legal cigarettes sales, and (ii) all-cause smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) among current Brazilian smokers who consumed legal cigarettes in 2013. We collected information on prevalence of legal cigarette use, cigarette consumption, price per cigarette pack among individuals aged ≥35years from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, legal cigarettes sales (e.g., average costs and total volume of sales) provided by the Federal Secretariat of Revenues, and population mortality from the available vital statistics. With a gross-profit of US$1.378 billion (1.307-1.434) from sales of 54.6 billion sticks of cigarettes (53.4-55.5) to 8,424,510 smokers aged 35years and older in Brazil in 2013, cumulative SADs were estimated at 96,012 (85,647-107,654) (around 34% of cumulative SADs also including current smoking of illegal cigarettes and past smoking), i.e., one SAD was equivalent to a gross-profit of US$14,352 (12,140-16,743). Our results revealed the association between sales of cigarettes, gross-profits, and deaths in Brazil. As tobacco industry donations/sponsorships originate from industry's gross profits, which, in turn, depend on cigarette sales, our findings may be useful for increasing "moral pressure" on individuals and institutions and help countries in stopping tobacco industry interference in health policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the Netherlands
    Fundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  12. Legal education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This book on Legal Education was written based upon many of the author's experiences as professor and dean. The author noted that there is relatively few literature and research about legal education and felt it was necessary to discuss legal education in present times. The book focuses on many

  13. Analysis of Discourse Structure of Cases Verdict in The District Court (A Study of Legal Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pakaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of this article is the discourse structure of cases verdict in the district court (a study of legal language. This article discusses several elements that compose verdict in a criminal case, such as heading, the identity of the defendant, the attorney’s indictment, witnesses’ testimony, the testimony of the accused, and the verdict statements. This study employed the qualitative method to find out the scientific facts. This article is aimed at proving that discourse structure can be used as a framework in unraveling a case verdict.

  14. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  15. Patterns of facial trauma before and after legalization of marijuana in Denver, Colorado: A joint study between two Denver hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoya, Mofiyinfolu; Eagles, Justin; Okland, Tyler; Coughlin, Dylan; Dauber, Hannah; Greenlee, Christopher; Winkler, Andrew A

    2017-10-07

    The effect of marijuana on human health has been studied extensively. Marijuana intoxication has been shown to affect performance, attention span, and reaction time. The public health relationship between trauma and cannabis use has also been studied, with mixed conclusions. In this report, the effect of marijuana legalization on many aspects of facial trauma at two hospitals in Denver, Colorado is examined. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records was undertaken. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare age of patients before and after legalization, and chi squared analyses were used to compare mechanism of injury, and fracture types before and after recreational marijuana legalization in Denver, Colorado. Geographical location of patients was also considered. No significant increase was found in race before and after marijuana legalization (p=0.19). A significant increase in age was found before (M=39.54,SD=16.37), and after (M=41.38,SD=16.66) legalization (plegalization (plegalization (p>0.05). Public health efforts should be directed towards educating residents and visitors of Colorado on the effects and toxicology of marijuana. More epidemiologic studies are needed for further assessment of the long-term effects of the legalization of marijuana on the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  17. A Study on Jurisprudence and Legal Bases for Codification of Nehle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمدرسول آهنگران

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In civil law, practicing the religious laws, the husband has the right to divorce. As for as every law may be abused by the rightful claims. The husband does this against the law and common law. So, legistlator has enacted laws to limit the husband will in cluding paragraph "B" of Note six of Divorce Act. As per of the perovisions of the first amendment to the Divorce Act, in the case that the divorce is not for the reason of wife's misconduct and maltreatment, the husband is condemned to Nehleh, the entire sum. As this word means "doing a thing voluntarily", its use for this financial right is an obstruction. In addition, in this paper we paid attention to the legal and juridical bases that considered for compiling this law. In general, there are four terms in relation to the legal basisof this rule and there are two terms, in relation to it sjuris prudential basis, that we have been deeply studied. In this paper, we have described theam biguities, comments and explanations that have been proposed for eachstate.

  18. [Common law study of the legal responsibility of health care staff related to drug reformulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche-Castex, F J; Alonso Herreros, J M

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the responsibility of health care staff in drug reformulation (change of dose, pharmaceutical form or route of administration of medicinal products) based on the common law of the High Court and the National Court. Search and analysis of common law and legal studies included in databases "El Derecho", "Difusión Jurídica" and "Indret". Health care staff has means--not outcomes--obligations according to the care standards included in the "Lex Artis" that can go beyond the mere legal standards. Failure to apply these care standards, denial of assistance or disrespect to the autonomy of the patient can be negligent behavior. We found 4 cases in common law. In the two cases in which care standards were complied with, including reformulation, health care professionals were acquitted, whereas in the other two cases in which reformulations were not used even though the "Lex Artis" required them, the professionals were condemned. Reformulation of medicinal products, as set forth in the Lex Artis, is a practice accepted by the High Court and the National Court and failure to use it when the scientific knowledge advises so is a cause for conviction.

  19. Methoxetamine (MXE)--a phenomenological study of experiences induced by a "legal high" from the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Anette; Jonsson, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue, is one of the new "legal highs" sold on the Internet. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an initial understanding of what characterizes the experiences induced by MXE. Anonymously written reports (33 persons) on the effects of MXE were collected from public Internet forums and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Method. The analysis generated 10 themes: (1) preparation, motivation and anticipation; (2) initial effects; (3) malfunction of cognitive processes stabilizing normal state; (4) inner personal processes and learning; (5) emotional processes; (6) altered sensory perception; (7) dissolution and transition; (8) spiritual and transcendental experiences; (9) effects and processes after the experience; (10) re-dosing and addiction. MXE induced a heavily altered state of consciousness. The effects were similar to those induced by classic hallucinogens (such as LSD, psilocybin) and the dissociative ketamine. MXE seemed to have quite a high abuse potential. Beside the positive effects described, negative effects like fear and anxiety were also reported. Acceptance was considered the best coping strategy. Dissolution of identity and body often culminated in spiritual and transcendental experiences. More research is needed on safety issues, how to minimize harm, and the motivation for using legal highs.

  20. Difficulties and findings of an empirical legal research: case studies built on judicial documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dorneles Schinke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the journey of an empirical researcher during her doctoral studies. Narrated in first person, it describes the practical difficulties and theoretical discoveries built throughout the development of the research that culminated in the methodological choice of using the strategy of case study. Similarly, it inserts theoretical considerations about the methodological choices that presented themselves during the process, especially Robert Yin and Carlo Ginzburg. It explains how these works enabled the combination of several research strategies, along with case study. It describes in detail and reports the exploratory phase, the contact with other areas of research and with professionals in other fields. The text presents the results of research reported because it is not yet completed. It aims to contribute to the solidification of the debate about production of legal knowledge.

  1. General context of economic and legal reforms international comparative studies (example of innovation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko Vitaliy Analiyovych

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basics of comparative analysis of economic and legal reforms in international dimension. On the example of innovative development the features of foreign experience adaptation in economic and legal reforms were considered. The features of foreign experience perception as the “other” image as part of reform`s socio-cultural component.

  2. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This…

  3. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  4. European Dimension of Legal Education. A comparative study of the Romanian Law Curricula and EU Law Syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinduşa Camelia Gorea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to provide a detailed view on the European legal education system in Romania.There are few papers on EU legal education policy in Romania. We try to fill this gap in some extend, as apart of a larger research we conducted in the past 3 years. Our sources of evidence were: the Romanianlegislation; a representative number of law curricula and EU law syllabus and a research survey of Romanianstudents, EU law professors and legal practitioners. We found out that the “traditional” Law specialization ismore desired by the potential students than the European Law specialization. Nevertheless, Romanian lawschools have enough discretion to introduce more EU law disciplines. By targeting the weak parts of the EUlegal education system, our study may reveal its benefits to law professors, legal researchers, responsiblefactors within the Romanian law departments and even to the Romanian legislator. This paper provides ashort explanation of the ascension and development of EU legal studies in Romania, an overview of the keyissues in the law curricula and the EU law syllabus and recommendations on the reforming the EU legaleducation in Romania.

  5. Network management systems for active distribution networks. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A.

    2004-07-01

    A technical feasibility study on network management systems for active distribution networks is reported. The study investigated the potential for modifying a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) to give some degree of active management. Government incentives have encouraged more and more embedded generation being connected to the UK distribution networks and further acceleration of the process should support the 2010 target for a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide. The report lists the objectives of the study and summarises what has been achieved; it also discusses limitations, reliability and resilience of existing SCADA. Safety and operational communications are discussed under staff safety and operational safety. Recommendations that could facilitate active management through SCADA are listed, together with suggestions for further study. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  6. Adoption of Sustainable Practices And Certification ISO 14001: A Case Study in a Law and Legal Advice Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Eugênia Arenhart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze how the company X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy can implant sustainable and quality practices to obtain the environmental certification ISO 14001. To achieve the objective, a qualitative and quantitative approach study was conducted. Regarding procedures, it consisted in a case study with a descriptive focus. From observation of the reality of X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy and its claims in relation to obtaining ISO 14001 certification, it is possible to propose as solution the implementation of a number of initiatives and sustainability actions in three pillars – social, environmental and economic. Suggestions were also developed about the dimensions of quality in order to formulate the basis for X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy environmental policy and possible implementation of ISO 14,001. 

  7. Legal, ethical, and methodological considerations in the Internet-based study of child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine

    2010-01-01

    With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Navigating legal constraints in clinical data warehousing: a case study in personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, Benjamin R; Nwankwo, Iheanyi; Neri, Elias; Chang, David C W; Shamardin, Lev; Hänold, Stefanie; Graf, Norbert; Forgó, Nikolaus; Coveney, Peter

    2013-04-06

    Personalized medicine relies in part upon comprehensive data on patient treatment and outcomes, both for analysis leading to improved models that provide the basis for enhanced treatment, and for direct use in clinical decision-making. A data warehouse is an information technology for combining and standardizing multiple databases. Data warehousing of clinical data is constrained by many legal and ethical considerations, owing to the sensitive nature of the data being stored. We describe an unconstrained clinical data warehousing architecture, some of the legal constraints that have led us to reconsider this architecture, and the legal and technical solutions to these constraints developed for the clinical data warehouse in the personalized medicine project p-medicine. We also propose some changes to the legal constraints that will further enable clinical research.

  9. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-01-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures. PMID:9255569

  10. How are the interests of incapacitated research participants protected through legislation? An Italian study on legal agency for dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Sabina; Fusari Imperatori, Susanna; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Maggiore, Laura; Galeotti, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2010-06-16

    Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004). At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2%) applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient's application to the law court chancellery and the sentence of

  11. How are the interests of incapacitated research participants protected through legislation? An Italian study on legal agency for dementia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Gainotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004. At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2% applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient

  12. The Study of Congenital Anomalies Resulting in Legal Termination of Pregnancy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Safe pregnancy is among the goals and missions of reproductive health which has an important part in Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, bad conditions in reproductive health are the major cause of women mortality in fertility age all over the world especially in developing countries. Congenital anomalies are pregnancy problems that in case of early diagnosis, the anomaly will be done according to list 51. The aim of this study was to determine families’ demographic situations, frequency of congenital anomalies types and the factors of legally termination of pregnancy to suggest solutions in order to reduce anomalies and promote reproductive health. Material and Methods : This is a case-control study carried out for 1 year period from 2010 to 2011 in which 603 pregnant women that were diagnosed/recommended to the Legal Medicine Organization for the termination of pregnancy as having a fetus with some types of birth defect(s. Among them, 201 were categorized as case group (receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was before week 20 and 402 of them were categorized as control group 1 (not receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was after week 20 and 200 women as control group 2 who referred to Alzahra hospital to give childbirth. A questionnaire containing demographic and geographical information was made for all the women in those three groups. Results : The average age of mothers in this study was 27.2 years (15-47 years old. In 100 % of women, at least 1 ultrasound examination was performed and genetic and Amniocentesis tests were conducted in 2.1 % and 3.5 % respectively in order to diagnose anomaly. In total, 33 % of pregnant women with congenital anomalies received pregnancy termination permission. The majority of congenital anomalies were neural tube defects 16.9 %, hydrocephaly 8.6 %, limb deformation 7.7 % and Down syndrome 6.4 %. Mother’s age, the history of

  13. A Study on the Improvement of Nuclear Forensics Legal Regime in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Baek, Ye Ji; Kim, Jae Kwang; Chang, Sun Young; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear forensics is a critical component of security of these materials and an effective investigatory tool in providing evidence for the prosecution of these malicious acts related to the illicit materials. Because nuclear forensic enhances a State's ability to assess and establish linkages between nuclear and radioactive materials, and those who have attempted to transport, possess, or use it without legitimate State control. However, nuclear forensics is not yet reflected in the domestic laws. Therefore, in this study, we examined related international laws and other important efforts. We compared legal regime improvement options between amending existing legislations and introducing new legislation. Then, based on the analysis, we suggested draft provisions of highest level national legislation on nuclear forensics. We reviewed the analysis of international laws and other important efforts on nuclear forensics to improve of domestic legislations on the nuclear forensics. Through the review of current international movement on the nuclear forensics, we concluded as follows; (a) The state government must be responsible for the nuclear forensics (b) Appropriate administrative regulations on nuclear forensics is required within the highest level legislation.

  14. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  15. MONUMENTS OR FUNCTIONING BUILDINGS: LEGAL PROTECTION OVER FIVE CASE-STUDY HISTORIC HAMMAMS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa el Habashi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Historic hammams a used to be. They are falling into an advanced state of disrepair and are located in dilapidated historic zones. In some cases, they are associated with bad reputations and socially unacceptable behaviours. Many historic hammams’ are therefore, being demolished to make use of their land plots. The few ones that have managed to still survive and operate, witness heavy modifications that not only diminish their historic values but also their operational efficiency. They are becoming rare, and therefore require legal protection either as a heritage building or as a historic monument. This relatively new protection is usually more concerned to preserve the physical existence of the building rather than to maintain its original function and social role. This paper is based on five case study hamm.ms’ in five different countries, investigated as part of the EU funded HAMMAM project. It presents a comparison of the various protection frameworks of the fi ve hammams, and explores the effects of such protection on their current status. It recommends establishing a coherent protection system that respects ethics of heritage conservation and emphasizes on the revitalization of the hammams’social, financial and health roles in the society.

  16. Epidemiology of medico-legal litigations and related medical errors in Central and Northern Saudi Arabia. A retrospective prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henary, Basem Y; Al-Yahia, Omar A; Al-Gabbany, Saleh A; Al-Kharaz, Salah M

    2012-07-01

    To study medico-legal litigations and related medical errors in Central (Al-Qassim), and Northern (Hael) districts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to identify types and causes of errors to reduce medical errors and patient harm. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out between May 2010 and December 2011 to analyze medico-legal litigations in Al-Qassim and Hael districts that were investigated by the Al-Qassim Medico-Legal Committee, Al-Qassim, KSA. Final verdicts issued between 1992 and 2009 included 293 cases. The patient`s mean age was 29.5 years. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were females, and 92% were Saudis. The Obstetric and Gynecology department was involved in 29.7% of litigations followed by General Surgery, and Pediatrics (11.3% each). Of the 635 defendants, 90% were physicians, and 7.6% were nurses. Investigations showed no error in 47.1% of cases, error but no harm in 11.9%, and error resulted in harm in 39.6%. Errors were negligence (45.8%), wrong diagnosis (14.2%), surgical error (10.3%), and administrative error (5.2%). The average total duration of litigations was 13.9 months. Type of harm was the most significant predictor to determine a guilty decision (pmedico-legal litigations, and therefore this has to be further studied to recognize the specific causes and possible interventions. A systematic review of the medico-legal committee is needed to shorten the long duration of litigation.

  17. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  18. Legal survivals: A study on the continuity of Polish private law after 1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation poses the following research question: ‘What are the conditions of possibility of the endurance of legal institutions which had been introduced under one political and socio-economic system (in order to fulfil a function specific to that system), but have not been removed from the

  19. Dynamics of Bottlebrush Networks: A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Andrey; Cao, Zhen; Sheiko, Sergei

    We study dynamics of deformation of bottlebrush networks using molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations. Analysis of our simulation results show that the dynamics of bottlebrush network deformation can be described by a Rouse model for polydisperse networks with effective Rouse time of the bottlebrush network strand, τR =τ0Ns2 (Nsc + 1) where, Ns is the number-average degree of polymerization of the bottlebrush backbone strands between crosslinks, Nsc is the degree of polymerization of the side chains and τ0is a characteristic monomeric relaxation time. At time scales t smaller than the Rouse time, t crosslinks, the network response is pure elastic with shear modulus G (t) =G0 , where G0 is the equilibrium shear modulus at small deformation. The stress evolution in the bottlebrush networks can be described by a universal function of t /τR . NSF DMR-1409710.

  20. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Learn from the Best - Cisco Networking Authority Todd LammleWritten by Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Todd's straightforward style provides lively examples, hands on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that will not only help you prepare for the exam, but also give you a solid foundation as a Cisco networking professional.This Study Guide teaches you how toDescribe how a network worksConfigure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch co

  1. Development and testing of a new framework for rapidly assessing legal and managerial protection afforded by marine protected areas: Mediterranean Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-02-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) states the need to effectively conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas of particular importance for biodiversity by 2020. Here, a new indicator-based methodological framework to assess biodiversity protection afforded by marine protected areas' (MPA) was developed as a quick surrogate for MPAs' potential conservation effectiveness: the Marine Protected Area Protection Assessment Framework (MaPAF). The MaPAF consists of a limited number of headline indicators that are integrated in two indexes: Legal protection and Management effort, which eventually integrate in the overall MPA Protection super-index. The MaPAF was then tested in the Mediterranean MPA network as a case study. Spatial analyses were performed at three meaningful scales: the whole Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ecoregions and countries. The results of this study suggest that: 1) The MaPAF can serve as a useful tool for consistent, adaptive, quick and cost-effective MPA effectiveness assessments of MPAs and MPA networks in virtually any marine region, as the headline indicators used are commonly compiled and easy to retrieve; 2) The MaPAF proved usable and potentially relevant in the Mediterranean Sea where most indicators in the framework can be publicly accessed through the MAPAMED database and are planned to be regularly updated; 3) Protection afforded by MPAs is low across the whole Mediterranean, with only few MPAs having relatively high legal and managerial protection; and 4) Most Mediterranean countries need to devote substantially more work to improve MPA effectiveness mainly through increased management effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health care professionals' comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec: study of clinical scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcoux, I.; Boivin, A.; Arsenault, C.; Toupin, M.; Youssef, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine health care professionals' understanding of the current legal status of different end-of-life practices and their future legal status if medical aid in dying were legalized, and to identify factors associated with misunderstanding surrounding the current legal status. DESIGN:

  3. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  4. Study on the Application Mode and Legal Protection of Green Materials in Medical-Nursing Combined Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-09-01

    In the context of green development, green materials are the future trend of Medical-Nursing Combined building. This paper summarizes the concept and types of green building materials. Then, on the basis of existing research, it constructs the green material system framework of Medical-Nursing Combined building, puts forward the application mode of green building materials, and studies the policy and legal protection of green material application.

  5. Does proficiency creativity solve legal dilemmas? Experimental study of medical students' ideas about death-causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare and examine how medical students on term one and nine understand and adopt ideas and reasoning when estimating death-causes. Our hypothesis was that compared to students in the beginning of their medical curriculum, term nine students would be more inclined to adopt ideas about causality that allows physicians to alleviate an imminently dying patient, without being suspected for manslaughter--a practice referred to as proficiency creativity. We used a questionnaire containing two similar cases describing an imminently dying patient who receive a drug in order to treat seizures. The treatment has the foreseen effect of shortening the patient's life. In one version of the vignette the patient dies immediately and in the other one the patient dies 5 h after having received the drug. We asked medical students in their first term (n = 149) and ninth term (n = 106) to fill in the two randomly distributed questionnaires. We used a χ2 test to examine our hypothesis and choose as significance level 0.05. A majority of term-one students (53%) stated that the patient died because of the provided drugs when dying immediately after and 32% stated it when the patient died 5 h after providing the drug. The difference was significant (p = 0.007). A minority of term-nine students (20 vs. 16%) stated the patient died because of the provided drug. The difference was not significant. The study indicates that term-nine students have espoused the idea that death-causes in such cases should always be classified as the underlying disease--even though another straightforward explanation could be the drug provided. To clinicians this might be a proficiency-creative strategy for managing a difficult legal dilemma. As hypothetical explanation we suggest that experienced clinicians might have transformed a normative issue of shortening life into an empirical issue about death-causes and tacitly transferred this strategy to term-nine students. If our

  6. Uber : a case study of the effects of legalizing ridesharing platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hagtvedt, Live

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ridesharing platform Uber, and the consequences following potential legalization of Uber in the Norwegian market. Through existing research and a quantitative survey on consumer preferences, I seek to find whether adjustments of existing laws and regulations in the transport sector can contribute to desired innovative introductions in the taxi market and increase societal welfare in Norway. Generally, sharing economy firms are described as platforms facilitati...

  7. Rule of Law Assistance: DOD Should Assess Workforce Size of Defense Institute of International Legal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    military justice and peacekeeping operations to legal aspects of combating corruption and terrorism. Most mobile courses are taught within a week, while...building efforts. Since fiscal year 2013, these funds have been used in Belize, Colombia, Ghana, Mexico , and Ukraine, among others. 6. Other sources...countries are (1) the Democratic Republic of the Congo, (2) Colombia, (3) Botswana, (4) the Czech Republic, (5) Lebanon, (6) Mexico , (7) India, (8

  8. Earth Regime Network Evolution Study (ERNESt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrad, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Speaker and Presenter at the Lincoln Laboratory Communications Workshop on April 5, 2016 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA. A visual presentation titled Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt).

  9. THE PRINCIPLE OF GOOD FAITH IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL ORDER: A BRIEF STUDY OF THE NEW CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Marques de Medeiros Neto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has the scope to analyze and reflect the relevant legal aspects of the good faith principle in the Brazilian legal order, above all, its forecast in the new Brazilian Civil Procedure Code. Among the various innovations presented by the new Civil Procedure Code, a well-known and little used in the Brazilian legal order gets a real highlight in the Civil Procedure’s field: the good faith principle. The consecration of such an institute in the new Brazilian Civil Procedure Code, which came to be denominated by the doctrine as the procedural good faith’s principle, arise from the demand enlargement of the good faith in the private law and public law. Law nº 13.105 of 2015 that instituted a new Civil Procedure Code, stablish that the subjects of the process who participate in it in any way, pass their behaviors according to good faith, according to the article 5 of the 2015’s Brazilian Civil Procedure Code. Such principle, which makes up a norm of conduct is aimed at repelling the procedural conducts derived from bad faith by considering them illicit. In addition, the general clause of the objective procedural good faith requires that the subjects of a proceeding do not present a corrupt conduct of bad-faith. Thereby, aiming to evaluate the legal aspects of the procedural good faith in the Brazilian legal order, at a first moment, is necessary to understand the evolution and fundamental contours of good faith in civil law, with an emphasis on the study of existing good faith species and the understanding of objective good faith as a general clause. Next, it is necessary the study of the objective good faith principle’s constitutional foundation and its procedural bias. Finally, the principle of procedural good faith is materialized in the new Brazilian Civil Procedure Code. In order to appreciate the above, the deductive method and bibliographical and legislative research are used in the present work.

  10. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  11. Women's preferences and knowledge about the legal competences of midwives in Brussels, Belgium. A descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Swinnen, Eva; D'haenens, Florence; Buyl, Ronald; Beeckman, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    to explore women's preferences with regard to their preferred health professional during labour and childbirth in case of an uncomplicated pregnancy, and to gain insight into women's knowledge of the legal competences of midwives. a descriptive observational study. Brussels metropolitan region, Belgium. women in their reproductive age, living in the Brussels metropolitan region, with Dutch or French as their first language (n=830). a ten-item standardized questionnaire'Midwife Profiling Questionnaire' (MidProQ) was developed to determine which health professional respondents would prefer to assist them during labour and childbirth if there were no complications and to assess their knowledge about midwives' legal competences during pregnancy, labour and childbirth. Descriptive statistics were used to report the findings. To identify relationships between the socio-demographic variables of the women and her preferences, knowledge and opinion Chi² analysis were used. For 68.0% of the participants in an uncomplicated labour (n=564) and 66.3% of the participants with an uncomplicated childbirth (n=550), a midwife is the preferred health professional. Brussels women prefer an obstetrician in an uncomplicated labour (n=730, 88%) and for uncomplicated childbirth (n=756, 91.1%). Only 20.2% of the respondents (n=168) consider midwives to play a central role in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The knowledge of Brussels women about midwives' legal competences during pregnancy, labour and childbirth is rather poor, especially in youngsters and women who have never given birth. In general, for Brussels women, midwives are not the first preferred health professional for an uncomplicated labour or for childbirth, and they do not consider midwives to play a central role in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The legal competences of midwives are not known very well, especially by youngsters and women who have never given birth. The Belgian medical model of maternity care and women

  12. Pursuing legal certainty in multilevel regulation: a sociolegal study of medical device and pharmaceutical regulation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary functions of law is to ensure that the legal structure governing all social relations is predictable, coherent, consistent and applicable. All these characteristics of law taken together are referred to as legal certainty. In traditional approaches to legal certainty, law is

  13. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  14. The Essence and Structure of History and Legal Studies Teacher’s Competency: Analysis of Ukrainian and Foreign Scholars’ Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riabovol Liliia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For a teacher to be professionally successful, they should possess relevant competencies. A history and legal studies teacher’s competency as an integrated entity has not been the subject of scientific researches yet. The paper aims to analyze legal documents as well as scientific literature, generalize and systematize the approaches to understanding the essence and structure of teacher’s professional competency. It is considered as a set of specific competencies; a component of teacher’s competency; one of its two main competencies. These approaches do not contribute to understanding teacher’s competency as a holistic integrated formation; competencies, which are singled out along with teacher’s professional competency and should be considered as its organic components. The structure of teacher’s competency based on the positions of functional approach is described as a set of components, namely, knowledge of psychology and pedagogy, abilities, skills, emotions, internal motivation, attitudes, moral and ethical values, experience; gnostic, constructive, organizational, communicative, analytical, creative, predictive, projective, informational, pedagogical skills, etc. The teacher’s competency is denoted by different terms. Its essence is fully revealed by the term “professional and pedagogical competency”, which allows describing teacher’s competency as a holistic personal entity belonging to a particular professional teacher, comprehensively characterizing it and serves as a means of achieving pedagogical goals and solving pedagogical tasks, a criterion for a professional teacher’s development. Despite certain differences in understanding the essence and the vision of teacher’s competency structure, almost all researchers of this problem agree on the fact that the factors of developing a highly competent teacher are high-quality pedagogical education, professional training and lifelong professional development. Rather

  15. Unexpected death in patients suffering from eating disorders. A medico-legal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajs, J; Rajs, E; Lundman, T

    1986-12-01

    Medico-legal investigation into causes of unexpected death of five persons who suffered from eating disorders did not give distinct pathoanatomical explanations. The analysis disclosed a number of risk factors whose interplay may have resulted in a circulatory catastrophy. These factors were of organisational and ideological character: simultaneous treatment at different departments, lack of contact with psychiatrists, or unclear criteria for admission to hospital; or somatic: circulatory and electrocardiographic S-T and T wave abnormalities, hypopotassemia and hypoglycemia, as well as anergy of the emaciated patient which may have led to symptoms of bronchopneumonia being overlooked. Morphological investigation revealed heart atrophy as well as recent lesions such as haemorrhages, fragmentation and contraction bands of the myofibres. In two extremely emaciated patients there was a disproportion between the size of the mitral valves and the atrophic ventricular wall, an appearance similar to "floppy valves". In one instance an erroneously inserted gastric tube contributed to vomiting, hypopotassemia and sudden death.

  16. Preliminary analysis of odor legal solutions and study on their implementation possibilities in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Karski, Leszek

    2018-01-01

    The problem of odor nuisance requires undertaking legal means that aim towards implementation of regulations in order to improve the odor-related quality of air in selected areas in Poland. So far the works carried out in the country were concluded by drawing up `The guidelines for the bill on counteracting the odor nuisance'. However, as a result of completed social consultations in Poland, the Ministry of Environment, in 2015, resigned from implementing of so called anti-odor act. Currently, the legislature is taking steps which aim at undertaking specific actions in order to introduce solutions, which would directly regulate the issues of odors and the odor nuisance, to the national system. In the countries of the European Union, the issues related to odors are solved in diversified ways and the system still lacks of a uniform proposition, among others related to odor standards. In connection with the above, actions that are taken on a national level should fundamentally aim at developing national odor standards which would take into account the type / the kind of economic activity being a source of odor emission (e.g. clearly separated for existing objects and planned investments), at establishing a procedure and also legal and operational requirements related to determination and the types of zones with defined values of acceptable concentration and determination of reference methodology in monitoring, and modeling the dispersion of odors e.g. including strictly defined frequency of necessary tests. In addition, the process should be accompanied by a creation of financial mechanisms and streams in range of investments related to the development of technology and methods used to limit emission of odors.

  17. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  18. A study of strategic responses and actions of Malaysian law firms in face of the liberalisation of legal services in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Soo Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is set to embrace the liberalisation of legal services. This will pose strategic challenges to Malaysian law firms and will impact on industry competition. It is not certain as to how Malaysian law firms perceive the liberalisation of legal services, and what strategic actions will be taken by them in order to maintain their strategic position and competitiveness. Against this backdrop, this study seeks to find out the answers to the questions as to how Malaysian law f...

  19. Networking and Information Technology Workforce Study: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This report presents the results of a study of the global Networking and Information Technology NIT workforce undertaken for the Networking and Information...

