WorldWideScience

Sample records for network labeled e-network

  1. Europeans build 10-GigE network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " CERN, SURFnet and the University of Amsterdam announced that they have succeeded in building and testing a Trans European 10 Gbps Ethernet (10 GE) network. Crossing four countries and spanning 1700 km, the network uses the new 10 GE WAN PHY transmission technology capable of transmitting the equivalent of 1.5 complete data CDs every second" (1 page).

  2. Implementing e-network-supported inquiry learning in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    of inquiry, the school must provide effective technological infrastructure and sympathetic curriculum parameters, and the students need to be carefully scaffolded to the point of engaging with the inquiry process. Within this study, e-networks supported students to exercise agency, collaborate, and co...

  3. Robust cooperative output regulation of heterogeneous Lur'e networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Fan; Trentelman, Harry L.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study robust cooperative output regulation problems for a directed network of Lur'e systems that consist of a nominal linear dynamics with an unknown static nonlinearity around it through negative feedback. We assume that the linear part of each agent is identical, but the

  4. A Novel Prioritization Scheme to Improve QoS in IEEE 802.11e Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Tadayon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 WLAN utilizes a distributed function at its MAC layer, namely, DCF to access the wireless medium. Due to its distributed nature, DCF is able to guarantee working stability in a wireless medium while maintaining the assembling and maintenance cost in a low level. However, DCF is inefficient in dealing with real-time traffics due to its incapability on providing QoS. IEEE 802.11e was introduced as a supplementary standard to cope with this problem. This standard introduces an Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function (EDCF that works based on diff-Serve model and can serve multiple classes of traffics (by using different prioritizations schemes. With the emergence of new time-sensitive applications, EDCF has proved to be yet inefficient in dealing with these kinds of traffics because it could not provide network with well-differentiated QoS. In this study, we propose a novel prioritization scheme to improve QoS level in IEEE 802.11e network. In this scheme, we replace Uniform PDF with Gamma PDF, which has salient differentiating properties. We investigate the suitability and superiority of this scheme on furnishing network with well-differentiated QoS using probabilistic analysis. We strengthen our claims by extensive simulation runs.

  5. THE PAN AFRICAN E-NETWORK PROJECT: A New Learning Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nundoo-Ghoorah SUNITI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the paradigm shift in learning culture brought about by the advent of online learning in the mostly print-based ODL system at the Mauritius College of the Air (MCA. It delves into the perceptions of learners and MCA staff involved in a range of undergraduate to Master’s programmes forming part of the Pan African e- Network Project that wires 23 African countries with top-ranking Indian universities through synchronous and interactive state of the art technology. Learners across five of the disciplines offered through tele-learning and a team of MCA staff participating in programme delivery were surveyed through questionnaires and interviews to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. For most of the respondents this new learning ethos has induced an acculturation process requiring radical reconceptualisation of prior notions about teaching/learning. MCA staff, too, have had to learn conducive behavior patterns to consolidate existing support services. Survival in this new learning environment where the tutor is a remote on-screen entity, where e-books replace printed material, where connectivity can be a daily struggle, demands another mindset, another set of values enabling learning and fine-tuned ICT skills. Socialisation with tutors and fellow learners is possible through links in Facebook and Twitter. However, learners still tend to feel somewhat isolated. It is proposed that an e-platform be set up to link up learners as a mutually supportive learning community engaged in the construction of knowledge.

  6. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  7. Optimal modulation and coding scheme allocation of scalable video multicast over IEEE 802.16e networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chia-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapid development of wireless communication technology and the rapid increase in demand for network bandwidth, IEEE 802.16e is an emerging network technique that has been deployed in many metropolises. In addition to the features of high data rate and large coverage, it also enables scalable video multicasting, which is a potentially promising application, over an IEEE 802.16e network. How to optimally assign the modulation and coding scheme (MCS of the scalable video stream for the mobile subscriber stations to improve spectral efficiency and maximize utility is a crucial task. We formulate this MCS assignment problem as an optimization problem, called the total utility maximization problem (TUMP. This article transforms the TUMP into a precedence constraint knapsack problem, which is a NP-complete problem. Then, a branch and bound method, which is based on two dominance rules and a lower bound, is presented to solve the TUMP. The simulation results show that the proposed branch and bound method can find the optimal solution efficiently.

  8. Distortion Optimized Packet Scheduling and Prioritization of Multiple Video Streams over 802.11e Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Politis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generic framework solution for minimizing video distortion of all multiple video streams transmitted over 802.11e wireless networks, including intelligent packet scheduling and channel access differentiation mechanisms. A distortion prediction model designed to capture the multireferenced frame coding characteristic of H.264/AVC encoded videos is used to predetermine the distortion importance of each video packet in all streams. Two intelligent scheduling algorithms are proposed: the “even-loss distribution,” where each video sender is experiencing the same loss and the “greedy-loss distribution” packet scheduling, where selected packets are dropped over all streams, ensuring that the most significant video stream in terms of picture context and quality characteristics will experience minimum losses. The proposed model has been verified with actual distortion measurements and has been found more accurate than the “additive distortion” model that omits the correlation among lost frames. The paper includes analytical and simulation results from the comparison of both schemes and from their comparison to the simplified additive model, for different video sequences and channel conditions.

  9. Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary.    The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional...

  10. Techniques for labeling of optical signals in bust switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Koonen, A. M. J.; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2003-01-01

    We present a review of significant issues related to labeled optical burst switched (LOBS) networks and technologies enabling future optical internet networks. Labeled optical burst switching provides a quick and efficient forwarding mechanism of IP packets/bursts over wavelength division...... multiplexed (WDM) networks due to its single forwarding algorithm, thus yielding low latency, and it enables scaling to terabit rates. Moreover, LOBS is compatible with the general multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) framework for a unified control plane. We present a review on techniques for labeling...... of optical signals for LOBS networks, including experimental results, we discuss as well issues for further research....

  11. Scalable face labeling in online social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2011-01-01

    Face labeling is the process of assigning names to faces. In this paper, we start from a weakly-supervised setting where names are linked to photos, not faces. We introduce two face labeling strategies that scale well to large data sets and allow for labeling parts thereof. This is a useful property

  12. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  13. ART-Based Neural Networks for Multi-label Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Elena P.

    Multi-label classification is an active and rapidly developing research area of data analysis. It becomes increasingly important in such fields as gene function prediction, text classification or web mining. This task corresponds to classification of instances labeled by multiple classes rather than just one. Traditionally, it was solved by learning independent binary classifiers for each class and combining their outputs to obtain multi-label predictions. Alternatively, a classifier can be directly trained to predict a label set of an unknown size for each unseen instance. Recently, several direct multi-label machine learning algorithms have been proposed. This paper presents a novel approach based on ART (Adaptive Resonance Theory) neural networks. The Fuzzy ARTMAP and ARAM algorithms were modified in order to improve their multi-label classification performance and were evaluated on benchmark datasets. Comparison of experimental results with the results of other multi-label classifiers shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Leveraging Structure to Improve Classification Performance in Sparsely Labeled Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, B; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2007-10-22

    We address the problem of classification in a partially labeled network (a.k.a. within-network classification), with an emphasis on tasks in which we have very few labeled instances to start with. Recent work has demonstrated the utility of collective classification (i.e., simultaneous inferences over class labels of related instances) in this general problem setting. However, the performance of collective classification algorithms can be adversely affected by the sparseness of labels in real-world networks. We show that on several real-world data sets, collective classification appears to offer little advantage in general and hurts performance in the worst cases. In this paper, we explore a complimentary approach to within-network classification that takes advantage of network structure. Our approach is motivated by the observation that real-world networks often provide a great deal more structural information than attribute information (e.g., class labels). Through experiments on supervised and semi-supervised classifiers of network data, we demonstrate that a small number of structural features can lead to consistent and sometimes dramatic improvements in classification performance. We also examine the relative utility of individual structural features and show that, in many cases, it is a combination of both local and global network structure that is most informative.

  15. [The RUTA project (Registro UTIC Triveneto ANMCO). An e-network for the coronary care units for acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Antonio; Zonzin, Pietro; Pavoni, Daisy; Fioretti, Paolo Maria

    2003-06-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, the monitoring of the adherence to the guidelines is fundamental, in order to verify the diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Informatic paperless databases allow a higher data quality, lower costs and timely analysis with overall advantages over the traditional surveys. The RUTA project (acronym of Triveneto Registry of ANMCO CCUs) was designed in 1999, aiming at creating an informatic network among the coronary care units of a large Italian region, for a permanent survey of patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction. Information ranges from the pre-hospital phase to discharge, including all relevant clinical and management variables. The database uses DBMS Personal Oracle and Power-Builder as user interface, on Windows platform. Anonymous data are sent to a central server.

  16. Flexible-rate optical packet generation/detection and label swapping for optical label switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongying; Li, Juhao; Tian, Yu; Ge, Dawei; Zhu, Paikun; Chen, Yuanxiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical label switching (OLS) gains lots of attentions due to its intrinsic advantages to implement protocol, bit-rate, granularity and data format transparency packet switching. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to realize flexible-rate optical packet switching for OLS networks. At the transmitter node, flexible-rate packet is generated by parallel modulating different combinations of optical carriers generated from the optical multi-carrier generator (OMCG), among which the low-speed optical label occupies one carrier. At the switching node, label is extracted and re-generated in label processing unit (LPU). The payloads are switched based on routing information and new label is added after switching. At the receiver node, another OMCG serves as local oscillators (LOs) for optical payloads coherent detection. The proposed scheme offers good flexibility for dynamic optical packet switching by adjusting the payload bandwidth and could also effectively reduce the number of lasers, modulators and receivers for packet generation/detection. We present proof-of-concept demonstrations of flexible-rate packet generation/detection and label swapping in 12.5 GHz grid. The influence of crosstalk for cascaded label swapping is also investigated.

  17. Deep Neural Networks for Czech Multi-label Document Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Lenc, Ladislav; Král, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is focused on automatic multi-label document classification of Czech text documents. The current approaches usually use some pre-processing which can have negative impact (loss of information, additional implementation work, etc). Therefore, we would like to omit it and use deep neural networks that learn from simple features. This choice was motivated by their successful usage in many other machine learning fields. Two different networks are compared: the first one is a standard m...

  18. Odd-graceful labeling algorithm and its implementation of generalized ring core network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianmin; Hong, Wenmei; Zhao, Tinggang; Yao, Bing

    2017-08-01

    The computer implementation of some labeling algorithms of special networks has practical guiding significance to computer communication network system design of functional, reliability, low communication cost. Generalized ring core network is a very important hybrid network topology structure and it is the basis of generalized ring network. In this paper, based on the requirements of research of generalized ring network addressing, the author has designed the odd-graceful labeling algorithm of generalized ring core network when n1, n2,…nm ≡ 0(mod 4), proved odd-graceful of the structure, worked out the corresponding software, and shown the practical effectiveness of this algorithm with our experimental data.

  19. Large-scale Multi-label Text Classification - Revisiting Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Jinseok; Kim, Jungi; Mencía, Eneldo Loza; Gurevych, Iryna; Fürnkranz, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks have recently been proposed for multi-label classification because they are able to capture and model label dependencies in the output layer. In this work, we investigate limitations of BP-MLL, a neural network (NN) architecture that aims at minimizing pairwise ranking error. Instead, we propose to use a comparably simple NN approach with recently proposed learning techniques for large-scale multi-label text classification tasks. In particular, we show that BP-MLL's ranking lo...

  20. Traffic characteristics analysis in optical burst switching networks with optical label processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Moschim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out with burst-switching optical networks which use label processing consisting of orthogonal optical codes (OOC, considering traffic characteristics such as length/duration and arrival rate of bursts. Main results show that the use of OOC label processing influences on the decrease of burst loss probability, especially for short-lived bursts. Therefore, short bursts that would be blocked in conventional electronic processing networks are transmitted when the OOC label processing is used. Thus, an increase in the network use occurs as well as a decrease in the burst transmission latency, reaching a granularity close to packets networks.

  1. Empirical co-occurrence rate networks for sequence labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Sequence labeling has wide applications in many areas. For example, most of named entity recog- nition tasks, which extract named entities or events from unstructured data, can be formalized as sequence labeling problems. Sequence labeling has been studied extensively in different commu- nities,

  2. Label-Driven Learning Framework: Towards More Accurate Bayesian Network Classifiers through Discrimination of High-Confidence Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs have demonstrated competitive classification accuracy in a variety of real-world applications. However, it is error-prone for BNCs to discriminate among high-confidence labels. To address this issue, we propose the label-driven learning framework, which incorporates instance-based learning and ensemble learning. For each testing instance, high-confidence labels are first selected by a generalist classifier, e.g., the tree-augmented naive Bayes (TAN classifier. Then, by focusing on these labels, conditional mutual information is redefined to more precisely measure mutual dependence between attributes, thus leading to a refined generalist with a more reasonable network structure. To enable finer discrimination, an expert classifier is tailored for each high-confidence label. Finally, the predictions of the refined generalist and the experts are aggregated. We extend TAN to LTAN (Label-driven TAN by applying the proposed framework. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that LTAN delivers superior classification accuracy to not only several state-of-the-art single-structure BNCs but also some established ensemble BNCs at the expense of reasonable computation overhead.

  3. 40 Gbit/s NRZ Packet-Length Insensitive Header Extraction for Optical Label Switching Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Kehayas, E; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively......A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively...

  4. Convolutional Neural Network-based SAR Image Classification with Noisy Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Juanping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available SAR image classification is an important task in SAR image interpretation. Supervised learning methods, such as the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN, demand samples that are accurately labeled. However, this presents a major challenge in SAR image labeling. Due to their unique imaging mechanism, SAR images are seriously affected by speckle, geometric distortion, and incomplete structural information. Thus, SAR images have a strong non-intuitive property, which causes difficulties in SAR image labeling, and which results in the weakened learning and generalization performance of many classifiers (including CNN. In this paper, we propose a Probability Transition CNN (PTCNN for patch-level SAR image classification with noisy labels. Based on the classical CNN, PTCNN builds a bridge between noise-free labels and their noisy versions via a noisy-label transition layer. As such, we derive a new CNN model trained with a noisily labeled training dataset that can potentially revise noisy labels and improve learning capacity with noisily labeled data. We use a 16-class land cover dataset and the MSTAR dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. Our experimental results show the PTCNN model to be robust with respect to label noise and demonstrate its promising classification performance compared with the classical CNN model. Therefore, the proposed PTCNN model could lower the standards required regarding the quality of image labels and have a variety of practical applications.

  5. A study on Optical Labelling Techniques for All-Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2005-01-01

    Optical switching has been proposed as an effective solution to overcoming the potential electronic bottleneck in all-optical network nodes carrying IP over WDM. The solution builds on the use of optical labelling as a mean to route packets or bursts of packets through the network. In addition to...

  6. Label Propagation with α-Degree Neighborhood Impact for Network Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection is an important task for mining the structure and function of complex networks. In this paper, a novel label propagation approach with α-degree neighborhood impact is proposed for efficiently and effectively detecting communities in networks. Firstly, we calculate the neighborhood impact of each node in a network within the scope of its α-degree neighborhood network by using an iterative approach. To mitigate the problems of visiting order correlation and convergence difficulty when updating the node labels asynchronously, our method updates the labels in an ascending order on the α-degree neighborhood impact of all the nodes. The α-degree neighborhood impact is also taken as the updating weight value, where the parameter impact scope α can be set to a positive integer. Experimental results from several real-world and synthetic networks show that our method can reveal the community structure in networks rapidly and accurately. The performance of our method is better than other label propagation based methods.

  7. Stacked optical code label for multicasting in optical packet switching networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ming; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong

    2009-03-16

    Stacked optical code (OC) label and its en/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This kind of label can carry several nodes' address information simultaneously in optical packet switching networks, so it can be employed in optical multicasting and simplify the node's structure a lot. The en/decoder is fabricated with high precision by our FBG techniques, and the experiment results show that the stacked OC label can support optical multicasting very well. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  8. Usage labels network: an approach to lexical variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Šipka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The Problem of lexical variation is frequently addressed within the linguistic community. Its complexity and the broad implications of any possible solution have considerable appeal among theoretical linguists. Lexicographers, in their turn, have been forced to address it in order to provide dictionary usage information, which is normally done by means of dictionary labels such as: American English, obsolete, slang , etc. An insightful overview of the relevant lexicological approaches, as well as some lexicographis projects is provided in Lipka (1990. The most exhaustive sociolinguistic classification, however, can be found in Preston (1986. Lexicographis treatments of lexical variation have been addressed in numerous papers listed in Zgusta (1988.

  9. Study on multiple-hops performance of MOOC sequences-based optical labels for OPS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Ma, Chunli

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we utilize a new study method that is under independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of MOOCS-OPS networks, discuss the performance characteristics for a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by single optical orthogonal code or multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels. The performance of the system is also calculated, and our results verify that the method is effective. Additionally it is found that performance of MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching (SOOC-OPS); however, MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of optical packet switching networks.

  10. Target tracking and classification from labeled and unlabeled data in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyoun Jin

    2014-12-11

    Tracking the locations and identities of moving targets in the surveillance area of wireless sensor networks is studied. In order to not rely on high-cost sensors that have been used in previous researches, we propose the integrated localization and classification based on semi-supervised learning, which uses both labeled and unlabeled data obtained from low-cost distributed sensor network. In our setting, labeled data are obtained by seismic and PIR sensors that contain information about the types of the targets. Unlabeled data are generated from the RF signal strength by applying Gaussian process, which represents the probability of predicted target locations. Finally, by using classified unlabeled data produced by semi-supervised learning, identities and locations of multiple targets are estimated. In addition, we consider a case when the labeled data are absent, which can happen due to fault or lack of the deployed sensor nodes and communication failure. We overcome this situation by defining artificial labeled data utilizing characteristics of support vector machine, which provides information on the importance of each training data point. Experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed tracking algorithm and its robustness to the absence of the labeled data thanks to the artificial labeled data.