  20. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  1. Studies on a network of complex neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Srinivasa V.; Ghosh, Joydeep

    1993-09-01

    In the last decade, much effort has been directed towards understanding the role of chaos in the brain. Work with rabbits reveals that in the resting state the electrical activity on the surface of the olfactory bulb is chaotic. But, when the animal is involved in a recognition task, the activity shifts to a specific pattern corresponding to the odor that is being recognized. Unstable, quasiperiodic behavior can be found in a class of conservative, deterministic physical systems called the Hamiltonian systems. In this paper, we formulate a complex version of Hopfield's network of real parameters and show that a variation on this model is a conservative system. Conditions under which the complex network can be used as a Content Addressable memory are studied. We also examine the effect of singularities of the complex sigmoid function on the network dynamics. The network exhibits unpredictable behavior at the singularities due to the failure of a uniqueness condition for the solution of the dynamic equations. On incorporating a weight adaptation rule, the structure of the resulting complex network equations is shown to have an interesting similarity with Kosko's Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memory.

  2. An empirical study of Chinese language networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuigeng; Hu, Guobiao; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong

    2008-05-01

    Chinese is spoken by the largest number of people in the world, and it is regarded as one of the most important languages. In this paper, we explore the statistical properties of Chinese language networks (CLNs) within the framework of complex network theory. Based on one of the largest Chinese corpora, i.e. People’s Daily Corpus, we construct two networks (CLN1 and CLN2) from two different respects, with Chinese words as nodes. In CLN1, a link between two nodes exists if they appear next to each other in at least one sentence; in CLN2, a link represents that two nodes appear simultaneously in a sentence. We show that both networks exhibit small-world effect, scale-free structure, hierarchical organization and disassortative mixing. These results indicate that in many topological aspects Chinese language shapes complex networks with organizing principles similar to other previously studied language systems, which shows that different languages may have some common characteristics in their evolution processes. We believe that our research may shed some new light into the Chinese language and find some potentially significant implications.

  3. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  4. Case studies of attacks on communication networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sin Bok; Han, Eon Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    Recently, as the computer hardware and communications are developed, the data exchange through inter-networking has been highlighted and the data is being recognized as a great asset. Most of the organizations, businesses and enterprises are open to the external world-computer communication networks, attention must be focused on the securities of the information infrastructure. A government organization has been developing 'Circuits Analyzers', and 'Hacker-Tracking Program' and is struggling to track down sneakers. In this report, we analyze the contents of the cases where the communication network has been invaded, from the past up until now in Korea. This report also contains the result of a study on E-mail security, for the protection of KAERI Integrated Management Information System under which utilizes the CALS concepts and web services. (Author)

  5. [Clinical research studies from the ethical and legal point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G

    1987-06-26

    Relevant cases that had come to public knowledge and critical analysis of medical research on human beings prompted the USA to introduce the provision of approval by a committee and other forms of administrative control. In the 70's, ethics commissions were set up in Central Europe in compliance with the recommendations of the revised Helsinki-Tokyo Declaration. In Austria, the guiding principles are now legally safeguarded by the Pharmaceuticals Act, whereby general principles of research on human beings such as benefit-risk calculation and consent of the test person are laid down by statute. The risks involved in a novel method of treatment must nowadays be shared by the patient, which presupposes that the patient must be adequately informed. Notwithstanding the patient's consent, however, the risk must be socially acceptable, meaning that the experiment must be scientifically relevant and carried out in compliance with accepted methods and rules. The concept of cumulative justification is demanded today; it consists of the scientist's freedom of research, the test person's right to self-determination and the benefit-risk calculation. Ethics commissions composed of researchers themselves are invaluable consultant bodies for the scientist when soberly viewing his own particular project and who must himself undertake to observe the generally accepted principles regulating research on human beings. Only positive control by the medical profession itself will, in the long run, be able to effectively stave off an ever increasing encroachment of legislative and state control upon medical research.

  6. On Plagiarism and Power Relations in Legal Academia and Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilen Štajnpihler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article challenges the misconception that legal academia is a harmonious community without internal discrepancies, characterised by common interests, a coherent set of values and standards of behaviour that are unilaterally transposed into the legal profession through the process of legal education. The paper focuses on a case study of a public dispute between two law professors initiated by an article published in one of the main national law magazines wherein one accused the other of plagiarism. Even though the dispute did not come to an unequivocal conclusion, it deserves a closer examination as it clearly exposed two important issues. Firstly, it revealed certain unresolved issues concerning legal writing and legal ethics that are essential elements of the legal profession, as they have a profound impact on legal education and legal practice, and, secondly, it showed that these divergences are at least to some extent related to the latent network of power relations and struggles that dominate the legal (academic field. Este artículo cuestiona la creencia de que el mundo jurídico-académico es una comunidad armoniosa sin discrepancias internas, caracterizada por intereses comunes, valores coherentes y parámetros de comportamiento que se transponen de forma unilateral al ejercicio de la profesión jurídica a través de la educación en Derecho. El artículo se centra en el estudio de una disputa entre dos profesores de Derecho, en la cual uno acusaba al otro de plagio. A pesar de que la disputa no se resolvió de forma clara, merece un análisis más cuidadoso, ya que puso de manifiesto dos temas importantes: en primer lugar, algunos conflictos sin resolver sobre la escritura y la ética del derecho que son elementos esenciales de la profesión jurídica, pues tienen un profundo impacto sobre la educación y la práctica del Derecho; y, en segundo lugar, que estos desacuerdos están relacionados con las redes latentes de poder que

  7. Methoxetamine (MXE) – A Phenomenological Study of Experiences Induced by a “Legal High” from the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Anette; Jonsson, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue, is one of the new “legal highs” sold on the Internet. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an initial understanding of what characterizes the experiences induced by MXE. Anonymously written reports (33 persons) on the effects of MXE were collected from public Internet forums and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Method. The analysis generated 10 themes: (1) preparation, motivation and anticipation; (2) initial effects; (3) malfunction of cognitive processes stabilizing normal state; (4) inner personal processes and learning; (5) emotional processes; (6) altered sensory perception; (7) dissolution and transition; (8) spiritual and transcendental experiences; (9) effects and processes after the experience; (10) re-dosing and addiction. MXE induced a heavily altered state of consciousness. The effects were similar to those induced by classic hallucinogens (such as LSD, psilocybin) and the dissociative ketamine. MXE seemed to have quite a high abuse potential. Beside the positive effects described, negative effects like fear and anxiety were also reported. Acceptance was considered the best coping strategy. Dissolution of identity and body often culminated in spiritual and transcendental experiences. More research is needed on safety issues, how to minimize harm, and the motivation for using legal highs. PMID:24175493

  8. Legal Treatment Given the Oil leak in the Frade field . Case Study: (i Liability and signing of Conduct Adjustment Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ricardo Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to discuss how were treated  the legal and environmental consequen- ces caused by the large oil spill occurred in the FRADE FIELD, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil by the Company CHEVRON Brazil, in the face of brazilian authorities. On the text it will be discussed important decisions taken related to objective liability from the Company due to damages and the theories that have been taken into consideration for the extinction of two public civil actions filed by the Federal Public Ministry by an agre- ement called “Conduct Adjustment Term”. This study will make a chronological analysis of the facts that occurred on the two oil spills and how the company Chevron Brazil handled the incident, especially after be signed the undertaking between this Company, the Federal Public Ministry (MPF, National Agency Petroleum (ANP and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA solving the two public civil actions and proposals related to incidents in the Frade field in 2011 and 2012. The process also triggered imposition of financial penalties, already collected. On this comments shall be made considerations related to the incident and its “solution” for this legal formula and, given the severity of the accident, the indicated measures show hit or not the sectors involved.

  9. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  10. Building Bayesian networks for legal evidence with narratives: a case study evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charlotte s.; Prakken, Hendrik; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In a criminal trial, evidence is used to draw conclusions about what happened concerning a supposed crime. Traditionally, the three main approaches to modeling reasoning with evidence are argumentative, narra- tive and probabilistic approaches. Integrating these three approaches could arguably

  11. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  12. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  13. Legal Translation in context Professional Issues And Prospects: Series New Trends In Translation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Correa Santos Townsend

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhando as tendências mundiais na tradução jurídica e forense, a compilação Tradução Legal em contexto: questões profissionais e Perspectivas Futuras. Série Novas Tendências em Estudos da Tradução é um livro editado por Albi e Ramos, tradutores juramentados na Europa. A obra revela o estado da arte na atividade de tradutores profissionais no direito público e no direito privado, particularmente na União Europeia. Aprofundando pesquisas já existentes, o livro resulta de um projeto internacional, iniciativa do departamento de Tradução e Interpretação da Universidade de Genebra. Não se pode reclamar, na Europa, de falta de opções de leituras sobre o tema nos últimos anos. O que é mais notável nesta compilação é o foco à tradução jurídica aplicada, com especial atenção ao trabalho do tradutor e detalhes da instituição para a qual trabalha, ao invés de concentrada nos resultados do texto-alvo em comparação com o texto original, como outros livros anteriormente já fizeram. Outro ponto relevante é a diretiva da UE (União Europeia 2010/64/EU, que determina o direito à interpretação e tradução em processos criminais sob a jurisdição da UE, conferindo mais valor a certos capítulos deste livro em face à variedade de assuntos que examina.

  14. Legal and regulatory possibility of connection between interstate natural gas distribution networks instead of constructing transport pipelines; Possibilidade juridoco-regulatoria da conexao interestadual entre redes de distribuicao de gas natural como alternativa a construcao de gasodutos de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Gustavo Mano [Andrade, Mano - Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    According to Revista Brasil Energia (2011a), the local natural gas distribution concessionaire in the State of Sao Paulo Gas Brasiliano Distribuidora - GBD, plans to expand its distribution pipeline network in western Sao Paulo up to the border of the State of Minas Gerais, near the region known as Minas Triangle where a connection with the pipeline network of the State of Minas Gerais' natural gas distribution company, Companhia de Gas de Minas Gerais - GASMIG shall be built in order to supply natural gas to an ammonia plant to be built by PETROBRAS in the City of Uberaba. Still according to the publication, the project described above would be an alternative to the construction of a transportation pipeline that, since the enforcement of the Gas Law - Law No. 11.909/09 (Brasil, 2009), should be subject to concession contracts preceded by a complex, and probably delayed, planning and procurement. However, there is a transportation pipeline project, deriving from the Bolivia-Brazil transportation pipeline near the city of Sao Carlos, in Sao Paulo, crossing the Minas Triangle and finishing in the State of Goias. This project is owned by TGBC Company. The existence of two gas pipeline projects with very similar paths to supply virtually the same regions and based on different regulatory frameworks, one consisting of a connection between the distribution networks of different States and another based on the concept of pipeline transportation of gas under the legal and regulatory federal jurisdiction raises the discussion about the possibility of legal and regulatory interstate connections of distribution pipeline networks as an alternative to planning, allocation and construction of a transportation pipelines. This article aims to examine the legal and regulatory foundations of both alternatives and delineate the limits of performance of States and Federal Government on legislation and regulation concerning the movement of natural gas pipeline through the Country

  15. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  16. An Investigation on Legal Protection for Women Victims of Climate Change; Studying African Regional Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mosaffa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, paying attention to the subject of Climate Change and its destructive effects on different countries around the world have caused regular activities as holding international conferences, and ratifying some international documents. Developing and non-developed countries have less facilities and infrastructures to protect themselves from climate change effects and are more vulnerable. Moreover, African countries due to their climate conditions are the most vulnerable. Even more, they have the main population of climate refugees. Although an increasing effort in Africa has resulted in more legal protection for victims of climate change especially women as the most volunrable people, and has been appeared in many regional treaties, but inconsistency and denial of responsibilities from developing countries have caused serious challenges for long term legal-protection of environmental refugees and displacements, especially women and children who are the most vulnerable of climate change victims. Since a sufficient protection of these people requires a common concern and responsibility between states, referring to the "common but different responsibility" principle is one of the most important legal pillar for burden sharing of the massive climate – change movements. تأثیرات تغییرات اقلیم در دهه‌های گذشته بسیار بزرگ بوده و توجه به این پدیده موجب انجام اقدامات معمول بین‌المللی از قبیل برگزاری کنفرانس، تشکیل نهادهـا و تنظیم اسناد گردیده است. در ایـن بین، کشورهای کمتر توسعه‌یافته از امکانات کمتری برای مقابله با این تغییرات برخوردار و در نتیجه آسیب پذیر‌ترند. منطقه آفریقا با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خاص خود بیشترین آسیب را متحمل شده و هم

  17. Health care networks implementation and regional governance challenges in the Legal Amazon Region: an analysis of the QualiSUS-Rede Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Angela Oliveira; Cruz, Marly Marques; Giovanella, Ligia; Alves, Glaydes Dos Reis; Cardoso, Gisela Cordeiro Pereira

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential, limits and challenges of regional governance in the implementation process of health care networks in three Brazilian regions: Alto Solimões (Amazonas), Belém (Pará) and an interstate region comprising Tocantins, Pará and Maranhão states (Topama). The study is based on the evaluation study on the implementation of the Quality Health Care Network Development and Improvement Project (QualiSUS-Rede). This is a qualitative multiple case study with the analysis of official documents and use of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders conducted from July to December 2014. Governance review encompassed three components: stakeholders involved, especially local steering groups and their regional coordination capacity; strategies used for strengthening regional governance, anchored on the intervention's modeling; and implementation of local health care networks. Results point that the regional managing commissions were the main governance strategy and that the QualiSUS-Rede Project strengthened regional governance and integration differently in every case, depending on stakeholders' administration and consensus capacity on regional and political priorities.

  18. Collateral visibility : A socio-legal study of police body camera adoption, privacy, and public disclosure in Washington State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce

    Law enforcement use of body-worn cameras has recently become a subject of significant public and scholarly debate. This article presents findings from a socio-legal examination of the legal and social implications of body-worn camera adoption by two police departments in Washington State. In

  19. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  20. Analysis of Some Punishment Practices Based on Legal-Historical Principles of Iranian Society: Qajar Dynasty Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Rezaeian Koochi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As one of their main functions to maintain political power, ruling dynasties in Iran always tried to establish social security and confront any events that might disrupt stability in the country. Therefore, various penalties had been meted out for perpetrators of such phenomena including social unrest, robbery, acting in disobedience to the orders of the Shah and other officials, disruption to economic activities and financial affairs of the people, murder, rape, drunken brawls in public places, and the like. These punishments were performed in various manners by non-religious jurisdictions or at the behest of the Shah, local rulers, or other security officials without any established procedures. Most of the punishments were based on the expediency of the government rather than the expediency of religion or jurisprudence. Rulers determined the manner of punishment on the basis of popular preferences. This type of conventional punishment, as opposed to legal or religious punishment, was quite common during the Qajar era, as a tool for countering the widespread social unrest. This has been reflected in the chronicles of many historians and in the diaries written by many European tourists visiting Iran during the period. The present study deals with various types of punishment of criminals and the manner of practicing such punishments during the Qajar era before the Constitutional Revolution. Findings of the study show that the punishments in the period were not based on any legal standards and that decisions of the Shah and other government officials determined the manner of performing punishments, often with much violence and harshness.

  1. Moment of the Legal Termination of the Organization and/or Carrying out Gambling Which is Carried Out in the Information Communication Network Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris R. Avetisyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both for the legal doctrine, and for law enforcement the category "moment of the termination of a crime" is determined by the general concept of the moment of legal completion of criminal encroachment. In article the content of this category for the organization and carrying out the gamblings which are carried out on the Internet is specified. In the conclusion author concluds that the moment of the termination of the organization and carrying out gamblings out of a gambling zone should be regarded as an independent objective sign.

  2. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  3. Health care professionals' comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec: study of clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Isabelle; Boivin, Antoine; Arsenault, Claude; Toupin, Mélanie; Youssef, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    To determine health care professionals' understanding of the current legal status of different end-of-life practices and their future legal status if medical aid in dying were legalized, and to identify factors associated with misunderstanding surrounding the current legal status. Cross-sectional survey using 6 clinical scenarios developed from a validated European questionnaire and from a validated classification of end-of-life practices. Quebec. Health care professionals (physicians and nurses). Perceptions of the current legal status of the given scenarios and whether or not the practices would be authorized in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized. Among the respondents (n = 271, response rate 88.0%), more than 98% knew that the administration or prescription of lethal medication was currently illegal. However, 45.8% wrongly thought that it was not permitted to withdraw a potentially life-prolonging treatment at the patient's request, and this misconception was more common among nurses and professionals who had received their diplomas longer ago. Only 39.5% believed that, in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized, the use of lethal medication would be permitted at the patient's request, and 34.6% believed they would be able to give such medication to an incompetent patient upon a relative's request. Health care professionals knew which medical practices were illegal, but some wrongly believed that current permitted practices were not legal. There were various interpretations of what would or would not be allowed if medical aid in dying were legalized. Education on the clinical implications of end-of-life practice legislation should be promoted.

  4. Artificial neural network applications in ionospheric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere of Earth exhibits considerable spatial changes and has large temporal variability of various timescales related to the mechanisms of creation, decay and transport of space ionospheric plasma. Many techniques for modelling electron density profiles through entire ionosphere have been developed in order to solve the "age-old problem" of ionospheric physics which has not yet been fully solved. A new way to address this problem is by applying artificial intelligence methodologies to current large amounts of solar-terrestrial and ionospheric data. It is the aim of this paper to show by the most recent examples that modern development of numerical models for ionospheric monthly median long-term prediction and daily hourly short-term forecasting may proceed successfully applying the artificial neural networks. The performance of these techniques is illustrated with different artificial neural networks developed to model and predict the temporal and spatial variations of ionospheric critical frequency, f0F2 and Total Electron Content (TEC. Comparisons between results obtained by the proposed approaches and measured f0F2 and TEC data provide prospects for future applications of the artificial neural networks in ionospheric studies.

  5. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF THE LACK OF ROMANIAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON THE MEDICAL ATTITUDE TOWARD TERMINAL PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS- CASE STUDY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Dumitras; Mariana Enache; Ingrid Miron; Beatrice Ioan

    2013-01-01

    ... of "beneficence" and "futility". Medical decision-making process, especially for terminal patients, must be balanced and relevant from the medical, ethical, psychological, social, cultural, religious and legal points of view...

  7. An analysis of students' needs in the study of spoken legal discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings from a study that sought to identify the language and communication needs of students who were studying for the Certificate in Law at the University of Botswana. Data for the study was collected using a questionnaire and information recorded from class discussions and simulated court ...

  8. Study of Tools for Network Discovery and Network Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    DISCOVERY OptiView Console supports central and distributed architectures. OptiView Console consists of the Viewer and the Service Manager that...OptiView console. Service Manager is the engine that performs network discovery, data management, data analysis, and provides notification services...The Service Manager gives you status information and configuration control of the services that are part of the OptiView Console application. These

  9. Entrepreneurs Network of Networks: studying entrepreneurs social netwerk using smart-phone data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.; Vinig, T.

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are embedded in multiple networks, from which they seek opportunities and resources to start-up businesses. Adopting a network perspective to study entrepreneurship may contribute to our understanding of why some entrepreneurs succeed while others fail. However, as most social network

  10. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  11. Convergence and conflict perspectives in Scandinavian studies of the legal profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerslev, Ole

    2010-01-01

    and the markets. The studies are divided into convergence perspectives with Aubert’s studies dominating on the one hand, and conflict perspectives with Mathiesen’s studies dominating on the other. This article examines their similarities and differences in theoretical backgrounds, methodology and empirical data....... It demonstrates how the two research traditions, despite their different theoretical perspectives, build their research on comparatively the same kind of empirical data and methodology and how they reach some of the same conclusions....

  12. The necessity of repeated assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records in medico-legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.

  13. Studying Fin Whales with Seafloor Seismic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, W. S.; Soule, D. C.; Weirathmueller, M.; Thomson, R.

    2011-12-01

    Baleen whales are found throughout the world's oceans and their welfare captivates the general public. Depending on the species, baleen whales vocalize at frequencies ranging from ~10 Hz to several kilohertz. Passive acoustic studies of whale calls are used to investigate behavior and habitat usage, monitor the recovery of populations from whaling and assess the impacts of anthropogenic sounds. Since airguns are a significant source of sound in the oceans, the research goals of academic seismologists can lead to conflicts with those who advocate for whale conservation while being unwilling to consider the societal benefits of marine geophysical studies. In contrast, studies that monitor earthquakes with ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) provide an opportunity to enhance studies of baleen whales and improve relationships with environmental advocates. The bandwidth of the typical high-frequency or intermediate-band ocean bottom seismometer overlaps the call frequency of the two largest baleen whale species; blue whales generate sequences of 10- to 20-s-long calls centered at ~16 Hz and fin whales produce long sequences of downswept 1-s-long chirps centered at ~20 Hz. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of OBS networks to monitor calling patterns and determine tracks for fin and blue whales. We will summarize the results from a study to track fin whales near the Endeavour hydrothermal vent fields on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and investigate a potential correlation between the density of whales and enhanced zooplankton found throughout the water column overlying the vent fields. From 2003-2006 an 8-station local seismic network that was designed to monitor hydrothermal earthquakes also recorded ~300,000 fin whale vocalizations, mostly in the fall and winter. Automatic picking and localization techniques that are analogous to those used to analyze earthquakes are employed to determine whale tracks. The tracks are then used to interpret calling patterns in the

  14. Financial Exigency and Dismissal of Higher Education Faculty: Be Prepared. An Investigation Carried Out as Part of a Study of the Legal Aspects of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rod E.

    The way that college faculty and institutions are affected by financial exigency is examined through a study of case law. Selected cases demonstrate the legal principles involved when faculty are dismissed and seek relief in the courts. Cases concerning private colleges relate to tenured faculty, because nontenured faculty in private have legal…

  15. Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the "Starbucks v. Charbucks" Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of Legal Acumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    A Harvard Business School-style teaching case can be a powerful pedagogical tool to teach law and ethics to business students because instructors can combine a traditional business case study with Socratic-style dialogue and legal analysis from a managerial perspective. This teaching note includes suggestions for several methods of using the case,…

  16. An Exploration of the Legal and Regulatory Environment of Privacy and Security through Active Research, Guided Study, Blog Creation, and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important topics for today's information technology professional is the study of legal and regulatory issues as they relate to privacy and security of personal and business data and identification. This manuscript describes the topics and approach taken by the instructors that focuses on independent research of source documents and…

  17. Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

  18. Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem, Annick; Gemmel, Paul

    2013-06-24

    Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness.

  19. The Applicability of Western Socio-Legal Frameworks to the Study of Negotiation in Chinese Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mona; Ingleby, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks for the examination of negotiation generated by Western academics do not easily translate to Chinese society because of fundamental differences between Western and Chinese society. Attempts to study negotiation in Chinese society and to improve negotiation between Chinese and Western business people are themselves…

  20. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  1. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  2. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  3. Human Rights and emotions from the perspective of the colonised: Anthropophagi, Legal Surrealism and Subaltern Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Barreto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Third World can easily experience a form of ghost existence: We speak but are not heard. However, in our culture there are a number of trends and positions that are relevant to the task of thinking human rights in a new light. Among them, the critiques of rationalism advanced by Oswald de Andrade and Luis Alberto Warat in Brasil and Argentina—where there is a possibility of integrating the emotions into human rights theory. Sharing a preoccupation with those excluded from the ‘world order’ and the appeal to sensibility, Subaltern Studies have advanced some insights pointing at establishing a link between colonialism, human rights and suffering. This is the case in the work of Upendra Baxi, who has made a criticism of Western theorisations of law and crafted a fruitful encounter between the insights of Subaltern Studies and the theory of human rights.

  4. Study on Analysis and Countermeasure of China's Legal System of Food Safety and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study is to solve the food safety problems existing in the real life, ensuring the food health safety, based on the “ Food Hygiene Law of the People's Republic of China” promulgated in 1995 by China, starting from the aspects such as production, marketing, regulatory to the integrate the standards of edible farm product quality safety standards, food hygiene standards, food quality standards and relevant food industry mandatory standards, establishing scientific and standardized fo...

  5. On Historical Contextualisation: Some Critical Socio-Legal Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie Charlesworth

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of historico-legal studies to the wider context of socio-legal studies. It issues a challenge to rethink the nature and role of legal history in the light of socio-legal theory and the extent to which it out to be used by legal scholars. The discussion explores the benefits to socio-legal studies of interdisciplinarity. It suggests that historical reconstructions that contextualise the law should be properly acknowledged as a subgenre at least of the socio-legal movement, not simply perceived as an add-on methodology.

  6. International Law Studies. The War in Iraq: A Legal Analysis. Violume 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    VOL 50 Robert W. Tucker, The Law ofWar and Neutrality at Sea (1955) (Vol. 50, US Naval War College International Law Studies). VOL 49 Hans Kelsen ...6, §§ 12, at 38, 584 (pacta sunt servanda a customary rule); HANS KELSEN , PURE THEORY OF LAW 214-17 (Max Knight trans., 2d rev. ed. 1967) (pacta sunt...declaration of its weapons fell far short ofthe full dis- closure demanded by Resolution 1441. Nonetheless, Hans Blix, the chiefUN in- spector for

  7. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N

    2008-06-01

    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  8. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scientific analysis and historical aspects as tools in the legal investigation of paintings: a case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schossler, Patricia; de Figueiredo Júnior, João Cura D'Ars; Fortes, Isabel; Cruz Souza, Luiz Antônio

    2014-12-01

    The faker makes use of several strategies to give credibility to his work, as for example by copying artist's style or by using artificial aging techniques. The characterization of artistic materials, such as pigments, binding media and supports through chemical and/or physico-chemical analysis, coupled with art historical information is essential to establish the non-authenticity of works of art. This paper presents a contribution in a legal case regarding paintings attributed to important Brazilian and European artists such as Candido Portinari, Juan Gris, Camille Pissarro, and Umberto Boccioni, among others. In the investigation, modern synthetic painting materials were identified in all the ground layers of the suspected paintings. The use of diverse instrumental analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry enabled this characterization. The results demonstrated the presence of titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate and kaolin as inorganic components of the paints, and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates or diisobutylphtalate as binding media in the ground layers of the paintings. The results obtained, along with art historical information and art technological studies, were very important in the judicial process, due to the possibility to use titanium dioxide and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates as chronological markers. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implication of Legal References on Technological Dissemination: A Study on Transgenic Soybeans Resistant to Glyphosate Herbicide in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims at establishing a connection between the evolution of legal landmarks related to soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide in Brazil and the planting growth of this transgenic soybean in Brazil, in order to determine the role that such soybeans play in today's domestic agricultural scenario. To do so, a study of Brazilian laws that protect intellectual creations was carried out (Industrial Property Law - Law number 9.279/96 and the Plant Protection Law – Law number 9.456/97, the Law on Biosafety – Law number 11105 / 05 – and the Law on Brazilian Seeds and Seedlings - Law number 10.711/03, in order to delimit the matter protected by each of those laws while establishing its interfaces. Regarding planting, the Biosafety Law of 2005 corresponds to the fourth law which deals with soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide and ensures that those previously registered may be marketed without limitation per crop. In order to estimate the space that soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide began to occupy in the Brazilian market, in the 2008/2009 harvest, compared to the other not genetically modified soybeans, a search in the Ministry of Agriculture´s database was done (http://www.agricultura.gov.br through the available records of certified, non-certified and basic seeds.

  11. Developing Legal Terminology in African Languages as Aid to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with legal language, the bridging of communication problems in a legal setting by especially court interpreters, and difficulties these legal linguists may experience in this endeavour. Some word-forming principles are discussed and examples are given of typical multilingual coinages in the legal profession.

  12. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying conjures up visions of the traditional schoolyard bully and the subordinate victim. However, bullying is no longer limited to in-person encounter, having come to include cyberbullying, which takes place indirectly over electronic media. In this electronic age, cyber platforms proliferate at an astonishing rate, all attracting the youth in large number, and posing the risk that they may become subject to cyberbullying. Far from being limited to those individual learners being cyberbullied, the effects of this phenomenon extend to the learner collective, the school climate, and also the entire school system, management and education, thus requiring an urgent response. This article first provides a general overview of cyberbullying and its impact on learners, schools and education. This is done through a comparative lens, studying the extent of the phenomenon in both the United States and South Africa. The focus then shifts to the existing legislative frameworks within which the phenomenon is tackled in these respective jurisdictions, particularly the tricky balancing act required between learners' constitutional right to free speech and expression, and the protection of vulnerable learners' right to equality, dignity and privacy. The article concludes by proposing certain possible solutions to the problem.

  13. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.

  14. Medico-legal assessment of disability in narcolepsy: an interobserver reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravallo, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Brini, Martina; Brugaletta, Concetta; Franceschini, Christian; Lugaresi, Federica; Manca, Maria C; Garbarino, Sergio; Montagna, Pasquale; Cicognani, Alberto; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2008-03-01

    Impairment because of narcolepsy strongly limits job performance, but there are no standard criteria to assess disability in people with narcolepsy and a scale of disease severity is still lacking. We explored: (1) the interobserver reliability among Italian Medical Commissions making disability and handicap benefit decisions for people with narcolepsy, searching for correlations between the recognized disability degree and patients' features; (2) the willingness to report patients to the driving licence authority and (3) possible sources of variance in judgement. Fifteen narcoleptic patients were examined by four Medical Commissions in simulated sessions. Raw agreement and interobserver reliability among Commissions were calculated for disability and handicap benefit decisions and for driving licence decisions. Levels of judgement differed on percentage of disability (P < 0.001), severity of handicap (P = 0.0007) and the need to inform the driving licence authority (P = 0.032). Interobserver reliability ranged from Kappa = -0.10 to 0.35 for disability benefit decision and from Kappa = -0.26 to 0.36 for handicap benefit decision. The raw agreement on driving licence decision ranged from 73% to 100% (Kappa not calculable). Spearman's correlation between percentages of disability and patients' features showed correlations with age, daytime naps, sleepiness, cataplexy and quality of life. This first interobserver reliability study on social benefit decisions for narcolepsy shows the difficulty of reaching an agreement in this field, mainly because of variance in interpretation of the assessment criteria. The minimum set of indicators of disease severity correlating with patients' self assessments encourages a disability classification of narcolepsy.

  15. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  16. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.En los bosques tropicales, el consumo de carne silvestre representa una opción o la única fuente de proteínas para algunas poblaciones humanas. Este estudio analizó el comercio ilegal de carne de animales silvestres con fines alimenticios en un mercado

  17. A Comparative Study of the Principles Governing Criminal Responsibility in the Major Legal Systems of the World (England, United States, Germany, France, Denmark, Russia, China, and Islamic legal tradition)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elewa Badar, Mohamed; Marchuk, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this survey is to examine the underlying principles of criminal responsibility in selected common law and continental law jurisdictions as well as in the Islamic legal tradition through the lens of comparative law. By conducting a comprehensive legal analysis of the concept of crime...

  18. Reverse Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hache Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks has been an intensively studied topic in bioinformatics since it constitutes an intermediate step from explorative to causative gene expression analysis. Many methods have been proposed through recent years leading to a wide range of mathematical approaches. In practice, different mathematical approaches will generate different resulting network structures, thus, it is very important for users to assess the performance of these algorithms. We have conducted a comparative study with six different reverse engineering methods, including relevance networks, neural networks, and Bayesian networks. Our approach consists of the generation of defined benchmark data, the analysis of these data with the different methods, and the assessment of algorithmic performances by statistical analyses. Performance was judged by network size and noise levels. The results of the comparative study highlight the neural network approach as best performing method among those under study.

  19. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  20. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  1. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  2. A Self-Study Guide for the Pre-Examination of the EQE : Part I: The Legal Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The preparation for the Pre-examination starts with learning to understand the basic concepts of European patent law, including the legal and formal aspects of the patent system as well as the substantive issues such as, in particular, novelty, inventive step and priority. In order to enhance the

  3. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  4. Legalizing markets and the consequences for poaching of wildlife species: the vicuña as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ryan R J; McNeill, Desmond; Gordon, Iain J

    2009-01-01

    Vicuña provide an excellent case study for examining the sustainable use of wildlife outside protected areas: the community-based conservation approach. Vicuña populations in the high Andes of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Perú fell to a critically low level, but a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) ban on trade in their fiber has seen numbers recover dramatically, and now live shearing of vicuña for a high-value international market is being promoted as a mechanism to secure both sustainable vicuña populations and local livelihoods. We used a dynamic optimization model to explore the consequences of legalizing markets, including the consequences for poaching which is critical in vicuña dynamics. Using parameters obtained from the literature and expert knowledge, we explored different scenarios for the Argentine region of Cieneguillas. Our results showed that the role of the international market is ambiguous; live shearing for an international market can provide the very best of outcomes for both vicuña and local people, with large herds generating high revenues. But an international market also creates a market for poached vicuña fiber; as a result, vicuña numbers risk once again falling to critically low levels, resulting also in minimal revenues from sale of fiber. The message for the international community is that if community-based conservation is not implemented carefully then its impact can easily be perverse.

  5. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  6. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  7. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  8. Social network analysis and network connectedness analysis for industrial symbiotic systems: model development and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Chen, Bin; Yang, Naijin

    2013-06-01

    An important and practical pattern of industrial symbiosis is rapidly developing: eco-industrial parks. In this study, we used social network analysis to study the network connectedness (i.e., the proportion of the theoretical number of connections that had been achieved) and related attributes of these hybrid ecological and industrial symbiotic systems. This approach provided insights into details of the network's interior and analyzed the overall degree of connectedness and the relationships among the nodes within the network. We then characterized the structural attributes of the network and subnetwork nodes at two levels (core and periphery), thereby providing insights into the operational problems within each eco-industrial park. We chose ten typical ecoindustrial parks in China and around the world and compared the degree of network connectedness of these systems that resulted from exchanges of products, byproducts, and wastes. By analyzing the density and nodal degree, we determined the relative power and status of the nodes in these networks, as well as other structural attributes such as the core-periphery structure and the degree of sub-network connectedness. The results reveal the operational problems created by the structure of the industrial networks and provide a basis for improving the degree of completeness, thereby increasing their potential for sustainable development and enriching the methods available for the study of industrial symbiosis.

  9. Inter-organizational network studies – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    network analysis. However, this has not been without serious theoretical and ethodological issues. Most notably, a number of the concepts, methods and theories used within the field of inter-organizational networks originate from research in interpersonal and intra-organizational networks where some...... of the methodological issues (e.g. unit of analysis and boundary specification) are more easily addressed. In order to map the different methodological approaches in the field of inter-organizational networks, this paper presents a large-scale systematic literature review of the last 12 years’ research on inter......-organizational networks, with a focus on the methodological features. Some of the main variables relate to the unit of analysis, whether social network analysis is applied and what concept of a network is involved. The main findings of this paper are that few of the previous studies have used the full methodological (and...

  10. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris Gault,1 Ann Gallagher,2 Mary Chambers31Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Kingston, Surrey, UK; 2International Centre for Nursing Ethics, School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK; 3Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, UKAim: To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context.Background: Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries.Design: This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible.Participants: Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England.Methods: Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers.Results: The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication.Conclusion: This study investigated service user

  11. Juridical-Legal Study of the Criminal Policy of Iran Regarding Prejudicial to Public Decency Crimes with an Approach to the Ancient Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Rezaeian koochi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Iranian legislator has never presented a criterion for detecting crimes prejudicial to public decency, but instead of defining prejudicial to public decency crimes, the legislator has only stated prejudicial to public decency crimes. Because main purpose of this study is identifying concept of public decency crimes in the criminal code of Iran and ancient laws, their proper application regarding the changes of new Islamic penal code of Iran and its effectiveness on the decision-making of judges, based on the nature, scope and commentaries, this research studies the type and examples of prejudicial to public decency cries in ancient laws and response to public decency crimes, we will analyze severity and violence of punishment for these crimes. Challenging questions may raise in this regard, such as what is the type and examples of chastity crimes from ancient law view, Imamieh jurisprudence view and legal system of Iran? And how is the approach and response of ancient laws to chastity crimes compared to religious principles and punishment system of Iran's legal system? This research studies the history of chastity crimes in the jurisprudence teachings and identifies crimes prejudicial to public decency in the ancient laws and basis for accepting these crimes in legal system of Iran.

  12. Training and Regulating those providing Publicly Funded Legal Advice Services\\ud \\ud A Case Study of Civil Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Pete; Sommerlad, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a two year project funded by the Ministry of Justice, evaluating the impact of regulatory and training regimes on the front line experiences of solicitors and advice agency staff involved in the delivery of publicly funded legal advice. The findings shed light on the impact of contractual regulation on the organization and objectives of private firms and voluntary organizations, and rpovide insight into the nature of work-based learning.

  13. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  14. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... studies. Nevertheless, there is still few evidence of how this lecturing philosophy might be affected by the socialization with other disciplines. For that purpose, we analyse the case of external lectures in the Faculty of Law at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, who covers the majority...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  15. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  16. The Legal Implications of Student Use of Social Networking Sites in the UK and US: Current Concerns and Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark R.; Lee, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative snapshot of the current state of the law in the US and UK with respect to potential liability of university and college students for use (and misuse) of social networking sites. It reviews the limited case law on this topic, highlights the differences in the two nations' laws of defamation and the various possible…

  17. Consequences of legalizing marijuana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ... states to examine the effect of legalizing medical marijuana. They find that legalization increased both marijuana use and marijuana abuse/ dependence in people 21 or older. It was also associated with an increase in adult binge drinking, defined as the number of days on which an individual had five or more drinks on the same occasion in the l...

  18. MEDIATION AGREEMENTS LEGAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ponomarev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the legal model of mediation agreements in Russian and international legislation. The authors consider the main provisions of the mediation agreements in civil matters, in particular, is defined by such features of the legal model as the requirements for this type of agreements. In addition, the article discusses the problematic issues of implementation of mediation agreements.

  19. Transport Network Technologies – Study and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozorgebrahimi, K.; Channegowda, M.; Colmenero, A.

    Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS, and the ......Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS...

  20. Measuring the dissimilarity of multiplex networks: An empirical study of international trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Cui, Huiyuan; Zhu, Ji; Du, Yu; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenhua

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, multiplex networks are becoming a research focus in the domain of complex networks. Discovering significant correlations between layers in multiplex networks can provide an insight to their structures. In this study, we propose some methods to measure the dissimilarities of different layers in directed and weighted multiplex networks. The dissimilarity is defined on two levels: node level and layer level. The node dissimilarity is computed based on the distance of the probability distribution of its link weights vectors in different layers; and the layer-level dissimilarity is the weighted sum of the nodes' dissimilarities. Furthermore, the dissimilarity is disintegrated into the connection-based dissimilarity and the weight-based dissimilarity, which represent the topological structure changes and the link weight changes, respectively. The proposed methods are applied to international trade networks.

  1. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  2. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  3. Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt): Introducing the Space Mobile Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrad, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Speaker and Presenter at the Lincoln Laboratory Communications Workshop on April 5, 2016 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA. A visual presentation titled Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt).

  4. Legal Pluralism: Interactions Between Official and Unofficial Laws: The Case Study of a Multi-ethnic Community Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Farinha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-ethnic community farm, located in California, was created in 2011 to be commonly exploited by refugees and emigrants from different countries.This paper aims to describe, as an observable fact, how distinct non-state normativities behave and relate in their dynamic process of interaction, surpassing the usual state/local law bases of analysis.The farm was approved by the state authorities and the NGO has created its regulations. Concomitantly, the distinct communities of farmers have defied and transformed the farm’s regulations by incorporating their competing legal land tenure regimes and legal postulates in the same structure of the unofficial law of the farm, through a common frame of meaning and the enactment of the “autonomy rule”. This has allowed the growers to follow their normativities inside the farm. However, its creation process and daily practice also exposes the relevance of the official law in its constitution, shape and function. En 2011 se creó en California una granja multiétnica comunal, para que fuera explotada en comunidad por refugiados y emigrantes de diferentes países. Este artículo pretende describir, como hecho observable, cómo se comportan y se relacionan normativas no estatales en un proceso dinámico de interacción, superando las bases de análisis estado/local habituales del derecho. Las autoridades estatales aprobaron la granja, y la ONG creó su propia normativa. Al mismo tiempo, las diferentes comunidades de agricultores han desafiado y transformado el reglamento de la granja, incorporando sus regímenes legales de tenencia de tierras vigentes, y los postulados legales en la misma estructura del derecho no oficial, a través de un marco común de significado y la promulgación de la “norma de autonomía”. Esto ha permitido a los productores seguir sus normativas dentro de la finca. Sin embargo, su proceso de creación y práctica diaria también pone de manifiesto la importancia del

  5. Racial inequalities in the socioeconomic, demographic and health conditions of elderly from Maranhão State, Legal Amazon, Brazil: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Silva, Alécia Maria da; Silva,Raimundo Antonio da; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Aging with quality of life does not occur equally among the racial groups of Brazilian elderly, and few studies have analyzed this issue in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. The objective of this study was to investigate racial inequalities in the socioeconomic, demographic and health conditions of elderly residents of Maranhão state, Brazil. The present work is a cross-sectional study of 450 elders aged 60 years or older included in the 2008 National Household Sample Survey. The prev...

  6. The complexity of crime network data: a case study of its consequences for crime control and the study of networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rostami

    Full Text Available The field of social network analysis has received increasing attention during the past decades and has been used to tackle a variety of research questions, from prevention of sexually transmitted diseases to humanitarian relief operations. In particular, social network analyses are becoming an important component in studies of criminal networks and in criminal intelligence analysis. At the same time, intelligence analyses and assessments have become a vital component of modern approaches in policing, with policy implications for crime prevention, especially in the fight against organized crime. In this study, we have a unique opportunity to examine one specific Swedish street gang with three different datasets. These datasets are the most common information sources in studies of criminal networks: intelligence, surveillance and co-offending data. We use the data sources to build networks, and compare them by computing distance, centrality, and clustering measures. This study shows the complexity factor by which different data sources about the same object of study have a fundamental impact on the results. The same individuals have different importance ranking depending on the dataset and measure. Consequently, the data source plays a vital role in grasping the complexity of the phenomenon under study. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should therefore pay greater attention to the biases affecting the sources of the analysis, and be cautious when drawing conclusions based on intelligence assessments and limited network data. This study contributes to strengthening social network analysis as a reliable tool for understanding and analyzing criminality and criminal networks.

  7. The complexity of crime network data: a case study of its consequences for crime control and the study of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Amir; Mondani, Hernan

    2015-01-01

    The field of social network analysis has received increasing attention during the past decades and has been used to tackle a variety of research questions, from prevention of sexually transmitted diseases to humanitarian relief operations. In particular, social network analyses are becoming an important component in studies of criminal networks and in criminal intelligence analysis. At the same time, intelligence analyses and assessments have become a vital component of modern approaches in policing, with policy implications for crime prevention, especially in the fight against organized crime. In this study, we have a unique opportunity to examine one specific Swedish street gang with three different datasets. These datasets are the most common information sources in studies of criminal networks: intelligence, surveillance and co-offending data. We use the data sources to build networks, and compare them by computing distance, centrality, and clustering measures. This study shows the complexity factor by which different data sources about the same object of study have a fundamental impact on the results. The same individuals have different importance ranking depending on the dataset and measure. Consequently, the data source plays a vital role in grasping the complexity of the phenomenon under study. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should therefore pay greater attention to the biases affecting the sources of the analysis, and be cautious when drawing conclusions based on intelligence assessments and limited network data. This study contributes to strengthening social network analysis as a reliable tool for understanding and analyzing criminality and criminal networks.

  8. Statistical methods for studying the evolution of networks and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinberger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Studying longitudinal network and behavior data is important for understanding social processes, because human beings are interrelated, and the relationships among human beings (human networks) on one hand and human behavior on the other hand are not independent. The complex nature of longitudinal

  9. A Bayesian Approach to Measurement Bias in Networking Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Ling; Robinson, Scott E.; Torenvlied, René

    2014-01-01

    The study of managerial networking has been growing in the field of public administration; a field that analyzes how managers in open system organizations interact with different external actors and organizations. Coincident with this interest in managerial networking is the use of self-reported

  10. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  11. Groundwater Challenges of the Lower Rio Grande: A Case Study of Legal Issues in Texas and New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with a variable climate and frequent drought conditions and established the Rio Grande Compact Commission, comprised of a commissioner from each state and one from the federal government, to enforce the compact. With an increasing population and declining surface water supply, the Compact has been tested among the parties and within the states themselves. In a case currently before the U.S. Supreme Court, Texas v. New Mexico and Colorado (2013, Texas claims New Mexico is violating the Compact and Rio Grande Project Act by using water in excess of its apportionment through its allowance of diversions of surface and groundwater. The issue is further compounded by disputes within Texas over separate legal regimes for groundwater and surface water. Combined with growing scarcity issues, the allocation of water in the Lower Rio Grande presents a timely natural resource challenge. This review explores legal issues involved in the case as well as growing challenges of population growth, agricultural development needs, and water shortages.

  12. Legal Services: The Army Legal Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-21

    legal services providedpro bono publico are not always on a no-fee basis because a reduced fee for professional services may be permissible in such...y f o u n d w i t h i n a p r i n c i p a l residence. Pro bono publico Legal services provided by civilian attorneys “for the public good or welfare...business activities, 3–6, 3–8 P r i v i l e g e , a t t o r n e y - c l i e n t , 3 – 8 , 4 – 3 , 4 – 8 , 5–5 Prisoners, 2–5 Pro bono publico , 3–7

  13. Ibn Ḥazm on Homosexuality. A case-study of Ẓāhirī legal Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang, Camilla

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the views of the teologian and legal scholar Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba (d. 456/1064 on homosexuality. Although reference is made to his literary work Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, which is rich in anecdotes on homoerotic attraction, the article focuses on Ibn Ḥazm's multivolume legal tract Kitāb al-Muḥallā, a work written from a Ẓāhirī, or literalist perspective. A step-by-step analysis of Ibn Hazm's legal reasoning on homosexuality, both male (liwāṭ and female (siḥāq is provided, and comparisons with the views of other jurist, especially Mālikis, are made. Unlike his Mālikī contemporaries, Ibn Ḥazm holds that homosexuality is not to be equated with fomication (zinā, which incurs the death penalty. Instead, he advocates a relatively mild punishment of up to ten lashes for homosexual practices, based upon his idiosyncratic interpretation of the revealed sources which is illustrated here. Although Ibn Ḥazm is believed by some modem authors to have had homosexual leanings himself, he categorically condemns sexual contacts between members of the same sex as immoral and sinful, and believes that homosexuals should be reformed.

    Este artículo discute las opiniones de Ibn Ḥazm de Córdoba (m. 456/1064 jurista y teólogo, acerca de la homosexualidad. Aunque se hace referencia a su obra literaria Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, rica en anécdotas sobre atracción homoerótica, el artículo se centra en su voluminosa obra legal zahirí Kitāb al-Muḥallā y analiza el razonamiento legal de Ibn Ḥazm sobre la homosexualidad tanto masculina (liwāf como femenina (siḥāq comparándola con la de otros juristas, en particular, malikíes. A diferencia de sus contemporáneos malikíes, Ibn Hazm mantiene que la homosexualidad no debe equipararse a la fornicación (zinā que incurre en la pena de muerte. Por el contrario, aboga por el relativamente suave

  14. Measuring the scholarly and judicial impact of accredited legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judgements) through the use of Google Scholar (GS) citations and Butterworth Lexis Nexis database respectively. The results of the study revealed variations in terms of the citation patterns of legal journals in legal scholarship and judicial rulings.

  15. Legal System and Legal Chaos Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Order of the universe and other objects can be described either by cosmology and physics. But from of the regularity of the object there in terms or aspect of irregularity or fractal (broken that difficult to describe by Auklides and Calculus mathematical models. Benoit Medelbrot tried to explain the chaotic objects with fractal theory which basically a branch of mathematics. The fractal theory affect the view of the law that inspired Charles Sampford which then sparked a legal chaos theory. The core of legal chaos theory is (1 social relationships , including the relationship established based on the relationship of forces (power relation, (2 the parties who make that relationship does not have the same strength or balance, and (3 at the time of execution of the respective relations based on their subjective opinions. Those three thing that is causing chaos. But the atmosphere of chaos that would eventually return to the regularity, because of the strength towing (strange attractor that in the area of law is the law and the power of the state. Chaos basically contained in the freedom -based relationship beyond the confines of order. When the towing force managed to recover the chaos so as to create harmony between order and freedom, the peace that one of the legal goal is achieved.

  16. Legal and organizational specificities of the European Union's office for harmonization in the internal market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćemalović Uroš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the Community trademark (CTM in 1993 was a true revolution in legal and economic terms. Given the supranational legal nature of this newly created trademark, it had to be followed by the establishment of a new agency of the European Union: the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM. Notwithstanding the fact that the EU has a remarkable network of various bodies, offices and other entities, the legal status of the newly created Office is not easily comparable with the majority of other agencies at the European level. The international success of the CTM, as well as the legal originality and the economic importance of the OHIM justify the study of its normative and organizational specificities. To this end, this paper will first focus on the legal basis and the practical consequences of Office's institutional position (Chapter 1 - OHIM as an autonomous institutional structure, before entering, in a second stage, in some legal aspects of its internal organization (Chapter 2 - Competencies of the OHIM's bodies.

  17. Study on Dissemination Patterns in Location-Aware Gossiping Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    We study the properties of information dissemination over location-aware gossiping networks leveraging location-based real-time communication applications. Gossiping is a promising method for quickly disseminating messages in a large-scale system, but in its application to information dissemination for location-aware applications, it is important to consider the network topology and patterns of spatial dissemination over the network in order to achieve effective delivery of messages to potentially interested users. To this end, we propose a continuous-space network model extended from Kleinberg's small-world model applicable to actual location-based applications. Analytical and simulation-based study shows that the proposed network achieves high dissemination efficiency resulting from geographically neutral dissemination patterns as well as selective dissemination to proximate users. We have designed a highly scalable location management method capable of promptly updating the network topology in response to node movement and have implemented a distributed simulator to perform dynamic target pursuit experiments as one example of applications that are the most sensitive to message forwarding delay. The experimental results show that the proposed network surpasses other types of networks in pursuit efficiency and achieves the desirable dissemination patterns.

  18. New approaches to model and study social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P. G.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-07-01

    We describe and develop three recent novelties in network research which are particularly useful for studying social systems. The first one concerns the discovery of some basic dynamical laws that enable the emergence of the fundamental features observed in social networks, namely the nontrivial clustering properties, the existence of positive degree correlations and the subdivision into communities. To reproduce all these features, we describe a simple model of mobile colliding agents, whose collisions define the connections between the agents which are the nodes in the underlying network, and develop some analytical considerations. The second point addresses the particular feature of clustering and its relationship with global network measures, namely with the distribution of the size of cycles in the network. Since in social bipartite networks it is not possible to measure the clustering from standard procedures, we propose an alternative clustering coefficient that can be used to extract an improved normalized cycle distribution in any network. Finally, the third point addresses dynamical processes occurring on networks, namely when studying the propagation of information in them. In particular, we focus on the particular features of gossip propagation which impose some restrictions in the propagation rules. To this end we introduce a quantity, the spread factor, which measures the average maximal fraction of nearest neighbours which get in contact with the gossip, and find the striking result that there is an optimal non-trivial number of friends for which the spread factor is minimized, decreasing the danger of being gossiped about.

  19. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members...

  20. ELSA for Children Legal Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    for Children’. Throughout 2012, 250 students from 23 countries carried out research on the implementation of European and international instruments protecting children against violence and sexual abuse. The project resulted in a final report compiling national data on the different definitions and legal......In order to support the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children, to contribute to the protection of children’s rights in Europe and to increase the awareness of law students on the subject, ELSA created a network-wide Legal Research Group (LRG) called ‘ELSA...

  1. Toward a standardized investigation protocol in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy in South Africa: a multicenter study of medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Dempers, Johan; Verster, Janette; Hattingh, Christa; Nel, Hestelle; Brandt, V D; Jordaan, Joyce; Saayman, Gert

    2013-09-01

    South Africa manifests a socio-economic dichotomy that shows features of both a developed and developing country. As a result of this, areas exist where a lack of resources and expertise prevents the implementation of a highly standardized protocol for the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths in infants (SUDI). Although the medico-legal mortuaries attached to academic centers have the capacity to implement standardized protocols, a previous study conducted at two large medico-legal mortuaries indicated otherwise. This study also revealed that the exact number and incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases was unknown. These findings prompted a multicenter study of the medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes in five academic centers in South Africa. A retrospective case audit was conducted for a 5-year period (2005-2009) at medico-legal laboratories attached to universities in Bloemfontein, Cape Town-Tygerberg, Durban, Johannesburg, and Pretoria. The total case load as well as the total number of infants younger than 1 year of age admitted to these mortuaries was documented. The case files on all infants younger than 1 year of age who were admitted as sudden and unexpected or unexplained deaths were included in the study population. Data collected on the target population included demographic details, the nature and scope of the post-mortem examinations, as well as the final outcome (cause of death). A total case load of 80,399 cases were admitted to the mortuaries over the 5 year period with a total of 3,295 (6.5 %) infants. In the infant group, 591 (0.7 %) died from non-natural causes and 2,704 (3.3 %) cases of sudden, unexpected and/or unexplained deaths in infants were admitted and included in the detailed case analysis study. One hundred and ninety-nine babies were between 0 and 7 days of age and 210 babies between 8 and 30 days. The remaining 2,295 infants were between 1 month and 12 months of age. Death scene investigation was

  2. Euthanasia: the legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, C; Sanders, K

    The legal status of euthanasia is frequently deliberated. It remains unlawful in Britain and advocates for a change in the law are vigorously opposed by those who argue that it should remain unchanged. An objective account, in which current law and arguments for and against change are exposed, is essential to inform the euthanasia debate. In this article the legal issues concerning euthanasia are examined and arguments raised by proposed changes in the law are considered.

  3. Development of legal expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in learning. Performance increases monotonically with the number of practice exams following a slightly concave learning curve without any considerable kinks...

  4. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  5. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  6. Fisuras en el pensamiento jurídico contemporáneo: el movimiento «Critical Legal Studies»

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa M., Domingo A.

    2011-01-01

    A finales de los años setenta nace el movimiento Critical Legal Studies, corriente altamente heterogénea, de interés la filosofía y teoría del derecho y en la sociología jurídica. En su bagaje intelectual se ha apoyado en el iusrealismo norteamericano, el neomarxismo y el postmodernismo, desde los cuales ha negado cualquier concepción racional, objetiva, neutral, científica y apolítica del derecho, la función judicial y, en general, los discursos jurídicos. Desde una posición de izquierda, lo...

  7. Network interventions on physical activity in an afterschool program: an agent-based social network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-04-01

    We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.

  8. Legal issues in governing genetic biobanks: the Italian framework as a case study for the implications for citizen's health through public-private initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciocchi, Cinzia; Ducato, Rossana; Martinelli, Lucia; Perra, Silvia; Tomasi, Marta; Zuddas, Carla; Mascalzoni, Deborah

    2017-09-18

    This paper outlines some of the challenges faced by regulation of genetic biobanking, using case studies coming from the Italian legal system. The governance of genetic resources in the context of genetic biobanks in Italy is discussed, as an example of the stratification of different inputs and rules: EU law, national law, orders made by authorities and soft law, which need to be integrated with ethical principles, technological strategies and solutions. After providing an overview of the Italian legal regulation of genetic data processing, it considers the fate of genetic material and IP rights in the event of a biobank's insolvency. To this end, it analyses two case studies: a controversial bankruptcy case which occurred in Sardinia, one of the first examples of private and public partnership biobanks. Another case study considered is the Chris project: an example of partnership between a research institute in Bolzano and the South Tyrolean Health System. Both cases seem to point in the same direction, suggesting expediency of promoting and improving public-private partnerships to manage biological tissues and biotrust to conciliate patent law and public interest.

  9. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Larry; Wilson, William

    1979-11-01

    This Executive Summary presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations developed from the completion of five (5) case studies of hydroelectric sites at High Falls, Georgia; Traverse City, Michigan; Swanville Lake, Maine; Cornell, Wisconsin; and Maxwell Locks, Pennsylvania. The work was accomplished by the Energy Law Institute of the Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH, for the National Conference of State Legislatures. The material contained here is, in part, a summary of the five separate reports on the legal and institutional barriers and incentives bearing on the development of each site. It is also a summary of the cumulative impressions of the actual general legal and institutional climate for small-scale hydroelectric development represented by the issues confronting each site. This document provides a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of hydroelectric facilities identified in the five full reports. A second Executive Summary is presented on the findings of two case studies of small-scale hydroelectric power at existing dams. The projects reviewed are: six sites in the irrigation system known as the Columbia Basin Project and two sites in the Bull Run watershed which supplies water to the City of Portland, Oregon. Key incentives and impediments are identified in these case studies conducted at the University of Washington.

  10. Socialising Health Burden Through Different Network Topologies: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Adrian; Cheung, Anthony; Kim, Peter; Poon, Simon K

    2017-01-01

    An aging population and the expectation of premium quality health services combined with the increasing economic burden of the healthcare system requires a paradigm shift toward patient oriented healthcare. The guardian angel theory described by Szolovits [1] explores the notion of enlisting patients as primary providers of information and motivation to patients with similar clinical history through social connections. In this study, an agent based model was developed to simulate to explore how individuals are affected through their levels of intrinsic positivity. Ring, point-to-point (paired buddy), and random networks were modelled, with individuals able to send messages to each other given their levels of variables positivity and motivation. Of the 3 modelled networks it is apparent that the ring network provides the most equal, collective improvement in positivity and motivation for all users. Further study into other network topologies should be undertaken in the future.

  11. Religious networking organizations and social justice: an ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R

    2012-09-01

    The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.

  12. Comparative study on the topological structure of China Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Min; Zhang, Ning; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    China Education Network (CEN) of year 2014 was studied as a complex network object. By searching the domain of “.edu.cn” and filtering some unexpected results, we finally get a network with 14,100,628 pages and 213,513,401 links. The topology of this network was studied to get the features such as out-degree distribution, in-degree distribution and average shortest path length. These features were compared with that of year 2007 and 2004 to observe the evolution mechanisms of CEN. According to the statistical results, it is found that some topology features of CEN such as out-degree distribution, in-degree distribution and average shortest path have changed a lot and the related reasons for these changes are given in this paper.

  13. Ecosystem Studies within the German network TERENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Corinna; Cuntz, Matthias; Drüe, Clemens; Graf, Alexander; Mauder, Matthias; Schmidt, Marius; Schmid, Hans Peter; Sachs, Torsten; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Many future environmental changes will be caused by global climate change. To find solutions which help to deal with alterations in climate, ecosystem productivity, and water resources, an interdisciplinary and long-term research programme involving six Helmholtz Association Centers, was established in Germany. TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) spans an Earth observation network that extends from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps. This large-scale project aims to catalogue the longterm ecological, social and economic impact of global change at regional level. In this contribution we mainly describe the infrastructure which is used to determine the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of trace gases and energy in four German regions with different land use and climatic and edaphic conditions. A strong focus will be on the terrestrial water budgets, such as variability of precipitation and soil moisture, but also on the partitioning of evapotranspiration with the help of intensive sap flow measurements. Some of the TERENO sites do also contribute to the ICOS infrastructure where the main focus is the quantification of greenhouse gases with standardized measurement techniques. The TERENO sites involved are located in the Northeastern German Lowland (GFZ), Central Germany Lowland / Harz (UFZ), the Lower Rhine Valley / Eifel (FZJ) and in the Bavarian Prealps (KIT).