  11. Maritime Semantic Labeling of Optical Remote Sensing Images with Multi-Scale Fully Convolutional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoning Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In current remote sensing literature, the problems of sea-land segmentation and ship detection (including in-dock ships are investigated separately despite the high correlation between them. This inhibits joint optimization and makes the implementation of the methods highly complicated. In this paper, we propose a novel fully convolutional network to accomplish the two tasks simultaneously, in a semantic labeling fashion, i.e., to label every pixel of the image into 3 classes, sea, land and ships. A multi-scale structure for the network is proposed to address the huge scale gap between different classes of targets, i.e., sea/land and ships. Conventional multi-scale structure utilizes shortcuts to connect low level, fine scale feature maps to high level ones to increase the network’s ability to produce finer results. In contrast, our proposed multi-scale structure focuses on increasing the receptive field of the network while maintaining the ability towards fine scale details. The multi-scale convolution network accommodates the huge scale difference between sea-land and ships and provides comprehensive features, and is able to accomplish the tasks in an end-to-end manner that is easy for implementation and feasible for joint optimization. In the network, the input forks into fine-scale and coarse-scale paths, which share the same convolution layers to minimize network parameter increase, and then are joined together to produce the final result. The experiments show that the network tackles the semantic labeling problem with improved performance.

  12. Principle and verification of novel optical virtual private networks over multiprotocol label switching/optical packet switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Wang, Zhengsuan; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun

    2012-11-01

    A novel realization method of the optical virtual private networks (OVPN) over multiprotocol label switching/optical packet switching (MPLS/OPS) networks is proposed. In this scheme, the introduction of MPLS control plane makes OVPN over OPS networks more reliable and easier; OVPN makes use of the concept of high reconfiguration of light-paths offered by MPLS, to set up secure tunnels of high bandwidth across intelligent OPS networks. Through resource management, the signal mechanism, connection control, and the architecture of the creation and maintenance of OVPN are efficiently realized. We also present an OVPN architecture with two traffic priorities, which is used to analyze the capacity, throughput, delay time of the proposed networks, and the packet loss rate performance of the OVPN over MPLS/OPS networks based on full mesh topology. The results validate the applicability of such reliable connectivity to high quality services in the OVPN over MPLS/OPS networks. Along with the results, the feasibility of the approach as the basis for the next generation networks is demonstrated and discussed.

  13. Labeling Diversity for 2x2 WLAN Coded-Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ejaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Labelling diversity is an efficient technique recently proposed in the literature and aims to improve the bit error rate(BER performance of wireless local area network (WLAN systems with two transmit and two receive antennas without increasing the transmit power and bandwidth requirements. In this paper, we employ labelling diversity with different space-time channel codes such as convolutional, turbo and low density parity check (LDPC for both point-to-point and coded-cooperative communication scenarios. Joint iterative decoding schemes for distributed turbo and LDPC codes are also presented. BER performance bounds at an error floor (EF region are derived and verified with the help of numerical simulations for both cooperative and non-cooperative schemes. Numerical simulations show that the coded-cooperative schemes with labelling diversity achieve better BER performances and use of labelling diversity at the source node significantly lowers relay outage probability and hence the overall BER performance of the coded-cooperative scheme is improved manifolds.

  14. Using PPI network autocorrelation in hierarchical multi-label classification trees for gene function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanova, Daniela; Ceci, Michelangelo; Malerba, Donato; Dzeroski, Saso

    2013-09-26

    Ontologies and catalogs of gene functions, such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and MIPS-FUN, assume that functional classes are organized hierarchically, that is, general functions include more specific ones. This has recently motivated the development of several machine learning algorithms for gene function prediction that leverages on this hierarchical organization where instances may belong to multiple classes. In addition, it is possible to exploit relationships among examples, since it is plausible that related genes tend to share functional annotations. Although these relationships have been identified and extensively studied in the area of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, they have not received much attention in hierarchical and multi-class gene function prediction. Relations between genes introduce autocorrelation in functional annotations and violate the assumption that instances are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.), which underlines most machine learning algorithms. Although the explicit consideration of these relations brings additional complexity to the learning process, we expect substantial benefits in predictive accuracy of learned classifiers. This article demonstrates the benefits (in terms of predictive accuracy) of considering autocorrelation in multi-class gene function prediction. We develop a tree-based algorithm for considering network autocorrelation in the setting of Hierarchical Multi-label Classification (HMC). We empirically evaluate the proposed algorithm, called NHMC (Network Hierarchical Multi-label Classification), on 12 yeast datasets using each of the MIPS-FUN and GO annotation schemes and exploiting 2 different PPI networks. The results clearly show that taking autocorrelation into account improves the predictive performance of the learned models for predicting gene function. Our newly developed method for HMC takes into account network information in the learning phase: When used for gene function

  15. Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using C-13-Labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a very small...... or zero flux through PEP carboxykinase was estimated, indicating that the latter enzyme was not active during growth on glucose. The uptake of the amino acids in a semirich medium containing 15 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins was estimated using fully labeled glucose in batch...... from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium....

  16. Fully convolutional networks with double-label for esophageal cancer image segmentation by self-transfer learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Di-Xiu; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Jian-Ming; Wang, Ya-Lei

    2017-07-01

    Cancer recognition is the prerequisite to determine appropriate treatment. This paper focuses on the semantic segmentation task of microvascular morphological types on narrowband images to aid clinical examination of esophageal cancer. The most challenge for semantic segmentation is incomplete-labeling. Our key insight is to build fully convolutional networks (FCNs) with double-label to make pixel-wise predictions. The roi-label indicating ROIs (region of interest) is introduced as extra constraint to guild feature learning. Trained end-to-end, the FCN model with two target jointly optimizes both segmentation of sem-label (semantic label) and segmentation of roi-label within the framework of self-transfer learning based on multi-task learning theory. The learning representation ability of shared convolutional networks for sem-label is improved with support of roi-label via achieving a better understanding of information outside the ROIs. Our best FCN model gives satisfactory segmentation result with mean IU up to 77.8% (pixel accuracy > 90%). The results show that the proposed approach is able to assist clinical diagnosis to a certain extent.

  17. Screening lifespan-extending drugs in Caenorhabditis elegans via label propagation on drug-protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Guo, Mengmeng; Xue, Ting; Guan, Jihong; Luo, Libo; Zhuang, Ziheng

    2016-12-23

    One of the most challenging tasks in the exploration of anti-aging is to discover drugs that can promote longevity and delay the incidence of age-associated diseases of human. Up to date, a number of drugs, including some antioxidants, metabolites and synthetic compounds, have been found to effectively delay the aging of nematodes and insects. We proposed a label propagation algorithm on drug-protein network to infer drugs that can extend the lifespan of C. elegans. We collected a set of drugs of which functions on lifespan extension of C. elegans have been reliably determined, and then built a large-scale drug-protein network by collecting a set of high-confidence drugprotein interactions. A label propagation algorithm was run on the drug-protein bipartite network to predict new drugs with lifespan-extending effect on C. elegans. We calibrated the performance of the proposed method by conducting performance comparison with two classical models, kNN and SVM. We also showed that the screened drugs significantly mediate in the aging-related pathways, and have higher chemical similarities to the effective drugs than ineffective drugs in promoting longevity of C. elegans. Moreover, we carried out wet-lab experiments to verify a screened drugs, 2- Bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone, and found that it can effectively extend the lifespan of C. elegans. These results showed that our method is effective in screening lifespanextending drugs in C. elegans. In this paper, we proposed a semi-supervised algorithm to predict drugs with lifespan-extending effects on C. elegans. In silico empirical evaluations and in vivo experiments in C. elegans have demonstrated that our method can effectively narrow down the scope of candidate drugs needed to be verified by wet lab experiments.

  18. Organ detection in thorax abdomen CT using multi-label convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpire Mamani, Gabriel Efrain; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; van Ginneken, Bram; Jacobs, Colin

    2017-03-01

    A convolutional network architecture is presented to determine bounding boxes around six organs in thoraxabdomen CT scans. A single network for each orthogonal view determines the presence of lungs, kidneys, spleen and liver. We show that an architecture that takes additional slices before and after the slice of interest as an additional input outperforms an architecture that processes single slices. From the slice-based analysis, a bounding box around the structures of interest can be computed. The system uses 6 convolutional, 4 pooling and one fully connected layer and uses 333 scans for training and 110 for validation. The test set contains 110 scans. The average Dice score of the proposed method was 0.95 and 0.95 for the lungs, 0.59 and 0.58 for the kidneys, 0.83 for the liver and 0.63 for the spleen. This paper shows that automatic localization of organs using multi-label convolution neural networks is possible. This architecture can likely be used to identify other organs of interest as well.

  19. Deep learning for pharmacovigilance: recurrent neural network architectures for labeling adverse drug reactions in Twitter posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocos, Anne; Fiks, Alexander G; Masino, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    Social media is an important pharmacovigilance data source for adverse drug reaction (ADR) identification. Human review of social media data is infeasible due to data quantity, thus natural language processing techniques are necessary. Social media includes informal vocabulary and irregular grammar, which challenge natural language processing methods. Our objective is to develop a scalable, deep-learning approach that exceeds state-of-the-art ADR detection performance in social media. We developed a recurrent neural network (RNN) model that labels words in an input sequence with ADR membership tags. The only input features are word-embedding vectors, which can be formed through task-independent pretraining or during ADR detection training. Our best-performing RNN model used pretrained word embeddings created from a large, non-domain-specific Twitter dataset. It achieved an approximate match F-measure of 0.755 for ADR identification on the dataset, compared to 0.631 for a baseline lexicon system and 0.65 for the state-of-the-art conditional random field model. Feature analysis indicated that semantic information in pretrained word embeddings boosted sensitivity and, combined with contextual awareness captured in the RNN, precision. Our model required no task-specific feature engineering, suggesting generalizability to additional sequence-labeling tasks. Learning curve analysis showed that our model reached optimal performance with fewer training examples than the other models. ADR detection performance in social media is significantly improved by using a contextually aware model and word embeddings formed from large, unlabeled datasets. The approach reduces manual data-labeling requirements and is scalable to large social media datasets.

  20. Multi-dimensional classification of GABAergic interneurons with Bayesian network-modeled label uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Bojan; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Interneuron classification is an important and long-debated topic in neuroscience. A recent study provided a data set of digitally reconstructed interneurons classified by 42 leading neuroscientists according to a pragmatic classification scheme composed of five categorical variables, namely, of the interneuron type and four features of axonal morphology. From this data set we now learned a model which can classify interneurons, on the basis of their axonal morphometric parameters, into these five descriptive variables simultaneously. Because of differences in opinion among the neuroscientists, especially regarding neuronal type, for many interneurons we lacked a unique, agreed-upon classification, which we could use to guide model learning. Instead, we guided model learning with a probability distribution over the neuronal type and the axonal features, obtained, for each interneuron, from the neuroscientists' classification choices. We conveniently encoded such probability distributions with Bayesian networks, calling them label Bayesian networks (LBNs), and developed a method to predict them. This method predicts an LBN by forming a probabilistic consensus among the LBNs of the interneurons most similar to the one being classified. We used 18 axonal morphometric parameters as predictor variables, 13 of which we introduce in this paper as quantitative counterparts to the categorical axonal features. We were able to accurately predict interneuronal LBNs. Furthermore, when extracting crisp (i.e., non-probabilistic) predictions from the predicted LBNs, our method outperformed related work on interneuron classification. Our results indicate that our method is adequate for multi-dimensional classification of interneurons with probabilistic labels. Moreover, the introduced morphometric parameters are good predictors of interneuron type and the four features of axonal morphology and thus may serve as objective counterparts to the subjective, categorical axonal features

  1. Function-function correlated multi-label protein function prediction over interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Many previous works in protein function prediction make predictions one function at a time, fundamentally, which assumes the functional categories to be isolated. However, biological processes are highly correlated and usually intertwined together to happen at the same time; therefore, it would be beneficial to consider protein function prediction as one indivisible task and treat all the functional categories as an integral and correlated prediction target. By leveraging the function-function correlations, it is expected to achieve improved overall predictive accuracy. To this end, we develop a network-based protein function prediction approach, under the framework of multi-label classification in machine learning, to utilize the function-function correlations. Besides formulating the function-function correlations in the optimization objective explicitly, we also exploit them as part of the pairwise protein-protein similarities implicitly. The algorithm is built upon the Green's function over a graph, which not only employs the global topology of a network but also captures its local structures. In addition, we propose an adaptive decision boundary method to deal with the unbalanced distribution of protein annotation data. Finally, we quantify the statistical confidence of predicted functions to facilitate post-processing of proteomic analysis. We evaluate the proposed approach on Saccharomyces cerevisiae data, and the experimental results demonstrate very encouraging results.

  2. Tooth labeling in cone-beam CT using deep convolutional neural network for forensic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yuma; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    In large disasters, dental record plays an important role in forensic identification. However, filing dental charts for corpses is not an easy task for general dentists. Moreover, it is laborious and time-consuming work in cases of large scale disasters. We have been investigating a tooth labeling method on dental cone-beam CT images for the purpose of automatic filing of dental charts. In our method, individual tooth in CT images are detected and classified into seven tooth types using deep convolutional neural network. We employed the fully convolutional network using AlexNet architecture for detecting each tooth and applied our previous method using regular AlexNet for classifying the detected teeth into 7 tooth types. From 52 CT volumes obtained by two imaging systems, five images each were randomly selected as test data, and the remaining 42 cases were used as training data. The result showed the tooth detection accuracy of 77.4% with the average false detection of 5.8 per image. The result indicates the potential utility of the proposed method for automatic recording of dental information.

  3. Linear Co-occurrence Rate Networks (L-CRNs) for Sequence Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Sequence labeling has wide applications in natural language processing and speech processing. Popular sequence labeling models suffer from some known problems. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are generative models and they cannot encode transition features; Conditional Markov models (CMMs) suffer from

  4. Including 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network under End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Provisioned Quality of Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part...... of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches...... are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers....

  5. Dispersion management for two-level optically labeled signals in IP-over-WDM networks 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Carlsson, Birger; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2002-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of a two-level optically labeled signal with ASK/DPSK modulation are investigated under varying dispersion management. A limitation of extinction ratio and the resilience of fiber span, compensation ratio, and power level are obtained...

  6. Metabolic network analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum using C-13-labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine hydroxymethyltr......Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine...

  7. Labeling Actors and Uncovering Causal Accounts of Their States in Social Networks and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngot P.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social networks and social media has resulted in exponential increase in the amount of data that link diverse types of richly structured digital objects e.g., individuals, articles, images, videos, music, etc. Such data are naturally represented as heterogeneous networks with multiple types of objects e.g., actors, video,…

  8. Coherent spectral amplitude coded label detection for DQPSK payload signals in packet-switched metropolitan area networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four-frequency......We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four...

  9. Classification of Urban Aerial Data Based on Pixel Labelling with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Poleswki, P.; Krzystek, P.

    2016-06-01

    The recent success of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) on a large number of applications can be attributed to large amounts of available training data and increasing computing power. In this paper, a semantic pixel labelling scheme for urban areas using multi-resolution CNN and hand-crafted spatial-spectral features of airborne remotely sensed data is presented. Both CNN and hand-crafted features are applied to image/DSM patches to produce per-pixel class probabilities with a L1-norm regularized logistical regression classifier. The evidence theory infers a degree of belief for pixel labelling from different sources to smooth regions by handling the conflicts present in the both classifiers while reducing the uncertainty. The aerial data used in this study were provided by ISPRS as benchmark datasets for 2D semantic labelling tasks in urban areas, which consists of two data sources from LiDAR and color infrared camera. The test sites are parts of a city in Germany which is assumed to consist of typical object classes including impervious surfaces, trees, buildings, low vegetation, vehicles and clutter. The evaluation is based on the computation of pixel-based confusion matrices by random sampling. The performance of the strategy with respect to scene characteristics and method combination strategies is analyzed and discussed. The competitive classification accuracy could be not only explained by the nature of input data sources: e.g. the above-ground height of nDSM highlight the vertical dimension of houses, trees even cars and the nearinfrared spectrum indicates vegetation, but also attributed to decision-level fusion of CNN's texture-based approach with multichannel spatial-spectral hand-crafted features based on the evidence combination theory.

  10. All-Optical Network Subsystems Using Integrated SOA-Based Optical Gates and Flip-Flops for Label-Swapped Netorks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Kehayas, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that all-optical network subsystems, offering intelligence in the optical layer, can be constructed by functional integration of integrated all-optical logic gates and flip-flops. In this context, we show 10-Gb/s all-optical 2-bit label address recognition by interc......In this letter, we demonstrate that all-optical network subsystems, offering intelligence in the optical layer, can be constructed by functional integration of integrated all-optical logic gates and flip-flops. In this context, we show 10-Gb/s all-optical 2-bit label address recognition...... by interconnecting two optical gates that perform xor operation on incoming optical labels. We also demonstrate 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength-switching through an optically controlled wavelength converter, consisting of an integrated flip-flop prototype device driven by an integrated optical gate. The system...

  11. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Optical label swapping and packet transmission based on ASK/DPSK orthogonal modulation format in IP-over-WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate all-optical label swapping based on SOA, EAM and HNLF for a two-level optically labeled packet using orthogonal ASK/DPSK modulation format. The ASK/DPSK packet is successfully transmitted over 80 km NZDSF.......We demonstrate all-optical label swapping based on SOA, EAM and HNLF for a two-level optically labeled packet using orthogonal ASK/DPSK modulation format. The ASK/DPSK packet is successfully transmitted over 80 km NZDSF....

  13. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. Design and Implementation of a Generic Energy-Harvesting Framework Applied to the Evaluation of a Large-Scale Electronic Shelf-Labeling Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerman Ad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of battery-powered nodes and are limited to hundreds of nodes. Battery replacement is a very costly operation and a key factor in limiting successful large-scale deployments. The recent advances in both energy harvesters and low-power communication systems hold promise for deploying large-scale wireless green-powered sensor networks (WGSNs. This will enable new applications and will eliminate environmentally unfriendly battery disposal. This paper explores the use of energy harvesters to scavenge power for nodes in a WSN. The design and implementation of a generic energy-harvesting framework, suited for a WSN simulator as well as a real-life testbed, are proposed. These frameworks are used to evaluate whether a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance scheme is sufficiently reliable for use in emerging large-scale energy harvesting electronic shelf label (EHESL systems (i.e., 12000 labels in a star topology. Both the simulator and testbed experiments yielded an average success rate up to 92%, with an arrival rate of 40 transceive cycles per second. We have demonstrated that our generic energy-harvesting framework is useful for WGSN research because the simulator allowed us to verify the achieved results on the real-life testbed and vice versa.

  15. Comparison of two data mining techniques in labeling diagnosis to Iranian pharmacy claim dataset: artificial neural network (ANN) versus decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Darzi, Ehsan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Navidi, Iman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Soudi Alamdari, Mahsa; Tayefi, Batool; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Soleymani, Fatemeh; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Delavari, Alireza; Mohammad, Kazem

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction accuracy of two data mining techniques, including decision tree and neural network models in labeling diagnosis to gastrointestinal prescriptions in Iran. This study was conducted in three phases: data preparation, training phase, and testing phase. A sample from a database consisting of 23 million pharmacy insurance claim records, from 2004 to 2011 was used, in which a total of 330 prescriptions were assessed and used to train and test the models simultaneously. In the training phase, the selected prescriptions were assessed by both a physician and a pharmacist separately and assigned a diagnosis. To test the performance of each model, a k-fold stratified cross validation was conducted in addition to measuring their sensitivity and specificity. Generally, two methods had very similar accuracies. Considering the weighted average of true positive rate (sensitivity) and true negative rate (specificity), the decision tree had slightly higher accuracy in its ability for correct classification (83.3% and 96% versus 80.3% and 95.1%, respectively). However, when the weighted average of ROC area (AUC between each class and all other classes) was measured, the ANN displayed higher accuracies in predicting the diagnosis (93.8% compared with 90.6%). According to the result of this study, artificial neural network and decision tree model represent similar accuracy in labeling diagnosis to GI prescription.

  16. Probing the metabolic network in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei using untargeted metabolomics with stable isotope labelled glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Creek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics coupled with heavy-atom isotope-labelled glucose has been used to probe the metabolic pathways active in cultured bloodstream form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei, a parasite responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. Glucose enters many branches of metabolism beyond glycolysis, which has been widely held to be the sole route of glucose metabolism. Whilst pyruvate is the major end-product of glucose catabolism, its transamination product, alanine, is also produced in significant quantities. The oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway is operative, although the non-oxidative branch is not. Ribose 5-phosphate generated through this pathway distributes widely into nucleotide synthesis and other branches of metabolism. Acetate, derived from glucose, is found associated with a range of acetylated amino acids and, to a lesser extent, fatty acids; while labelled glycerol is found in many glycerophospholipids. Glucose also enters inositol and several sugar nucleotides that serve as precursors to macromolecule biosynthesis. Although a Krebs cycle is not operative, malate, fumarate and succinate, primarily labelled in three carbons, were present, indicating an origin from phosphoenolpyruvate via oxaloacetate. Interestingly, the enzyme responsible for conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, was shown to be essential to the bloodstream form trypanosomes, as demonstrated by the lethal phenotype induced by RNAi-mediated downregulation of its expression. In addition, glucose derivatives enter pyrimidine biosynthesis via oxaloacetate as a precursor to aspartate and orotate.

  17. Novel Network Services for Supporting Big Data Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joaquin; Donovan, Sean; Bezerra, Jeronimo; Morgan, Heidi; Ibarra, Julio; Clark, Russ; Owen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    To interconnect research facilities across wide geographic areas, network operators deploy science networks, also referred to as Research and Education (R&E) networks. These networks allow experimenters to establish dedicated network connections between research facilities for transferring large amounts of data. Recently, R&E networks have started using Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Software-Defined Exchanges (SDX) for deploying these connections. AtlanticWave/SDX is a response to the...

  18. Proposal of dynamic protection/restoration schemes for QoS support in labeled optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yawei; Chi, Shuli; Shi, Jindan; Wu, Jian; Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, two novel protection and restoration schemes were proposed by using the BC and BR schemes which were originally designed to reduce the bursts loss probability due to contention in OBS network. The 1+1 protection scheme in LOBS can be easily carried out using the MPLS 1+1 protection scheme in the 2.5 layer and burst cloning scheme in the OBS layer. By introducing some new OSPF-TE opaque LSA messages, the burst retransmission scheme can be transplanted into the restoration scheme in LOBS network. Furthermore, the dynamic quality of resilience mechanism to inherit these two schemes according to the QoS requirement of the traffic was also investigated. Experimental study using a LOBS network test bed verified that the proposed schemes suited well in the LOBS network.

  19. Effects of resting state condition on reliability, trait specificity, and network connectivity of brain function measured with arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Vidorreta, Marta; Katchmar, Natalie; Alsop, David C; Wolf, Daniel H; Detre, John A

    2018-02-16

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Resting-state studies are typically carried out using just one of several prescribed state conditions such as eyes closed (EC), eyes open (EO), or visual fixation on a cross-hair (FIX), which may affect the reliability and specificity of rs-fMRI. In this study, we collected test-retest ASL MRI data during 4 resting-state task conditions: EC, EO, FIX and PVT (low-frequency psychomotor vigilance task), and examined the effects of these task conditions on reliability and reproducibility as well as trait specificity of regional brain function. We also acquired resting-state BOLD fMRI under FIX and compared the network connectivity reliabilities between the four ASL conditions and the BOLD FIX condition. For resting-state ASL data, EC provided the highest CBF reliability, reproducibility, trait specificity, and network connectivity reliability, followed by EO, while FIX was lowest on all of these measures. PVT demonstrated lower CBF reliability, reproducibility and trait specificity than EO and EC. Overall network connectivity reliability was comparable between ASL and BOLD. Our findings confirm ASL CBF as a reliable, stable, and consistent measure of resting-state regional brain function and support the use of EC or EO over FIX and PVT as the resting-state condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  1. Nutrition Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  2. Label-free LC-MSe in tissue and serum reveals protein networks underlying differences between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Wegdam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify proteins and (molecular/biological pathways associated with differences between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Serum of six patients with a serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary was collected before treatment, with a control group consisting of six matched patients with a serous cystadenoma. In addition to the serum, homogeneous regions of cells exhibiting uniform histology were isolated from benign and cancerous tissue by laser microdissection. We subsequently employed label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSe to identify proteins in these serum and tissues samples. Analyses of differential expression between samples were performed using Bioconductor packages and in-house scripts in the statistical software package R. Hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, as well as network enrichment and interactome analysis using MetaCore. RESULTS: In total, we identified 20 and 71 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serum and tissue samples, respectively. The differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue largely differed with only 2 proteins in common. MetaCore network analysis, however inferred GCR-alpha and Sp1 as common transcriptional regulators. Interactome analysis highlighted 14-3-3 zeta/delta, 14-3-3 beta/alpha, Alpha-actinin 4, HSP60, and PCBP1 as critical proteins in the tumor proteome signature based on their relative overconnectivity. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001084. DISCUSSION: Our analysis identified proteins with both novel and previously known associations to ovarian cancer biology. Despite the small overlap between differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue, APOA1 and Serotransferrin were significantly lower expressed in both serum and cancer tissue samples, suggesting a tissue-derived effect in serum

  3. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back ...

  5. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) ...

  6. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  7. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...

  8. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You Video Share Tweet ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...

  9. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet ... NOTE: FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more ...

  10. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You Video Share Tweet Linkedin ... NOTE: FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more ...

  11. 47 CFR 68.300 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 68.300 Section 68.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.300 Labeling...

  12. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  13. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Produced by CDRH-TV for CFSAN. back to menu More in Labeling & Nutrition Label Claims Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative Nutrition Facts Label Programs and Materials Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments Page Last Updated: 05/22/2016 ...

  14. Design and implementation of a generic energy-harvesting framework applied to the evaluation of a large-scale electronic shelf-labeling wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerman Ad; De Mil Pieter; Jooris Bart; Tytgat Lieven; Catteeuw Ruben; Moerman Ingrid; Demeester Piet

    2010-01-01

    Most wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of battery-powered nodes and are limited to hundreds of nodes. Battery replacement is a very costly operation and a key factor in limiting successful large-scale deployments. The recent advances in both energy harvesters and low-power communication systems hold promise for deploying large-scale wireless green-powered sensor networks (WGSNs). This will enable new applications and will eliminate environmentally unfriendly battery disposal. This pape...

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  16. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  17. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Package Labeling Initiative Nutrition Facts Label Programs and Materials Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments Page ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  18. Label propagation algorithm for community detection based on node importance and label influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Kun; Ren, Jing; Song, Chen; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Recently, the detection of high-quality community has become a hot spot in the research of social network. Label propagation algorithm (LPA) has been widely concerned since it has the advantages of linear time complexity and is unnecessary to define objective function and the number of community in advance. However, LPA has the shortcomings of uncertainty and randomness in the label propagation process, which affects the accuracy and stability of the community. For large-scale social network, this paper proposes a novel label propagation algorithm for community detection based on node importance and label influence (LPA_NI). The experiments with comparative algorithms on real-world networks and synthetic networks have shown that LPA_NI can significantly improve the quality of community detection and shorten the iteration period. Also, it has better accuracy and stability in the case of similar complexity.

  19. Antecedents of network capability and their effects on innovation performance: an empirical test of hi-tech firms in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Gang; Ma, Xiang Yuan; Brouwers-Ren, Liqin; Zhou, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A firm’s competitive advantage can come not only from internal resources but also from inter-firm innovation networks. This paper shows that network capabilities (i.e., network visioning capability, network constructing capability, network operating capability and network centring capability) are

  20. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition ...

  1. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  2. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  3. Industrial Robot Label Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kukasch, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with a project carried out for developing and setting up a robot label applicator system. The requirement was that RFID tracking labels can be applied on flexible positions, without manual effort and rearrangement, via programming. The purpose of the robot label applicator system is to increase the efficiency in production sites, where the RFID label position can change, depending on product or other reasons. New label positions should be programmed easily with a human-m...

  4. Computer architecture for solving consistent labeling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.

  5. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  6. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  7. A family of porous lonsdaleite-e networks obtained through pillaring of decorated kagomé lattice sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    A new and versatile class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) with augmented lonsdaleite-e (lon-e-a) topology is presented herein. This family of lon-e nets are built by pillaring of hexagonal two-dimensional kagomé (kag) lattices constructed from well-known [Zn2(CO2R)4] paddlewheel molecular building blocks (MBBs) connected by 1,3- benzenedicarboxylate (bdc2-) linkers. The pillars are [Cr 3(μ3-O)(RCO2)]6 trigonal prismatic primary MBBs decorated by six pyridyl moieties (tp-PMBB-1). The three-fold symmetry (D3h) of tp-PMBB-1 is complementary with the alternating orientation of the axial sites of the paddlewheel MBBs and enables triple cross-linking of the kag layers by each pillar. These MOMs represent the first examples of axial-to-axial pillared undulating kag layers, and they are readily fine-tuned because the bdc2- moieties can be varied at their 5-position without changing the overall structure. This lon-e platform possesses functionalized hexagonal channels since the kag lattices are necessarily eclipsed. The effects of the substituent at the 5-positions of the bdc 2- linkers upon gas adsorption, particularly the heats of adsorption of carbon dioxide and methane, were studied. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. A family of porous lonsdaleite-e networks obtained through pillaring of decorated kagomé lattice sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Alexander; Boyette, Wesley; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2013-09-25

    A new and versatile class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) with augmented lonsdaleite-e (lon-e-a) topology is presented herein. This family of lon-e nets are built by pillaring of hexagonal two-dimensional kagomé (kag) lattices constructed from well-known [Zn2(CO2R)4] paddlewheel molecular building blocks (MBBs) connected by 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate (bdc(2-)) linkers. The pillars are [Cr3(μ3-O)(RCO2)]6 trigonal prismatic primary MBBs decorated by six pyridyl moieties (tp-PMBB-1). The three-fold symmetry (D3h) of tp-PMBB-1 is complementary with the alternating orientation of the axial sites of the paddlewheel MBBs and enables triple cross-linking of the kag layers by each pillar. These MOMs represent the first examples of axial-to-axial pillared undulating kag layers, and they are readily fine-tuned because the bdc(2-) moieties can be varied at their 5-position without changing the overall structure. This lon-e platform possesses functionalized hexagonal channels since the kag lattices are necessarily eclipsed. The effects of the substituent at the 5-positions of the bdc(2-) linkers upon gas adsorption, particularly the heats of adsorption of carbon dioxide and methane, were studied.

  9. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The ... TV for CFSAN. back to menu Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) Spoof ...

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  11. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, see Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . FDA ... Gametime/Play By Play) Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You ...

  12. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) ...

  13. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  14. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, see Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool ...

  16. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... select on any of the individual segments below. Introduction CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) Servings The 5-20 ... Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) A ...

  17. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  18. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  19. Labeling strategies for bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Different labeling strategies for enzymatic assays and immunoassays are reviewed. Techniques which make use of direct detection of a label, e.g. radioimmunoassays, are discussed, as are techniques in which the label is associated with inherent signal amplification. Examples of the latter, e.g.

  20. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may...... are known that use O(n logn) relabelings. A matching lower bound was claimed in [7]. That proof involved two distinct steps: a lower bound for a problem they call prefix bucketing and a reduction from prefix bucketing to online labeling. The reduction seems to be incorrect, leaving a (seemingly significant......) gap in the proof. In this paper we close the gap by presenting a correct reduction to prefix bucketing. Furthermore we give a simplified and improved analysis of the prefix bucketing lower bound. This improvement allows us to extend the lower bounds for online labeling to the case where the number m...

  1. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  2. Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2003-01-01

    A network node is demonstrated with two-hop transmission and all-optical label swapping. It is based on a Mach-Zehnder semiconductor optical amplifier interferometer and electroabsorption modulator of a two-level optically labelled signal using an orthogonal IM/FSK modulation format with an overall...

  3. Implicitly Defined Neural Networks for Sequence Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    formance gains past that point are quite difficult, due to errors/inconsistencies in the dataset, ambiguity, and very difficult linguistics , sometimes...the 43rd Annual Meet- ing on Association for Computational Linguistics . Association for Computational Linguistics , pages 363–370. Alex Graves and... Linguistics . Springer, pages 171–189. Mitchell P Marcus, Mary Ann Marcinkiewicz, and Beatrice Santorini. 1993. Building a large annotated corpus of english

  4. Implicity Defined Neural Networks for Sequence Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    Marcinkiewicz, and Beatrice Santorini. 1993. Building a large annotated corpus of english: The penn treebank. Computa- tional linguistics 19(2):313–330...on the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal corpus (Marcus et al., 1993), blocks 0-18, validated on 19-21, and tested on 22-24, per convention. Training...past approximately 97% are difficult due to errors/incon- sistencies in the dataset, ambiguity, and complex linguistic constructions including

  5. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food ...

  6. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  7. Capacitive label reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  8. Impact of ingredient labeling practices on food allergic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Elinor; Weiss, Christopher C; Furlong, Terence J; Sicherer, Scott H

    2005-11-01

    Food allergic consumers depend on ingredient labels for allergen avoidance, and the modality of labeling is changing. To investigate current responses to food labels so that the impact of future label changes can be anticipated. Adults who attended Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network conferences completed a survey regarding their experiences with food labels for their family's most severely affected food allergic individual (FAI). There were 489 completed surveys (84% participation). Most FAIs were young (41% allergies included the following: peanut, 81%; tree nuts, 53%; milk, 51%; egg, 51%; and soy, 17%. All chocolate products were avoided by 37% of FAIs who were avoiding peanut and 40% who were avoiding tree nuts; 91% of tree nut allergic FAIs avoided all tree nuts. Of FAIs who avoided soy, 41% avoided soybean oil and 38% avoided soy lecithin. Of those who avoided milk, 82% avoided lactose. Allergic reactions were attributed to misunderstanding label terms (16%) and to nonspecific terms (spice, flavor) (22%). Ingredient labels were "always" or "frequently" read before purchase by 99%. Product brand choice was "very much influenced" by the manner of labeling for 86%, and manufacturers were contacted for more information by 86%. Our results suggest that improved product allergen labeling will reduce allergic reactions and simplify allergy management. However, the new labeling may not indicate the form or source of the allergen, and individuals who do not currently avoid foods with minimal or irrelevant protein content, such as soy oil or soy lecithin, may face additional ambiguity and unnecessary dietary restrictions.

  9. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sports show highlighting the importance of using the nutrition facts label to control portions, fat, calories and percent daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of ...

  10. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  11. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... a contestant in food label knowledge. Questions cover topics such as Calories, Serving Size, Servings per Container, ...

  12. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print NOTE: FDA has ... Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The ...

  13. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presents an entertaining and educational tool to help consumers understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label to ... Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to ...

  14. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Sunday Afternoon Sports show highlighting the importance of using the nutrition facts label to control ... Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD ...

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts label to control portions, fat, calories and percent daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the " ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  16. Food Labels Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Food  Many consumers think federal standards for fish labeled ‘organic’ should require 100% organic feed (87%), ... used (82%), no added colors to the feed/fish (80%), or no open fish net farms (68%).  ...

  17. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Sunday Afternoon Sports show highlighting the importance of using the nutrition facts label to control ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  18. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  19. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  20. Immunization of networks with community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Naoki [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: masuda@mist.i.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    In this study, an efficient method to immunize modular networks (i.e. networks with community structure) is proposed. The immunization of networks aims at fragmenting networks into small parts with a small number of removed nodes. Its applications include prevention of epidemic spreading, protection against intentional attacks on networks, and conservation of ecosystems. Although preferential immunization of hubs is efficient, good immunization strategies for modular networks have not been established. On the basis of an immunization strategy based on eigenvector centrality, we develop an analytical framework for immunizing modular networks. To this end, we quantify the contribution of each node to the connectivity in a coarse-grained network among modules. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to model and real networks with modular structure.