  14. Numerical study on the perception-based network formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation, we numerically study a perception-based network formation model. Here each individual is assumed to have his/her own perception of the actual network, and use it to decide whether to create a link to other individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating his/her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. The initial actual network and initial perceptions are modeled by Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random networks but with different linking probabilities. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. The effect of initial conditions on the complexity o...

  15. The criminal legal aid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Changhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.965The subject of the article is the criminal legal aid in China.The main goal of this work is to introduce the current state of legal aid in criminal cases in China to Russian scholars and legal professionals.Results. Criminal Legal Aid in China appeared relatively recently, and in the last years of its operation was marked by a number of achievements and some problems. Legal assistance in criminal cases is an integral part of the institute of legal aid in China and plays an invalu-able role in ensuring due process, maintaining the balance between prosecution and de-fense, as well as in guaranteeing human rights. This study contains a general description of the current state of criminal legal aid in China, highlights inherent problems of this institu-tion and describes prospects of its development. This work is based on the Criminal Proce-dure Code of the PRC in version of 2013 year, and provides analysis of the Russian and Chi-nese special literature, Chinese law and practice, as well as the official Chinese statistics. The scope of legal assistance in criminal cases is extremely narrow, the funding is not enough, and the quality leaves much to be desired. These and other shortcomings already have become obstacles to the development of the Chinese criminal procedure law. Despite of a number of changes to the legal regulation of the institute in the 2013 edition of the PRC Criminal Procedure Code, a number of issues remained unresolved.Conclusions. The existing difficulties can be overcame by expanding the scope of legal aid, increase in funding and introduction of public defenders. To increase funding in the budgets proposed to establish minimum public funding of legal aid, to attract non-governmental and international funding, to strengthen control and to ensure openness and transparency of spending. To improve the quality of legal aid PRC government should rise up compensations for lawyers, introduce the institution of public

  16. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  17. Incest: psychological, legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinor, J; Miller, A M

    1989-01-01

    The psychological, legal and ethical considerations in treating victims and prosecuting offenders in the United States are described, and the dilemmas highlighted by the use of a detailed case study of an incest victim.

  18. AN ASSESSMENT OF LEGALLY PROTECTED MARINE FAUNA IN CURIO TRADE – A MARKET STUDY FROM TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajan JOHN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In an endeavor to prioritize the conservation of marine environment, species that are threatened were given protection under various Schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. Though the protection is sturdy on paper, marine fauna, such as sea shells, corals and sea horses are often illegally collected from their natural environment and are traded as marine curiosities. To assess those protected marine species in the curio trade in the state of Tamil Nadu, South India, certain major tourist and pilgrimage hot spots were surveyed during 2007. Among surveyed curio markets, Kanyakumari was found to have an alarming number of protected species being traded through huge number of marine curio shops. 15 species of legally protected mollusks, 10 species of corals and one sea horse species were found, along with other non-protected marine taxa in curio trade. Species protected through Schedule I were often highly priced than those under Schedule IV. The present survey suggests that protected marine species are an integral part in the growing marine curio business. High market demand, coupled with a lack of awareness and an inadequate enforcement were found to be major driving forces for the illegal marine curio trade. Awareness campaigns, along with a promotion of viable and alternate sources of income for seashell / coral collectors and strengthening of law enforcement may curtail the illegal marine curio trade.

  19. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  20. Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Health Research: Enlisting Legal Theory as a Methodological Guide in an Interdisciplinary Case Study of Mental Health and Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we assess whether a legal theory, known as therapeutic jurisprudence, functions as a useful methodological theory. Therapeutic jurisprudence, recruited across discipline boundaries, succeeds in guiding our qualitative inquiry at the complex intersection of mental health care and criminal law by providing a framework foundation for directing the study's research questions and the related propositions that focus our analysis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics of women in a public hospital in Campinas who underwent legal abortion due to sexual violence: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Mutta, Danielle; Angerame Yela, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence is increasingly frequent worldwide. The aim here was to evaluate the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of women who requested legal abortion, at a public healthcare service, after sufering sexual violence. Retrospective descriptive study on 131 women who underwent legal abortion at the University of Campinas between 1994 and 2014, consequent to sexual violence. The sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of women who were victims of sexual violence were evaluated from their medical records. The tests used to evaluate possible associations were the chi-square and/or Fisher's exact test. The women's mean age was 23 ± 9.2 years; 77.9% were white and 71.8% were single; 32.8% were students and 58.6% had employment outside of their homes. The majority reported that they did not know the aggressor (62.3%), but among the adolescents, 58% of the aggressors were known. The majority asked for abortion up to the 12th weeks of gestation (63.4%). Only 2.3% presented curettage complications. The psychological situation most frequently encountered was determined, in 34.4% of the cases before the abortion; and good in 32.8% after the abortion. There was greater occurrence of sexual violence among students and women who worked outside. Among the students, most of these were adolescents and had no previous sexual life. The teenagers were raped by a known aggressor.

  2. Self-employed persons in Sweden - mortality differentials by industrial sector and enterprise legal form: a five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Susanna; Mellner, Christin; Vinberg, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated mortality differentials between self-employed persons in Sweden, considering industrial sector, enterprise characteristics and socio-demographic factors. Data on 321,274 self-employed persons were obtained from population registers in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios by industrial sector and enterprise legal form, adjusted for confounders. All-cause mortality was 10-32% higher in self-employed persons in Manufacturing and Mining, Trade and Communication, and Not Specified and Other sectors than in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing. Mortality from cardiovascular disease was 23% higher in Trade and Communication, and from neoplasms 17-51% higher in Manufacturing and Mining, Not Specified, and Other. Mortality from suicide was 45-60% lower in Personal and Cultural Services, and in Not Specified. Mortality was 8-16% higher in sole proprietorship than limited partnership. Further research of working conditions is warranted, considering industry and enterprise legal form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metabolic robustness and network modularity: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2011-02-02

    Several studies have mentioned network modularity-that a network can easily be decomposed into subgraphs that are densely connected within and weakly connected between each other-as a factor affecting metabolic robustness. In this paper we measure the relation between network modularity and several aspects of robustness directly in a model system of metabolism. By using a model for generating chemical reaction systems where one can tune the network modularity, we find that robustness increases with modularity for changes in the concentrations of metabolites, whereas it decreases with changes in the expression of enzymes. The same modularity scaling is true for the speed of relaxation after the perturbations. Modularity is not a general principle for making metabolism either more or less robust; this question needs to be addressed specifically for different types of perturbations of the system.

  4. Inter-organizational network studies - a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Waldstrøm, Christian

    The vast body of studies on inter-organizational networks suffers from a number of conceptual and methodological gaps which render some of the studies incompatible and hinder a greater understanding and coherence of the field. Part of the problem is that quite a number of the concepts, methods...... literature review of the last 12 years' research on inter-organizational networks, with a focus on the methodological aspects. The findings of this paper is that few of the previous studies have used the full methodological (and thus theoretical) scope of the available data and that the most cited papers...

  5. Recurrence networks to study dynamical transitions in a turbulent combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, V.; Unni, V. R.; Gopalakrishnan, E. A.; Sujith, R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Thermoacoustic instability and lean blowout are the major challenges faced when a gas turbine combustor is operated under fuel lean conditions. The dynamics of thermoacoustic system is the result of complex nonlinear interactions between the subsystems—turbulent reactive flow and the acoustic field of the combustor. In order to study the transitions between the dynamical regimes in such a complex system, the time series corresponding to one of the dynamic variables is transformed to an ɛ-recurrence network. The topology of the recurrence network resembles the structure of the attractor representing the dynamics of the system. The transitions in the thermoacoustic system are then captured as the variation in the topological characteristics of the network. We show the presence of power law degree distribution in the recurrence networks constructed from time series acquired during the occurrence of combustion noise and during the low amplitude aperiodic oscillations prior to lean blowout. We also show the absence of power law degree distribution in the recurrence networks constructed from time series acquired during the occurrence of thermoacoustic instability and during the occurrence of intermittency. We demonstrate that the measures derived from recurrence network can be used as tools to capture the transitions in the turbulent combustor and also as early warning measures for predicting impending thermoacoustic instability and blowout.

  6. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  7. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  8. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  10. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true.

  11. Patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids in the Middle East: An exploratory study of medico-legal referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramage, Kolitha; De Silva, Malintha; Peiris, Sharika

    2017-01-01

    Migrant worker abuse is well recognised, but poorly characterised within the scientific literature. This study aimed to explore patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids. Sri Lanka has over 2 million of its citizens employed overseas as international labor migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Sri Lankan female domestic maids returning from the Middle East region who were referred for medico-legal opinion. A total of 20 women were included in the study. Average length of their employment overseas was 14 months. Complaints of physical violence directed mainly through their employers were made by 60% of women. Upon physical examination, two-thirds had evidence of injuries, with a third being subjected to repetitive/systematic violence. Eighty percent suffered some form of psychological trauma. Personal identity papers and travel documents had been confiscated by the employer in 85% of cases, with two thirds indicating they were prevented and/or restricted from leaving their place of work/residence. Our study demonstrates that female domestic maid abuse manifests through multiple pathways. Violence against such workers span the full spectrum of physical, financial, verbal, emotional abuse and neglect, as defined by the World Health Organization. Findings from this exploratory study cannot be generalized to the large volume of migrant worker outflows. Further research is needed to determine incidence and define patterns in other migrant worker categories such as low-skilled male workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study of Rank Defect and Network Effect in Processing the CMONOC Network on Bernese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-precision GPS data processing on Bernese has been employed to routinely resolve daily position solutions of GPS stations in the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC. The rank-deficient problems of the normal equation (NEQ system and the network effect on the frame alignment of NEQs in the processing of CMONOC data on Bernese still present difficulties. In this study, we diagnose the rank-deficient problems of the original NEQ, review the efficiency of the controlled datum removal (CDR method in filtering out the three frame-origin-related datum contents, investigate the reliabilities of the inherited frame orientation and scale information from the fixation of the GPS satellite orbits and the Earth rotation parameters in establishing the NEQ of the CMONOC network on Bernese, and analyze the impact of the network effect on the position time series of GPS stations. Our results confirm the nonsingularity of the original NEQ and the efficiency of the CDR filtering in resolving the rank-deficient problems; show that the frame origin parameters are weakly defined and should be stripped off, while the frame orientation and scale parameters should be retained due to their insufficient redefinition from the minimal constraint (MC implementation through inhomogeneous and asymmetrical fiducial networks; and reveal the superiority of a globally distributed fiducial network for frame alignment of the reconstructed NEQs via No-Net-Translation (NNT MC conditions. Finally, we attribute the two apparent discontinuities in the position time series to the terrestrial reference frame (TRF conversions of the GPS satellite orbits, and identify it as the orbit TRF effect.

  13. A computational study of routing algorithms for realistic transportation networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.V.; Nagel, K.

    1998-12-01

    The authors carry out an experimental analysis of a number of shortest path (routing) algorithms investigated in the context of the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and Simulation System) project. The main focus of the paper is to study how various heuristic and exact solutions, associated data structures affected the computational performance of the software developed especially for realistic transportation networks. For this purpose the authors have used Dallas Fort-Worth road network with very high degree of resolution. The following general results are obtained: (1) they discuss and experimentally analyze various one-one shortest path algorithms, which include classical exact algorithms studied in the literature as well as heuristic solutions that are designed to take into account the geometric structure of the input instances; (2) they describe a number of extensions to the basic shortest path algorithm. These extensions were primarily motivated by practical problems arising in TRANSIMS and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) related technologies. Extensions discussed include--(i) time dependent networks, (ii) multi-modal networks, (iii) networks with public transportation and associated schedules. Computational results are provided to empirically compare the efficiency of various algorithms. The studies indicate that a modified Dijkstra`s algorithm is computationally fast and an excellent candidate for use in various transportation planning applications as well as ITS related technologies.

  14. Exploiting sensitivity analysis in Bayesian networks for consumer satisfaction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaronski, W.; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Vanhoof, K.; Wets, G.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an application of Bayesian network technology in a empirical customer satisfaction study. The findings of the study should provide insight as to the importance of product/service dimensions in terms of the strength of their influence on overall satisfaction. To this end we apply a

  15. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM and Protein Contact Network (PCN are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology.

  16. Global Malaysian Studies Network: A Proposal to Australian National University

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof; Zarina Othman; Shamsul, A.B.; Mohamed Abu Bakar Kassim

    2014-01-01

    Problem statement: Global Malaysian Studies Network (GMSN) is an idea proposed to Australian National University (ANU) in setting up its Malaysian Studies. Currently, there are a number of academic institutions which have established its Malaysian Studies. However, there have been problems and restraints where some research institutes have failed to effectively deliver such studies and in turn drives institute to shift to the other studies which promise good students and research funds. With ...

  17. Legal Issues in Clinical Supervision. ACA Legal Series, Volume 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. Janelle; Stephens, Anthony M.

    In recent decades, mental health professionals have expanded their role in the legal process. This monograph tries to help clinical supervisors avoid legal pitfalls by explaining some of the legal principles involved in their work. Although familiarity with relevant ethical standards is important, a discussion of these standards is presented only…

  18. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant....... This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show...... that although the reconfiguration is performed to achieve a single objective, the overall network performance is improved. In addition, the value achieved by reconfiguration can be very sensitive to the reconfiguration frequency and the associated cost....

  19. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  20. Spontaneous Occupation in the region of Vigário Lagoon, in Campos dos Goytacazes – Brazil: study of environmental mitigating measures and legal adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pavan de Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban centers’ spontaneous and disordered occupation processes bring difficulty to harmonic development in cities. Such processes cause excessive extension of urban tissue, disturbing infrastructure and basic services implantation. Besides its contribution to functional disintegration of urban space, spontaneous occupation makes transport net implementation and planning harder. In Campos dos Goytacazes city, studied in the present work, as in other Brazilian cities, that type of occupation occur in a huge variety of environments, of which urban lagoons can be detached. This research aimed to enlighten this phenomenon in the region of Vigário Lagoon, in order to propose environmental mitigating measures and legal adequacy strategies to guarantee environmental quality for resident and nearby population.

  1. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  2. Sanad and Ulama Network of the Quranic Studies in Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Milal Bizawie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several studies related to the development of Qur'anic studies, especially in the field of interpretation, implicit questions remain unanswered on current connectivity and the authority of science in the Qur'anic studies as well as the capability of a person in compiling commentary or interpretation of the Qur’an that has an effect on Islamic society in Indonesia. Interpretations of al Quran today seems to be affected by various sources leading to polemics. According to scholars in Nusantara, it can be understood that there is a connection with the network of scholars based in the Middle East making the thoughts unseparated from the cleric network. Therefore, to uncover a network of sciences and chain of transmission lines (sanad in Qur'anic studies is very important, particualrly in understanding the intersection between Huffaz clerics and tarekats in the dissemination of teaching the Qur'an.The study highlights that there is continuity and correlation between Huffaz and tarekat scholars network in Nusantara. However, at this time, the development of interpretation studies in Nusantara seems to be increasingly departed and separated by the guards of Qur’an, tarekat and the Islam community.

  3. Legal philosophy as practical philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    My purpose in this paper is to make a case for the strictly philosophical nature of our discipline, legal philosophy. I first take a prior stance on the issue of what philosophy is in general and outline some premises for the definition of philosophical rationality. This then leads me to critically examine Bobbio’s dichotomy between jurists’ legal philosophy and philosophers’ legal philosophy. It is essential to reformulate the relationships between legal philosophy as a “special” or “regiona...

  4. Constitutional Values, Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Legal Education in South Africa: Shaping our Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Fourie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Law schools have a responsibility to remind law students that by studying law they have the power to transform thoughts, policies and lives, and that practising law is not just about financial rewards, but that its greatest reward is contributing to the betterment of society and ultimately to social change. The values and philosophies that law lecturers instil in law students can contribute to the legal order of the future; a legal order that supports a transformative South Africa. A need exists to bring legal education closer to the values enshrined in our Constitution. In addition to an extensive knowledge of legal principles, critical thinking and research skills, law students should critically engage with our constitutional values. The question remains: How do we transform legal education in South Africa? How do we change the way we teach law students? The introduction of concepts such as therapeutic jurisprudence enhanced by our constitutional values will ensure that we deliver graduates that display a commitment to our constitutional vales and an ability to engage critically with these values. It is important to establish a professional legal identity amongst students from their first year as this will assist in the development of a well-rounded graduate that can contribute to the legal order of the future. Letter writing and drafting skills, the value of plain language, moot court activities, alternative dispute resolution and clinical legal education provide opportunities to integrate valuable therapeutic jurisprudence principles into the curriculum and can allow students to critically engage with our constitutional values. By embodying these values they can improve the legal system, shape our legal order and promote progress toward an equal and free democratic society as envisaged by the Constitution.

  5. Legal implications of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H R

    1988-01-01

    Physicians who care for patients with epilepsy may function as agents or targets of social control. As agents, they may assist in the identification and control of epileptic drivers, may provide information that enables fair and appropriate job placements for epileptic persons, and give testimony that helps the legal system resolve issues relating to the liability of epileptic persons for harm attributed to seizures or interictal behavioral disturbances. As targets, they may be charged with negligent failure to diagnose, treat, or inform about epilepsy or its associated problems, with failure to exercise due care in protecting persons harmed by their patients, or with failure to preserve confidentiality of medical information. Although legislation and judicial decisions have defined some of the physician's legal duties with reasonable clarity, areas of uncertainty remain, particularly regarding the issue of violating medical confidentiality for the benefit of persons other than the patient.

  6. Quantitative studies of subdiffusion in living cells and actin networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Emilia-Laura; Olsen, Anja Lea; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija

    2006-01-01

    of optical tweezers data, primarily baed on the power spectra of time series of postions for trapped spherical objects. The majority of precise studies in the literature are performed on in vitro systems, whereas in the present work, an example of an in vivo system is presented for which precise power...... spectral analysis is both useful and necessary. The biological system is the cytoplasm of fission yeast, S. pombe, in which we observe subdiffusion of lipid granuli. in a search for the cause of subdiffusion, we chemically disrupt the actin network in the cytoplasm and further consider in vitro networks...

  7. Social disadvantage, mental illness and predictors of legal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N

    2006-01-01

    The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.

  8. Holistic Thinking Aproach: Case Study of Post Network in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lisec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern complexity of management is associated with importantdecision making, confronting a great number of uselessinformation. Selection of information- the choice of only qualityones, i. e. essential ones, is a big problem in management decision-making. Implementation of systemic approach i. e. dialectical-network thinking (DNT can help to deal with it. Thepaper presents a holistic thinking approach in a case study forthe Slovenian parcel postal problem. The volume of parcelflows at the Post of Slovenia between Posts is increasing rapidlyand it requires a new design of the postal network. This paperpresents a reorganization of parcel services between Postal LogisticsCenters and Posts by adding Regional Parcel Centersand Parcel Posts to the network. A case for the area covered byLjubljana Postal Logistics Center is given, which takes intoconsideration the sorting out and the retaining of parcels in thePosts, Parcel Posts and Regional Parcel Centers within their individualareas.

  9. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Collective Study On Security Threats In VOIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective study will critically evaluate the voice over internet protocol VOIP Security threats issues amp challenges in the communication over the network the solution provided by different vendors. Authors will be discussing all security issues different protocols but main focus will be on SIP protocol its implementation and vendors VOIP security system.

  11. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  12. Social Networks and Health: A Systematic Review of Sociocentric Network Studies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), naturally occurring social networks may be particularly vital to health outcomes as extended webs of social ties often are the principal source of various resources. Understanding how social network structure, and influential individuals within the network, may amplify the effects of interventions in LMICs, by creating, for example, cascade effects to non-targeted participants, presents an opportunity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public health interventions in such settings. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, Econlit, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycINFO to identify a sample of 17 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 studies) that specifically examined health issues in LMICs. We also separately selected to review 19 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 other studies) on development topics related to wellbeing in LMICs. First, to provide a methodological resource, we discuss the sociocentric network study designs employed in the selected papers, and then provide a catalog of 105 name generator questions used to measure social ties across all the LMIC network papers (including both ego- and sociocentric network papers) cited in this review. Second, we show that network composition, individual network centrality, and network structure are associated with important health behaviors and health and development outcomes in different contexts across multiple levels of analysis and across distinct network types. Lastly, we highlight the opportunities for health researchers and practitioners in LMICs to 1) design effective studies and interventions in LMICs that account for the sociocentric network positions of certain individuals and overall network structure, 2) measure the spread of outcomes or intervention externalities, and 3) enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of aid based on knowledge of social structure. In summary, human health and wellbeing are connected through complex

  13. Social networks and health: a systematic review of sociocentric network studies in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), naturally occurring social networks may be particularly vital to health outcomes as extended webs of social ties often are the principal source of various resources. Understanding how social network structure, and influential individuals within the network, may amplify the effects of interventions in LMICs, by creating, for example, cascade effects to non-targeted participants, presents an opportunity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public health interventions in such settings. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, Econlit, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycINFO to identify a sample of 17 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 studies) that specifically examined health issues in LMICs. We also separately selected to review 19 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 other studies) on development topics related to wellbeing in LMICs. First, to provide a methodological resource, we discuss the sociocentric network study designs employed in the selected papers, and then provide a catalog of 105 name generator questions used to measure social ties across all the LMIC network papers (including both ego- and sociocentric network papers) cited in this review. Second, we show that network composition, individual network centrality, and network structure are associated with important health behaviors and health and development outcomes in different contexts across multiple levels of analysis and across distinct network types. Lastly, we highlight the opportunities for health researchers and practitioners in LMICs to 1) design effective studies and interventions in LMICs that account for the sociocentric network positions of certain individuals and overall network structure, 2) measure the spread of outcomes or intervention externalities, and 3) enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of aid based on knowledge of social structure. In summary, human health and wellbeing are connected through complex

  14. Software for Brain Network Simulations: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.; Narayana, Vikram; Bozkus, Zeki; El-Ghazawi, Tarek A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations of brain networks are a critical part of our efforts in understanding brain functions under pathological and normal conditions. For several decades, the community has developed many software packages and simulators to accelerate research in computational neuroscience. In this article, we select the three most popular simulators, as determined by the number of models in the ModelDB database, such as NEURON, GENESIS, and BRIAN, and perform an independent evaluation of these simulators. In addition, we study NEST, one of the lead simulators of the Human Brain Project. First, we study them based on one of the most important characteristics, the range of supported models. Our investigation reveals that brain network simulators may be biased toward supporting a specific set of models. However, all simulators tend to expand the supported range of models by providing a universal environment for the computational study of individual neurons and brain networks. Next, our investigations on the characteristics of computational architecture and efficiency indicate that all simulators compile the most computationally intensive procedures into binary code, with the aim of maximizing their computational performance. However, not all simulators provide the simplest method for module development and/or guarantee efficient binary code. Third, a study of their amenability for high-performance computing reveals that NEST can almost transparently map an existing model on a cluster or multicore computer, while NEURON requires code modification if the model developed for a single computer has to be mapped on a computational cluster. Interestingly, parallelization is the weakest characteristic of BRIAN, which provides no support for cluster computations and limited support for multicore computers. Fourth, we identify the level of user support and frequency of usage for all simulators. Finally, we carry out an evaluation using two case studies: a large network with

  15. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  16. Psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals: Exploring roles in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Treesa Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental health and legal problems are interlinked in many ways. People facing legal issues may develop mental health problems, and people with mental illness and family also face legal issues. In India, Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 gives provision for free legal aid services for the poor sections of society. Authors explain the roles of psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals. Social case work as a method of social work is suitable in legal aid services. Counseling, referrals, collateral contacts, advocacy and networking are major services from the social work perspective. Knowledge about laws and mental illness is essential for social workers to work in legal aid clinics (LACs.

  17. Legal Translator Training: Partnership between Teachers of English for Legal Purposes and Legal Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Jill; Brown, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Training legal English specialists is one area in which cooperation between discipline and language specialists is particularly valuable. Seven short excerpts from a short training course run jointly by teachers of English for legal purposes and legal specialists are presented and analysed to illustrate the contribution an ESP oriented approach,…

  18. Studies of infrasound propagation using the USArray seismic network (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, M. A.; Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are currently ~ 100 infrasound arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Much structure in the atmosphere is short-lived and occurs at spatial scales much smaller than the average distance between infrasound stations. Relatively large infrasound signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasound arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasound wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound signals and shed more light on the nature of infrasound propagation. We present early results from our studies of impulsive atmospheric sources, such as series of UTTR rocket motor detonations in Utah. The Utah blasts have been well recorded by USArray seismic stations and infrasound arrays in Nevada and Washington State. Recordings of seismic signals from a series of six events in 2007 are used to pinpoint the shot times to anticipate studying dense acoustic network recordings as the USArray is currently being upgraded with infrasound microphones. These new sensors will allow us to make semi-continental scale network recordings of infrasound signals free of concerns about how the signals observed on seismic channels were modified when being coupled to seismic.

  19. Sustaining a Global Social Network: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Ferguson, S L

    2017-03-01

    To examine the longer term impact on the social network of participating nurses in the Global Nursing Leadership Institute (GNLI2013) through using differing frequencies of follow-up to assess impact on maintenance of network cohesion. Social network analysis is increasingly been used by nurse researchers, however, studies tend to use single point-in-time descriptive methods. This study utilizes a repeated measures, block group, control-intervention, quasi-experimental design. Twenty-eight nurse leaders, competitively selected through a double-blind peer review process, were allocated to five action learning-based learning groups. Network architecture, measures of cohesion and node degree frequency were all used to assess programme impact. The programme initiated and sustained connections between nurse leaders drawn from a geographically dispersed heterogeneous group. Modest inputs of two to three e-mails over a 6-month period seem sufficient to maintain connectivity as indicated by measures of network density, diameter and path length. Due to the teaching methodology used, the study sample was relatively small and the follow-up data collection took place after a relatively short time. Replication and further cohort data collection would be advantageous. In an era where many policy solutions are being debated and initiated at the global level, action learning leadership development that utilizes new technology follow-up appears to show significant impact and is worthy of wider application. The approach warrants further inquiry and testing as to its longer term effects on nursing's influence on policy formulation and implementation. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  20. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  1. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...... Pizmony-Levy Drezner), research on the 2014 Danish school reform (Dorthe Staunæs), policy borrowing theory and methodology (Katja Brøgger Jensen), and comparative policy studies (Gita Steiner-Khamsi). Papers The Relevance of the Research Project Understanding the Context/Case Policy Borrowing Research...

  3. Data science and complex networks real case studies with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive yet short description of the basic concepts of complex network theory and the code to implement this theory. Differently from other books, we present these concepts starting from real cases of study. The application topics span from food webs, to the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social networks, passing through the international trade web and financial time series. The final part is devoted to definition and implementation of the most important network models. We provide information on the structure of the data and on the quality of available datasets. Furthermore, we provide a series of codes to implement instantly what is described theoretically in the book. People knowing the basis of network theory could learn the art of coding in Python by checking our codes and using the online material. In particular, the interactive Python notebook format is used so that the reader can immediately experiment by themselves with the codes present in the manuscript. To this purpose...

  4. Wind Speed Forecasting by Wavelet Neural Networks: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanan Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental degradation and depletion of conventional energy, much attention has been devoted to wind energy in many countries. The intermittent nature of wind power has had a great impact on power grid security. Accurate forecasting of wind speed plays a vital role in power system stability. This paper presents a comparison of three wavelet neural networks for short-term forecasting of wind speed. The first two combined models are two types of basic combinations of wavelet transform and neural network, namely, compact wavelet neural network (CWNN and loose wavelet neural network (LWNN in this study, and the third model is a new hybrid method based on the CWNN and LWNN models. The efficiency of the combined models has been evaluated by using actual wind speed from two test stations in North China. The results show that the forecasting performances of the CWNN and LWNN models are unstable and are affected by the test stations selected; the third model is far more accurate than the other forecasting models in spite of the drawback of lower computational efficiency.

  5. A Scan of CDC-Authored Articles on Legal Epidemiology, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Leila; Presley, David; Klieger, Sarah; Burris, Scott

    2016-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts research on legal epidemiology, the scientific study of law as a factor in the cause, distribution, and prevention of disease. This study describes a scan of articles written by CDC staff members to characterize the frequency and key features of legal epidemiology articles and their distribution across CDC departments and divisions. CDC librarians searched an internal repository for journal articles by CDC staff published from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2015. Researchers reviewed and coded the abstracts to produce data on key features of the articles. Researchers identified 158 CDC-authored legal epidemiology articles published in 83 journals, most frequently in Preventing Chronic Disease (14 publications), Journal of Public Health Management Practice (10 publications), and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (9 publications). Most articles concerned the use and impact of law as a deliberate tool of intervention. Thirteen articles addressed the legal infrastructure of public health, and 3 assessed the incidental or unintended effects of nonhealth laws. CDC-authored articles encompassed policy making, implementation, and impact. Literature reviews and studies mapping laws across multiple jurisdictions constituted one-quarter of all publications. Studies addressed laws at the international, national, state, local, and organizational levels. Results of the scan can be used to identify opportunities for the agency to better support research, professional development, networking, publication, and tracking of publication in this emerging field.

  6. Unaccompanied and Separated Foreign Children in the Care System in the Western Cape – A Socio-Legal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study of foreign children accommodated in the care system in the Western Cape, based on fieldwork conducted in child and youth care centres. The objectives of the study were firstly to map and quantify the number and demographics of foreign children placed in all CYCCs across the Western Cape. Secondly, the study aimed to analyse the reasons for children's migration and the circumstances around their placement in residential care institutions in order to establish whether family reunification was possible or desirable. Thirdly, the study explores the sufficiency of efforts made to trace and reunify the children with their families, whether in South Africa or across borders, as the institutional placement of children should not only be a last resort but it should preferably be temporary whilst family-based solutions are sought. Lastly, the documentation status of the children in the study was examined. Recommendations emanating from the research conclude the study.

  7. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  8. Structural Behavioral Study on the General Aviation Network Based on Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Na

    2017-12-01

    The general aviation system is an open and dissipative system with complex structures and behavioral features. This paper has established the system model and network model for general aviation. We have analyzed integral attributes and individual attributes by applying the complex network theory and concluded that the general aviation network has influential enterprise factors and node relations. We have checked whether the network has small world effect, scale-free property and network centrality property which a complex network should have by applying degree distribution of functions and proved that the general aviation network system is a complex network. Therefore, we propose to achieve the evolution process of the general aviation industrial chain to collaborative innovation cluster of advanced-form industries by strengthening network multiplication effect, stimulating innovation performance and spanning the structural hole path.

  9. Computational study of noise in a large signal transduction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohonen Keijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical systems are inherently noisy due to the discrete reaction events that occur in a random manner. Although noise is often perceived as a disturbing factor, the system might actually benefit from it. In order to understand the role of noise better, its quality must be studied in a quantitative manner. Computational analysis and modeling play an essential role in this demanding endeavor. Results We implemented a large nonlinear signal transduction network combining protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phospholipase A2, and β isoform of phospholipase C networks. We simulated the network in 300 different cellular volumes using the exact Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm and analyzed the results in both the time and frequency domain. In order to perform simulations in a reasonable time, we used modern parallel computing techniques. The analysis revealed that time and frequency domain characteristics depend on the system volume. The simulation results also indicated that there are several kinds of noise processes in the network, all of them representing different kinds of low-frequency fluctuations. In the simulations, the power of noise decreased on all frequencies when the system volume was increased. Conclusions We concluded that basic frequency domain techniques can be applied to the analysis of simulation results produced by the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm. This approach is suited not only to the study of fluctuations but also to the study of pure noise processes. Noise seems to have an important role in biochemical systems and its properties can be numerically studied by simulating the reacting system in different cellular volumes. Parallel computing techniques make it possible to run massive simulations in hundreds of volumes and, as a result, accurate statistics can be obtained from computational studies.

  10. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The Impact of Legalizing and Regulating Weed: Issues with Study Design and Emerging Findings in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Priscillia E; Miles, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of medical and recreational marijuana laws rely on quasi- or natural experiments in which researchers exploit changes in the law and attempt to determine the impact of these changes on outcomes. This chapter reviews three key issues of causal inference in observational studies with respect to estimating of impact of medical or recreational laws on marijuana use-intervention definition, outcome measurement, and random assignment of study participants. We show that studies tend to use the same statistical approach (differences-in-differences) and yet find differential impacts of medical marijuana laws on adult use in particular. We demonstrate that these seemingly conflicting findings may be due to different years of analysis, ages of the study sample in each year, and assignment of jurisdictions to the control group versus treatment group.

  12. Educational Designs Supporting Student Engagement Through Network Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2016-01-01

    , developed from the traditions of organizing university studies through student-driven project work and problem-driven learning approaches, which have been developed at the Danish universities of Roskilde and Aalborg as early as from the beginning of the 1970s. Specific educational designs integrating...... digital media are discussed, especially focusing on student engagement and the implications of organizing the pedagogical practice as networked project work. The discussions are based on the author’s experiences during 16 years of teaching and supervising at the Danish Master’s Program of ICT and Learning...... (MIL), where students conduct blended learning study in groups within a networked learning structure. In problem-oriented learning and teaching, teachers act as well as teachers and as supervisors of students’ projects. This challenges the traditional teacher role, and it is crucial for a teacher...

  13. Bayesian neural networks for detecting epistasis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrew L; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Doyle, Jon

    2014-11-21

    Discovering causal genetic variants from large genetic association studies poses many difficult challenges. Assessing which genetic markers are involved in determining trait status is a computationally demanding task, especially in the presence of gene-gene interactions. A non-parametric Bayesian approach in the form of a Bayesian neural network is proposed for use in analyzing genetic association studies. Demonstrations on synthetic and real data reveal they are able to efficiently and accurately determine which variants are involved in determining case-control status. By using graphics processing units (GPUs) the time needed to build these models is decreased by several orders of magnitude. In comparison with commonly used approaches for detecting interactions, Bayesian neural networks perform very well across a broad spectrum of possible genetic relationships. The proposed framework is shown to be a powerful method for detecting causal SNPs while being computationally efficient enough to handle large datasets.

  14. Legal and Managerial Implications of the Italian ‘Contratto Di Rete’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio Massari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, innovation and internationalization processes need more programming and high investments in new knowledge and relationships. Through trans-sectorial and trans-territorial networks, SMEs can participate to global dynamics, especially in terms of knowledge sharing and absorbing. We propose that the ‘Contratto di Rete’ (Network Contract is an innovative type of formal contract and a central solution in these dynamics. Since its introduction in 2009 by means of the Law Decree 5/2009, the brand-new networking tool has achieved broad success among Italian entrepreneurs. The authors provide an overview of the discipline regulating the tool; a background concerning network and contract theory; and finally a presentation of some best practices through insightful case studies. This approach integrates legal and managerial perspectives, delivering useful implications for scholars and practitioners.

  15. [Legal empowerment and mental health: the legal subject in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Marianne; Festa, Carole; Hanen, Sylvie; Mercuel, Alain; Monteiro, Michel

    2011-01-01

    A social experiment and pilot project funded by the French Directorate General of Social Cohesion aimed at providing legal aid services ("legal empowerment and mental health") has been conducted since 2009 in three healthcare institutions in Paris (France): the Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, the Groupe Public de Santé Perray-Vaucluse, and the Hôpital Tenon (psychotraumatology unit). Lasting until 2012 and piloted by the NGO Droits d'Urgence, the initiative aims to promote the legal empowerment of socially excluded people suffering from psychiatric or mental disorders and to facilitate access to care. The initiative operates on two levels, providing legal support to vulnerable people and offering legal expertise and advice to medical and social staff. An ad-hoc intervention approach was designed to ensure the implementation of the initiative based on several combined tools: legal aid, technical committees, awareness-raising activities, and pooling of legal resources and information. Developed across the three institutions, this integrated and subsidiary initiative improves our understanding of the complex circumstances of disempowered people ? who are often faced with overlapping social, medical, administrative and legal difficulties ? and helps to take into account their vulnerabilities. The cross-professional and cross-boundary system promoted by this initiative involves medical staff, social workers and lawyers around patients viewed as both actors and legal subjects.

  16. Joint Parental Authority : A comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law and the CEFL principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311462952

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law. In addition, the Principles regarding Parental Responsibilities which have been drafted by the Commission on European Family Law are

  17. Heterogeneous fuzzy logic networks: fundamentals and development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2004-11-01

    The recent trend in the development of neurofuzzy systems has profoundly emphasized the importance of synergy between the fundamentals of fuzzy sets and neural networks. The resulting frameworks of the neurofuzzy systems took advantage of an array of learning mechanisms primarily originating within the theory of neurocomputing and the use of fuzzy models (predominantly rule-based systems) being well established in the realm of fuzzy sets. Ideally, one can anticipate that neurofuzzy systems should fully exploit the linkages between these two technologies while strongly preserving their evident identities (plasticity or learning abilities to be shared by the transparency and full interpretability of the resulting neurofuzzy constructs). Interestingly, this synergy still becomes a target yet to be satisfied. This study is an attempt to address the fundamental interpretability challenge of neurofuzzy systems. Our underlying conjecture is that the transparency of any neurofuzzy system links directly with the logic fabric of the system so the logic fundamentals of the underlying architecture become of primordial relevance. Having this in mind the development of neurofuzzy models hinges on a collection of logic driven processing units named here fuzzy (logic) neurons. These are conceptually simple logic-oriented elements that come with a well-defined semantics and plasticity. Owing to their diversity, such neurons form essential building blocks of the networks. The study revisits the existing categories of logic neurons, provides with their taxonomy, helps understand their functional features and sheds light on their behavior when being treated as computational components of any neurofuzzy architecture. The two main categories of aggregative and reference neurons are deeply rooted in the fundamental operations encountered in the technology of fuzzy sets (including logic operations, linguistic modifiers, and logic reference operations). The developed heterogeneous networks

  18. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  19. Instrumentalisation of Freedom of Expression in Postmodern Legal Discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Belavusau, Uladzislau

    2010-01-01

    This paper rationalizes in the transatlantic perspective the instrumentalisation strategies of the right to free speech in postmodern legal discourses, stemming from the recent twenty years of American critical studies (rethinking Marxism, liberalism, nationalism, and post-structuralism). Race, gender, and sexual orientation are, consequently, the deconstructionist markers of the three legal movements discussed, namely: (1) critical race theory, (2) feminist jurisprudence, and (3) LGBT legal ...

  20. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  1. Corporate culture: a place in the legal process and impact on the rule of law in the country

    OpenAIRE

    Чепульченко, Т. О.

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the impact of legal culture on state law and the problem of its deep implementation of legal activities in the process of applying law officers on a background of legal nihilism and corruption today. Specifies the difference in the concept of "legal culture", which is derived from the concept of "legal culture". The article emphasizes the special role axiological approach in the study of these problems, because the development of the legal person can not be imagined wit...

  2. Studying the impact of industry type validation criteria to Legal customers of Bank Saderat Iran using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rajabipour Meybodi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of today's banking system is overdue loans. The basic strategy for solving this problem is creating a credit rating system of customers. Financial ratios extracted from financial statements of companies have long been considered as one of the useful tools used for evaluating companies by individuals to predict future conditions. Therefore, in this study, ranking of companies in each industry has been discussed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and a number of inputs and outputs such as financial ratios and other important characteristics from the viewpoint of professors and credit experts. Then, ratings of the inputs and outputs (credit criteria have been identified to distinguish and compare the types of industries using sensitivity analysis. Finally, the values of inputs and outputs have been studied for different industries. The research approach can be used by banks in credit risk management for customers.

  3. A Study on Network Configuration of Distributed Flexible Network PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakkak, Mohamed; Hatori, Kenji; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi

    The introduction of Distributed Flexible Network Photovoltaic (DFNPV) system is going towards solving the shortcomings of stand-alone systems in remote areas. Three types of configurations of DFNPV system are studied: star, loop, and mesh. Each configuration has many subsystems, which are assumed to have the similar characteristics and location, and consist of PV panel, DC/DC converter, and dc load. Comparative study had been carried out from the viewpoint of power losses in wires, wire length, and initial cost. First of all for estimating the size of DFNPV system within acceptable voltage drop, relations between wire length, power loss, wire cost, and cable types are discussed. The problem in DFNPV System is to find the best location of the battery bank from a many viewpoints, minimum extension cost and minimum losses in wires. This paper describes how to optimize the best location of the common battery bank from the viewpoints of the cost of power losses and the extension cost. The results of optimizing configurations show that a star configuration for initial installations is most effective, in future expansion; loop network is more cost effective. In addition, the economic study shows the final cost advantage of DFNPV system, for three types of configurations over stand-alone ones.

  4. The Legal Importance of Blood Alcohol Limits for Driving in German Law with a Comparative Study of Emirati and Egyptian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI is a crime or offence according to the laws of most countries. DUI increases the risk of traffic accidents as well as the severity and outcome of injuries that result from them. Some countries have a sophisticated control system to monitor DUI of alcohol in all traffic accidents. There is variation between different countries regarding the concept of driving under the influence of alcohol as well as the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC and the requirements to test the victims of accidents. This paper reviews the limit values for BAC in German traffic law (Administrative Offences Act, which stipulates a BAC value of 0.50 mg/g and a breath alcohol value of 0.25 mg/L as a marginal value for the application of punitive measures. German criminal law defines the minimum BAC values of relative unfitness to drive and absolute unfitness to drive as 0.3 mg/g and 1.10 mg/g, respectively (1.60 mg/g for cyclists.The minimum BAC values representing significant impairment and absolute impairment in criminal cases are 2.00 mg/g and 3.00 mg/g, respectively. Different penalties and legal consequences result according to the BAC level of an offender. In contrast, only eight out of twenty-two Arab countries recognise BAC limit values only in traffic laws. In Jordan, the BAC limit is 0.75 mg/g (0.08 g/dL.in the UAE, the BAC limit is 0.094 mg/g (0.01 g/dL, while Egyptian law does not recognise BAC values in the application of sanctions: the mere presence of alcohol in blood, regardless of its concentration and effect, is a sufficient and adequate condition for punishment. Accordingly, this study encourages lawmakers in Arab countries to define the limit values for BAC when investigating any crime in general and traffic offences in particular, in close cooperation with forensic doctors and toxicologists. It urges them to consider different BAC and their effects in relation to traffic offences. It

  5. Comprehensive Study of Honey with Protected Denomination of Origin and Contribution to the Enhancement of Legal Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Estevinho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the characterization of a total of 60 honey samples with Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO collected over three harvests (2009–2011, inclusive, from the Northeast of Portugal was carried out based on the presence of pollen, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. All samples were found to meet the European Legislation, but some didn’t meet the requirements of the PDO specifications. Concerning the floral origin of honey, our results showed the prevalence of rosemary (Lavandula pedunculata pollen. The microbiological quality of all the analyzed samples was satisfactory, since fecal coliforms, sulfite-reducing clostridia and Salmonella were absent, and molds and yeasts were detected in low counts. Significant differences between the results were studied using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s HSD test. The samples were submitted to discriminant function analysis, in order to determine which variables differentiate between two or more naturally occurring groups (Forward Stepwise Analysis. The variables selected were in this order: diastase activity, pH, reducing sugars, free acidity and HMF. The pollen spectrum has perfect discriminatory power. This is the first study in which a honey with PDO was tested, in order to assess its compliance with the PDO book of specifications.

  6. Comprehensive study of honey with protected denomination of origin and contribution to the enhancement of legal specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesus; Rodrigues, Sandra; Seijas, Julio A; Vázquez-Tato, M Pilar; Dias, Luís G; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2012-07-17

    In this study the characterization of a total of 60 honey samples with Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) collected over three harvests (2009-2011, inclusive), from the Northeast of Portugal was carried out based on the presence of pollen, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. All samples were found to meet the European Legislation, but some didn't meet the requirements of the PDO specifications. Concerning the floral origin of honey, our results showed the prevalence of rosemary (Lavandula pedunculata) pollen. The microbiological quality of all the analyzed samples was satisfactory, since fecal coliforms, sulfite-reducing clostridia and Salmonella were absent, and molds and yeasts were detected in low counts. Significant differences between the results were studied using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's HSD test. The samples were submitted to discriminant function analysis, in order to determine which variables differentiate between two or more naturally occurring groups (Forward Stepwise Analysis). The variables selected were in this order: diastase activity, pH, reducing sugars, free acidity and HMF. The pollen spectrum has perfect discriminatory power. This is the first study in which a honey with PDO was tested, in order to assess its compliance with the PDO book of specifications.

  7. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  8. Developing Educational designs supporting student engagement through networked project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    within a networked learning structure are studying in groups combining on-site seminars with independent and challenging virtually organized project periods, implementing new educational technology, which require teachers who are flexible and aware of the different challenges in the networked environment...... in the online dialogues. Thus in contrast to the traditional understanding of the teacher as the sole designer of the learning environment, here the students were involved as active co-designers. Our understanding of problem-based learning is characterized by collaborative project work in groups, where students...... and interconnected learners, and discuss cases of developing student engagement through educational designs that facilitates group organized project work and learners’ participation in dialogically organized online seminars. Here we will focus on how the dimensions of participation and reification are played out....

  9. A Retrospective Study on Advanced Maternal Age and Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Medico-Legal Advice, "Food for Thought".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Foldes-Papp, Zeno; Panici, Pierluigi B; Brunelli, Roberto; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in advanced reproductive age is nowadays part of the social and welfare scenario. The effects and assessment of the risks and complications in women over the age of 43 must still be more specifically defined. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes between spontaneous pregnancies with those induced by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in women ≥ 43 years. This retrospective observational study enrolled 114 women with an age of ≥ 43 divided as follows: 74 with spontaneous pregnancies and 40 with ART-induced pregnancy. For statistical analysis, a t-test was used to compare the parameters analyzed for quantitative variables and χ2 was used for qualitative variables. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Analysis was performed using the program SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The statistically significant differences between IVF and spontaneous pregnancy groups were respectively: gestational hypertension (30% vs 6.8%), preeclampsia (17.5% vs 2.7%), preterm delivery (47.5% vs 13.5%), IUGR (17.5% vs 4.1%), caesarian section (95% vs 70.3%), length of recovery (8.6±7.2 vs 5.9±3) and mean birth weight (2641± 695 g vs 3207±496 g). Women in advanced reproductive age (≥ 43 years) who undergo assisted fertilization procedures are at a higher risk of complications compared to women of the same age with spontaneous pregnancies.

  10. Impact of green technologies in optical networks case study: green wireless optical broadband access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the current state of green technologies in optical telecommunications networks, analyzing in detail the basic structure of a hybrid network (Optical-Wireless), taking into account energy consumption by proposing a mathematical model is presented to establish the optimum number of ONUs in a network.

  11. MetaNetwork : A computational protocol for the genetic study of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Jingyuan; Swertz, Morris A.; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2007-01-01

    We here describe the MetaNetwork protocol to reconstruct metabolic networks using metabolite abundance data from segregating populations. MetaNetwork maps metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) underlying variation in metabolite abundance in individuals of a segregating population using a

  12. MetaNetwork: a computational protocol for the genetic study of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, J.; Swertz, M.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    We here describe the MetaNetwork protocol to reconstruct metabolic networks using metabolite abundance data from segregating populations. MetaNetwork maps metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) underlying variation in metabolite abundance in individuals of a segregating population using a

  13. A study of structural properties of gene network graphs for mathematical modeling of integrated mosaic gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, Olga V; Petrovskiy, Evgeny D; Lavrik, Inna N; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2017-04-01

    Gene network modeling is one of the widely used approaches in systems biology. It allows for the study of complex genetic systems function, including so-called mosaic gene networks, which consist of functionally interacting subnetworks. We conducted a study of a mosaic gene networks modeling method based on integration of models of gene subnetworks by linear control functionals. An automatic modeling of 10,000 synthetic mosaic gene regulatory networks was carried out using computer experiments on gene knockdowns/knockouts. Structural analysis of graphs of generated mosaic gene regulatory networks has revealed that the most important factor for building accurate integrated mathematical models, among those analyzed in the study, is data on expression of genes corresponding to the vertices with high properties of centrality.

  14. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-29

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. COST AND TIME ESTIMATES DURING THE SUPPLIER SELECTION OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR LEGAL AREA: A CASE STUDY COMPARING TRADITIONAL AND AGILE PROJECT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, G. L. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering a direct correlation between projects requirements details levels and their performance, this paper aims to evaluate whether the adoption of more extensive and detailed cost, time and scope estimation processes based on both practices, traditional and agile, and executed concurrently with the supplier selection stage, could guarantee greater accuracy in these estimates, thus increasing project success rates. Based on a case study for the information system project implementation into the legal area of a large Brazilian company, five suppliers had their proposals analyzed and compared in terms of the costs and deadlines involved, as well as the project management processes used in theirs estimates. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that not all companies follow, at least during the prospecting phase, their service proposals described management processes, according to the theory. Another important finding was that the proposals involving, at least partially, agile approach concepts, were more likely to justify their estimates. These proposals still presented lower values, whenever compared to those less adherents to the theoretical concepts, as those based on traditional concepts.

  16. How understanding and application of drug-related legal instruments affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan

    2017-06-19

    Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm reduction services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these instruments. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and

  17. Clinical Prediction of Suicide and Undetermined Death: A Pseudo-Prospective Clinical and Medico-Legal Study of Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats; Frank, Arne; Löwenhielm, Peter

    2017-03-17

    This study examines aspects of prediction of suicide and death of undetermined intent. We investigated all consecutive, autopsied patients between 1993 and 1997 who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö from 1968 onwards. The staff was asked, shortly after autopsy but before they knew of the manner of death, if they thought the patient had committed suicide. The case records were blindly evaluated, and toxicological autopsy findings for alcohol in blood samples investigated. The specificity of prediction was 83% and significantly more often correct than the sensitivity, which was only 45% for suicide and for suicide/death of undetermined intent (93% versus 39%). Suicidal communication was more often considered non-serious before death of undetermined intent than before suicide. The former could be predicted by ideation but not by suicide attempt reported in case records, unlike suicide, which was predicted by both. The undetermined group also showed higher levels of alcohol in the blood at autopsy. We concluded that more serious clinical investigation of suicidal feelings, which may be hidden and not taken seriously, and treatment of alcohol use disorders with active follow-up appear urgent in the efforts to prevent suicide.

  18. Atypical real estate objects: legal regime and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal concept of immovable things raises controversy in legal practice. Determining and understanding the definition of real estate, the complexity and diversity of these objects, a growing appearance of so-called atypical properties (such as sport stadiums, roads, boreholes, analyzing legislation and judicial practice of this field – all these issues call for a deep study of this topic. There is a conflicting arbitration practice, the subject of which is the learning of the legal nature of atypical real estate (for instance, asphalt playgrounds, car parks, fences, wells. The object of the research is the learning of the legal status of atypical real estate.

  19. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  20. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  1. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  2. Underreporting the legal aspects of drone strikes in international conflicts: A case study of how Aftenposten and The New York Times cover drone strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Ottosen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through content analyses of articles in The New York Times and the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten, how these papers have reported on the legal aspects of drone strikes in international conflicts. Drones have been deployed in US military operations at least since the October 2001 air strikes in Afghanistan. Using critical discourse analysis and framing theory, selected texts were examined in which the two newspapers reported on the topic of drone strikes. Drawing on a report of an April 2010 hearing in the US House of Representatives, this paper discusses the legality of deploying drones in international conflicts. The author concludes that in their reportage on US drone strikes the newspapers failed as watchdogs for the relevant legal issues.

  3. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

  4. Legal procedures regarding state budget expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government spending and the procedures for making them can be examined on the basis of many of public regulations, which are the legal grounds for these expenditure. The procedures of government spending can be studied in the field of personal expenditure of the state budget (including salaries, pensions and social benefits. Appropriate procedures are related to expenditure for purchases of goods and services and for making of public investments (e.g. public roads and buildings. An extensive area of expenditure is in the form of grants. There are special legal ways for transferring the budget grants to different legal organizations and entities. The state expenditure are fixed in the Budget Act. The implementation of the budgetary expenditure needs to take up, by state authorities and agencies, thousands of individual and concrete actions (e.g. the contracts, administrative decisions, other activities. That is, in the Budget Act fixed expenditure have, in principle, normative act features.

  5. The Role of legal English in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anash Ramazanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to describe the features and objectives of teaching English to law students in Kazakhstan, to report the results of recent research in the given field and challenging the educators, teachers and researchers for further studies in the field of legal English. In Kazakhstan the educational institutions require all students and graduates to master at least one foreign language. English as a foreign language is being taught from the primary school.Teaching English in higher schools is different from teaching English in secondary schools. And in this case the teachers are asked to take an appropriate approach to meet and satisfy the learners’ needs. Since we focus on the law students of higher schools this approach is called as teaching English for legal purposes.Why do law students need English for legal purposes? This question is the matter of this paper

  6. CompTIA Network+ Certification Study Guide, Exam N10-004

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2009-01-01

    CompTIA's Network+ certification is a globally-recognized, vendor neutral exam that has helped over 235,000 IT professionals reach further and higher in their careers. The 2009 Network+ exam (N10-004) is a major update with more focus on security and wireless aspects of networking. Our new study guide has been updated accordingly with focus on network, systems, and WAN security and complete coverage of today's wireless networking standards. As always this companion covers the core Network+ material including basic design principles, management and operation of a network infrastructure, and tes

  7. AUSTRALIA AND CATALONIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROTECTION OF MINORITY LANGUAGES FROM A LEGAL STANDPOINT. EDUCATION IN THE MOTHER TONGUE. IS THE LANGUAGE A FACTOR OF INTEGRATION OR A BARRIER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Vacca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of the education system in minority languages between Catalonia and Australia from a legal standpoint. Catalonia has a complex legislation: National Constitution, Statute of Autonomy, Regional Laws, a strong legal framework, a language always alive as a political instrument to get the power. Australia has not a legal framework in this area and has a confused planning system. In Europe, the Council of Europe has been in charge of the protection of human rights. Australia signed and ratified some International Conventions which are not a strong legal basis to claim an education system in aborigines’ languages. The Catalan Law on Linguistic Normalization n. 7 of 1983, replaced by the Law on Linguistic Policy n. 1 of 1998, has, among the other purposes, also that to stimulate the use of Catalan as language of education in all levels of teaching. The school has a fundamental importance for the transmission of the culture of minorities. If the educational systems didn’t have any regime of teaching in the mother tongue all policies are not efficient.

  8. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  9. Functional alignment of regulatory networks: a study of temperate phages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Trusina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the design and functionality of molecular networks is now a key issue in biology. Comparison of regulatory networks performing similar tasks can provide insights into how network architecture is constrained by the functions it directs. Here, we discuss methods of network comparison based on network architecture and signaling logic. Introducing local and global signaling scores for the difference between two networks, we quantify similarities between evolutionarily closely and distantly related bacteriophages. Despite the large evolutionary separation between phage lambda and 186, their networks are found to be similar when difference is measured in terms of global signaling. We finally discuss how network alignment can be used to pinpoint protein similarities viewed from the network perspective.

  10. Study of Vivaldi Algorithm in Energy Constraint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Handl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses a viability of Vivaldi localization algorithm and synthetic coordinate system in general to be used for localization purposes in energy constraint networks. Synthetic coordinate systems achieve good results in IP based networks and thus, it could be a perspective way of node localization in other types of networks. However, transfer of Vivaldi algorithm into a different kind of network is a difficult task because the different basic characteristic of the network and network nodes. In this paper we focus on the different aspects of IP based networks and networks of wireless sensors which suffer from strict energy limitation. During our work we proposed a modified version of two dimensional Vivaldi localization algorithm with height system and developed a simulator tool for initial investigation of its function in ad-hoc energy constraint networks.

  11. Legal Drama and Audiovisual Translation: The Role of Legal English in the Construction of Stereotyped Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zottola Angela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overwhelming amount of media products that we are subjected to in the 21st century and the way in which those inevitably influence our perception of reality, this research pays specific attention to the role of the media in the construction and enhancement of stereotypes in everyday life, via the language or, more specifically, specialized languages. In particular, this paper aims to investigate an American legal TV series in order to analyze the way in which legal English is used in dialogues. The major research questions are: to what extent such a kind of specialized discourse may be really understood by the greater audience? How does legal drama participate in the shaping of stereotypes relating to the legal environment in the country where it is produced, and cross-culturally, bearing in mind the prominence of “made in the USA” products in the television programming across the world? Ultimately, in the light of the previous questions, should the growing field of research in audiovisual translation extend its investigation into the area of legal English? Taking into consideration the seminal work of Pedersen (2008 and Diaz Cintas (2008 in the field of Audiovisual Translation (AVT, the study will examine the subtitling techniques employed for this atypical genre. Through the analysis of a corpus comprising several dialogues from a collection of episodes of the legal show Reckless, the paper will mostly focus on gender representations and their most common linguistically enhanced stereotypes.

  12. Ethical and Legal Considerations of Healthcare Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ALUAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet, cloud computing, social networks and mobile technology, all facilitate information transfer. Healthcare professionals, physicians and patients can use informatic devices in order to simplify their access to medical information, to streamline testing, and to understand clinical results. The use of computers and software facilitate doctor-patient interactions by optimizing communication and information flow. However, digital interfaces also increase the risks that information specialists use information without fully complying with ethical principles and laws in force. Our premise is that these information specialists should: 1 be informed of the rights, duties, and responsibilities linked to their profession and laws in force; 2 have guidelines and ethical tutoring on what they need to do in order to avoid or prevent conflict or misconduct; 3 have renewed specific training on how to interpret and translate legal frameworks into internal rules and standards of good practice. The purpose of this paper was: 1 to familiarize professionals who work in healthcare informatics with the ethical and legal issues related to their work; 2 to provide information about codes of ethics and legal regulations concerning this specific area; 3 to summarize some risks linked to wrong or inadequate use of patient information, such as medical, genetic, or personal data.

  13. Legal aspects of some internet marketing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet and sophisticated search engines such as e.g. Google together with the spread of social networks have introduced new marketing possibilities of addressing potential clients with offer of goods and services. Unlike most traditional marketing procedures, these instruments allow for targeting the business information directly at concrete individuals, taking into consideration their age, sex, education, hobbies. All this is based on their choice of words keyed into the search engines. This is the targeted advertising where consumer response can be accurately measured, e.i. the so called context advertising.The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legal aspects of some of the above mentioned internet marketing instruments, as even in this sphere legal regulation clearly lags behind the dynamically developing possibilities of the Internet as a means of communication. These marketing methods being viewed from the perspective of valid laws, several problem areas may be detected, which concern the right of privacy protection of natural person, intellectual property, or legal regulation of implied or unsolicited advertising.This paper concentrates on the summary of rules of law which regulate internet users privacy protection with respect to the Czech and Community laws, assessment of their efficiency and de lege ferenda discretion.

  14. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2017-07-29

    Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p favor of medical cannabis legalization compared with students who never used them. Support for marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p legalization showed better knowledge about indications, in contrast to opponents for legalization who showed better knowledge about side effects. Beliefs that using medical cannabis is safe and has health benefits were correlated with support for legalization, and previous marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.

  15. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  16. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  17. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  18. Legal, Ethical, and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rodney J.; Hodges, Marjorie W.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes legal issues that pertain to the uses of information technology on campuses. Highlights privacy, freedom of expression, and intellectual property rights. Argues that understanding these legal and ethical issues is necessary in developing an appropriate campus policy. Provides guidance for developing a campus technology policy. (RJM)

  19. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  20. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  1. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Shirley Hassan, Office of General Law, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part...