  1. Weighted compactness function based label propagation algorithm for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weitong; Zhang, Rui; Shang, Ronghua; Jiao, Licheng

    2018-02-01

    Community detection in complex networks, is to detect the community structure with the internal structure relatively compact and the external structure relatively sparse, according to the topological relationship among nodes in the network. In this paper, we propose a compactness function which combines the weight of nodes, and use it as the objective function to carry out the node label propagation. Firstly, according to the node degree, we find the sets of core nodes which have great influence on the network. The more the connections between the core nodes and the other nodes are, the larger the amount of the information these kernel nodes receive and transform. Then, according to the similarity of the nodes between the core nodes sets and the nodes degree, we assign weights to the nodes in the network. So the label of the nodes with great influence will be the priority in the label propagation process, which effectively improves the accuracy of the label propagation. The compactness function between nodes and communities in this paper is based on the nodes influence. It combines the connections between nodes and communities with the degree of the node belongs to its neighbor communities based on calculating the node weight. The function effectively uses the information of nodes and connections in the network. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve good results in the artificial network and large-scale real networks compared with the 8 contrast algorithms.

  2. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  3. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    (log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  4. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  5. Analysis of metabolic flux using dynamic labeling and metabolic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fernie, A.; Morgan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes and the capacity to modulate them are a crucial component of the ability of the plant cell to react to environmental perturbations. Our ability to quantify them and to attain information concerning the regulatory mechanisms which control them is therefore essential to understand and influence metabolic networks. For all but the simplest of flux measurements labelling methods have proven to be the most informative. Both steady-state and dynamic labelling approaches having been...

  6. Networks in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks. We will report on a number of networking initiatives in ATLAS including participation in the global perfSONAR network monitoring and measuring efforts of WLCG and OSG, the collaboration with the LHCOPN/LHCONE effort, the integration of network awareness into PanDA, the use of the evolving ATLAS analytics framework to better understand our networks and the changes in our DDM system to allow remote access to data. We will also discuss new efforts underway that are exploring the inclusion and use of software defined networks (SDN) and how ATLAS might benefit from: • Orchestration and optimization of distributed data access and data movement. • Better control of workflows, end to end. • Enabling prioritization of time-critical vs normal tasks • Improvements in the efficiency of resource usage

  7. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  8. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  9. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  10. From Labels to Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  11. Health Labeling, and Consumption- Understanding Determinants To Health Label Use.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, David; Dossing, Jens; Zhuravleva, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior was explored through the understanding, and use of health labeling. Government and business forces were discovered to influence the ability of consumers to use health labels for improved health and life expectancy, and reduce the negative health care costs of food related diseases. Our survey results were compared to other papers and experiments in the field of consumption and labeling. We discovered high usage of labels, especially nutrition information, and a desire for fr...

  12. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  13. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  14. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  15. Labelling, Deviance and Media

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Labelling theory is a perspective that emerged as a distinctive approach to criminology during the 1960s, and was a major seedbed of the radical and critical perspectives that became prominent in the 1970s. It represented the highpoint of an epistemological shift within the social sciences away from positivism – which had dominated criminological enquiry since the late-1800s – and toward an altogether more relativistic stance on the categories and concepts of crime and control. It inspired a ...

  16. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  17. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  18. Empirical method that provides a basis for the organization of relaxation labeling processes for vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, F.S.; Weisstein, N.

    1979-06-01

    Relaxation labeling is a technique used in computer vision which parallels the operation of human vision. Weisstein et al. have developed an experimental method for investigating higher-level processes while maintaining a close tie to the underlying brain structure. Here we demonstrate that because of the close correspondence between relaxation labeling processes and neural network processes, the experimental results provide a basis for the design of relaxation labeling processes for vision.

  19. Segmentation and labeling of documents using conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shravya; Srinivasan, Harish; Beal, Matthew; Srihari, Sargur

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the use of Conditional Random Fields(CRF) utilizing contextual information in automatically labeling extracted segments of scanned documents as Machine-print, Handwriting and Noise. The result of such a labeling can serve as an indexing step for a context-based image retrieval system or a bio-metric signature verification system. A simple region growing algorithm is first used to segment the document into a number of patches. A label for each such segmented patch is inferred using a CRF model. The model is flexible enough to include signatures as a type of handwriting and isolate it from machine-print and noise. The robustness of the model is due to the inherent nature of modeling neighboring spatial dependencies in the labels as well as the observed data using CRF. Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the CRF model are learnt using conjugate gradient descent. Inference of labels is done by computing the probability of the labels under the model with Gibbs sampling. Experimental results show that this approach provides for 95.75% of the data being assigned correct labels. The CRF based model is shown to be superior to Neural Networks and Naive Bayes.

  20. Networking: the view from HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. National and global-scale collaborations that characterize HEP would not be feasible without ubiquitous capable networks. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. This paper will briefly discuss the history of networking in HEP, the current activities and challenges we are facing, and try to provide some understanding of where networking may be going in the next 5 to 10 years.

  1. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the fuel economy label required by 15 U.S.C. 2006, or a separate label. A separate label may... case of a label that is included as part of the Monroney price information label or fuel economy label... motor vehicle equipment and that, to the best of the requester's knowledge, the outside supplier is...

  2. Optical label switching in telecommunication using semiconductor lasers, amplifiers and electro-absorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Christiansen, Lotte Jin; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate all-optical label encoding and updating for an orthogonally labeled signal in combined IM/FSK modulation format utilizing semiconductor lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers and electro-absorption modulators. Complete functionality of a network node including two-hop transmissio...

  3. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  4. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...

  5. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-01-16

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 {approx} 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  6. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    times, effectively eliminating the second penalty mentioned. We continue this theoretical study in several ways. First, we dedicate a large part of the thesis to the graph family of trees, for which we provide an overview of labeling schemes supporting several important functions such as ancestry......, routing and especially adjacency. The survey is complemented by novel contributions to this study, among which are the first asymptotically optimal adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees, improved bounds on ancestry labeling schemes, dynamic multifunctional labeling schemes and an experimental...

  7. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions.

  8. Welfare Effects of Food Miles Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Vincenzina; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Canavari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the consumer welfare effects of two generic food miles labels: carbon dioxide (CO2) emission label and number of miles label. Using data from a choice experiment, our results generally suggest that a mandatory labeling policy for either type of label would have a positive welfare effect on both informed and uninformed consumers. However, a label informing consumers about the number of miles the food product has travelled provides greater positive welfare effects than a label infor...

  9. Code-labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg, Thomas Hvid; Brynskov, Martin

    in programming education collected in an Action Research cycle. The results support the use of a structural approach to teaching programming to this target audience; particularly, the translation-grammar method seems to integrate well with programming education. The paper also explores the potential underlying......The code-labelling exercise is an attempt to apply natural language education techniques for solving the challenge of teaching introductory programming to non-STEM novices in higher education. This paper presents findings from a study exploring the use of natural language teaching techniques...... reasons. It seems the exercise invokes an assimilation of student's existing cognitive schemata and supports a deep-learning experience. The exercise is an invitation to other teachers to create further iterations to improve their own teaching. It also seeks to enrich the portfolio of teaching activities...

  10. Experimental demonstration of OSPF-TE extensions in muiti-domain OBS networks connected by GMPLS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunlei; Yin, Yawei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    The interworking network of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) and Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is attractive network architecture for the future IP/DWDM network nowadays. In this paper, OSPF-TE extensions for multi-domain Optical Burst Switching networks connected by GMPLS controlled WDM network are proposed, the corresponding experimental results such as the advertising latency are also presented by using an OBS network testbed. The experimental results show that it works effectively on the OBS/GMPLS networks.

  11. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on the basis of manufacturer brands. For instance, in the growth stage of the product life cycle, retailers expand private labels to a number of product categories and use the push strategy while manufacturers tend to expand their distribution network in the expansion of their brands and predominantly use the pull strategy in doing so. Furthermore, there is a focus shift from low-price strategy, predominantly used in the introduction phase, to increasing the quality and private label value in the later stages of the product life cycle.

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. Task-based nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, George

    2010-12-01

    Task-based interface design principles (TBI) were evaluated as a framework for designing effective nutritional labels. In two experiments a total of 123 people assembled a packed lunch, selecting components using labels in GDA or TBI format, or when given only the names of the foods. Study 1 found that a GDA label helped people make healthier choices than the product name alone, but that for a number of types of food, most people would make the same decision with or without a GDA label. Moreover, decisions were much faster when made with the name alone. Study 2 introduced a TBI label in the context of the more specific task of keeping the salt in the lunch under 1g. TBI and GDA labels reduced salt equally, but only the TBI label was as quick as the name alone. Labels that are aligned with people's specific objectives are more efficient. TBI is a potentially useful framework, that can be deployed using mobile computing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mexican Americans: Labeling and Mislabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Philip E.

    Although the study of self-selected ethnic labels may aid scientists in their understanding of an ethnic group, the uncoordinated use of ethnic labels applied by social scientists and others can result in confusion and misinformation. A literature review yields a plethora of terms used to refer to Mexican Americans. Terms currently popular are…

  15. An Attributional Perspective on Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing from the attributional investigations of Bernard Weiner and colleagues in the area of achievement motivation, this review addresses attribution theory and its implications for labeling of handicapped children. It is concluded that attributions, not the presence or absence of formal labels, may be the critical variable of concern.…

  16. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...

  17. International prescription drug labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roylance, P J; Buri, W A

    1983-01-01

    Yesterday's therapeutic compounds were meticulously prepared, elegantly presented, and relatively innocuous (Dunlop). Today's powerful and complex drugs are manufactured with sophisticated technology and require clear, concise, and comprehensive information for the physicians throughout the world in order to provide maximum benefit for the patient. Our company, Merck & Co, Inc, has adhered for many years to strict requirements for full and balanced disclosure in all information disseminated to professionals about our products, including circulars, labeling, and advertising. Our practice is to provide complete information to physicians, pharmacists, and regulatory authorities, both on the recommended uses for our products and on their potential adverse effects. The cornerstone of our international disclosure system, the International Physicians Circular (IPC), is provided for each product and comprises part of the initial submission to each national health authority in connection with application for marketing approval. Each IPC sets forth the company's best scientific judgment with respect to both the positive and negative aspects of our drugs, defining actions, indications, and dosage, as well as all contraindications, precautions, and side effects. These circulars are updated in the process of continuous medical review.

  18. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — ... Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. 16 CFR 1615.5 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) The Standard § 1615.5 Labeling requirements. (a) Care labels. All items of children's sleepwear shall be labeled with precautionary instructions...

  3. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  4. CK-LPA: Efficient community detection algorithm based on label propagation with community kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen; Zheng, Xiaolin; Xin, Nan; Chen, Deren

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid development of Web 2.0 and the rise of online social networks, finding community structures from user data has become a hot topic in network analysis. Although research achievements are numerous at present, most of these achievements cannot be adopted in large-scale social networks because of heavy computation. Previous studies have shown that label propagation is an efficient means to detect communities in social networks and is easy to implement; however, some drawbacks, such as low accuracy, high randomness, and the formation of a “monster” community, have been found. In this study, we propose an efficient community detection method based on the label propagation algorithm (LPA) with community kernel (CK-LPA). We assign a corresponding weight to each node according to node importance in the whole network and update node labels in sequence based on weight. Then, we discuss the composition of weights, the label updating strategy, the label propagation strategy, and the convergence conditions. Compared with the primitive LPA, existing drawbacks are solved by CK-LPA. Experiments and benchmarks reveal that our proposed method sustains nearly linear time complexity and exhibits significant improvements in the quality aspect of static community detection. Hence, the algorithm can be applied in large-scale social networks.

  5. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  6. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  7. Fluorescent labelling in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anselm Fabian Lowell; Hackenberger, Christian Peter Richard

    2017-12-01

    The labelling of proteins with green fluorescent protein enabled the visualization of proteins in living cells for the first time. Since then, much progress has been made in the field. Modern strategies allow the labelling of proteins in live cells through a range of specialized methods with sophisticated chemical probes that show enhanced photophysical properties compared to fluorescent proteins. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in the field of fluorescent chemical protein labelling inside living cells and illustrates key aspects on the requirements and advantages of each given method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  9. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  10. Homosexual Labeling by University Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.

    1977-01-01

    Details the responses of young, urban, college-educated people on their attitudes toward homosexuals, specifically focusing on issues of public identification and negative labeling as it effects homosexual persons and their behaviors. (Author/RK)

  11. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the name of the organization responsible for the "certification" process, e.g., "XYZ Company's Certified Beef." [ Top ... The label must include a statement explaining the meaning of the term natural (such as "no artificial ...

  12. Exploring phylogenetic hypotheses via Gibbs sampling on evolutionary networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yun; Jermaine, Christopher; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Phylogenetic networks are leaf-labeled graphs used to model and display complex evolutionary relationships that do not fit a single tree. There are two classes of phylogenetic networks: Data-display networks and evolutionary networks. While data-display networks are very commonly used to explore data, they are not amenable to incorporating probabilistic models of gene and genome evolution. Evolutionary networks, on the other hand, can accommodate such probabilistic models,...

  13. LabeledIn: cataloging labeled indications for human drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Li, Jiao; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Drug-disease treatment relationships, i.e., which drug(s) are indicated to treat which disease(s), are among the most frequently sought information in PubMed®. Such information is useful for feeding the Google Knowledge Graph, designing computational methods to predict novel drug indications, and validating clinical information in EMRs. Given the importance and utility of this information, there have been several efforts to create repositories of drugs and their indications. However, existing resources are incomplete. Furthermore, they neither label indications in a structured way nor differentiate them by drug-specific properties such as dosage form, and thus do not support computer processing or semantic interoperability. More recently, several studies have proposed automatic methods to extract structured indications from drug descriptions; however, their performance is limited by natural language challenges in disease named entity recognition and indication selection. In response, we report LabeledIn: a human-reviewed, machine-readable and source-linked catalog of labeled indications for human drugs. More specifically, we describe our semi-automatic approach to derive LabeledIn from drug descriptions through human annotations with aids from automatic methods. As the data source, we use the drug labels (or package inserts) submitted to the FDA by drug manufacturers and made available in DailyMed. Our machine-assisted human annotation workflow comprises: (i) a grouping method to remove redundancy and identify representative drug labels to be used for human annotation, (ii) an automatic method to recognize and normalize mentions of diseases in drug labels as candidate indications, and (iii) a two-round annotation workflow for human experts to judge the pre-computed candidates and deliver the final gold standard. In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention

  14. Deep Active Object Recognition by Joint Label and Action Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Malmir, Mohsen; Sikka, Karan; Forster, Deborah; Fasel, Ian; Movellan, Javier R.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

    2015-01-01

    An active object recognition system has the advantage of being able to act in the environment to capture images that are more suited for training and that lead to better performance at test time. In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network for active object recognition that simultaneously predicts the object label, and selects the next action to perform on the object with the aim of improving recognition performance. We treat active object recognition as a reinforcement lear...

  15. Experimental Investigation of WDM transmission properties for optical labeled signals using orthogonal IM/FSK modulation format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Zhang, Jianfeng; Olmos, J. J. Vegas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on WDM transmission of optical labeled signals using the orthogonal IM/FSK modulation format aimed for optical packet/burst switching. WDM transmission in both a point-to-point transmission system and a demonstration network with a label-swapping node are implemented....

  16. Tracking of CFSE-labeled endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Yang, Wei; Cui, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Ling-Ling; Song, E

    2011-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic retinopathy. The current study aimed to establish a simple, reliable and fluorescent labeling method for tracking EPCs with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in laser-injured mouse retina. EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, cultivated, and labeled with various concentrations of CFSE. Based on fluorescence intensity and cell morphology, a 15 minutes incubation with 5 µmol/L CFSE at 37°C was selected as the optimal labeling condition. The survival capability and the apoptosis rate of CFSE-labeled EPCs were measured by Trypan blue staining and Annexin V/PI staining assay respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the label stability during the extended culture period. Labeled EPCs were transplanted into the vitreous cavity of pigmented mice injured by retinal laser photocoagulation. Evans Blue angiography and flat mounted retinas were examined to track the labeled cells. EPCs labeled with 5 µmol/L CFSE presented an intense green fluorescence and maintained normal morphology, with no significant changes in the survival capability or apoptosis rate after being labeled for 2 days, 1 and 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity gradually decreased in the cells at the end of 4 weeks. Evans Blue angiography of the retina displayed the retinal capillarity network clearly and fluorescence leakage was observed around photocoagulated spots in the laser-injured mouse model. One week after transplantation of labeled EPCs, the fluorescent cells were identified around the photocoagulated lesions. Four weeks after transplantation, fluorescent tube-like structures were observed in the retinal vascular networks. EPCs could be labeled by CFSE in vitro and monitored in vivo for at least 4 weeks, and participate in the repair of injured retinal vessels.

  17. In Search of a Network Organization for TNC’s Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    During the past three decades, there are massive researches on innovation networks and network organizations. However, researchers are holding different understandings, some of which even conflict with each other, thus this paper makes an inductive conceptual analysis to clarify what is a network...... discusses the theoretical foundation of network organization, and proposes that since a focal firm has different strength of power in different levels of network, it will have different roles and may not always have the power to “manage” an innovation network....... organization among many kinds of innovation networks based on review of relative literatures. Then this paper moves one step further to introduce a network perspective, i.e. network is the context of firms as well as TNCs, and market and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Further on, this paper...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With a Parent's Suicide? How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Facts and Myths How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Games, and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  1. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  2. Cortical microtubule labeling: Insight of AFH14 in non-dividing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Li, Yanhua; Shen, Yuan; Ren, Haiyun

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that AFH14 participated in microtubule and actin filament interaction in cell division, and the AFH14 (FH1FH2) was important to the directly binding activity of microtubules and microfilaments. To preliminarily understand the function and localization of AFH14 in non-dividing cells, we overexpressed FH1FH2-RFP in onion epidermal cells, and found a fluorescence labeled filamentous network. The result of double labeling with different cytoskeleton reporter proteins indicate...

  3. Waveguide-type optical circuits for recognition of optical 8QAM-coded label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surenkhorol, Tumendemberel; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo; Gonchigsumlaa, Khishigjargal

    2017-10-01

    Optical signal processing is expected to be applied in network nodes. In photonic routers, label recognition is one of the important functions. We have studied different kinds of label recognition methods so far for on-off keying, binary phase-shift keying, quadrature phase-shift keying, and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation-coded labels. We propose a method based on waveguide circuits to recognize an optical eight quadrature amplitude modulation (8QAM)-coded label by simple passive optical signal processing. The recognition of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite difference beam propagation method. The noise tolerance is discussed, and bit-error rate against optical signal-to-noise ratio is evaluated. The scalability of the proposed method is also discussed theoretically for two-symbol length 8QAM-coded labels.

  4. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  5. Synthesis of deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banijamali, A.R.; Abou-Taleb, N.; Van der Schyf, C.J.; Charalambous, A.; Makriyannis, A.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods for the specific deuteration of cannabinoids are described. Deuteration of the phenolic ring was accomplished by treatment with BF/sub 3/center dotEt/sub 2/O followed by quenching with a solution of Na/sub 2/ CO/sub 3/ in D/sub 2/ O resulting in deuterium incorporation in both the 2 and 4 positions. Regioselective incorporation of deuterium into either the 2 or 4 position of ..delta../sup 8/-THC was achieved using Florisil spiked with either D/sub 2/O or H/sub 2/O. Deuteration at positions 8, 10 and 11 was achieved by addition of DC1 gas to the appropriate tetrahydrocannabinol to form 9-chlorohexahydrocannabinol labeled at either of the above positions, followed by elimination of hydrogen- or deuterium chloride with potassium-tert-amylate. UV irradiation of specifically labeled ..delta../sup 8/-THC gave the correspondingly labeled ..delta..sup(9,11)-THC.

  6. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  7. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional...

  8. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  9. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).

  10. On the relationship between Gaussian stochastic blockmodels and label propagation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhao; Chen, Tongfei; Hu, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    The problem of community detection has received great attention in recent years. Many methods have been proposed to discover communities in networks. In this paper, we propose a Gaussian stochastic blockmodel that uses Gaussian distributions to fit weight of edges in networks for non-overlapping community detection. The maximum likelihood estimation of this model has the same objective function as general label propagation with node preference. The node preference of a specific vertex turns out to be a value proportional to the intra-community eigenvector centrality (the corresponding entry in principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix of the subgraph inside that vertex's community) under maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, the maximum likelihood estimation of a constrained version of our model is highly related to another extension of the label propagation algorithm, namely, the label propagation algorithm under constraint. Experiments show that the proposed Gaussian stochastic blockmodel performs well on various benchmark networks.

  11. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  12. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  13. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  14. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  15. Symmetry in labeled transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. van Langevelde

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSymmetry is defined for labeled transition systems, and it is shown how symmetrical systems can be symmetrically decomposed into components. The central question is under what conditions one such component may represent the whole system, in the sense that one symmetrical system is

  16. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factory that also processes wheat" or "may contain soy." The FDA is working to make the format of these advisory labels more consistent so that it's easier to identify which products contain allergens. When in doubt about whether a product contains ...

  17. Predicting protein functions using incomplete hierarchical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Zhu, Hailong; Domeniconi, Carlotta

    2015-01-16

    Protein function prediction is to assign biological or biochemical functions to proteins, and it is a challenging computational problem characterized by several factors: (1) the number of function labels (annotations) is large; (2) a protein may be associated with multiple labels; (3) the function labels are structured in a hierarchy; and (4) the labels are incomplete. Current predictive models often assume that the labels of the labeled proteins are complete, i.e. no label is missing. But in real scenarios, we may be aware of only some hierarchical labels of a protein, and we may not know whether additional ones are actually present. The scenario of incomplete hierarchical labels, a challenging and practical problem, is seldom studied in protein function prediction. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to Predict protein functions using Incomplete hierarchical LabeLs (PILL in short). PILL takes into account the hierarchical and the flat taxonomy similarity between function labels, and defines a Combined Similarity (ComSim) to measure the correlation between labels. PILL estimates the missing labels for a protein based on ComSim and the known labels of the protein, and uses a regularization to exploit the interactions between proteins for function prediction. PILL is shown to outperform other related techniques in replenishing the missing labels and in predicting the functions of completely unlabeled proteins on publicly available PPI datasets annotated with MIPS Functional Catalogue and Gene Ontology labels. The empirical study shows that it is important to consider the incomplete annotation for protein function prediction. The proposed method (PILL) can serve as a valuable tool for protein function prediction using incomplete labels. The Matlab code of PILL is available upon request.

  18. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  19. A metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are leaf-labeled, rooted, acyclic, and directed graphs that are used to model reticulate evolutionary histories. Several measures for quantifying the topological dissimilarity between two phylogenetic networks have been devised, each of which was proven to be a metric on certain restricted classes of phylogenetic networks. A biologically motivated class of phylogenetic networks, namely, reduced phylogenetic networks, was recently introduced. None of the existing measures is a metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks. In this paper, we provide a metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks that is computable in time polynomial in the size of the networks.

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens ... THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food ...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deal With Death Long-Term Complications of Diabetes How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but they' ... Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  9. Benchmarking stable isotope labeling based quantitative proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altelaar, A.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; Frese, C.K.; Preisinger, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325801703; Hennrich, M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406778; Schram, A.W.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Heck, A.J.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Mohammed, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483632X

    Several quantitative mass spectrometry based technologies have recently evolved to interrogate the complexity, interconnectivity and dynamic nature of proteomes. Currently, the most popular methods use either metabolic or chemical isotope labeling with MS based quantification or chemical labeling

  10. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  11. 16 CFR 1616.6 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 7 THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) The Standard § 1616.6 Labeling requirements. (a) All items of children's sleepwear shall be labeled with precautionary instructions to protect the...

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium ...

  13. The efficacy of sugar labeling formats: Implications for labeling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Bordes, Isabelle; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2015-12-01

    To examine knowledge of sugar recommendations and test the efficacy of formats for labeling total and added sugar on pre-packaged foods. Online surveys were conducted among 2008 Canadians aged 16-24. Participants were asked to identify recommended limits for total and added sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, participants were randomized to one of six labeling conditions with varying information for total sugar for a high- or low-sugar product and were asked to identify the relative amount of total sugar in the product. In Experiment 2, participants were randomized to one of three labels with different added sugar formats and were asked if the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar. Few young people correctly identified recommendations for total sugar (5%) or added sugar (7%). In Experiment 1, those who were shown percent daily value information were more likely to correctly identify the relative amount of total sugar (P sugar information were more likely to correctly identify that the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar in the product (P sugars in food products. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Pattern Recognition Of Blood Vessel Networks In Ocular Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K.; Kuga, H.

    1982-11-01

    We propose a computer method of recognizing blood vessel networks in color ocular fundus images which are used in the mass diagnosis of adult diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. A line detection algorithm is applied to extract the blood vessels, and the skeleton patterns of them are made to analyze and describe their structures. The recognition of line segments of arteries and/or veins in the vessel networks consists of three stages. First, a few segments which satisfy a certain constraint are picked up and discriminated as arteries or veins. This is the initial labeling. Then the remaining unknown ones are labeled by utilizing the physical level knowledge. We propose two schemes for this stage : a deterministic labeling and a probabilistic relaxation labeling. Finally the label of each line segment is checked so as to minimize the total number of labeling contradictions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  15. Connected Cubic Network Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercube is a popular interconnection network. Due to the popularity of hypercube, more researchers pay a great effort to develop the different variants of hypercube. In this paper, we have proposed a variant of hypercube which is called as “Connected Cubic Network Graphs”, and have investigated the Hamilton-like properties of Connected Cubic Network Graphs (CCNG. Firstly, we defined CCNG and showed the characteristic analyses of CCNG. Then, we showed that the CCNG has the properties of Hamilton graph, and can be labeled using a Gray coding based recursive algorithm. Finally, we gave the comparison results, a routing algorithm and a bitonic sort algorithm for CCNG. In case of sparsity and cost, CCNG is better than Hypercube.

  16. Implicitly-Defined Neural Networks for Sequence Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    numbers, symbols, punctuation, and more rich case data, as used by (Huang et al., 2015). We trained the POS tagger on the Wall Street Journal corpus ...performance gains past that point are quite difficult, due to errors/inconsistencies in the dataset, ambiguity, and very difficult linguistics , sometimes...structures emerge. 6 Experiments: Sentiment analysis We used the Stanford IMDB movie review corpus (Maas et al., 2011), training and validating on

  17. Quantitation of newly synthesized proteins by pulse labeling with azidohomoalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gertjan; Kasper, Piotr T; de Jong, Luitzen; de Koster, Chris G

    2011-01-01

    Measuring protein synthesis and degradation rates on a proteomic scale is an important step toward modeling the kinetics in complicated cellular response networks. A gel-free method, able to quantify changes in the formation of new proteins on a 15 min timescale, compatible with mass spectrometry is described. The methionine analogue, azidohomoalanine (azhal), is used to label newly formed proteins during a short pulse-labeling period following an environmental switch in Escherichia coli. Following digestion a selective reaction against azhal-containing peptides is applied to enrich these peptides by diagonal chromatography. This technique enables quantitation of hundreds of newly synthesized proteins and provides insight into immediate changes in newly synthesized proteins on a proteomic scale after an environmental perturbation.

  18. Label-free volumetric optical imaging of intact murine brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Choi, Heejin; Chung, Kwanghun; Bouma, Brett E.

    2017-04-01

    A central effort of today’s neuroscience is to study the brain’s ’wiring diagram’. The nervous system is believed to be a network of neurons interacting with each other through synaptic connection between axons and dendrites, therefore the neuronal connectivity map not only depicts the underlying anatomy, but also has important behavioral implications. Different approaches have been utilized to decipher neuronal circuits, including electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). However, these approaches typically demand extensive sectioning and reconstruction for a brain sample. Recently, tissue clearing methods have enabled the investigation of a fully assembled biological system with greatly improved light penetration. Yet, most of these implementations, still require either genetic or exogenous contrast labeling for light microscopy. Here we demonstrate a high-speed approach, termed as Clearing Assisted Scattering Tomography (CAST), where intact brains can be imaged at optical resolution without labeling by leveraging tissue clearing and the scattering contrast of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI).

  19. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  20. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and... COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b...

  1. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  2. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  3. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Required by U.S. EPA regulation 40 CFR part 211, subpart ___.” EC01FE92.055 ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104... LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the...

  4. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . The remaining consumers, about 55%, trust the institutions guaranteeing the labels and they use the labels as a signal without actually knowing the content of each label. Segment composition will probably change depending on the food group studied. It is therefore recommended that the different consumer types...

  5. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  6. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter, the following information shall be included in the labeling: (a)(1) A logo or company name may be placed on the final container label, however, the logo or company name shall be located along the bottom... container label of Group O cells shall state: “FOR USE IN DETECTION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “FOR USE IN...

  7. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    labeled taboo are: a verb like fuck which means 'to have sex with somebody' as labeled in the LDOCE, the NSOED and CIDE.The noun prick meaning 'penis' is assigned the label taboo in the LDOCE, the CIDE, the OALD, and coarse slang which is synonymous with taboo in the NSOED, the noun pussy meaning 'the.

  8. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturer or private labeler, pursuant to § 431.36(f), and applicable to that motor. Such CC number must be... EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1) Required information. The permanent nameplate of an electric motor for which standards are prescribed in § 431.25 must...

  9. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3 Diluent labels. Each final container of diluent, other than a liquid biological product, packaged with desiccated...

  10. Nutrition Label Viewing during a Food-Selection Task: Front-of-Package Labels vs Nutrition Facts Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Heidrick, Charles; Hodgin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Earlier research has identified consumer characteristics associated with viewing Nutrition Facts labels; however, little is known about those who view front-of-package nutrition labels. Front-of-package nutrition labels might appeal to more consumers than do Nutrition Facts labels, but it might be necessary to provide consumers with information about how to locate and use these labels. This study quantifies Nutrition Facts and front-of-package nutrition label viewing among American adult consumers. Attention to nutrition information was measured during a food-selection task. One hundred and twenty-three parents (mean age=38 years, mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=28) and one of their children (aged 6 to 9 years) selected six foods from a university laboratory-turned-grocery aisle. Participants were randomized to conditions in which front-of-package nutrition labels were present or absent, and signage explaining front-of-package nutrition labels was present or absent. Adults' visual attention to Nutrition Facts labels and front-of-package nutrition labels was objectively measured via eye-tracking glasses. To examine whether there were significant differences in the percentages of participants who viewed Nutrition Facts labels vs front-of-package nutrition labels, McNemar's tests were conducted across all participants, as well as within various sociodemographic categories. To determine whether hypothesized factors, such as health literacy and education, had stronger relationships with front-of-package nutrition label vs Nutrition Facts label viewing, linear regression assessed the magnitude of relationships between theoretically and empirically derived factors and each type of label viewing. Overall, front-of-package nutrition labels were more likely to be viewed than Nutrition Facts labels; however, for all subgroups, higher rates of front-of-package nutrition label viewership occurred only when signage was present drawing attention to the presence and

  11. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  12. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  13. Nutritional Labeling and Consumer Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Kiesel; Jill J. McCluskey; Sofia B. Villas-Boas

    2011-01-01

    In 1994, nutritional facts panels became mandatory for processed foods to improve consumer access to nutritional information and to promote healthy food choices. Recent applied work is reviewed here in terms of how consumers value and respond to nutritional labels. We first summarize the health and nutritional links found in the literature and frame this discussion in terms of the obesity policy debate. Second, we discuss several approaches that have been used to empirically investigate consu...

  14. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on safety... use of the product to minimize medication errors. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance at...

  15. Pseudo-Label Generation for Multi-Label Text Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the advent and expansion of social networking, the amount of generated text data has seen a sharp increase. In order to handle such a huge volume of text data,...

  16. Consumer Understanding of Food Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Holm, Lotte; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level of ...... that independent future studies of consumer behavior and decision making in relation to food products in different contexts could benefit from this type of benchmarking tool.......The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level...... of informedness of an individual consumer against the national median at any time. Informedness, i.e. the individual consumer's ability to interpret correctly the meaning of the words and signs on a food label is isolated as one essential dimension for dividing consumers into three groups: less-informed, informed...

  17. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  19. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices.

  20. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Carlos A.; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information regarding production of nanocomposites, the silylation procedure, labeling of the nanoclays, characterization of the labels, thermal stability of the labels, and the migration test. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32978f

  1. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  2. Future High Capacity Backbone Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan

    of the routing structure, results show that the energy efficiency of the network can be improved without compromising QoS parameters such as delay or blocking probability. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is employed to further improve the performance from the dynamic network simulations under...... are proposed. The work focuses on energy efficient routing algorithms in a dynamic optical core network environment, with Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) as the control plane. Energy ef- ficient routing algorithms for energy savings and CO2 savings are proposed, and their performance...... is studied in details with dynamic network simulations using OPNET. Dynamic routing optimization methods are proposed. The influences of re-routing and load-balancing factors on the algorithm are evaluated with a focus on different re-routing thresholds. Results from dynamic network simulations show that re...

  3. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  4. Information provision for allergic consumers - where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project...... directive on food labelling, its relevance to food-allergic consumers and the problems that might arise if precautionary labelling becomes more widespread in response to concerns regarding inadvertent allergen contamination in foods. International efforts to define threshold levels of allergens able...... to trigger a reaction coupled with validated allergen detection methods are essential if the food industry is to implement effective hazard control procedures and address the problems of cross-contact allergens without devaluing the information provided to consumers on food labels....

  5. Optical network control plane for multi-domain networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva

    This thesis focuses on multi-domain routing for traffice engineering and survivability support in optical transport networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control framework. First, different extensions to the Border Gateway Protocol for multi-domain Traffic Engineer......This thesis focuses on multi-domain routing for traffice engineering and survivability support in optical transport networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control framework. First, different extensions to the Border Gateway Protocol for multi-domain Traffic...... process are not enough for efficient TE in mesh multi-domain networks. Enhancing the protocol with multi-path dissemination capability, combined with the employment of an end-to-end TE metric proves to be a highly efficient solution. Simulation results show good performance characteristics of the proposed...... is not as essential for improved network performance as the length of the provided paths. Second, the issue of multi-domain survivability support is analyzed. An AS-disjoint paths is beneficial not only for resilience support, but also for facilitating adequate network reactions to changes in the network, which...

  6. Information provision for allergic consumers : where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, C.; Taylor, S.L.; Vieths, S.; Anklam, E.; Baumgartner, S.; Koch, P.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project,

  7. Performance of Manchester-coded payload in an optical FSK labeling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2003-01-01

    The modulation crosstalk between combined frequency-shift keying (FSK) and intensity modulation (IM) in an optical label-switching network is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. A comparison between the performance of nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and Manchester-coded payload is made. It is...

  8. Unsupervised class labeling of diffuse lung diseases using frequent attribute patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabu, Shingo; Obayashi, Masanao; Kuremoto, Takashi; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Hirano, Yasushi; Kido, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    For realizing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of computed tomography (CT) images, many pattern recognition methods have been applied to automatic classification of normal and abnormal opacities; however, for the learning of accurate classifier, a large number of images with correct labels are necessary. It is a very time-consuming and impractical task for radiologists to give correct labels for a large number of CT images. In this paper, to solve the above problem and realize an unsupervised class labeling mechanism without using correct labels, a new clustering algorithm for diffuse lung diseases using frequent attribute patterns is proposed. A large number of frequently appeared patterns of opacities are extracted by a data mining algorithm named genetic network programming (GNP), and the extracted patterns are automatically distributed to several clusters using genetic algorithm (GA). In this paper, lung CT images are used to make clusters of normal and diffuse lung diseases. After executing the pattern extraction by GNP, 1,148 frequent attribute patterns were extracted; then, GA was executed to make clusters. This paper deals with making clusters of normal and five kinds of abnormal opacities (i.e., six-class problem), and then, the proposed method without using correct class labels in the training showed 47.7 % clustering accuracy. It is clarified that the proposed method can make clusters without using correct labels and has the potential to apply to CAD, reducing the time cost for labeling CT images.