  2. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative study on drainage networks at laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveto, G.; Palma, D.; di Domenico, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on drainage network evolution were carried out in 1977 at REF (Rainfall Erosion Facility) of Colorado State University by Schumm and co-workers. This study deals with an analysis of physical experiments simulating the evolution and the development of drainage networks. To this purpose, some experiments were carried out at University of Basilicata by using a 1.5 m by 1.5 m box-basin-simulator with an outlet incised in the middle of the downslope-end side. The experimental landscape was made of a weakly cohesive soil mainly constituted by clay and silt. A system of microsprinklers generated an almost uniform artificial precipitation. Simulations were performed at a constant rainfall rate with intensity of 100 mm/h. In total four experiments were carried out. Three of those were conducted by ensuring consistent initial conditions except for the initial landscape planar slope of 9%, 5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The remaining experiment was performed with a landscape slope of 9% again, but with the (surface) base-level coinciding with the base of the outlet (i.e. streams could not erode below the base-level). Despite the central outlet constraint, the generated stream system for the 9% plane exhibited trellis-like drainage patterns with many short tributaries joining the main stream at nearly right angles. For the 5% experiment still sub-parallel drainage patterns were formed but mainly in the centre of the watershed. Channels were clearly shallower than those of the 9% experiment. For the gentler slope of 0.6% dendritic drainage

  4. Brain Networks Responsible for Sense of Agency: An EEG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Yun Kang

    Full Text Available Self-agency (SA is a person's feeling that his action was generated by himself. The neural substrates of SA have been investigated in many neuroimaging studies, but the functional connectivity of identified regions has rarely been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate the neural network related to SA.SA of hand movements was modulated with virtual reality. We examined the cortical network relating to SA modulation with electroencephalography (EEG power spectrum and phase coherence of alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands in 16 right-handed, healthy volunteers.In the alpha band, significant relative power changes and phase coherence of alpha band were associated with SA modulation. The relative power decrease over the central, bilateral parietal, and right temporal regions (C4, Pz, P3, P4, T6 became larger as participants more effectively controlled the virtual hand movements. The phase coherence of the alpha band within frontal areas (F7-FP2, F7-Fz was directly related to changes in SA. The functional connectivity was lower as the participants felt that they could control their virtual hand. In the other frequency bands, significant phase coherences were observed in the frontal (or central to parietal, temporal, and occipital regions during SA modulation (Fz-O1, F3-O1, Cz-O1, C3-T4L in beta band; FP1-T6, FP1-O2, F7-T4L, F8-Cz in gamma band.Our study suggests that alpha band activity may be the main neural oscillation of SA, which suggests that the neural network within the anterior frontal area may be important in the generation of SA.

  5. Brain Networks Responsible for Sense of Agency: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk Yun; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shim, Miseon; Nahab, Fatta B; Park, Jihye; Kim, Do-Won; Kakareka, John; Miletta, Nathanial; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Self-agency (SA) is a person's feeling that his action was generated by himself. The neural substrates of SA have been investigated in many neuroimaging studies, but the functional connectivity of identified regions has rarely been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate the neural network related to SA. SA of hand movements was modulated with virtual reality. We examined the cortical network relating to SA modulation with electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum and phase coherence of alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands in 16 right-handed, healthy volunteers. In the alpha band, significant relative power changes and phase coherence of alpha band were associated with SA modulation. The relative power decrease over the central, bilateral parietal, and right temporal regions (C4, Pz, P3, P4, T6) became larger as participants more effectively controlled the virtual hand movements. The phase coherence of the alpha band within frontal areas (F7-FP2, F7-Fz) was directly related to changes in SA. The functional connectivity was lower as the participants felt that they could control their virtual hand. In the other frequency bands, significant phase coherences were observed in the frontal (or central) to parietal, temporal, and occipital regions during SA modulation (Fz-O1, F3-O1, Cz-O1, C3-T4L in beta band; FP1-T6, FP1-O2, F7-T4L, F8-Cz in gamma band). Our study suggests that alpha band activity may be the main neural oscillation of SA, which suggests that the neural network within the anterior frontal area may be important in the generation of SA.

  6. Networking Course Syllabus in Accredited Library and Information Science Programs: A Comparative Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated networking courses offered in accredited Library and Information Science schools in the United States in 2009. The study analyzed and compared network syllabi according to Course Syllabus Evaluation Rubric to obtain in-depth understanding of basic features and characteristics of networking courses taught. The study embraced…

  7. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  8. Study of Robustness in Functionally Identical Coupled Networks against Cascading Failures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Wang

    Full Text Available Based on coupled networks, taking node load, capacity and load redistribution between two networks into consideration, we propose functionally identical coupled networks, which consist of two networks connected by interlinks. Functionally identical coupled networks are derived from the power grid of the United States, which consists of many independent grids. Many power transmission lines are planned to interconnect those grids and, therefore, the study of the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks becomes important. In this paper, we find that functionally identical coupled networks are more robust than single networks under random attack. By studying the effect of the broadness and average degree of the degree distribution on the robustness of the network, we find that a broader degree distribution and a higher average degree increase the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks under random failure. And SF-SF (two coupled scale-free networks is more robust than ER-ER (two coupled random networks or SF-ER (coupled random network and scale-free network. This research is useful to construct robust functionally identical coupled networks such as two cooperative power grids.

  9. Study of Robustness in Functionally Identical Coupled Networks against Cascading Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Cao, Jianye; Qin, Xiaomeng

    2016-01-01

    Based on coupled networks, taking node load, capacity and load redistribution between two networks into consideration, we propose functionally identical coupled networks, which consist of two networks connected by interlinks. Functionally identical coupled networks are derived from the power grid of the United States, which consists of many independent grids. Many power transmission lines are planned to interconnect those grids and, therefore, the study of the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks becomes important. In this paper, we find that functionally identical coupled networks are more robust than single networks under random attack. By studying the effect of the broadness and average degree of the degree distribution on the robustness of the network, we find that a broader degree distribution and a higher average degree increase the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks under random failure. And SF-SF (two coupled scale-free networks) is more robust than ER-ER (two coupled random networks) or SF-ER (coupled random network and scale-free network). This research is useful to construct robust functionally identical coupled networks such as two cooperative power grids. PMID:27494715

  10. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  11. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely

  12. The Reliability and Legality of Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbebaku, C. A.; Adavbiele, A. Justina

    2016-01-01

    Today, the classroom beyond the border through online Open University education in Nigeria has made it possible for many students to obtain university degrees. However, the reliability and legality of such degrees have become questionable. This paper is a descriptive exploratory case study regarding the public and private sector end-users, whose…

  13. Legal Terms in General Dictionaries of English: The Civil Procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study examines four general dictionaries ...

  14. International legal positivism in a post-modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammerhofer, J.; d' Aspremont, J.

    2014-01-01

    International Legal Positivism in a Post-Modern World provides fresh perspectives on one of the most important and most controversial families of theoretical approaches to the study and practice of international law. The contributors include leading experts on international legal theory who analyse

  15. The Legal Framework for Establishing Private Universities in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanze, C. V.; Coetzee, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a doctoral study which investigated the legal and management frameworks required for establishing private universities in Swaziland. The focus is particularly on the legal framework for establishing the Southern Africa Nazarene University (SANU). Managers involved in establishing SANU encountered a lack of both specific…

  16. User interaction with legal knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.; Winkels, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of my PhD study into the persuasiveness of (legal) knowledge-based systems'. The results of three experiments show the possible problems that may arise when computerised legal decision aids are put into practice. The users in the experiments had great difficulties with

  17. Legal aspects of storing CO2: update and recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    ... started an important body of work analysing legal issues surrounding CO 2 storage in domestic and international law. The second workshop, held in October 2006, made significant progress by collecting case studies and sharing legal and regulatory developments from around the world that advance the viability of CCS. This book thus provides a compil...

  18. Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor. This grant will support in-depth studies of the legal situation, demands and struggles of the working poor (especially women) in the informal economies of in Ghana, Peru and Thailand. The project will build on an interactive process involving member-based organizations of informal ...

  19. Optimizing neural network models: motivation and case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harp, S A; T. Samad

    2012-01-01

    Practical successes have been achieved  with neural network models in a variety of domains, including energy-related industry. The large, complex design space presented by neural networks is only minimally explored in current practice. The satisfactory results that nevertheless have been obtained testify that neural networks are a robust modeling technology; at the same time, however, the lack of a systematic design approach implies that the best neural network models generally  rem...

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF NATURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of legal communication within natural law. Law has an important role, in relation to civilization and legal culture and one of the means through which law influences both culture and civilization is legal communication. The patterns of legal communication should be analyzed from the perspective of all important schools of legal thought: natural law, legal positivism, historical school of law etc. In this paper, the perception of law, through legal communication, within natural law is discussed and analyzed, from the principles and statements of Aristotle to the writings of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Thomas Aquinas and later to the theories of Hugo Grotius. This study also aims to prove that the difference between legal communication within the major schools of legal thought does not regard the essence of communication or the various principles of law, but merely the perception of law, which varies from one school of thought to another.

  1. Assessment of legal adult age of 18 by measurement of open apices of the third molars: Study on the Albanian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, Roberto; Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco; Cingolani, Mariano; Galić, Ivan; Ferrante, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical structures in development available for estimating the age of individuals in the late adolescence. This study tests the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in an Albanian sample. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 286 living subjects (152 female and 134 male) aged between 15 and 22 years was analyzed. Intra-rater and inter-raters agreement of I3M were 0.998 and 0.998, respectively and Cohen Kappa for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement in decision on adult or minor was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The mean age of females is higher than that of males when I3M is between 0.04 and 0.08. Sensitivity test for males was 94.1%, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 85.6-98.4%, and specificity was 90.9% (95%CI 81.3-96.6%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.5%, with a 95%CI of (86.7%, 96.4%). For females, the sensitivity test was 75.4%, with a 95%CI of (63.1%, 85.2%) and specificity was 96.6%, with a 95%CI of (90.3%, 99.3%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 87.5%, with a 95%CI of (81.2%, 92.3%). The results indicate that Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M=0.08) is useful in discriminating between Albanian adults and juveniles, and encourage us to test its suitability for determining the adult age in individuals from other populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Context and network formation : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Martijn J.; Buskens, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in determining which social network structures emerge as a consequence of the conscious actions of actors.Motivated by the belief that “networks matter” in reaching personal objectives, it is a natural assumption that actors try to optimize their network

  3. Toward a legal perspective on crisis information management : Legal values and privacy-sensitive information at odds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biersteker, Erwin; Ferguson, Julie E.; Beersma, Bianca; Groenewegen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, crisis response organizations are adopting a networked communication structure, as a means to connect different sources of crisis information and enable a more effective crisis response. However, this change has introduced legal complications that so far remain unaddressed, for instance

  4. Statistical process control using optimized neural networks: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addeh, Jalil; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Azarbad, Milad; Ranaee, Vahid

    2014-09-01

    The most common statistical process control (SPC) tools employed for monitoring process changes are control charts. A control chart demonstrates that the process has altered by generating an out-of-control signal. This study investigates the design of an accurate system for the control chart patterns (CCPs) recognition in two aspects. First, an efficient system is introduced that includes two main modules: feature extraction module and classifier module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set of shape features and statistical feature are proposed as the efficient characteristics of the patterns. In the classifier module, several neural networks, such as multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural network and radial basis function are investigated. Based on an experimental study, the best classifier is chosen in order to recognize the CCPs. Second, a hybrid heuristic recognition system is introduced based on cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) algorithm to improve the generalization performance of the classifier. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has high recognition accuracy. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defending Tor from Network Adversaries: A Case Study of Network Path Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Joshua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tor anonymity network has been shown vulnerable to traffic analysis attacks by autonomous systems (ASes and Internet exchanges (IXes, which can observe different overlay hops belonging to the same circuit. We evaluate whether network path prediction techniques provide an accurate picture of the threat from such adversaries, and whether they can be used to avoid this threat. We perform a measurement study by collecting 17.2 million traceroutes from Tor relays to destinations around the Internet. We compare the collected traceroute paths to predicted paths using state-of-the-art path inference techniques. We find that traceroutes present a very different picture, with the set of ASes seen in the traceroute path differing from the predicted path 80% of the time. We also consider the impact that prediction errors have on Tor security. Using a simulator to choose paths over a week, our traceroutes indicate a user has nearly a 100% chance of at least one compromise in a week with 11% of total paths containing an AS compromise and less than 1% containing an IX compromise when using default Tor selection. We find modifying the path selection to choose paths predicted to be safe lowers total paths with an AS compromise to 0.14% but still presents a 5–11% chance of at least one compromise in a week while making 5% of paths fail, with 96% of failures due to false positives in path inferences. Our results demonstrate more measurement and better path prediction is necessary to mitigate the risk of AS and IX adversaries to Tor.

  6. A descriptive study of fracture networks in rocks using complex network metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Elizabeth; Velasco-Hernández, Jorge X.; Romero-Salcedo, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we describe the static topological fracture structure of five rock samples from three regions in Eastern Mexico by the application of centrality and communicability measures used in the area of complex networks. The information obtained from fracture images is used to characterize the fracture networks. The analysis is divided into two groups of characteristics. The first provides a general summary of the fracture network through the description of the number of nodes, edges, diameter, radius, lengths and clustering coefficients. A second group of features centers on the description of communicability in the network by means of three indexes recently proposed. In addition, we apply centrality measures (betweenness, closeness, eigenvector and eccentricity) for quantifying the importance of nodes in the entire network. Finally, we identify a topology for fracture networks using a classification based on the degree of communicability. The most important results obtained in this work are focused in the topological characteristic patterns found in fracture networks applying the approach of complex networks that in general provide local and global parameters of connectivity and communicability.

  7. Paraconsistent artificial neural networks and Alzheimer disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Minoro Abe

    Full Text Available Abstract EEG visual analysis has proved useful in aiding AD diagnosis, being indicated in some clinical protocols. However, such analysis is subject to the inherent imprecision of equipment, patient movements, electric registers, and individual variability of physician visual analysis. Objectives: To employ the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network to ascertain how to determine the degree of certainty of probable dementia diagnosis. Methods: Ten EEG records from patients with probable Alzheimer disease and ten controls were obtained during the awake state at rest. An EEG background between 8 Hz and 12 Hz was considered the normal pattern for patients, allowing a variance of 0.5 Hz. Results: The PANN was capable of accurately recognizing waves belonging to Alpha band with favorable evidence of 0.30 and contrary evidence of 0.19, while for waves not belonging to the Alpha pattern, an average favorable evidence of 0.19 and contrary evidence of 0.32 was obtained, indicating that PANN was efficient in recognizing Alpha waves in 80% of the cases evaluated in this study. Artificial Neural Networks - ANN - are well suited to tackle problems such as prediction and pattern recognition. The aim of this work was to recognize predetermined EEG patterns by using a new class of ANN, namely the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network - PANN, which is capable of handling uncertain, inconsistent and paracomplete information. An architecture is presented to serve as an auxiliary method in diagnosing Alzheimer disease. Conclusions: We believe the results show PANN to be a promising tool to handle EEG analysis, bearing in mind two considerations: the growing interest of experts in visual analysis of EEG, and the ability of PANN to deal directly with imprecise, inconsistent, and paracomplete data, thereby providing a valuable quantitative analysis.

  8. Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Dirk; Más, Heyd; Haji Ghasemi, Maryam; Blaauwbroek, Niels; Vo, Thai; van der Klauw, Thijs; Nguyen, Phuong

    2018-01-01

    To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER) to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from

  9. 走出繼受,邁向立論:法學實證研究之發展 A Review on the Development of Empirical Legal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉尚志 Shang-Jyh Liu

    2006-12-01

    , there is a lack of common platform for scholars to discuss the legal issues with objective data and evidences. Moreover, the legal theories and codes of Taiwan were primarily inherited from Germany and Japan in the last century, and the infrastructure and culture of our legal system which characterize the domestic judiciary are undergoing the changes gradually without distinguishing the features of this jurisdiction. As the law is never independent from the social constructs, the main purpose of the legal rules is to set up a social model of justice that guides the people to the rule of law. The consequences of legal regulations can be practically evaluated by collecting and analyzing the data or evidences from our observation and surveys. In other words, whether the legal regulations meet the needs of a society and serve the purposes of rule-making should be verified by empirical examination. The empirical legal study is one of the most eminent legal scholarships, which is not only employed as a research methodology but also a practical approach of discovering the realities of our society under the law. This article points out the difficulties and the connotations of empirical legal study and highlights this research approach. It contends that reformation of current legal education, redefinition of our local needs of empirical study, establishment of research centers, etc., will assist us to overcome the perplexity of empirical study. As a result, the legal experience gained from Taiwan can stand out for the review and knowledge sharing of international legal community.

  10. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship. Adaptation typically emerges organically among m

  11. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  12. Cointegration-based financial networks study in Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengyi

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method based on cointegration instead of correlation to construct financial complex network in Chinese stock market. The network is obtained starting from the matrix of p-value calculated by Engle-Granger cointegration test between all pairs of stocks. Then some tools for filtering information in complex network are implemented to prune the complete graph described by the above matrix, such as setting a level of statistical significance as a threshold and Planar Maximally Filtered Graph. We also calculate Partial Correlation Planar Graph of these stocks to compare the above networks. Last, we analyze these directed, weighted and non-symmetric networks by using standard methods of network analysis, including degree centrality, PageRank, HITS, local clustering coefficient, K-shell and strongly and weakly connected components. The results shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces in a financial market and deepen our understanding of financial complex network.

  13. Production networks in Asia: A case study from the hard disk drive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hiratsuka, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Production networks have been extensively developed in East Asia. Previous studies on production networks used international trade data or input–output tables, but such aggregate data cannot explain how the networks actually operate. With the aim of understanding the features and characteristics of East Asian production networks, this paper examines the procurement system of a HDD assembler operating in Thailand. This micro-level case study found that this particular production networ...

  14. Legal Cynicism and Parental Appraisals of Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which the law is viewed as illegitimate and ineffective—encourages violence to maintain personal safety when legal recourse is unreliable. But no study has tested the impact of legal cynicism on appraisals of violence. Drawing from symbolic interaction theory and cultural sociology, we tested whether neighbourhood legal cynicism alters the extent to which parents appraise their children’s violence as indicative of aggressive or impulsive temperaments using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We find that legal cynicism attenuates the positive association between adolescent violence and parental assessments of aggression and impulsivity. Our study advances the understanding of micro-level processes through which prevailing cultural frames in the neighbourhood shape violence appraisals. PMID:24932013

  15. How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Elisabeth; Forrest, Neil D; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu/), is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools [21], [30] and what advantages a specialist network could offer. The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users. 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%). During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine. The network and its membership figures developed very positively during

  16. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  17. Ku-band signal design study. [space shuttle orbiter data processing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical tools, methods and techniques for assessing the design and performance of the space shuttle orbiter data processing system (DPS) are provided. The computer data processing network is evaluated in the key areas of queueing behavior synchronization and network reliability. The structure of the data processing network is described as well as the system operation principles and the network configuration. The characteristics of the computer systems are indicated. System reliability measures are defined and studied. System and network invulnerability measures are computed. Communication path and network failure analysis techniques are included.

  18. Semantiz Structure of the Legal Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Владимировна Кулевская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the semantic structure of the legal term. Nowadays, with the rapid development of cross-cultural communication, people, while pursuing their professional career, learn specific languages, including the language of law, with terms being its important component. Terms can often impede the process of successful cross-cultural communication so teaching cross-cultural communication, according to many researchers, including P. Cranmer and K. Koskinen, is immensely important. The article aims to demonstrate that a legal term, a word or phrase used in legislation, is a generalized name for a legal concept that may lack a precise meaning in practice as it is polysemous. To proof this statement, the semantic structure of the legal term is studied from the cognitive point of view. The key terms (term, frame, lexico-semantic variant of a word, microframe (reference category are defined at the beginning of the article. The article also describes the classification of various semantic structures of terms developed by Prof. Belyayevskaya, based on an analysis of the cognitive foundations of the typology of semantic structures as well as on the classification of meanings. They are homogeneous semantic structures, with different lexico-semantic variants of a polysemous word representing different aspects of one microframe; these structures include monosemous terms, polysemous terms with a homogeneous semantic structure, and terms with the intermediate type of lexemes. Heterogeneous semantic structures are semantic structures, with a lexico-semantic variant of a word representing two or more reference categories rather than one category; these structures are considered to be “classical” polysemy. Two types of such structures are introduced in the article, with examples of the actualization of their lexical meaning in speech being analysed (there were used examples from the British and Russian National corpora; official legal documents and

  19. Legal protection of land from pollution

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    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  20. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PImpairment and healthy elders) show a significantly different profile on all examined domains of this new test according to their diagnosis, b) people with MCI from Greece do face problems in the domains outlined above (mainly financial decision making problems), and that c) subsequent changes in the Greek law should be made.

  1. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  2. Exploring the secret history of the legal service of the European Executives, 1952-1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    In one of the great classical analyses of the early development of European law, American legal scholar, Eric Stein, argued that the legal service of the EEC Commission and its director Michel Gaudet were the originators of the groundbreaking interpretation of the Treaties of Rome, which the Court...... as a ‘constitutionalised’ European legal order. Recent historical and social science research in the early history of European law has highlighted the central role of the legal service and Michel Gaudet in the development of increasingly dense transnational networks of European minded jurists supporting and legitimising...

  3. Legal Epidemiology: The Science of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Tara; Hulkower, Rachel; Holbrook, Joseph; Penn, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The importance of legal epidemiology in public health law research has undoubtedly grown over the last five years. Scholars and practitioners together have developed guidance on best practices for the field, including: placing emphasis on transdisciplinary collaborations; creating valid, reliable, and repeatable research; and publishing timely products for use in decision-making and change. Despite the energy and expertise researchers have brought to this important work, they name significant challenges in marshalling the diverse skill sets, quality controls, and funding to implement legal epidemiology activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to develop cross-cutting research and translation on issues of national priority in legal epidemiology, and has explored ways to overcome some of these challenges. As such, this article describes a case study of the use of law to characterize states' prior authorization policies regarding medication used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a central component of a broader effort to improve behavior therapy options for young children with ADHD. This article highlights the types of legal epidemiology work we have undertaken, the application of this work to an emerging public health problem, and the lessons learned in creating impactful research for the field.

  4. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Newborn Screening, a Case Study for Examining Ethical and Legal Issues for Pilots for Emerging Disorders: Considerations and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A. Lloyd-Puryear

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD/Duchenne is one of the ten most severe and common pediatric genetic diseases and affects an estimated 1 in every 5000 male births. While Duchenne is a 100% fatal disease, the clinical community has demonstrated that immediate identification and early clinical interventions can add years, even decades to an individual’s life span. In anticipation of the changing therapeutic landscape for the Duchenne community, Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy established a newborn screening (NBS initiative. This initiative included a Bioethics and Legal Issues Workgroup to consider the bioethics and legal issues of NBS for Duchenne. The workgroup’s discussion focused only on Duchenne NBS and met through conference calls over a one-year period of time seeking consensus on various identified issues. This article reports on the findings and recommendations from that workgroup.

  5. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  6. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  7. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  8. Legal aspects of service robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Thomas; Spiecker Genannt Döhmann, Indra

    2012-12-01

    The emergent use of service robots in more and more areas of social life raises a number of legal issues which have to be addressed in order to apply and adapt the existing legal framework to this new technology. The article provides an overview of law as a means to regulate and govern technology and discusses fundamental issues of the relationship between law and technology. It then goes on to address a number of relevant problems in the field of service robotics. In particular, these issues include the organization of administrative control and the legal liability regime which applies to service robots. Also, the issue of autonomy of service robots is discussed, which cannot easily be answered under the existing, human-centered legal regime.

  9. Chain Migration through Social Networks: Case Study of Vietnamese Migrants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan NGUYEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the relationship between the recent increasingly pattern of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand and migration networks. By surveying 50 Vietnamese migrants in Bangkok, Thailand, the study confirms that migration networks have played a critical role in facilitating migration flows, especially irregular flows from Vietnam to Thailand over the years. It can be reflected by reducing the cost of migration, coping with new working environment and risks during working in Thailand and ensuring the return process for Vietnamese migrants. Moreover, forms of social networks includes personal networks (kinship and friendship networks, and community network (ngườidẫnđường’s network, social media has been also discussed. The study also implies that the người dẫn đường’s networks might contribute to recently emerging issues such as human trafficking and smugglings, which require further research.

  10. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  11. Robustness analysis metrics for worldwide airport network: A comprehensive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Robustness of transportation networks is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. This paper investigates the resilience of global air transportation from a complex network point of view, with focus on attacking strategies in the airport network, i.e., to remove airports from the system and see what could affect the air traffic system from a passenger’s perspective. Specifically, we identify commonalities and differences between several robustness measures and attacking strategies, proposing a novel notion of functional robustness: unaffected passengers with rerouting. We apply twelve attacking strategies to the worldwide airport network with three weights, and evaluate three robustness measures. We find that degree and Bonacich based attacks harm passenger weighted network most. Our evaluation is geared toward a unified view on air transportation network attack and serves as a foundation on how to develop effective mitigation strategies.

  12. Applied Graph-Mining Algorithms to Study Biomolecular Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks carry vital information on the organization of molecular interactions in cellular systems. The identification of functionally relevant modules in PPI networks is one of the most important applications of biological network analysis. Computational analysis is becoming an indispensable tool to understand large-scale biomolecular interaction networks. Several types of computational methods have been developed and employed for the analysis of PPI networks. Of these computational methods, graph comparison and module detection are the two most commonly used strategies. This review summarizes current literature on graph kernel and graph alignment methods for graph comparison strategies, as well as module detection approaches including seed-and-extend, hierarchical clustering, optimization-based, probabilistic, and frequent subgraph methods. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the major algorithms employed under each theme, including our recently published frequent subgraph method, for detecting functional modules commonly shared across multiple cancer PPI networks. PMID:24800226

  13. Critical Thinking and Legal Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Pincione

    2009-01-01

    We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

  14. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  15. Using actor-network theory to study an educational situation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actor-network theory allows a researcher to analyse a complex social setting involving both human and non-human actors. An actor network can be used to model a dynamic and complex set of relationships between these actors. This article describes actor-network theory and shows how it was applied to study and model ...

  16. Social Networking Tools and Teacher Education Learning Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking tools have become an integral part of a pre-service teacher's educational experience. As a result, the educational value of social networking tools in teacher preparation programs must be examined. The specific problem addressed in this study is that the role of social networking tools in teacher education learning communities…

  17. The Embeddedness of Teachers' Social Networks: Evidence from a Study of Mathematics Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Mata, Willow S.; Choi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' social networks can play an important role in teacher learning and organizational change. But what influences teachers' networks? Why do some teachers have networks that are likely to support individual and organizational change, while others do not? This study is a first step in answering this question. We focus on how district policy…

  18. A Study of Gaps in Network Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    report: • Attack detection: activities primarily focused on detection of malicious activities (covered in the “Attack Analysis” report [27]) • Social ...network research: analysis or measurements related to social network websites, e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc. (low priority) • Mobile ad-hoc networks...computers with identical (or similar) hardware and software configurations. (Memory dumps are obtained using one of four methods: (1) software

  19. iPTMnet: Integrative Bioinformatics for Studying PTM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Karen E; Huang, Hongzhan; Ren, Jia; Arighi, Cecilia N; Li, Gang; Tudor, Catalina O; Lv, Mengxi; Lee, Jung-Youn; Chen, Sheng-Chih; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H

    2017-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is an essential cellular regulatory mechanism, and disruptions in PTM have been implicated in disease. PTMs are an active area of study in many fields, leading to a wealth of PTM information in the scientific literature. There is a need for user-friendly bioinformatics resources that capture PTM information from the literature and support analyses of PTMs and their functional consequences. This chapter describes the use of iPTMnet ( http://proteininformationresource.org/iPTMnet/ ), a resource that integrates PTM information from text mining, curated databases, and ontologies and provides visualization tools for exploring PTM networks, PTM crosstalk, and PTM conservation across species. We present several PTM-related queries and demonstrate how they can be addressed using iPTMnet.

  20. Comparative Study between Robust Control of Robotic Manipulators by Static and Dynamic Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ghrab, Nadya; Kallel, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study between static and dynamic neural networks for robotic systems control is considered. So, two approaches of neural robot control were selected, exposed, and compared. One uses a static neural network; the other uses a dynamic neural network. Both compensate the nonlinear modeling and uncertainties of robotic systems. The first approach is direct; it approximates the nonlinearities and uncertainties by a static neural network. The second approach is indirect; it uses a dyna...

  1. Formal Food-related Networks in Ireland: A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Henchion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Strategic networking is of crucial importance for innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs as it enables these companies access external resources and overcome internal constraints. However, SMEs often lack the skills and competencies to engage in and benefit from networks. Consequently SMEs often fail in establishing strategic and efficient networks. To date, there is limited guidance available on the optimal design of such networks. Furthermore, limited guidance is available on the number of networks, and level of engagement therein, that companies should be involved with. Using case studies across a range of formal networks within the food sector in Ireland, insights into the success factors and barriers to network learning are presented, which provide a foundation for such guidelines. Three case studies were selected for analysis in Ireland. Up to ten in-depth interviews were scheduled with the network managers and key informants from the triple helix (i.e. policy, research and industry sectors within each formal network. Initially, interviewees were identified as a result of a review of secondary sources and personal knowledge of the authors. The snowball sampling technique was then employed to identify additional interviewees within each network. The findings from this study revealed that some formal networks had a strong institutional influence, including significant financial inputs, whilst others had bottom-up origins. Many networks had strong levels of interaction prior to formalisation, which provided solid trust-based foundations. Innovation and/or learning were not the expressed objectives of all networks at the outset. However, interviewees across all three networks felt that positive impacts had been achieved in these areas. Whilst being involved in a broad network can provide access to a wider range of ideas, these case studies suggest that being involved in a smaller, dense network, with high levels of IP

  2. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frame...