  9. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  10. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Network Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    n Vlog n ), which is a linear time algorithm for all but the sparsest classes of shortest path problems. 3.4. Label Correcting Algorithms Label...though the improvements are not as dramatic as they have been for E>inic’s and the FIFO preflow push algorithms. For example, the 0(nm + n^ Vlog U

  12. Label-free molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Ruliang; Huang, Guoliang

    2014-03-01

    Optical microscopy technology has achieved great improvements in the 20th century. The detection limit has reached about twenty nanometers (with near-field optics, STED, PALM and STORM). But in the application areas such as life science, medical science, clinical treatment and especially in vivo dynamic measurement, mutual restrictions still exist between numeric aperture/magnification and working distance, fluorescent dependent, and between resolution and frame rate/field size, etc. This paper explores a hyperspectral scanning super-resolution label free molecules imaging method based on the white light interferometry. The vertical detection resolution was approximate to 1 nm which is the thickness of a single molecular layer and dynamic measuring range of thickness reaches to 10 μm. The spectrum-shifting algorithm is developed for robust restructure of images when the pixels are overlapped. Micro-biochip with protein binding and DNA amplification could be detected by using this spectral scanning super-resolution molecules imaging in label free. This method has several advantages as following: Firstly, the decoding and detecting steps are combined into one step. It makes tests faster and easier. Secondly, we used thickness-coded, minimized chips instead of a large microarray chip to carry the probes. This accelerates the interaction of the biomolecules. Thirdly, since only one kind of probes are attached to our thickness-coded, minimized chip, users can only pick out the probes they are interested in for a test without wasting unnecessary probes and chips.

  13. Optimized null model for protein structure networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Tijana; Filippis, Ioannis; Lappe, Michael; Przulj, Natasa

    2009-06-26

    Much attention has recently been given to the statistical significance of topological features observed in biological networks. Here, we consider residue interaction graphs (RIGs) as network representations of protein structures with residues as nodes and inter-residue interactions as edges. Degree-preserving randomized models have been widely used for this purpose in biomolecular networks. However, such a single summary statistic of a network may not be detailed enough to capture the complex topological characteristics of protein structures and their network counterparts. Here, we investigate a variety of topological properties of RIGs to find a well fitting network null model for them. The RIGs are derived from a structurally diverse protein data set at various distance cut-offs and for different groups of interacting atoms. We compare the network structure of RIGs to several random graph models. We show that 3-dimensional geometric random graphs, that model spatial relationships between objects, provide the best fit to RIGs. We investigate the relationship between the strength of the fit and various protein structural features. We show that the fit depends on protein size, structural class, and thermostability, but not on quaternary structure. We apply our model to the identification of significantly over-represented structural building blocks, i.e., network motifs, in protein structure networks. As expected, choosing geometric graphs as a null model results in the most specific identification of motifs. Our geometric random graph model may facilitate further graph-based studies of protein conformation space and have important implications for protein structure comparison and prediction. The choice of a well-fitting null model is crucial for finding structural motifs that play an important role in protein folding, stability and function. To our knowledge, this is the first study that addresses the challenge of finding an optimized null model for RIGs, by

  14. Optimized null model for protein structure networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Much attention has recently been given to the statistical significance of topological features observed in biological networks. Here, we consider residue interaction graphs (RIGs as network representations of protein structures with residues as nodes and inter-residue interactions as edges. Degree-preserving randomized models have been widely used for this purpose in biomolecular networks. However, such a single summary statistic of a network may not be detailed enough to capture the complex topological characteristics of protein structures and their network counterparts. Here, we investigate a variety of topological properties of RIGs to find a well fitting network null model for them. The RIGs are derived from a structurally diverse protein data set at various distance cut-offs and for different groups of interacting atoms. We compare the network structure of RIGs to several random graph models. We show that 3-dimensional geometric random graphs, that model spatial relationships between objects, provide the best fit to RIGs. We investigate the relationship between the strength of the fit and various protein structural features. We show that the fit depends on protein size, structural class, and thermostability, but not on quaternary structure. We apply our model to the identification of significantly over-represented structural building blocks, i.e., network motifs, in protein structure networks. As expected, choosing geometric graphs as a null model results in the most specific identification of motifs. Our geometric random graph model may facilitate further graph-based studies of protein conformation space and have important implications for protein structure comparison and prediction. The choice of a well-fitting null model is crucial for finding structural motifs that play an important role in protein folding, stability and function. To our knowledge, this is the first study that addresses the challenge of finding an optimized null model

  15. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K.; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  16. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  17. Analysis of metabolic flux using dynamic labelling and metabolic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, A R; Morgan, J A

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic fluxes and the capacity to modulate them are a crucial component of the ability of the plant cell to react to environmental perturbations. Our ability to quantify them and to attain information concerning the regulatory mechanisms that control them is therefore essential to understand and influence metabolic networks. For all but the simplest of flux measurements labelling methods have proven to be the most informative. Both steady-state and dynamic labelling approaches have been adopted in the study of plant metabolism. Here the conceptual basis of these complementary approaches, as well as their historical application in microbial, mammalian and plant sciences, is reviewed, and an update on technical developments in label distribution analyses is provided. This is supported by illustrative cases studies involving the kinetic modelling of secondary metabolism. One issue that is particularly complex in the analysis of plant fluxes is the extensive compartmentation of the plant cell. This problem is discussed from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, and the current approaches used to address it are assessed. Finally, current limitations and future perspectives of kinetic modelling of plant metabolism are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    metal and old axles. The new model will primarily be constructed of bamboo which is abundant in Ethiopia and is a very durable material. Another...by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a...sustainable development. Construction of Road Interchange in Addis Ababa The hub is also supported by Center for Creative Leadership (CCL

  19. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hou Chin

    Full Text Available Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA. The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR, Relaxed Caveman (RC and Girvan-Newman (GN benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results.

  20. Neuroanatomical labeling with biocytin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A J

    1992-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that biocytin may have multiple applications in neuroanatomical studies. Biocytin may be injected into the brain by iontophoresis or by pressure injection methods, and localized in tissue sections using avidin-conjugated labels. It is taken up by neurons and rapidly transported down axons in an anterograde fashion. Axons are completely labeled in a Golgi-like manner and can be examined at both light and electron microscopic levels. Biocytin can also be used in retrograde tract tracing experiments, although in some cases it appears that fibers must be damaged to produce such labeling. Retrogradely labeled cells may be completely labeled, resembling neurons stained with the Golgi technique. Individual neurons can also be labeled in a Golgi-like manner by uptake of biocytin from the extracellular space. Thus, it appears that biocytin is an especially versatile marker for neuroanatomical investigations.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  2. Synthesis and Labeling of RNA In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    This unit discusses several methods for generating large amounts of uniformly labeled, end-labeled, and site-specifically labeled RNAs in vitro. The methods involve a number of experimental procedures, including RNA transcription, 5′ dephosphorylation and rephosphorylation, 3′ terminal nucleotide addition (via ligation), site-specific RNase H cleavage directed by 2′-O-methyl RNA-DNA chimeras, and 2-piece splint ligation. The applications of these RNA radiolabeling approaches are also discussed. PMID:23547015

  3. Development of 89Zr Labelled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-zhen;YANG Min

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is the most advanced molecular imaging technology with the advantage of high sensitivity and quantity analysis. Molecule probe is the key factor for PET. 89Zr is a novel imaging nuclide and suitable for labeling macromolecular bioactive substances such as antibody due to its favorably long half-life and energy. This review outlined the recent development of the production of 89Zr, labeling methods and application of 89Zr labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

  4. Efficient Methods for Multi-Label Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    selection based multi-label classification approaches, FBS does not formulate label selection as a general column subset selection problem ( CSSP ). It is...becomes computationally expensive. An alternative is to treat label selection as one column subset selection prob- lem ( CSSP ) [3,10]. For a matrix A ∈ IRn...d, CSSP aims at finding exactly k columns so that these selected columns can approximately span A. Concretely, we expect to find a column set C with

  5. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  6. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi (Osaka National Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine and Radiological Science); Kimura, Kazufumi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu (Osaka Univ. (Japan). 1. Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1991-05-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using {sup 111}In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10{sup 6} platelets/{mu}l. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 {mu}M ADP but not in 5 {mu}M ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.).

  7. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  8. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  9. Metric Clustering via Consistent Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    triangulation is a heuristic for estimating distances in a network, initially suggested by Guyton and Schwartz [15]. Motivated by the practical success...beddings. In 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pages 534–543, October 2003. 4 [15] J. D. Guyton and M. F. Schwartz

  10. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  11. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  12. A distributed multicast label switched path setup scheme to solve the multi-destination reservation collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) appears as a promising candidate to implement the control plane for next-generation optical networks. In GMPLS-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, existing resource reservation protocol (RSVP) may fail to setup a multicast Label Switched Path (LSP) with high probability, since multiple destinations in one multicast session may reserve different wavelengths and result in reservation collision at branch nodes. In this work, we extend the existing GMPLS RSVP signaling protocol and propose an efficient scheme to set up optical multicast LSP and avoid wavelength resources collision, called Last-hop Label Set (LLS) scheme, by introducing a new object called Last-hop Label Set object in Resv message. Once the setup of a multicast LSP fails caused by wavelength reservation collision at a branch node, the branch node can re-reserves a new wavelength according to the Last-hop Label Set object within Resv messages. The numerical results indicate that the proposed LLS scheme offers lower blocking probability compared to the existing GMPLS signaling scheme.

  13. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    . We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...... limited. The results indicate that for switching to ‘GM-free’ production, long-term effects such as the creation of a positive image or differentiation from competitors are more important for dairy companies than short-term effects such as higher sales or profit....

  14. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Perceived barriers and motives to reading nutrition label among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranilović, Jasmina; Colić Barić2, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine barriers and motives associated with reading nutrition information among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia and relationship with demographic and health factors of recruited sample.Label ‘non-users’ are subjects reported that had never or do not know or wish to tell aboutreading nutrition label during food purchasing (n=375) and were recruited from representative sample telephone interviewed Croatian, for assessing nutrition label attitudes. It is found that ...

  16. Detection of statistically significant network changes in complex biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Raghvendra; Cerulo, Luigi; Bensmail, Halima; Iavarone, Antonio; Ceccarelli, Michele

    2017-03-04

    Biological networks contribute effectively to unveil the complex structure of molecular interactions and to discover driver genes especially in cancer context. It can happen that due to gene mutations, as for example when cancer progresses, the gene expression network undergoes some amount of localized re-wiring. The ability to detect statistical relevant changes in the interaction patterns induced by the progression of the disease can lead to the discovery of novel relevant signatures. Several procedures have been recently proposed to detect sub-network differences in pairwise labeled weighted networks. In this paper, we propose an improvement over the state-of-the-art based on the Generalized Hamming Distance adopted for evaluating the topological difference between two networks and estimating its statistical significance. The proposed procedure exploits a more effective model selection criteria to generate p-values for statistical significance and is more efficient in terms of computational time and prediction accuracy than literature methods. Moreover, the structure of the proposed algorithm allows for a faster parallelized implementation. In the case of dense random geometric networks the proposed approach is 10-15x faster and achieves 5-10% higher AUC, Precision/Recall, and Kappa value than the state-of-the-art. We also report the application of the method to dissect the difference between the regulatory networks of IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma cancer. In such a case our method is able to identify some recently reported master regulators as well as novel important candidates. We show that our network differencing procedure can effectively and efficiently detect statistical significant network re-wirings in different conditions. When applied to detect the main differences between the networks of IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma tumors, it correctly selects sub-networks centered on important key regulators of these two different subtypes. In

  17. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  18. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  19. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  20. Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Folic Acid and Pregnancy Medical Care ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  2. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dark contrasting lettering. The main panel of the final container label of all other Anti-Human Globulin reagents shall be black with solid white lettering. A logo or company name may be placed on the... on the container label. (3) Lettering size. The type size for the designation of the specific...

  3. 21 CFR 211.125 - Labeling issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling issuance. 211.125 Section 211.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control...

  4. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  5. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional... diphenhydramine hydrochloride identified in § 336.10 (a), (b), and (c). “For the treatment of vertigo of motion...

  6. Training Individuals to Label Nonverbal Facial Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Pellegreno, Dominick

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects of training high school students (N=56) to accurately label facial affects of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and neutrality. The treatment period extended over three, one-hour group presentations. Found the experimental group significantly improved its ability to accurately label facial affect following…

  7. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-35 Labeling. (a) Labeling shall be... door to magazines and magazine vans shall bear the inscription: MAGAZINE KEEP OPEN LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY... conspicuous location, preferably the top, with the inscription: MAGAZINE CHEST KEEP OPEN LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talk to Your Child About the News Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  13. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  15. Handicap Labelings of 4-Regular Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kovar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a simple graph, let f : V(G→{1,2,...,|V(G|} be a bijective mapping. The weight of v ∈ V(G is the sum of labels of all vertices adjacent to v. We say that f is a distance magic labeling of G if the weight of every vertex is the same constant k and we say that f is a handicap magic labeling of G if the weight of every vertex v is l + f(v for some constant l. Graphs that allow such labelings are called distance magic or handicap, respectively. Distance magic and handicap labelings of regular graphs are used for scheduling incomplete tournaments. While distance magic labelings correspond to so called equalized tournaments, handicap labelings can be used to schedule incomplete tournaments that are more challenging to stronger teams or players, hence they increase competition and yield attractive schemes in which every games counts. We summarize known results on distance magic and handicap labelings and construct a new infinite class of 4-regular handicap graphs.

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo ...

  17. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year. (4) The per-cylinder displacement of the engine. (5) Engine family and configuration... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.212 Labeling. (a) General requirements. (1) Each new engine covered by a certificate of conformity under § 94.208 shall be labeled by the...

  18. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring Out ...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug... milligrams or less. (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for... substituted for the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts ...

  2. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  3. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  4. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  5. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is...

  6. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms.

  7. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the same final container label is applied by different methods such as paper or screen printing, one... that the label is a direct translation from a corresponding approved domestic label. (2) If the foreign language label is not a direct translation of an approved domestic label, an English version shall be...

  8. ALE: automated label extraction from GEO metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Cory B; Brown, Chase A; Ripperger, Michael; Dennis, Zane; Roopnarinesingh, Xiavan; Porter, Hunter; Perz, Aleksandra; Wren, Jonathan D

    2017-12-28

    NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is a rich community resource containing millions of gene expression experiments from human, mouse, rat, and other model organisms. However, information about each experiment (metadata) is in the format of an open-ended, non-standardized textual description provided by the depositor. Thus, classification of experiments for meta-analysis by factors such as gender, age of the sample donor, and tissue of origin is not feasible without assigning labels to the experiments. Automated approaches are preferable for this, primarily because of the size and volume of the data to be processed, but also because it ensures standardization and consistency. While some of these labels can be extracted directly from the textual metadata, many of the data available do not contain explicit text informing the researcher about the age and gender of the subjects with the study. To bridge this gap, machine-learning methods can be trained to use the gene expression patterns associated with the text-derived labels to refine label-prediction confidence. Our analysis shows only 26% of metadata text contains information about gender and 21% about age. In order to ameliorate the lack of available labels for these data sets, we first extract labels from the textual metadata for each GEO RNA dataset and evaluate the performance against a gold standard of manually curated labels. We then use machine-learning methods to predict labels, based upon gene expression of the samples and compare this to the text-based method. Here we present an automated method to extract labels for age, gender, and tissue from textual metadata and GEO data using both a heuristic approach as well as machine learning. We show the two methods together improve accuracy of label assignment to GEO samples.

  9. Static analysis of topology-dependent broadcast networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    changing network topology is a crucial ingredient. In this paper, we develop a static analysis that automatically constructs an abstract transition system, labelled by actions and connectivity information, to yield a mobility-preserving finite abstraction of the behaviour of a network expressed...

  10. Active Learning for Node Classification in Assortative and Disassortative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Zhu, Yaojia; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Lane, Terran

    2011-01-01

    In many real-world networks, nodes have class labels, attributes, or variables that affect the network's topology. If the topology of the network is known but the labels of the nodes are hidden, we would like to select a small subset of nodes such that, if we knew their labels, we could accurately predict the labels of all the other nodes. We develop an active learning algorithm for this problem which uses information-theoretic techniques to choose which nodes to explore. We test our algorithm on networks from three different domains: a social network, a network of English words that appear adjacently in a novel, and a marine food web. Our algorithm makes no initial assumptions about how the groups connect, and performs well even when faced with quite general types of network structure. In particular, we do not assume that nodes of the same class are more likely to be connected to each other---only that they connect to the rest of the network in similar ways.

  11. Detection and Labeling of Vertebrae in MR Images Using Deep Learning with Clinical Annotations as Training Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Sjöblom, Erik; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using clinically provided spine label annotations stored in a single institution image archive as training data for deep learning-based vertebral detection and labeling pipelines. Lumbar and cervical magnetic resonance imaging cases with annotated spine labels were identified and exported from an image archive. Two separate pipelines were configured and trained for lumbar and cervical cases respectively, using the same setup with convolutional neural networks for detection and parts-based graphical models to label the vertebrae. The detection sensitivity, precision and accuracy rates ranged between 99.1-99.8, 99.6-100, and 98.8-99.8% respectively, the average localization error ranges were 1.18-1.24 and 2.38-2.60 mm for cervical and lumbar cases respectively, and with a labeling accuracy of 96.0-97.0%. Failed labeling results typically involved failed S1 detections or missed vertebrae that were not fully visible on the image. These results show that clinically annotated image data from one image archive is sufficient to train a deep learning-based pipeline for accurate detection and labeling of MR images depicting the spine. Further, these results support using deep learning to assist radiologists in their work by providing highly accurate labels that only require rapid confirmation.

  12. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.

  13. Holographic spin networks from tensor network states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; McMahon, Nathan A.; Brennen, Gavin K.

    2018-01-01

    In the holographic correspondence of quantum gravity, a global on-site symmetry at the boundary generally translates to a local gauge symmetry in the bulk. We describe one way how the global boundary on-site symmetries can be gauged within the formalism of the multiscale renormalization ansatz (MERA), in light of the ongoing discussion between tensor networks and holography. We describe how to "lift" the MERA representation of the ground state of a generic one dimensional (1D) local Hamiltonian, which has a global on-site symmetry, to a dual quantum state of a 2D "bulk" lattice on which the symmetry appears gauged. The 2D bulk state decomposes in terms of spin network states, which label a basis in the gauge-invariant sector of the bulk lattice. This decomposition is instrumental to obtain expectation values of gauge-invariant observables in the bulk, and also reveals that the bulk state is generally entangled between the gauge and the remaining ("gravitational") bulk degrees of freedom that are not fixed by the symmetry. We present numerical results for ground states of several 1D critical spin chains to illustrate that the bulk entanglement potentially depends on the central charge of the underlying conformal field theory. We also discuss the possibility of emergent topological order in the bulk using a simple example, and also of emergent symmetries in the nongauge (gravitational) sector in the bulk. More broadly, our holographic model translates the MERA, a tensor network state, to a superposition of spin network states, as they appear in lattice gauge theories in one higher dimension.

  14. Reduction strategies for hierarchical multi-label classification in protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Ricardo; Barros, Rodrigo C; P L F de Carvalho, André C; Jin, Yaochu

    2016-09-15

    Hierarchical Multi-Label Classification is a classification task where the classes to be predicted are hierarchically organized. Each instance can be assigned to classes belonging to more than one path in the hierarchy. This scenario is typically found in protein function prediction, considering that each protein may perform many functions, which can be further specialized into sub-functions. We present a new hierarchical multi-label classification method based on multiple neural networks for the task of protein function prediction. A set of neural networks are incrementally training, each being responsible for the prediction of the classes belonging to a given level. The method proposed here is an extension of our previous work. Here we use the neural network output of a level to complement the feature vectors used as input to train the neural network in the next level. We experimentally compare this novel method with several other reduction strategies, showing that it obtains the best predictive performance. Empirical results also show that the proposed method achieves better or comparable predictive performance when compared with state-of-the-art methods for hierarchical multi-label classification in the context of protein function prediction. The experiments showed that using the output in one level as input to the next level contributed to better classification results. We believe the method was able to learn the relationships between the protein functions during training, and this information was useful for classification. We also identified in which functional classes our method performed better.

  15. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  16. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  18. A Clear Label Strategy for Food Additives : Ingredient Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Clear label is a strategic approach that food companies, policy makers and consumer groups can use to bring balance and clarity into food labeling. The first of a two-part report on a clear label strategy.

  19. How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label ... sodium) remain the same for both calorie amounts. How the Daily Values Relate to the %DVs Look ...

  20. 27 CFR 5.55 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Approval of... certificates of label approval and certificates of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures...

  1. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels of... of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. ...

  2. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  3. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  4. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  5. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines.

  6. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  7. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  8. Constructing and drawing regular planar split networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillner, Andreas; Nguyen, Binh T; Moulton, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Split networks are commonly used to visualize collections of bipartitions, also called splits, of a finite set. Such collections arise, for example, in evolutionary studies. Split networks can be viewed as a generalization of phylogenetic trees and may be generated using the SplitsTree package. Recently, the NeighborNet method for generating split networks has become rather popular, in part because it is guaranteed to always generate a circular split system, which can always be displayed by a planar split network. Even so, labels must be placed on the “outside” of the network, which might be problematic in some applications. To help circumvent this problem, it can be helpful to consider so-called flat split systems, which can be displayed by planar split networks where labels are allowed on the inside of the network too. Here, we present a new algorithm that is guaranteed to compute a minimal planar split network displaying a flat split system in polynomial time, provided the split system is given in a certain format. We will also briefly discuss two heuristics that could be useful for analyzing phylogeographic data and that allow the computation of flat split systems in this format in polynomial time.

  9. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  10. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. Properly even harmonious labelings of disconnected graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Gallian

    2015-11-01

    We study a variant of harmonious labeling. A function f is said to be a properly even harmonious labeling of a graph G with q edges if f is an injection from the vertices of G to the integers from 0 to 2(q−1 and the induced function f∗ from the edges of G to 0,2,…,2(q−1 defined by f∗(xy=f(x+f(y(mod2q is bijective. This paper focuses on the existence of properly even harmonious labelings of the disjoint union of cycles and stars, unions of cycles with paths, unions of squares of paths, and unions of paths.

  13. Stable isotope labeling methods for DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Frank H T; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Heus, Hans A

    2016-08-01

    NMR is a powerful method for studying proteins and nucleic acids in solution. The study of nucleic acids by NMR is far more challenging than for proteins, which is mainly due to the limited number of building blocks and unfavorable spectral properties. For NMR studies of DNA molecules, (site specific) isotope enrichment is required to facilitate specific NMR experiments and applications. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of isotope-labeling strategies for obtaining stable isotope labeled DNA as well as specifically stable isotope labeled building blocks required for enzymatic DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  16. Function Labeling for Unparsed Chinese Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Caixia; Ren, Fuji; Wang, Xiaojie; Zhong, Yixin

    This paper presents a work of function labeling for unparsed Chinese text. Unlike other attempts that utilize the full parse trees, we propose an effective way to recognize function labels directly based on lexical information, which is easily scalable for languages that lack sufficient parsing resources. Furthermore, we investigate a general method to iteratively simplify a sentence, thus transferring complicated sentence into structurally simple pieces. By means of a sequence learning model with hidden Markov support vector machine, we achieve the best F-measure of 87.40 on the text from Penn Chinese Treebank resources - a statistically significant improvement over the existing Chinese function labeling systems.

  17. Stable Isotope Labeling in Zebrafish Allows in Vivo Monitoring of Cardiac Morphogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzer, Anne; Ruhs, Aaron; Braun, Helene; Jungblut, Benno; Braun, Thomas; Krüger, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics is an important tool to study biological processes, but so far it has been challenging to apply to zebrafish. Here, we describe a large scale quantitative analysis of the zebrafish proteome using a combination of stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Proteins derived from the fully labeled fish were used as a standard to quantify changes during embryonic heart development. LC-MS-assisted analysis of the proteome of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule zebrafish morphants revealed a down-regulation of components of the network required for cell adhesion and maintenance of cell shape as well as secondary changes due to arrest of cellular differentiation. Quantitative proteomics in zebrafish using the stable isotope-labeling technique provides an unprecedented resource to study developmental processes in zebrafish. PMID:23412571

  18. Stable isotope labeling in zebrafish allows in vivo monitoring of cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzer, Anne; Ruhs, Aaron; Braun, Helene; Jungblut, Benno; Braun, Thomas; Krüger, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative proteomics is an important tool to study biological processes, but so far it has been challenging to apply to zebrafish. Here, we describe a large scale quantitative analysis of the zebrafish proteome using a combination of stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Proteins derived from the fully labeled fish were used as a standard to quantify changes during embryonic heart development. LC-MS-assisted analysis of the proteome of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule zebrafish morphants revealed a down-regulation of components of the network required for cell adhesion and maintenance of cell shape as well as secondary changes due to arrest of cellular differentiation. Quantitative proteomics in zebrafish using the stable isotope-labeling technique provides an unprecedented resource to study developmental processes in zebrafish.

  19. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  20. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  1. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  2. Strategies for optical transport network recovery under epidemic network failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kosteas, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    manner under different failure scenarios. This work evaluates two rerouting strategies and proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under generalized multiprotocol label switching control plane. The performance of the strategies and the policies...... are evaluated under multiple correlated large-scale failures. We employ the Susceptible–Infected– Disabled epidemic failure spreading model and look into possible trade-offs between resiliency and resource effi- ciency. Via extensive simulations, we show that source rerouting outperforms on-site rerouting......, and that there exist a clear trade-off between policy performance and network resource consumption, which must be addressed by network operators for improved robustness of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections...

  3. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  4. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? How Can I Help My Child Deal With a Bully? ... tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ...

  7. Teach Your Teen about Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15 Fueling Snacks to Take to Your Child's Game Videos Julienne Vegetables Understanding the New Nutrition Facts Label Food Safety When Dining Outdoors Find An Expert Anyone can call themselves a nutritionist, but registered dietitian nutritionists (RDN) ...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1411 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... validity of warranty claims. The label containing the information must be made durable and readable for at... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and are not effective until OMB has approved them. ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias How to Read a Nutrition Facts ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  10. Quick Guide to Food Label Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Quick Guide to Food Label Terms Reviewed by ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cope With a Parent's Suicide? How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food ...

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Treacher Collins Syndrome When Your Child Outgrows Pediatric ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  14. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin ... requirements. back to top "Contains" and "May Contain" Have Different Meanings If a “Contains” statement appears on ...

  15. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test (for a description of equipment designed for this purpose, see ASTM G 23-69 (1975) or ASTM G 26-70... place of a corresponding label that conforms to the requirements of this subpart. (g) Trefoil symbol...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  17. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pretzels, that would be two servings. Servings per Container or Package The label also tells you how ... of the body, such as muscles, blood, and organs. Protein is often measured in grams. Vitamin A ...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Many Doses of Flu Vaccine Does My Child Need? Heart-Healthy Recipes Giving Teens a Voice ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... With a Parent's Suicide? How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  2. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  3. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation Guidance Documents & Regulatory Information by Topic Allergens Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... In people with celiac disease, foods that contain gluten trigger production of antibodies that attack and damage ...

  4. Food Labels for Infants under Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult food labels, daily values for saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and dietary fiber are not listed, because ... Jicama Salad Recipe Recipes Jicama Salad Recipe Rainbow Yogurt Trifle Cups Recipe Recipes Rainbow Yogurt Trifle Cups ...

  5. On CPHD filters with track labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    The random infinite set (RFS) approach to information fusion addressed target track-labeling from the outset. The first implementations of RFS filters did not do so because of computational concerns, whereas subsequent implementations employed heuristics. The labeled RFS (LRFS) theory of B.-T. Vo and B.-N. Vo was the first systematic, theoretically rigorous formulation of true multitarget tracking; and led to the generalized labeled multi-Bernoulli (GLMB) filter (the first provably Bayes-optimal multitarget tracking algorithm). This paper addresses the feasibility of theoretically rigorous cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filters. We show that an approximation of the GLMB filter, known as the LMB filter, can be reinterpreted as a theoretically rigorous labeled PHD (LPHD) filter. We also prove two characterization theorems for the probability generating functionals (p.g.fl's) of LRFS's.

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet ... figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ...

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Many Doses of Flu Vaccine Does My Child Need? Heart-Healthy Recipes Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to ...

  9. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container...; (d) the number of wine gallons; and (e) the percent of alcohol by volume. (Approved by the Office of...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  11. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastic, paper, metal, or other durable substances. Labels must be attached in such a manner that they... banned the distribution in U.S. commerce of this product under section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control...

  12. Food label accuracy of common snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. We tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured "true" caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile -1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, P = 0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, P = 0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, P = 0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, P = 0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (-12.8% [-38.6, 9.6], P = 0.23; 6.1% [-6.1, 17.5], P = 0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  14. Labeling Extracellular Vesicles for Nanoscale Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aizea Morales-Kastresana; Bill Telford; Musich, Thomas A.; Katherine McKinnon; Cassandra Clayborne; Zach Braig; Ari Rosner; Thorsten Demberg; Watson, Dionysios C.; Karpova, Tatiana S.; Freeman, Gordon J.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Pavlakis, George N.; Masaki Terabe; Marjorie Robert-Guroff

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are 30?800?nm vesicles that are released by most cell types, as biological packages for intercellular communication. Their importance in cancer and inflammation makes EVs and their cargo promising biomarkers of disease and cell-free therapeutic agents. Emerging high-resolution cytometric methods have created a pressing need for efficient fluorescent labeling procedures to visualize and detect EVs. Suitable labels must be brig...

  15. 27 CFR 20.134 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as conspicuously as the words “denatured alcohol.” (e) Use of the words “rubbing alcohol.” If the words “rubbing alcohol” appear on the label of an article, (1) the article shall be made in accordance with § 20.118 of this part, and (2) the label (i) shall have the words “rubbing alcohol” in letters of...

  16. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...

  17. Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Wayne E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle cells and are being investigated for their utility in cell-based transplantation therapy. Yet, adequate methods to track transplanted MSCs in vivo are limited, precluding functional studies. Quantum Dots (QDs offer an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins to label and track cells in vitro and in vivo. These nanoparticles are resistant to chemical and metabolic degradation, demonstrating long term photostability. Here, we investigate the cytotoxic effects of in vitro QD labeling on MSC proliferation and differentiation and use as a cell label in a cardiomyocyte co-culture. Results A dose-response to QDs in rat bone marrow MSCs was assessed in Control (no-QDs, Low concentration (LC, 5 nmol/L and High concentration (HC, 20 nmol/L groups. QD yield and retention, MSC survival, proinflammatory cytokines, proliferation and DNA damage were evaluated in MSCs, 24 -120 hrs post QD labeling. In addition, functional integration of QD labeled MSCs in an in vitro cardiomyocyte co-culture was assessed. A dose-dependent effect was measured with increased yield in HC vs. LC labeled MSCs (93 ± 3% vs. 50% ± 15%, p 90% of QD labeled cells were viable in all groups, however, at 120 hrs increased apoptosis was measured in HC vs. Control MSCs (7.2% ± 2.7% vs. 0.5% ± 0.4%, p Conclusion Fluorescent QDs label MSC effectively in an in vitro co-culture model. QDs are easy to use, show a high yield and survival rate with minimal cytotoxic effects. Dose-dependent effects suggest limiting MSC QD exposure.

  18. Extending the scope of eco-labelling in the food industry to drive change beyond sustainable agriculture practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ackerman, Marco A; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine

    2017-12-15

    New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product. These labelling strategies help value products in the eyes of the consumer. Because of this, decision makers are motivated to adopt more sustainable models. In the food industry, this has led to important environmental impact improvements at the agricultural stage, while most other stages in the Food Supply Chain (FSC) have continued to be designed inefficiently. The objective of this work is to define a framework showing how carbon labelling can be integrated into the design process of the FSC. For this purpose, the concept of Green Supply Chain Network Design (GSCND) focusing on the strategic decision making for location and allocation of resources and production capacity is developed considering operational, financial and environmental (CO 2 emissions) issues along key stages in the product life cycle. A multi-objective optimization strategy implemented by use of a genetic algorithm is applied to a case study on orange juice production. The results show that the consideration of CO 2 emission minimization as an objective function during the GSCND process together with techno-economic criteria produces improved FSC environmental performance compared to both organic and conventional orange juice production. Typical results thus highlight the importance that carbon emissions optimization and labelling may have to improve FSC beyond organic labelling. Finally, CO 2 emission-oriented labelling could be an important tool to improve the

  19. Off-label use of anti-cancer drugs in India: to be or not to be!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Vikram; Patial, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Administering drugs outside the terms of their official labeling is called off-label use. In the West, oncologists often use drugs off-label, which offers several advantages especially while treating patients with multiple comorbidities or advanced cancer. The practice of off-label prescribing of anticancer agents in India is not well documented. A survey on prescribing practices of 10 important drugs used in cancer was conducted in March 2010. Ten centers representing all parts of India were identified. One oncologist from each center was contacted by phone or email and explained about the survey. The list of drugs was sent to them by email if they agreed to participate and they were requested to fill all the indications for which these drugs were used in their center. Labeling for each drug was obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Off-label practice was categorized as those recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and those without. Nine out of 10 centers agreed to participate in the survey. Four centers responded to the questionnaire. Six out of 10 drugs were used for off-label indications, cisplatin being the most commonly used. All drugs were either used as per FDA labeling or according to the recommendations of NCCN, except for gemcitabine which was used in one center for some indications based on phase II data. Very limited off-label prescribing was found in oncology practice in India. Since off-label use offers several advantages, judicious use of this practice should be encouraged among the oncologists.

  20. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even......We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree T, label the nodes of T with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with n nodes we present upper and lower bounds...... establishing that labels of size (2 ± ε)log n, ε schemes have labels of size log n + Ω(log log n). Our lower bound increases this to log n + Ω(log n) for NCA labeling schemes. Since Fraigniaud...

  1. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products) to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private l...

  2. "I rarely read the label": Factors that Influence Thai Consumer Responses to Nutrition Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kirk, Martyn; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-05-14

    This qualitative study employed the Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour (KAB) model and Health Belief Model (HBM) to investigate factors influencing Thai consumer decision making about use of nutrition labels. Labels include both Nutrition Information Panels (1998-) and Guideline Daily Amounts labels (2011-). In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 participants representing two socio-demographic extremes in Thailand--"urban Bangkok" (university educated consumers) and "provincial Ranong" (non-university educated consumers). An integrated KAB-HBM model was used to devise in-depth interviews for a qualitative study using 20 open-ended questions and samples of food package labels. Additional questions arose from the interviews and they lasted 30-45 minutes and were video recorded. The analysis identified recurring themes using Atlas.ti software. Most participants (n=25) were aware of nutrition labels but a much smaller number (n=10) used and derived any benefit from them. Nutrition label users were classified into 4 groups: A) competent user; B) confused user; C) aware non-user; D) unaware non-user. Better educated participants were better at understanding nutrition labels but not more likely to use labels. Belief that nutrition influences health increased likelihood of using nutrition labels to make decisions about food. Being well-educated and motivated by health concerns increased likelihood of attention to nutrition labels. Results are discussed with a view to increasing the use of nutrition labels by Thai consumers. Our findings, drawing on a combination of the KAB and HBM models, can contribute to strategies motivating consumers to use nutrition labels and can provide useful insights for developing promotional strategies.

  3. ?I rarely read the label?: Factors that Influence Thai Consumer Responses to Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kirk, Martyn; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background: This qualitative study employed the Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour (KAB) model and Health Belief Model (HBM) to investigate factors influencing Thai consumer decision making about use of nutrition labels. Labels include both Nutrition Information Panels (1998-) and Guideline Daily Amounts labels (2011-). Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 participants representing two socio-demographic extremes in Thailand ? ?urban Bangkok? (university educated consumers) and ?provin...