  3. Legalization of consensual unions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    1981-01-01

    In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and

  4. Analysing Health Professionals' Learning Interactions in an Online Social Network: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises a longitudinal analysis of learning interactions occurring over three years among health professionals in an online social network. The study employs the techniques of Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical modeling to identify the changes in patterns of interaction over time and test associated structural network effects. SNA results indicate overall low participation in the network, although some participants became active over time and even led discussions. In particular, the analysis has shown that a change of lead contributor results in a change in learning interaction and network structure. The analysis of structural network effects demonstrates that the interaction dynamics slow down over time, indicating that interactions in the network are more stable. The health professionals may be reluctant to share knowledge and collaborate in groups but were interested in building personal learning networks or simply seeking information.

  5. CompTIA Network+ Study Guide Exam N10-005

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Todd Lammle's latest CompTIA Network+ Study Guide, now updated for the new exam! CompTIA's Network+ certification tells the world you have the skills to install, configure, and troubleshoot today's basic networking hardware peripherals and protocols. But first, you have to pass the exam! This detailed CompTIA Authorized study guide by networking guru Todd Lammle has everything you need to prepare for the CompTIA's new Network+Exam N10-005. All exam objectives are covered. He thoroughly explains key topics, offers plenty of practical examples, and draws upon his own invaluable 25+ years of netw

  6. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  7. Social Networking Sites in The Netherlands; an Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The rampant growth of social networking has become an issue of attention and interest by commercial organizations. Based on a national sample this paper investigates the demographics, profiles and behavior of participants of Social Networking sites in The Netherlands. The paper provides a typology

  8. Neural Networks for Language Identification: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Shane; Cunningham, Padraig; Byrne, John

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes a neural network for its ability to perform a task involving identification of the language entries in a 19th-century library catalog containing entries in 14 different languages. Compares the neural network's performance with that of trigrams and a suffix/morphology analysis; the trigrams prove to be superior. (AEF)

  9. Error Propagation in Geodetic Networks Studied by FEMLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Geodetic networks can be described by discrete models. The observations may be height differences, distances, and directions. Geodesists always make more observations than necessary and estimate the solution by using the principle of least squares. Contemporary networks often contain several thou...

  10. Study on Countermeasures on Moral Education through School Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-guo

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the society witnesses the rapid development of internet information. Network has not only brought active and positive convenience to students, but also the passive and negative impact, so network moral education can not be ignored. The present paper attempts to combine the traditional moral education with online interactivity education,…

  11. E-suicide note: A newer trend and its medico-legal implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Dogra, Td; Lalwani, S; Millo, T; Singh, Sr

    2014-06-01

    Rapid advancements of information and communication technology in the form of electronic mails, mobile phones, social networking sites, etc have an increasing impact on people's day to day life. It has been observed that these readily available applications are used frequently to express suicidal intentions. There are many studies on conventional handwritten suicide notes but suicide note in electronic format is an emerging issue and an under-researched phenomena. The authors have termed it as "E-suicide note" and discuss its medico-legal implications in India with examples from their observations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. INNOVATION NETWORKS AND MARKETING MIX: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON PRODUCT'S DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thel Augusto Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present how innovation networks can be used to develop a new product or service, using the marketing compound. The study methodology consists of an exploratory research from literature review on this subject. After an initial discussion of the characteristics of innovation networks and marketing functions, the study presents proposals that allow adequately addressing the main difficulties in the management of marketing in innovation networks. Through this study it can be stated that these networks have been identified as an attractive alternative for the development of new products, when using the marketing mix, given the dynamics of the contemporary market. Innovation networks bring a lot of benefits to companies that embrace the relationship between these networks and marketing. The discussion reveals that the structure in the form of innovation networks can bring effective results in the organization which adopt it, providing competitiveness and adaptability in the face of its target market.

  13. A Basic Classification of Legal Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Dick W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The author offers a general definition of legal institutions. A distinction between institutional legal concepts, legal institutions and social institutions makes it possible to define legal institutions as systems of valid presentations of what must occur in social reality in order that the former

  14. Legal culture as a factor of social stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.

  15. Determinants of successful clinical networks: the conceptual framework and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Mary

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as an important strategy for increasing evidence-based practice and improving models of care, but success is variable and characteristics of networks with high impact are uncertain. This study takes advantage of the variability in the functioning and outcomes of networks supported by the Australian New South Wales (NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation's non-mandatory model of clinical networks to investigate the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks. Methods/Design The objective of this retrospective study is to examine the association between external support, organisational and program factors, and indicators of success among 19 clinical networks over a three-year period (2006-2008. The outcomes (health impact, system impact, programs implemented, engagement, user perception, and financial leverage and explanatory factors will be collected using a web-based survey, interviews, and record review. An independent expert panel will provide judgements about the impact or extent of each network's initiatives on health and system impacts. The ratings of the expert panel will be the outcome used in multivariable analyses. Following the rating of network success, a qualitative study will be conducted to provide a more in-depth examination of the most successful networks. Discussion This is the first study to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks and, more generally, is the largest study of clinical networks undertaken. The adaptation of expert panel methods to rate the impacts of networks is the methodological innovation of this study. The proposed project will identify the conditions that should be established or encouraged by agencies developing clinical networks and will be of immediate use in forming strategies and programs to maximise the effectiveness of such networks.

  16. Determinants of successful clinical networks: the conceptual framework and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Mary; Brown, Bernadette; Craig, Jonathan; D'Este, Catherine; Elliott, Elizabeth; Klineberg, Emily; McInnes, Elizabeth; Middleton, Sandy; Paul, Christine; Redman, Sally; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2012-03-13

    Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as an important strategy for increasing evidence-based practice and improving models of care, but success is variable and characteristics of networks with high impact are uncertain. This study takes advantage of the variability in the functioning and outcomes of networks supported by the Australian New South Wales (NSW) Agency for Clinical Innovation's non-mandatory model of clinical networks to investigate the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks. The objective of this retrospective study is to examine the association between external support, organisational and program factors, and indicators of success among 19 clinical networks over a three-year period (2006-2008). The outcomes (health impact, system impact, programs implemented, engagement, user perception, and financial leverage) and explanatory factors will be collected using a web-based survey, interviews, and record review. An independent expert panel will provide judgements about the impact or extent of each network's initiatives on health and system impacts. The ratings of the expert panel will be the outcome used in multivariable analyses. Following the rating of network success, a qualitative study will be conducted to provide a more in-depth examination of the most successful networks. This is the first study to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks and, more generally, is the largest study of clinical networks undertaken. The adaptation of expert panel methods to rate the impacts of networks is the methodological innovation of this study. The proposed project will identify the conditions that should be established or encouraged by agencies developing clinical networks and will be of immediate use in forming strategies and programs to maximise the effectiveness of such networks.

  17. Social Media Users’ Legal Consciousness About Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Sarikakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.

  18. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  19. Involvement of palliative care in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia: A population-based mortality follow-back study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    In the international debate about assisted dying, it is commonly stated that euthanasia is incompatible with palliative care. In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, the Federation for Palliative Care Flanders has endorsed the viewpoint that euthanasia can be embedded in palliative care. To examine the involvement of palliative care services in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia. Population-based mortality follow-back survey. Physicians attending a random sample of 6871 deaths in Flanders, Belgium, in 2013. People requesting euthanasia were more likely to have received palliative care (70.9%) than other people dying non-suddenly (45.2%) (odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.9)). The most frequently indicated reasons for non-referral to a palliative care service in those requesting euthanasia were that existing care already sufficiently addressed the patient's palliative and supportive care needs (56.5%) and that the patient did not want to be referred (26.1%). The likelihood of a request being granted did not differ between cases with or without palliative care involvement. Palliative care professionals were involved in the decision-making process and/or performance of euthanasia in 59.8% of all euthanasia deaths; this involvement was higher in hospitals (76.0%) than at home (47.0%) or in nursing homes (49.5%). In Flanders, in a context of legalized euthanasia, euthanasia and palliative care do not seem to be contradictory practices. A substantial proportion of people who make a euthanasia request are seen by palliative care services, and for a majority of these, the request is granted.

  20. Involvement of palliative care in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia: A population-based mortality follow-back study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the international debate about assisted dying, it is commonly stated that euthanasia is incompatible with palliative care. In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, the Federation for Palliative Care Flanders has endorsed the viewpoint that euthanasia can be embedded in palliative care. Aim: To examine the involvement of palliative care services in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia. Design: Population-based mortality follow-back survey. Setting/participants: Physicians attending a random sample of 6871 deaths in Flanders, Belgium, in 2013. Results: People requesting euthanasia were more likely to have received palliative care (70.9%) than other people dying non-suddenly (45.2%) (odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.9)). The most frequently indicated reasons for non-referral to a palliative care service in those requesting euthanasia were that existing care already sufficiently addressed the patient’s palliative and supportive care needs (56.5%) and that the patient did not want to be referred (26.1%). The likelihood of a request being granted did not differ between cases with or without palliative care involvement. Palliative care professionals were involved in the decision-making process and/or performance of euthanasia in 59.8% of all euthanasia deaths; this involvement was higher in hospitals (76.0%) than at home (47.0%) or in nursing homes (49.5%). Conclusion: In Flanders, in a context of legalized euthanasia, euthanasia and palliative care do not seem to be contradictory practices. A substantial proportion of people who make a euthanasia request are seen by palliative care services, and for a majority of these, the request is granted. PMID:28849727

  1. Study of social network and its impact in the adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel PAGADOR OTERO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the social networks and his implication are analyzed and approach in the teenagers since, nowadays, to belong to a social network in certain ages is a need to be able to be in touch with the company and the environment that surrounds us. This term, social network is linked to the integration of the technologies, technologies that accompany the teenagers in every moment since these have turned into the principal actors/consumers of this opportunity arisen in the Internet bosom. It has turned into a risky fact for a generation who are in a growing period, setting out values and forming their personality. It is here where the problems appear, these social networks could become a major enemy to youngsters. For it there will be approached each of the following questions: what sound the social networks and that you differentiate can we find between them?, how is friendship constituted in the social networks and the privacy?, what risks can they find when these social networks are in use with acquaintances or strangers?

  2. Study on the complex network characteristics of urban road system based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghua; Chen, Zhenjie; Liu, Yongxue; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Urban road system is the basic bone of urban transportation and one of the most important factors that influent and controls the urban configuration. In this paper, an approach of modeling, analyzing and optimizing urban road system is described based on complex network theory and GIS technology. The urban road system is studied on three focuses: building the urban road network, modeling the computational procedures based on urban road networks and analyzing the urban road system of Changzhou City as the study case. The conclusion is that the urban road network is a scale-free network with small-world characteristic, and there is still space for development of the whole network as a small-world network, also the key road crosses should be kept expedite.

  3. The eMERGE Network: A consortium of biorepositories linked to electronic medical records data for conducting genomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarty Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The eMERGE (electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics Network is an NHGRI-supported consortium of five institutions to explore the utility of DNA repositories coupled to Electronic Medical Record (EMR systems for advancing discovery in genome science. eMERGE also includes a special emphasis on the ethical, legal and social issues related to these endeavors. Organization The five sites are supported by an Administrative Coordinating Center. Setting of network goals is initiated by working groups: (1 Genomics, (2 Informatics, and (3 Consent & Community Consultation, which also includes active participation by investigators outside the eMERGE funded sites, and (4 Return of Results Oversight Committee. The Steering Committee, comprised of site PIs and representatives and NHGRI staff, meet three times per year, once per year with the External Scientific Panel. Current progress The primary site-specific phenotypes for which samples have undergone genome-wide association study (GWAS genotyping are cataract and HDL, dementia, electrocardiographic QRS duration, peripheral arterial disease, and type 2 diabetes. A GWAS is also being undertaken for resistant hypertension in ≈2,000 additional samples identified across the network sites, to be added to data available for samples already genotyped. Funded by ARRA supplements, secondary phenotypes have been added at all sites to leverage the genotyping data, and hypothyroidism is being analyzed as a cross-network phenotype. Results are being posted in dbGaP. Other key eMERGE activities include evaluation of the issues associated with cross-site deployment of common algorithms to identify cases and controls in EMRs, data privacy of genomic and clinically-derived data, developing approaches for large-scale meta-analysis of GWAS data across five sites, and a community consultation and consent initiative at each site. Future activities Plans are underway to expand the network in diversity of

  4. Memory networks in tinnitus: a functional brain image study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, Maura Regina; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Reis, Marilia Alves; Garcia, Michele Vargas; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; de Almeida, Roberta Ribeiro; Garrido, Griselda J; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls. Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT). The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI). The images were processed and analyzed using "Statistical Parametric Mapping" (SPM8). A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05) was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus. It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes.

  5. Memory networks in tinnitus: a functional brain image study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Regina Laureano

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls.Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT. The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI. The images were processed and analyzed using "Statistical Parametric Mapping" (SPM8.A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05 was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus.It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes.

  6. Application of Social Network Analysis for Livelihood System Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchayeeta Misra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Network Analysis (SNA has received growing attention among diverse academic fields for studying ‘social relations’ among individuals and institutions. Unfortunately, its application has remained limited in the study of livelihood systems of rural poor. Complexity in rural livelihoods has increased sharply in the face of increased pressure on natural resources and rapid shift in farm-based to non-farm based employments. This poses great challenge to successful livelihood intervention in rural areas. On one hand, rural development/extension needs to cater to diverse information and service need of the rural people; on other hand, rural institutions need to deliver livelihood-sustaining services more efficiently, which often need institutional restructuring at multiple levels. To achieve these challenges, a strong innovative analytical tool is required for understanding the complexity of rural livelihoods and the associated role of rural institutions. SNA provides excellent scope to analyse such complex systems and interactions among their components. This article proposes an outline of using SNA in livelihood system analysis. The analysis can provide answer to many questions of practical importance – Who are the influential actors in a livelihood system? Which are the key institutions contributing towards sustainable livelihoods? How do these actors interact among themselves? This will help rural development administrators to deliver livelihood-supporting services more efficiently through informed targeting and capacity building.

  7. Adsorption studies of a microporous phthalocyanine network polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, A Verena; Budd, Peter M; McKeown, Neil B

    2006-04-25

    The adsorption/desorption of N2 at 77 K and the adsorption from aqueous solution at 298 K of four organic probe molecules of different sizes (phenol, 4-nitrophenol, orange II, naphthol green B) were studied for a phthalocyanine network polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) and for an activated carbon (Darco 20-40 mesh). N2 sorption analysis gave similar surface areas for the PIM and the carbon (610 and 545 m2 g(-1), respectively) but showed differences in pore size distribution, the PIM being essentially microporous (pore size < 2 nm), with a high proportion of ultramicropores (<0.7 nm), while the carbon had a broader pore size distribution, extending into the mesopore region. The carbon acted as an adsorbent for all the organic probe molecules studied, while the PIM was more selective, adsorbing the smaller molecules but rejecting the large dye naphthol green B. The PIM offers selectivity combined with a well-defined chemical structure incorporating catalytic sites.

  8. Cost control should extend to legal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, R J; Taylor, M Z

    1991-03-01

    While a healthcare organization may consider legal services to be outside its management scope, control of legal spending is within a hospital's grasp. Whether an organization is large or active enough to merit an internal legal staff, an administrative position should be established to centralize management of legal services. A hospital may choose to undertake a cost reduction audit, which can determine the feasibility of an internal legal staff and coordinate competitive proposals from outside law firms handling litigation.

  9. Defending Tor from Network Adversaries: A Case Study of Network Path Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    routing policy (e.g., using OSPF [29], IS-IS [9], RIP [27], or iBGP [32]) that routes traffic to and from other networks. BGP is a path-vector routing...Applications, Tech- nologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Commu- nications, 2003. [29] J. Moy. RFC 2328: OSPF Version 2, April 1998. http

  10. SOCIAL NETWORK EFFECTS ON ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma CAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to obtain information about social network variables in order to predict the relational commitment of married individuals and people having dating relationships. For this purpose, social network analysis has been carried out on 134 people having dating relationship and 154 married individuals and then Relationship Stability Scale, Subjective Norm Scale and Social Network Feature Survey prepared by the researcher were used. The results indicated that the approval of the closest social network member and the level of enjoyment of each other’s social network members had the best predictive value for relationship satisfaction and the investment to the relationship. The results also demonstrated that, approval of the social network had a negative impact on the level of the quality of alternatives and it showed that social networks were seen as a barrier function to have alternative relationships. Furthermore, by dividing social network members into two groups, for the dating group, the approval of the social network was the most significant variable for commitment but in the married group, the need for social network approval was not an important criteria because of having their relatioship already confirmed legally. When social network members were categorised and examined, the closest social network members did not differ by sex, but were varied in terms of relationship types. In the flirt group, one of their friends among his/her social network and their partners’ social network was specified as the closest social network member whereas in the married group, the closest social network member among his/her social network was their mother while it was their sibling among partner’s social network.

  11. The legal status of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.

    2009-09-01

    Authorities of civil protection are giving extreme importance to the scientific assessment throughout the widespread use of mathematical models that have been implemented in order to prevent and mitigate the effect of natural hazards. These models, however, are far from deterministic; moreover, the uncertainty that characterizes them plays an important role in the scheme of prevention of natural hazards. We are, in fact, presently experiencing a detrimental increase of legal actions taken against the authorities of civil protection whom, relying on the forecasts of mathematical models, fail in protecting the population. It is our profound concern that civilians have granted the right of being protected by any means, and at the same extent, from natural hazards and from the fallacious behaviour of whom should grant individual safety. But, at the same time, a dangerous overcriminalization could have a negative impact on the Civil Protection system inducing a dangerous defensive behaviour which is costly and ineffective. A few case studies are presented in which the role of uncertainty, in numerical predictions, is made evident and discussed. Scientists, thus, need to help policymakers to agree on sound procedures that must recognize the real level of unpredictability. Hence, we suggest the creation of an international and interdisciplinary committee, with the scope of having politics, jurisprudence and science communicate, to find common solutions to a common problem.

  12. Social Networks among the Older Chinese Population in the USA: Findings from the PINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien

    2017-01-01

    Social network research has become central to studies of health and aging. Its results may yield public health insights that are actionable and improve the quality of life of older adults. However, little is known about the social networks of older immigrant adults, whose social relationships often develop in the context of migration, compounded by cultural and linguistic barriers. This report aims to describe the structure, composition, and emotional components of social networks in the Chinese aging population of the USA, and to explore ways in which their social networks may be critical to their health decision-making. Our data come from the PINE study, a population-based epidemiological study of community-dwelling older Chinese American adults, aged 60 years and above, in the greater Chicago area. We conducted individual interviews in participants' homes from 2011 until 2013. Based on sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, this study computed descriptive statistics and trend tests for the social network measures adapted from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project study. The findings show that older Chinese adults have a relatively small social network in comparison with their counterparts from other ethnic and racial backgrounds. Only 29.6% of the participants could name 5 close network members, and 2.2% could name 0 members. Their network composition was more heavily kin oriented (95.0%). Relationships with network members differed according to the older adults' sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Subgroup variations included the likelihood of discussing health-related issues with network members. This study highlights the dynamic nature of social networks in later-life Chinese immigrants. For healthcare practitioners, developing cost-effective strategies that can mobilize social network support remains a critical undertaking in health intervention. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the causal impact of social

  13. Designing e-Books for Legal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine C.; Price, Morgan N.; Golovchinsky, Gene; Schilit, Bill N.

    This paper reports the findings from a field study of legal research in a first-tier law school and on the resulting redesign of XLibris, a next-generation e-book. The report first characterizes a work setting in which an e-book was expected to be a useful interface for reading and otherwise using a mix of physical and digital library materials,…

  14. The Role of legal English in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Anash Ramazanova; Bektursyn Kaliev; Zhanar Ramazanova

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to describe the features and objectives of teaching English to law students in Kazakhstan, to report the results of recent research in the given field and challenging the educators, teachers and researchers for further studies in the field of legal English. In Kazakhstan the educational institutions require all students and graduates to master at least one foreign language. English as a foreign language is being taught from the primary school.Teaching English in h...

  15. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  16. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study seeking to generate hypotheses about norms as psycho-social entities amongst professional producers and commissioners of legal translations, and to shed light on the reasons underlying these norms. In particular, we wish to investigate h...... training to heighten student translators’ awareness that norms are not a uniform entity, but subject to different perceptions depending on discourse community membership....

  17. LEGAL REGULATIONS REGARDING UNFAIR TERMSIN BANK LOAN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica ȚÎRLEA

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study to identify the legal framework governing unfair terms in the sequence of their appearance at a national and European Union’s level and the implementation and harmonization with the general conditions governing consumer credit.

  18. Intrusion protection of in-vehicle network: study and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Asvestopoulos, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Modern vehicles include several electronic control units (ECUs), organized in a controller area network (CAN), and interact with external networks for reasons such as comfort, infotainment, and autonomy. The security risks from this increasing external interaction are alarming for the safety-critical vehicle systems, since possible attackers have more options for intrusion. For example, an attack might result in malfunctioning braking system and put lives in danger. This thesis examines the t...

  19. Financial networks based on Granger causality: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papana, Angeliki; Kyrtsou, Catherine; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Diks, Cees

    2017-09-01

    Connectivity analysis is performed on a long financial record of 21 international stock indices employing a linear and a nonlinear causality measure, the conditional Granger causality index (CGCI) and the partial mutual information on mixed embedding (PMIME), respectively. Both measures aim to specify the direction of the interrelationships among the international stock indexes and portray the links of the resulting networks, by the presence of direct couplings between variables exploiting all available information. However, their differences are assessed due to the presence of nonlinearity. The weighted networks formed with respect to the causality measures are transformed to binary ones using a significance test. The financial networks are formed on sliding windows in order to examine the network characteristics and trace changes in the connectivity structure. Subsequently, two statistical network quantities are calculated; the average degree and the average shortest path length. The empirical findings reveal interesting time-varying properties of the constructed network, which are clearly dependent on the nature of the financial cycle.

  20. Legal Protection Against The Dance Creator In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Juwita; Juajir Sumardi; Oky Deviany Burhamzah; Hasbir Paserangi

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to find out and to analyze the ideal legal protection so it can encourage the creator of dance in developing a creation in the field of dance and to find out and to analyze and to get the concept of legal protection of copyright in the field of dance after the enactment of Act No. 28 of 2014 concerns Copyright. This research is empirical juridical. The technique of collecting legal material is conducted through interviews questionnaires to respondents and literature study ...

  1. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  2. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh T; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Roberts, Amy E; Chung, Wendy K; Kline, Jennie K; Deanfield, John E; Giardini, Alessandro; Aleman, Adolfo; Gelb, Bruce D; Mac Neal, Meghan; Porter, George A; Kim, Richard; Brueckner, Martina; Lifton, Richard P; Edman, Sharon; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J

    2018-01-01

    The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC) designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs) cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects) and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot) and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727) and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40%) or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%). Across CHD types, there were significant differences (ptypes and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  3. Optimizing targeted vaccination across cyber-physical networks: an empirically based mathematical simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mones, Enys; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'

    2018-01-01

    . If interruption of disease transmission is the goal, targeting requires knowledge of underlying person-to-person contact networks. Digital communication networks may reflect not only virtual but also physical interactions that could result in disease transmission, but the precise overlap between these cyber...... and physical networks has never been empirically explored in real-life settings. Here, we study the digital communication activity of more than 500 individuals along with their person-to-person contacts at a 5-min temporal resolution. We then simulate different disease transmission scenarios on the person......-to-person physical contact network to determine whether cyber communication networks can be harnessed to advance the goal of targeted vaccination for a disease spreading on the network of physical proximity. We show that individuals selected on the basis of their closeness centrality within cyber networks (what we...

  4. CULTURAL AND LEGAL FACTORS OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE-BUILDING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Krasnokutskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.

  5. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  6. [Legal aspects of health telematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, C

    2005-06-01

    Specific legal issues arise from the distance of the participants in health telematics. Substandard care not meeting the state of the art can yield malpractice litigation, especially if a diagnosis or therapy conveyed via telematics proves to be deficient. On the other hand, communication deficiencies may bring about a reversal of the burden of proof. If the patient's damage can not be attributed to the responsible person due to the division of labour, a joint liability is likely to be adjudicated. A specific legal risk analysis is required as a basis for a risk-adequate design of any application in health telematics.

  7. Legal Theory and Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to raise the hypothesis that, in its current state, according to the metaethical grounds that explicitly or implicitly sustain any interesting conception of the law, legal theory can be conceived as (a part of moral philosophy. This hypothesis is inferred from two questions that is worth asking to any legal theorist: 1 Is there an objective morality? 2 Which is the relevance of the answer to the preceding question for the conceptual and normative ways through which it is possible to provide an account of law as a social practice?

  8. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...... that the Lex castrensis is in fact a political-legal treatise masked as pseudo-history with an explicit didactic purpose as a ‘schoolbook' for future administrators. As a learned ideological construct with a remarkable afterlife, Sven's work may be regarded as part of the intellectual preparation for future...

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  10. An empirical study of the social individual differences on mobile social network service use

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhunaizan, A; Love, S.

    2013-01-01

    Copyright @ 2013 EMCIS. When developing and aiming to achieve success in the arena of mobile social network services, user behaviour is one of the key aspects for consideration. Nowadays, it is recognised that mobile social networks are fast, responsive technologies centred on facilitating mobile commerce. Our aim in this study to perform an empirical study to investigate the way in which social individual factors (gender, age and education) affect user acceptance in mobile social network ...

  11. Money Laundering. Aspects of Legal and Criminal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DUMITRACHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing objectively various techniques and methods of money laundering, both in classical and modern ways, by presenting case studies from the legal practice in Romania, in an attempt to clarify a number of issues related to the complexity of this crime, current and future tendencies of financial criminals for laundering proceeds of crime. Also, according to the analysis of comparative law performed in the last chapter, we highlighted a number of similarities and differences between the Romanian legislation and the legislative laws of other states, surprising the forms and effects of money laundering on the studied national systems as well as highlighting the measures for preventing and fighting against these crimes adopted by the analyzed legal systems. The comparative approach of the criminal and legal framework of preventing and combating money laundering is essential for the Romanian legal system efficiency in this matter.

  12. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  13. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  14. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Lindsey M; Cole, Donald C; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula

    2014-01-25

    Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers' careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world.

  15. Impaired topological architecture of brain structural networks in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Huang, Biao; Zhang, Ruibin; Ma, Qing; Yang, Wanqun; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Limin; Xu, Qin; Feng, Jieying; Liu, Liqing; Zhang, Yuhu; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a neurodegenerative disorder of the brain central nervous system. But, to date, few studies adopted the network model to reveal topological changes in brain structural networks in PD patients. Additionally, although the concept of rich club organization has been widely used to study brain networks in various brain disorders, there is no study to report the changed rich club organization of brain networks in PD patients. Thus, we collected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls and adopted deterministic tractography to construct brain structural networks. During the network analysis, we calculated their topological properties, and built the rich club organization of brain structural networks for both subject groups. By comparing the between-group differences in topological properties and rich club organizations, we found that the connectivity strength of the feeder and local connections are lower in PD patients compared to those of the healthy controls. Furthermore, using a network-based statistic (NBS) approach, we identified uniformly significantly decreased connections in two modules, the limbic/paralimbic/subcortical module and the cognitive control/attention module, in patients compared to controls. In addition, for the topological properties of brain network topology in the PD patients, we found statistically increased shortest path length and decreased global efficiency. Statistical comparisons of nodal properties were also widespread in the frontal and parietal regions for the PD patients. These findings may provide useful information to better understand the abnormalities of brain structural networks in PD patients.

  16. Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Urban Bus Networks in Indian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, the domain of network science has become extremely useful in understanding the underlying structure of various real-world networks and to answer non-trivial questions regarding them. In this study, we rigourously analyze the statistical properties of the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L- and P-space, using tools from network science. Although public transport networks, such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze their topological structure, and answer some of the basic questions on their evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. We start from an empirical analysis of these networks, and determine their principle characteristics in terms of the complex network theory. The common features of small-world property and heavy tails in degree-distribution ...

  17. Crossing geographical, legal and moral boundaries: the Belgian cigarette black market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, T; Janssens, J; Verpoest, K; Balcaen, A; Vander Laenen, F

    2008-02-01

    To describe and analyse the cigarette smuggling trade in Belgium and its role in the international cigarette black market. Analysis of Belgian customs and prosecution files concerning the cigarette smuggling trade in the period 2000 to 2006 and interviews with law enforcement authorities and private tobacco industry. Analyses were made of the geographical aspects, the modus operandi and the participants of the cigarette smuggling trade in Belgium. Belgium is mainly a transit country. The cigarettes are transported via the fine-meshed Belgian highway network to the UK, which is often the destination country of the cigarettes. China is the most popular country of origin, especially for counterfeited cigarettes. In order to transport the cigarettes often use was made of legal transport companies and warehouses were frequently used to store the cigarettes. Many of the persons involved in the Belgian cigarette smuggling trade are strongly connected to legitimate business activities. Belgium is an important transit country for cigarette smuggling to the UK. This study pictures the illicit tobacco trade as a complex, ambiguous phenomenon involving several legal and illegal participants whereby the transit of cigarettes across the licit/illicit divide is paralleled by the moral careers of those who smuggle them, not to mention those who consume them. From the legal world to the illegal and back again, this trade and its practitioners and customers blur the line between criminality and non-criminality. Dealing with this phenomenon therefore requires more than a strategy focusing on these lawbreakers alone.

  18. Pandemic Diseases and the Aviation Network SARS, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Lars; Brockmann, Dirk; Geisel, Theo

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the mechanisms of the worldwide spread of infectious diseases in a modern world in which humans travel on all scales. We introduce a probabilistic model which accounts for the worldwide spread of infectious diseases on the global aviation network. The analysis indicates that a forecast of the geographical spread of an epidemic is indeed possible, provided that local dynamical parameters of the disease such as the basic reproduction number are known. The model consists of local stochastic infection dynamics and stochastic transport of individuals on the worldwide aviation network which takes into account over 95% of the entire the national and international civil aviation traffic. Our simulations of the SARS outbreak are in surprisingly good agreement with published case reports. Despite the fact that the system is stochastic with a high number of degrees of freedom the outcome of a single simulation exhibits only a small magnitude of variability. We show that this is due to the strong heterogeneity of the network ranging from a few two over 25,000 passengers between nodes of the network. Thus, we propose that our model can be employed to predict the worldwide spread of future pandemic diseases and to identify endangered regions in advance. Based on the connectivity of the aviation network we evaluate the performance of different control strategies and show that a quick and focused reaction is essential to inhibit the global spread of infectious diseases.

  19. Impact of support networks for breastfeeding: A multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baño-Piñero, Isabel; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Carrillo-García, César; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2017-10-10

    The rates of breastfeeding worldwide are slowly improving since 1996. Europe is still trailing behind the global breastfeeding incidence and prevalence rates. Thus, breastfeeding promotion, protection, prolongation and support have become an important challenge as breastfeeding sharply decreases in the first six months of life. The aim of this project is to determine, assess and identify the real impact of breastfeeding support networks in Murcia (Spain). After searching unsuccessfully for a validated questionnaire, a specific one was developed and validated for measuring the impact of formal and informal support networks through five dimensions: satisfaction, consultation, experience, problems and support. The questionnaire was provided to 500 mothers with experience in breastfeeding, who brought their children to baby paediatricians between 2 June and 27 November 2014. Upon completion of the survey and fieldwork, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted. The degree of satisfaction perceived by the users of the services of support breastfeeding networks is remarkable. In addition, mothers who clarified their doubts and discussed their problems with health professionals and/or breastfeeding support networks were more likely to breastfeed for a longer duration compared to those who did not (p=0.005). Furthermore, mothers who sought support in breastfeeding are more likely to breastfeed for more than 6 months (psupport networks have a positive influence in the duration of a women's decision to breastfeed. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-mortem toxicology: A pilot study to evaluate the use of a Bayesian network to assess the likelihood of fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Alan M; Bolton, Jennifer R; Carlin, Michelle G; Palmer, Ray

    2015-07-01

    The challenge of interpreting post-mortem drug concentrations is well documented and relies on appropriate sample collection, knowledge of case circumstances as well as reference to published tables of data, whilst taking into account the known issues of post-mortem drug redistribution and tolerance. Existing published data has evolved from simple data tables to those now including sample origin and single to poly drug use, but additional information tends to be specific to those reported in individual case studies. We have developed a Bayesian network framework to assign a likelihood of fatality based on the contribution of drug concentrations whilst taking into account the pathological findings. This expert system has been tested against casework within the coronial jurisdiction of Sunderland, UK. We demonstrate in this pilot study that the Bayesian network can be used to proffer a degree of confidence in how deaths may be reported in cases when drugs are implicated. It has also highlighted the potential for deaths to be reported according to the pathological states at post-mortem when drugs have a significant contribution that may have an impact on mortality statistics. The Bayesian network could be used as complementary approach to assist in the interpretation of post-mortem drug concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Social networking profiles and professionalism issues in residency applicants: an original study-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Brent A; Determann, Jason R; Boohaker, Hikel A; Sheppard, Evan; McGwin, Gerald; Theiss, Steven

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of social networking, the degree of information publicly disclosed, and whether unprofessional content was identified in applicants from the 2010 Residency Match. Medical professionalism is an essential competency for physicians to learn, and information found on social networking sites may be hazardous to the doctor-patient relationship and an institution's public perception. No study has analyzed the social network content of applicants applying for residency. Online review of social networking Facebook profiles of graduating medical students applying for a residency in orthopedic surgery. Evidence of unprofessional content was based upon Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines. Additional recorded applicant data included as follows: age, United States Medical Licensing Examination part I score, and residency composite score. Relationship between professionalism score and recorded data points was evaluated using an analysis of variance. Nearly half of all applicants, 46% (200/431), had a Facebook profile. The majority of profiles (85%) did not restrict online access to their profile. Unprofessional content was identified in 16% of resident applicant profiles. Variables associated with lower professionalism scores included unmarried relationship status and lower residency composite scores. It is critical for healthcare professionals to recognize both the benefits and risks present with electronic communication and to vigorously protect the content of material allowed to be publically accessed through the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Simulation Study for Emergency/Disaster Management by Applying Complex Networks Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding and terrorist attacks pose a severe threat to our society. What’s more, when such a disaster happens, it can spread in a wide range with ubiquitous presence of a large-scale networked system. Therefore, the emergency/disaster management faces new challenges that the decision-makers have extra difficulties in perceiving the disaster dynamic spreading processes under this networked environment. This study tries to use the complex networks theory to tackle this complexity and the result shows the theory is a promising approach to support disaster/emergency management by focusing on simulation experiments of small world networks and scale free networks. The theory can be used to capture and describe the evolution mechanism, evolution discipline and overall behavior of a networked system. In particular, the complex networks theory is very strong at analyzing the complexity and dynamical changes of a networked system, which can improve the situation awareness after a disaster has occurred and help perceive its dynamic process, which is very important for high-quality decision making. In addition, this study also shows the use of the complex networks theory can build a visualized process to track the dynamic spreading of a disaster in a networked system.

  3. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  4. The Seizure of Shares Due to Shareholder’s Personal Debt: a Historical Study of the Evolution of the Legal Treatment and Case Law Towards The Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira de Assumpção Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis of the legal treatment of the seizure of shares due to shareholder’s personal debt and the impacts of such measure on the affectio societatis. In order to do so, with the usage of the deductive method of research, hereby it will be presenting two different views on the issue: a first one based solemnly on the rules and principles the are commonly accepted and a second based on logical arguments. Afterwards, the two premises are going to be confronted in order achieve the best answers. Moreover, with the usage of bibliographical and documental research, this work intends to demonstrate how the seizure of shares has evolved from an impossibility, under the terms of the article 292 of the Commercial Code, to a reality, whereas the seizure is now possible even on those cases where the article of association lacks the regulation on the issue.

  5. A STUDY OF VARIABLES CHARACTERIZING DRAINAGE PATTERNS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In GIS and in terrain analysis, drainage systems are important components. Due to local topography and subsurface geology, a drainage system achieves a particular drainage pattern based on the form and texture of its network of stream channels and tributaries. Drainage pattern recognition helps to provide a qualitative description of the terrain for analysis and classification and is useful for terrain modelling and visualization and applications in environment. Much research has been done on the description of drainage patterns in geography and hydrology. However automatic drainage pattern recognition in river networks is not well developed. This paper introduces a method based on geometric quantitative indicators to recognize drainage patterns in a river network automatically. Experiment results are presented and discussed.

  6. Legal Aspects in Treating Rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Richard T.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new evaluation treatment methods for rapists and child molesters has created unique legal and ethical problems for therapists and researchers dealing with this population. Explores the issues of confidentiality, privileged communication, and informed consent to acquaint the reader with the potential problems. (Author)

  7. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  9. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Majhoshev; Viktor Angelovski

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.). Child labor ...

  10. Network analysis for a network disorder: The emerging role of graph theory in the study of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Bonilha, Leonardo; Gross, Donald W

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed a paradigm shift in the study and conceptualization of epilepsy, which is increasingly understood as a network-level disorder. An emblematic case is temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common drug-resistant epilepsy that is electroclinically defined as a focal epilepsy and pathologically associated with hippocampal sclerosis. In this review, we will summarize histopathological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence supporting the concept that the substrate of TLE is not limited to the hippocampus alone, but rather is broadly distributed across multiple brain regions and interconnecting white matter pathways. We will introduce basic concepts of graph theory, a formalism to quantify topological properties of complex systems that has recently been widely applied to study networks derived from brain imaging and electrophysiology. We will discuss converging graph theoretical evidence indicating that networks in TLE show marked shifts in their overall topology, providing insight into the neurobiology of TLE as a network-level disorder. Our review will conclude by discussing methodological challenges and future clinical applications of this powerful analytical approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Collective legal protection: The European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic goals of the EU justice policy is to ensure an efficient and effective legal protection, particularly in cross-border disputes and cases concerning the violation of rights guaranteed under the EU legislation. In order to accomplish this goal, the EU embarked on a horizontal harmonization of civil procedure in some sectors and reinforced the institutional cooperation of Member States in the field of civil justice. Concurrently, there were some legal interventions in the field of civil procedure, which contributed to establishing a number of European procedural mechanisms, such as: the European Small Claims Procedure (2007, the European Payment Order Procedure (2006, etc. Many studies and analyses show that procedural mechanisms of collective legal protection are essential for ensuring an efficient and effective legal protection of rights guaranteed by the EU law. The idea of introducing the collective legal protection instruments into the EU law has been present for more than two decades. It has been endorsed by the European Economic and Social Committee, which has played the key role in its promotion. In June 2013, after extensive consultations, the European Commission adopted the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Members States concerning violations of rights guaranteed under the EU law. This document has provided a coherent horizontal framework for the collective legal protection at the EU level by establishing the common European principles for collective redress mechanisms which the Member States should incorporate into their national systems. Analysis of the common principles governing the collective legal protection shows that the European approach to shaping the collective redress claims is significantly different from the American class action model, which is considered to be incompatible with the European legal tradition and deemed to provide a wide

  12. A Study of Malware Propagation via Online Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghani, Mohammad Reza; Nguyen, Uyen Trang

    The popularity of online social networks (OSNs) have attracted malware creators who would use OSNs as a platform to propagate automated worms from one user's computer to another's. On the other hand, the topic of malware propagation in OSNs has only been investigated recently. In this chapter, we discuss recent advances on the topic of malware propagation by way of online social networking. In particular, we present three malware propagation techniques in OSNs, namely cross site scripting (XSS), Trojan and clickjacking types, and their characteristics via analytical models and simulations.

  13. LENS: web-based lens for enrichment and network studies of human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Adam; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis is a common approach for the study of genetic view of diseases and biological pathways. Typically, when a set of genes are identified to be of interest in relation to a disease, say through a genome wide association study (GWAS) or a different gene expression study, these genes are typically analyzed in the context of their protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Further analysis is carried out to compute the enrichment of known pathways and disease-associations in the network. Having tools for such analysis at the fingertips of biologists without the requirement for computer programming or curation of data would accelerate the characterization of genes of interest. Currently available tools do not integrate network and enrichment analysis and their visualizations, and most of them present results in formats not most conducive to human cognition. We developed the tool Lens for Enrichment and Network Studies of human proteins (LENS) that performs network and pathway and diseases enrichment analyses on genes of interest to users. The tool creates a visualization of the network, provides easy to read statistics on network connectivity, and displays Venn diagrams with statistical significance values of the network's association with drugs, diseases, pathways, and GWASs. We used the tool to analyze gene sets related to craniofacial development, autism, and schizophrenia. LENS is a web-based tool that does not require and download or plugins to use. The tool is free and does not require login for use, and is available at http://severus.dbmi.pitt.edu/LENS.

  14. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  15. Minorities, Legal Autonomy Regimes and the Principle of Non-discrimination: A Comparative Study on the Conflict of Civil Codes and the Personal Laws of Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Hashemi Ardestani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In international human rights law the application of the principle of ‘equality’ along with the ‘preservation of characteristics’ have been considered as the corner stones of a system for the protection of minorities. Regarding the ‘right of minorities to identity’ the regime of ‘personal legal autonomy’ will be of special interest to this study. While this phenomenon in non-Muslim countries is very rare, it is a common policy in the majority of Muslim countries. Despite the advantages of this regime, its discriminatory aspects stand in contrast with the main principle of human rights law, i.e. the principle of non-discrimination. This paper undertakes a comparative study of the legislation and legal practices of different states, in order to discern the ways that the conflicts of religious laws might affect the principle of non-discrimination. On the concept of non-discrimination the study makes a distinction between discrimination on the ground of religion and discrimination in religious rights. تجربه مسلمانان در زمینه حفظ هویت اقلیت‌ها برگرفته از حقوقی است که از دیرباز برای اقلیت‌های عمده مذهبی قائل شده‌اند که یکی از آنها پذیرش یک نوع خودمختاری ـ به ویژه خودمختاری قضایی‌ـ در برخی امور داخلی و نیز قوانین خانواده بوده است. این مقاله ضمن اینکه ارائه هرنوع خودمختاری قضایی به اقلیت‌ها را اصالتاً امری مثبت ارزیابی می‌نماید، آثار تبعیض‌آمیزی که ممکن است به هنگام پذیرش این نوع خودمختاری برای آنها در موارد تعارض بین قوانین مدنی کشور و یا قوانین مذهبی اکثریت با قوانین مربوطه اقلیت‌ها بروز نماید را به صورت

  16. Understanding the perceptions, roles and interactions of stakeholder networks managing health-care waste: A case study of the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, M; Tudor, T; Vaccari, M

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable management of waste requires a holistic approach involving a range of stakeholders. What can often be difficult is to understand the manner in which different types of stakeholder networks are composed and work, and how best to enhance their effectiveness. Using social network analysis and stakeholder analysis of healthcare waste management stakeholders in the case study region of the Gaza Strip, this study aimed to understand and examine the manner in which the networks functioned. The Ministry of Health was found to be the most important stakeholder, followed by municipalities and solid waste management councils. Some international agencies were also mentioned, with specific roles, while other local institutions had a limited influence. Finally while health-care facilities had a strong interest in waste management, they were generally poorly informed and had limited links to each other. The manner in which the networks operated was complicated and influenced by differences in perception, sharing of information, access to finance and levels of awareness. The lack of a clear legal framework generated various mistakes about roles and responsibilities in the system, and evidently regulation was not an effective driver for improvement. Finally stakeholders had different priorities according to the waste management issues they were involved with, however segregation at the source was identified as a key requirement by most. Areas for improving the effectiveness of the networks are suggested. The analysis utilized an innovative methodology, which involved a large number of stakeholders. Such an approach served to raise interest and awareness at different levels (public authorities, health providers, supporting actors, others), stimulate the discussion about the adoption of specific policies, and identify the effective way forward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ON ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF DATA MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Mehmet Cudi

    2008-01-01

    Data mining technology allows large volumes of data to be exploited for discovering previously unknown,possibly useful knowledge. The speed and extent of developments in information technologies have increased the power and potential of data mining.However, the privacy of personally sensitive information is not respected generally in the process,which creates ethical and legal problems in some applications.In this study,the ethical and legal aspects of data mining are explored and a critical ...

  18. Comparative study about social support network among familiar physicians and traffic officers, México

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda B., Carolina; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México; Torres L., Teresa; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México; Salazar E., José; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México; Pando M., Manuel; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México; Aldrete R., María Guadalupe; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México

    2014-01-01

    The social support is the process that occurs between people that make up the social network of a subject. Actions such as listening, estimate, assess, and so on, are behaviors that occur among individuals who make up the network. The aim of this study analyze the situation of social support and social support networks on family physicians and traffic agents of a city in Mexico. 197 physicians and 875 traffic agents participated voluntarily with an informed consent. The information was collec...

  19. Neural Networks for Medical Image Processing: A Study of Feature Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Dayhoff, Judith E.

    1988-01-01

    Neural networks, a parallel computing architecture modelled on living nervous systems, are able to “learn” by example. The ability of a simulated neural network to distinguish among simulated microscopic amoebae nuclei images was studied. The neural network was successfully shown to organize feature detectors without the intermediate step of manual identification of salient features. The feature detectors were mapped onto the image format and the issue of redundancy was examined.

  20. Collecting social network data to study social activity-travel behavior: an egocentric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Carrasco; Bernie Hogan; Barry Wellman; Miller, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a data collection effort designed to incorporate the social dimension in social activity-travel behavior by explicitly studying the link between individuals’ social activities and their social networks. The main hypothesis of the data collection effort is that individuals’ travel behavior is conditional upon their social networks; that is, a key cause of travel behavior is the social dimension represented by social networks. With this hypothesis in mind, and using survey a...

  1. Multiscale complex network analysis: An approach to study spatiotemporal rainfall pattern in south Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Marwan, Norbert; Rathinasamy, Maheswaran; Oeztuerk, Ugur; Merz, Bruno; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of the climate sytems has been of tremendous importance to different branches such as agriculture, flood, drought and water resources management etc. In this regard, complex networks analysis and time series analysis attracted considerable attention, owing to their potential role in understanding the climate system through characteristic properties. One of the basic requirements in studying climate network dynamics is to identify connections in space or time or space-time, depending upon the purpose. Although a wide variety of approaches have been developed and applied to identify and analyse spatio-temporal relationships by climate networks, there is still further need for improvements in particular when considering precipitation time series or interactions on different scales. In this regard, recent developments in the area of network theory, especially complex networks, offer new avenues, both for their generality about systems and for their holistic perspective about spatio-temporal relationships. The present study has made an attempt to apply the ideas developed in the field of complex networks to examine connections in regional climate networks with particular focus on multiscale spatiotemporal connections. This paper proposes a novel multiscale understanding of regional climate networks using wavelets. The proposed approach is applied to daily precipitation records observed at 543 selected stations from south Germany for a period of 110 years (1901-2010). Further, multiscale community mining is performed on the same study region to shed more light on the underlying processes at different time scales. Various network measure and tools so far employed provide micro-level (individual station) and macro-level (community structure) information of the network. It is interesting to investigate how the result of this study can be useful for future climate predictions and for evaluating climate models on their implementation regarding heavy

  2. Custom: The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the fifth in the series, contains the proceedings from the conference Custom. The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages held at the Law School at the University of Aarhus in May 2008. The volume covers topics from local case studies and studies of learned law...... to broader reflections on the development and use of the legal concept consuetudo and its connection with other sources of law, with the balance between local and regional power structures, and secular and ecclesiastical societies in medieval Europe. Combining the approaches of several historical disciplines...... - political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...

  3. Low Modulus Silicone Elastomer Networks with Desirable Viscoelastic Properties for Cell Mobility Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Julie N. L.; Genzer, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Biocompatible silicone elastomer networks provide a versatile platform for studying the effect of compliance on cell movement. In conventional network formation schemes, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is cross-linked via reactive end groups, and the modulus of the material is controlled by the ratio of polymer to cross-linker. However, low modulus networks fabricated in this manner are imperfect and insufficiently cross-linked with high soluble fractions and reduced elasticity, especially as the network modulus approaches that of soft tissues (on the order of 10 kPa). In order to overcome these limitations, we synthesized PDMS chains in which vinylmethylsiloxane units were incorporated every ~15-20 kDa along the polymer backbone. We then cross-linked the polymer through the vinyl groups using hydrosilylation chemistry. The resultant networks exhibited lower soluble fractions and lower viscous dissipation/greater elasticity as compared to equivalent-modulus networks fabricated by the conventional end-group cross-linking scheme. We attribute the mechanical properties of our networks to the presence of network-bound free chain ends that effectively plasticize the network to lower the modulus without compromising network elasticity.

  4. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  6. Beyond legal entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Mark; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our study of the migrants and the underground economy in Austria highlights the following features: 1) the underground economy is contextual, with its form, content and dynamic being specific to the national and other contexts in which it is used and understood; 2) the form, the content and the d......Our study of the migrants and the underground economy in Austria highlights the following features: 1) the underground economy is contextual, with its form, content and dynamic being specific to the national and other contexts in which it is used and understood; 2) the form, the content...

  7. Study of active crossover network | Tyona | Nigerian Journal of Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An active crossover network system has been realized using an active component LF356 with a JFET input. The net work has two drives, the low frequency drive (Bass) and the high frequency drive (Treble). It employs high level crossover technique. The circuit performance was adequately verified and the frequency ...

  8. Prognosis of prostate gland morphology study using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to optimize the management of patients with serum PSA level falling in the range of 4-10 ng/ ml by designing and educating of an artificial neural network, which may be used to predict prostate gland morphology basing on clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Material and methods. Data of 254 patients, who were admitted to the oncological Department of S. R. Mirotvortsev Clinical hospital for transrectal prostate biopsy, was collected to construct several artificial neural networks with different architecture. External validation was performed on 27 patients, who had prostate biopsy in January-February 2014. Results. One-layer network, consisting of 11 input, 9 hidden and 3 output neurons, was determined to be the most successful: in 92.6% cases it was correct in predicting prostate cancer or its absence. Input factors were evaluated according to their relative importance, from more important to less important: prostate volume, serum PSA, patient's age, prostate consistency, PSA velocity, prostate symmetry, previous negative biopsy, free serum PSA, intake of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. Conclusion. Artificial neural networks may be used to predict morphological findings in prostate biopsy. High PSA density and firm prostate consistency should cause suspicion of prostate cancer.

  9. Segmenting the social networking sites users: An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of social networking sites (SNS) presents businesses and marketers with risks and challenges. Customers become sophisticated, empowered and increasingly involved in shaping of the marketing offer. Marketers are becoming aware of the threat of losing control over their message but also

  10. Network-based study of Lagrangian transport and mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padberg-Gehle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport and mixing processes in fluid flows are crucially influenced by coherent structures and the characterization of these Lagrangian objects is a topic of intense current research. While established mathematical approaches such as variational methods or transfer-operator-based schemes require full knowledge of the flow field or at least high-resolution trajectory data, this information may not be available in applications. Recently, different computational methods have been proposed to identify coherent behavior in flows directly from Lagrangian trajectory data, that is, numerical or measured time series of particle positions in a fluid flow. In this context, spatio-temporal clustering algorithms have been proven to be very effective for the extraction of coherent sets from sparse and possibly incomplete trajectory data. Inspired by these recent approaches, we consider an unweighted, undirected network, where Lagrangian particle trajectories serve as network nodes. A link is established between two nodes if the respective trajectories come close to each other at least once in the course of time. Classical graph concepts are then employed to analyze the resulting network. In particular, local network measures such as the node degree, the average degree of neighboring nodes, and the clustering coefficient serve as indicators of highly mixing regions, whereas spectral graph partitioning schemes allow us to extract coherent sets. The proposed methodology is very fast to run and we demonstrate its applicability in two geophysical flows – the Bickley jet as well as the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex.

  11. Treatment of non-response in longitudinal network studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The collection of longitudinal data on complete social networks often faces the problem of actor non-response. The resulting incomplete data pose a challenge to statistical analysis, as there typically is no natural way to treat the missing cases. This paper examines the problems caused by actors

  12. Stochastic approaches for product recovery network design: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIncreased uncertainty is one of the characteristics of product recovery networks. In particular the strategic design of their logistic infrastructure has to take uncertain information into account. In this paper we present stochastic programming based approaches by which a deterministic

  13. Altered networks in bothersome tinnitus: a functional connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Harold

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to examine functional connectivity linked to the auditory system in patients with bothersome tinnitus. Activity was low frequency (3 brain volumes in 17 patients with moderate-severe bothersome tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Index: average 53.5 ± 3.6 (range 38-76 and 17 age-matched controls. Results In bothersome tinnitus, negative correlations reciprocally characterized functional connectivity between auditory and occipital/visual cortex. Negative correlations indicate that when BOLD response magnitudes increased in auditory or visual cortex they decreased in the linked visual or auditory cortex, suggesting reciprocally phase reversed activity between functionally connected locations in tinnitus. Both groups showed similar connectivity with positive correlations within the auditory network. Connectivity for primary visual cortex in tinnitus included extensive negative correlations in the ventral attention temporoparietal junction and in the inferior frontal gyrus and rostral insula - executive control network components. Rostral insula and inferior frontal gyrus connectivity in tinnitus also showed greater negative correlations in occipital cortex. Conclusions These results imply that in bothersome tinnitus there is dissociation between activity in auditory cortex and visual, attention and control networks. The reciprocal negative correlations in connectivity between these networks might be maladaptive or reflect adaptations to reduce phantom noise salience and conflict with attention to non-auditory tasks.

  14. Network-based study of Lagrangian transport and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schneide, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    Transport and mixing processes in fluid flows are crucially influenced by coherent structures and the characterization of these Lagrangian objects is a topic of intense current research. While established mathematical approaches such as variational methods or transfer-operator-based schemes require full knowledge of the flow field or at least high-resolution trajectory data, this information may not be available in applications. Recently, different computational methods have been proposed to identify coherent behavior in flows directly from Lagrangian trajectory data, that is, numerical or measured time series of particle positions in a fluid flow. In this context, spatio-temporal clustering algorithms have been proven to be very effective for the extraction of coherent sets from sparse and possibly incomplete trajectory data. Inspired by these recent approaches, we consider an unweighted, undirected network, where Lagrangian particle trajectories serve as network nodes. A link is established between two nodes if the respective trajectories come close to each other at least once in the course of time. Classical graph concepts are then employed to analyze the resulting network. In particular, local network measures such as the node degree, the average degree of neighboring nodes, and the clustering coefficient serve as indicators of highly mixing regions, whereas spectral graph partitioning schemes allow us to extract coherent sets. The proposed methodology is very fast to run and we demonstrate its applicability in two geophysical flows - the Bickley jet as well as the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex.

  15. NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY IN STUDY OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dadyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of neural network analysis of the effect of significant factors on the quotation of the exchange rate on the example of the formation of the dollar in terms of «the turbulence of the economy» in Russia.

  16. Systematic reverse engineering of network topologies: a case study of resettable bistable cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Dougherty, Edward; Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Carbo, Adria; Yao, Guang; Xing, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    A focused theme in systems biology is to uncover design principles of biological networks, that is, how specific network structures yield specific systems properties. For this purpose, we have previously developed a reverse engineering procedure to identify network topologies with high likelihood in generating desired systems properties. Our method searches the continuous parameter space of an assembly of network topologies, without enumerating individual network topologies separately as traditionally done in other reverse engineering procedures. Here we tested this CPSS (continuous parameter space search) method on a previously studied problem: the resettable bistability of an Rb-E2F gene network in regulating the quiescence-to-proliferation transition of mammalian cells. From a simplified Rb-E2F gene network, we identified network topologies responsible for generating resettable bistability. The CPSS-identified topologies are consistent with those reported in the previous study based on individual topology search (ITS), demonstrating the effectiveness of the CPSS approach. Since the CPSS and ITS searches are based on different mathematical formulations and different algorithms, the consistency of the results also helps cross-validate both approaches. A unique advantage of the CPSS approach lies in its applicability to biological networks with large numbers of nodes. To aid the application of the CPSS approach to the study of other biological systems, we have developed a computer package that is available in Information S1.

  17. Parents Representations of the Legal Socialization of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children

  18. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  19. Altered Brain Network in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting Graph Theory-Based Network Study at Voxel-Wise Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyang; Hu, Xiaofei; Hu, Jun; Liang, Minglong; Yin, Xuntao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jiuquan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare degenerative disorder characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Neuroimaging has provided noticeable evidence that ALS is a complex disease, and shown that anatomical and functional lesions extend beyond precentral cortices and corticospinal tracts, to include the corpus callosum; frontal, sensory, and premotor cortices; thalamus; and midbrain. The aim of this study is to investigate graph theory-based functional network abnormalities at voxel-wise level in ALS patients on a whole brain scale. Forty-three ALS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. The voxel-wise network degree centrality (DC), a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, was used to characterize the alteration of whole brain functional network. Compared with the controls, the ALS patients showed significant increase of DC in the left cerebellum posterior lobes, bilateral cerebellum crus, bilateral occipital poles, right orbital frontal lobe, and bilateral prefrontal lobes; significant decrease of DC in the bilateral primary motor cortex, bilateral sensory motor region, right prefrontal lobe, left bilateral precuneus, bilateral lateral temporal lobes, left cingulate cortex, and bilateral visual processing cortex. The DC's z-scores of right inferior occipital gyrus were significant negative correlated with the ALSFRS-r scores. Our findings confirm that the regions with abnormal network DC in ALS patients were located in multiple brain regions including primary motor, somatosensory and extra-motor areas, supporting the concept that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Specifically, our study found that DC in the visual areas was altered and ALS patients with higher DC in right inferior occipital gyrus have more severity of disease. The result demonstrated that the altered DC value in this region can probably be used to assess severity of ALS.

  20. "I need to terminate this pregnancy even if it will take my life": a qualitative study of the effect of being denied legal abortion on women's lives in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Gerdts, Caitlin; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-10-14

    Although abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, many women are not able to obtain legal services. Using qualitative data from women who were denied legal abortion services, we examined reasons for seeking an abortion, options considered and pursued after being denied an abortion, reasons for delaying seeking care, as well as complications experienced among women who were denied legal abortion. After obtaining authorization from two health facilities in Nepal, we requested informed consent from all women who were seeking abortion services to complete a case report form to determine their eligibility for the study. We then recruited all eligible and interested women in to the study. Two months after recruitment, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 women who were denied abortion services from the two recruitment facilities due to advanced gestational age (>12 weeks). Interviews were translated and transcribed, and the transcripts were analyzed through an iterative process grounded in thematic analysis, involving both a priori and emergent codes. Eleven women were recruited from the government hospital and 14 from an NGO facility. The majority of women (15 women or 60 %) were living rural settings, ranged in age from 18 to 40 years and had an average of 2 children. None had completed any post-secondary education. Women most commonly cited financial concerns and health concerns as reasons for seeking termination. Not recognizing pregnancy, uncertainty about how to proceed, needing time to coordinate the trip to the facility or raise money, and waiting to know the sex of fetus were the commonly cited delays. Among the women interviewed, 12 decided to continue their pregnancies following denial, 12 terminated their pregnancies elsewhere, and one self-induced using medication. At least two women experienced significant complications after obtaining an abortion. Most women who continued their pregnancies anticipated negative consequences for their health, family