  4. Does labeling matter? An examination of attitudes and perceptions of labels for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Luong, Dorothy; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    Labeling research in various domains has found that attitudes and perceptions vary as a function of the different labels ascribed to a group (e.g., overweight vs. obese). This type of research, however, has not been examined extensively in regards to labels for mental disorders. The present study examined whether common psychiatric labels (i.e., mental disease, mental disorders, mental health problems, and mental illness) elicited divergent attitudes and perceptions in a group of participants. These labels were also compared to the specific label of depression. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 124) were given identical questionnaire packages with the exception of the label used. That is, each participant received a set of questionnaires that referred to only one of the five labels. The questionnaire package contained various quantitative measures of attitudes and social distance, in addition to a short qualitative measure. Analyses demonstrated equivalence among the four general psychiatric labels on measures of attitudes, social distance, and general perceptions. However, results also suggested that the general labels diverged from the depression label, with the latter being generally more negatively perceived. Some analyses demonstrated that participants' understanding of the terminology might be incorrect. The results of the investigation are discussed with a focus on its relationship with current research in stigma. Within the current sample, general psychiatric labels did not appear to distinguish themselves from each other on measures of attitude and social distance but did so when compared to a relatively more specific term. Future research should examine the underlying mechanism driving this finding, with the ultimate goal of reducing the stigma faced by those with mental disorders.

  5. Labelling of electricity; Kennzeichnung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Markard, J. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed.

  6. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  8. Automated Lobe-Based Airway Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suicheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1 airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2 individual airway branch identification, (3 initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4 self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm.

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Perylene-labeled silica nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of three novel silica nanoparticle species for live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechinger, Julia; Herrmann, Rudolf; Kiener, Daniel; García-García, F Javier; Scheu, Christina; Reller, Armin; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2010-11-05

    The increasing exposure of humans to nanoscaled particles requires well-defined systems that enable the investigation of the toxicity of nanoparticles on the cellular level. To facilitate this, surface-labeled silica nanoparticles, nanoparticles with a labeled core and a silica shell, and a labeled nanoparticle network-all designed for live-cell imaging-are synthesized. The nanoparticles are functionalized with perylene derivatives. For this purpose, two different perylene species containing one or two reactive silica functionalities are prepared. The nanoparticles are studied by transmission electron microscopy, widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence anisotropy, in order to characterize the size and morphology of the nanoparticles and to prove the success and homogeneity of the labeling. Using spinning-disc confocal measurements, silica nanoparticles are demonstrated to be taken up by HeLa cells, and they are clearly detectable inside the cytoplasm of the cells.

  11. Audit of manufactured products: use of allergen advisory labels and identification of labeling ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Mariah M; Chung, Danna; Pacenza, Robert; Slotkin, Todd; Sicherer, Scott H

    2009-08-01

    The Food Allergy Labeling and Consumer Protection Act became effective January 1, 2006, and mandates disclosure of the 8 major allergens in plain English and as a source of ingredients in the ingredient statement. It does not regulate advisory labels. We sought to determine the frequency and language used in voluntary advisory labels among commercially available products and to identify labeling ambiguities affecting consumers with allergy. Trained surveyors performed a supermarket survey of 20,241 unique manufactured food products (from an original assessment of 49,604 products) for use of advisory labels. A second detailed survey of 744 unique products evaluated additional labeling practices. Overall, 17% of 20,241 products surveyed contain advisory labels. Chocolate candy, cookies, and baking mixes were the 3 categories of 24 with the greatest frequency (> or = 40%). Categorically, advisory warnings included "may contain" (38%), "shared equipment" (33%), and "within plant" (29%). The subsurvey disclosed 25 different types of advisory terminology. Nonspecific terms, such as "natural flavors" and "spices," were found on 65% of products and were not linked to a specific ingredient for 83% of them. Additional ambiguities included unclear sources of soy (lecithin vs protein), nondisclosure of sources of gelatin and lecithin, and simultaneous disclosure of "contains" and "may contain" for the same allergen, among others. Numerous products have advisory labeling and ambiguities that present challenges to consumers with food allergy. Additional allergen labeling regulation could improve safety and quality of life for individuals with food allergy.

  12. GEO Label: User and Producer Perspectives on a Label for Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, V.; Lumsden, J.; Masó, J.; Díaz, P.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    One of the aims of the Science and Technology Committee (STC) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was to establish a GEO Label- a label to certify geospatial datasets and their quality. As proposed, the GEO Label will be used as a value indicator for geospatial data and datasets accessible through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It is suggested that the development of such a label will significantly improve user recognition of the quality of geospatial datasets and that its use will help promote trust in datasets that carry the established GEO Label. Furthermore, the GEO Label is seen as an incentive to data providers. At the moment GEOSS contains a large amount of data and is constantly growing. Taking this into account, a GEO Label could assist in searching by providing users with visual cues of dataset quality and possibly relevance; a GEO Label could effectively stand as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection. Currently our project - GeoViQua, - together with EGIDA and ID-03 is undertaking research to define and evaluate the concept of a GEO Label. The development and evaluation process will be carried out in three phases. In phase I we have conducted an online survey (GEO Label Questionnaire) to identify the initial user and producer views on a GEO Label or its potential role. In phase II we will conduct a further study presenting some GEO Label examples that will be based on Phase I. We will elicit feedback on these examples under controlled conditions. In phase III we will create physical prototypes which will be used in a human subject study. The most successful prototypes will then be put forward as potential GEO Label options. At the moment we are in phase I, where we developed an online questionnaire to collect the initial GEO Label requirements and to identify the role that a GEO Label should serve from the user and producer standpoint. The GEO Label Questionnaire consists of generic questions to identify whether

  13. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  14. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  15. Improve the performance of orthogonal ASK/DPSK optical label switching by DC-balanced line encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal amplitude shift keying/differential phase-shift keying (ASK/DPSK) labeling is a promising approach to ultrahigh packet-rate routing and forwarding in the optical layer. However, the limitation on the payload extinction ratio (ER) is a detrimental effect for network scalability and tran...

  16. Generative adversarial networks for brain lesion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Varghese; Safwan, K. P. Mohammed; Chennamsetty, Sai Saketh; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy

    2017-02-01

    Manual segmentation of brain lesions from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is cumbersome and introduces errors due to inter-rater variability. This paper introduces a semi-supervised technique for detection of brain lesion from MRI using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). GANs comprises of a Generator network and a Discriminator network which are trained simultaneously with the objective of one bettering the other. The networks were trained using non lesion patches (n=13,000) from 4 different MR sequences. The network was trained on BraTS dataset and patches were extracted from regions excluding tumor region. The Generator network generates data by modeling the underlying probability distribution of the training data, (PData). The Discriminator learns the posterior probability P (Label Data) by classifying training data and generated data as "Real" or "Fake" respectively. The Generator upon learning the joint distribution, produces images/patches such that the performance of the Discriminator on them are random, i.e. P (Label Data = GeneratedData) = 0.5. During testing, the Discriminator assigns posterior probability values close to 0.5 for patches from non lesion regions, while patches centered on lesion arise from a different distribution (PLesion) and hence are assigned lower posterior probability value by the Discriminator. On the test set (n=14), the proposed technique achieves whole tumor dice score of 0.69, sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 59%. Additionally the generator network was capable of generating non lesion patches from various MR sequences.

  17. Carrier ethernet network control plane based on the Next Generation Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Yanmeng; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2008-01-01

    architecture. The approaches to QoS mapping, label distribution and connection and admission control (CAC) are specified here. At last, a simple T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network model with three kinds of users (VoIP, VoD and HTTP) and a RACE based control module is simulated in OPNET. The model is aiming...

  18. Juxtasomal biocytin labeling to study the structure-function relationship of individual cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Rajeevan T; Mohan, Hemanth; Broersen, Robin; de Haan, Roel; Pieneman, Anton W; de Kock, Christiaan P J

    2014-02-25

    The cerebral cortex is characterized by multiple layers and many distinct cell-types that together as a network are responsible for many higher cognitive functions including decision making, sensory-guided behavior or memory. To understand how such intricate neuronal networks perform such tasks, a crucial step is to determine the function (or electrical activity) of individual cell types within the network, preferentially when the animal is performing a relevant cognitive task. Additionally, it is equally important to determine the anatomical structure of the network and the morphological architecture of the individual neurons to allow reverse engineering the cortical network. Technical breakthroughs available today allow recording cellular activity in awake, behaving animals with the valuable option of post hoc identifying the recorded neurons. Here, we demonstrate the juxtasomal biocytin labeling technique, which involves recording action potential spiking in the extracellular (or loose-patch) configuration using conventional patch pipettes. The juxtasomal recording configuration is relatively stable and applicable across behavioral conditions, including anesthetized, sedated, awake head-fixed, and even in the freely moving animal. Thus, this method allows linking cell-type specific action potential spiking during animal behavior to reconstruction of the individual neurons and ultimately, the entire cortical microcircuit. In this video manuscript, we show how individual neurons in the juxtasomal configuration can be labeled with biocytin in the urethane-anaesthetized rat for post hoc identification and morphological reconstruction.

  19. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Tools for Large Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panikashvili, E; 15th IEEE Real Time Conference 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas TDAQ network consists of four separate networks which together total over 4000 ports at 1Gb/s, 40 ports at 10Gbps, 200 Ethernet switches at the edge of the network, 6 multiblade chassis switches at the core and over 20 km of copper and fiber cabling. The NetDesign suite was developed to provide a comprehensive set of design tools that permits the generation of a navigable circuit design, automates a number of routine tasks and provides the user with a powerful and flexible reporting system. Netdesign is an addon extension to the basic functionality of the Microsoft Visio CAD tool. It features: automatic labeling of cables, media / port connection validation, navigation along a cable, schematic hierarchical, cross-page and vertical navigation, overall verification of network diagram and hyperlinks to other equipment databases. The internal network structure can be exported to a 3rd party database from which a user-friendly meta-language is used to process a large variety of reports on the network des...

  1. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Administration (FDA) is establishing January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling... compliance dates for new food labeling requirements to minimize the economic impact of label changes. On December 8, 2008, FDA established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling...

  2. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... compliance dates for new food labeling requirements to minimize the economic impact of label changes. On... INFORMATION: I. Background FDA periodically issues regulations requiring changes in the labeling of food. If... periodically have announced uniform compliance dates for new food labeling requirements (see, e.g., the Federal...

  3. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  4. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural seed...

  5. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  6. 27 CFR 7.22 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Beverages § 7.22 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated: (a) On the brand label: (1) Brand name... alcohol. (b) On the brand label or on a separate label (back or front): (1) In the case of imported malt....” (Paragraph (b)(6) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1512-0469) Editorial Note...

  7. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mandatory label information. (a) There shall be stated on the brand label: (1) Brand name, in accordance... the bottle. (c) There shall be stated on the brand label or on a back label a statement that the... Management and Budget under Control Number 1512-0469) ...

  8. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agencies have promulgated regulations which may affect labeling of articles, as described in this section... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling of... devices, or cosmetics for which the Food and Drug Administration enforces the Fair Packaging and Labeling...

  9. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  10. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purported to be specifically for infants and children less than 4 years of age shall bear nutrition labeling... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.400 Exemption...

  11. Detection of Cyberbullying Incidents on the Instagram Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinmardi, Homa; Mattson, Sabrina Arredondo; Rafiq, Rahat Ibn; Han, Richard; Lv, Qin; Mishra, Shivakant

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing problem affecting more than half of all American teens. The main goal of this paper is to investigate fundamentally new approaches to understand and automatically detect incidents of cyberbullying over images in Instagram, a media-based mobile social network. To this end, we have collected a sample Instagram data set consisting of images and their associated comments, and designed a labeling study for cyberbullying as well as image content using human labelers at th...

  12. Global phosphoproteome profiling reveals unanticipated networks responsive to cisplatin treatment of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vrouwe, Mischa G

    2011-01-01

    (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia...

  13. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  14. Wavelength-Converter Saving Span Restoration in GMPLS Controlled WDM Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    We present two label preference schemes to reduce wavelength-conversion during restoration path setup in GMPLS controlled optical networks exploiting span restoration. The amount of required wavelength-conversions can be reduced up to 34 percent....

  15. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  16. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  17. EVEN GRACEFUL LABELLING OF A CLASS OF TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Varkey T.K; Rajesh Kumar T.J.

    2015-01-01

    A labelling or numbering of a graph G with q edges is an assignment of labels to the vertices of G that induces for each edge uv a labelling depending on the vertex labels f(u) and f(v). A labelling is called a graceful labelling if there exists an injective function f: V (G) → {0, 1,2,......q} such that for each edge xy, the labelling │f(x)-f(y)│is distinct. In this paper, we prove that a class of Tn trees are even graceful.

  18. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  19. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is correcting a proposed rule that... requirements for providing calorie information for certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The...

  20. A Labeling Model Based on the Region of Movability for Point-Feature Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic point-feature label placement (PFLP is a fundamental task for map visualization. As the dominant solutions to the PFLP problem, fixed-position and slider models have been widely studied in previous research. However, the candidate labels generated with these models are set to certain fixed positions or a specified track line for sliding. Thus, the whole surrounding space of a point feature is not sufficiently used for labeling. Hence, this paper proposes a novel label model based on the region of movability, which comes from plane collision detection theory. The model defines a complete conflict-free search space for label placement. On the premise of no conflict with the point, line, and area features, the proposed model utilizes the surrounding zone of the point feature to generate candidate label positions. By combining with heuristic search method, the model achieves high-quality label placement. In addition, the flexibility of the proposed model enables placing arbitrarily shaped labels.

  1. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  2. Food label use and food label skills among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubman, N.; Doak, C.M.; Jasti, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and

  3. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  4. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  5. Load balancing in OCDM optical packet switched networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ling; Qiu, Kun; Jiang, JIhai; Li, Yanqiu

    2008-11-01

    Optical packet switching (OPS), which transfers the switching function from electrical domain to optical domain and provides the smallest switching granularity, is the most potential candidate of switching form in the future optical networks. Optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) is the mostly practical all-optical processing technology at the state of the art. The experiments of optical packet switching with optical code (OC) label have demonstrated the switching capability and advantages. But the timing of erasing and inserting label, which is similar with the bit-serial label processing, is the stringent requirement of this scheme. OCDM optical packet switching, which encodes the payload directly and removes the label when the payload is recovered at the decoder, has no stringent timing requirement. Multiple access interference (MAI) is the main factor degrading the performance of OCDM optical packet-switched networks. In this paper, the effects of MAI are studied at the end of optical label path where the packets experience multiple hops. For eliminating the end-to-end BER, the optical label paths need to be established in an optimum way and the load are required to be balanced. One load-balancing algorithm based on the end-to-end BER of OCDM path is proposed to improve the network performance.

  6. 75 FR 52601 - Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... that the label include a name that accurately describes the basic nature of the food (Section 403(i) of... be described on a food label in a way that is truthful and non-misleading. (Keep in mind that it is... Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From Aqu...

  7. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label

  8. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....

  9. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  10. Restaurant menu labeling laws and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J; Ali, Mir M

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of local and state mandatory restaurant menu labeling laws on alcohol use. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach and data on adults aged 21 and older (n=2,157,722) from the 2002-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimated the effect of menu labeling laws on self-reported consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past month. The regression analysis indicates that on average implementation of menu labeling laws is associated with a 1.2 percentage-point drop in the fraction of survey respondents reporting that they drank an alcoholic beverage in the past month (95% confidence interval=-0.020, -0.004), compared with jurisdictions that had not implemented menu labeling laws. Moreover, we find that the estimated policy effects on alcohol use are larger among men than among women and larger among minorities than among non-Hispanic whites. Further provision of calorie information on foods and beverages in food service establishments, such as through federal menu labeling regulations, may have the potential to lead to a meaningful reduction in alcohol use throughout the U.S. and may result in larger reductions in alcohol use among men and minorities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Advancing Best Practices for Prescription Drug Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Navaratnam, Prakash; Black, Heather; Russell, Allison L; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Problematic prescription drug labeling has been cited as a root cause of patient misunderstanding, medication errors, and nonadherence. Although numerous studies have recently been conducted to identify and test labeling best practices, the last systematic review on this topic was conducted a decade ago. The objective of this review was, therefore, to examine, summarize, and update best practices for conveying written prescription medication information and instructions to patients. English-language articles published from June 2005 to June 2015 were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL by searching the following text words: 'medication OR prescription OR drug' AND 'label OR leaflet OR brochure OR pamphlet OR medication guide OR medication insert OR drug insert OR medication information OR drug information OR instructions' AND 'patient OR consumer.' Reference mining and secondary searches were also performed. A total of 31 articles providing evidence on how to improve written, prescription drug labeling for patient use were selected. Two reviewers independently screened articles, rated their quality, and abstracted data. Identified best practices included the use of plain language, improved formatting and organization, and more explicit instructions to improve patient comprehension. The use of icons had conflicting findings, and few studies tested whether practices improved knowledge or behaviors with patients' actual prescribed regimens. Future studies are needed to determine how specific modifications and improvements in drug labeling can enhance patient knowledge and behavior in actual use. Synthesizing best practices across all patient materials will create a more useful, coordinated system of prescription information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  13. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  14. Network histograms and universality of blockmodel approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olhede, Sofia C; Wolfe, Patrick J

    2014-10-14

    In this paper we introduce the network histogram, a statistical summary of network interactions to be used as a tool for exploratory data analysis. A network histogram is obtained by fitting a stochastic blockmodel to a single observation of a network dataset. Blocks of edges play the role of histogram bins and community sizes that of histogram bandwidths or bin sizes. Just as standard histograms allow for varying bandwidths, different blockmodel estimates can all be considered valid representations of an underlying probability model, subject to bandwidth constraints. Here we provide methods for automatic bandwidth selection, by which the network histogram approximates the generating mechanism that gives rise to exchangeable random graphs. This makes the blockmodel a universal network representation for unlabeled graphs. With this insight, we discuss the interpretation of network communities in light of the fact that many different community assignments can all give an equally valid representation of such a network. To demonstrate the fidelity-versus-interpretability tradeoff inherent in considering different numbers and sizes of communities, we analyze two publicly available networks--political weblogs and student friendships--and discuss how to interpret the network histogram when additional information related to node and edge labeling is present.

  15. Blocking Reduction of Span Restoration Requests in GMPLS Controlled WDM Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load.......The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load....

  16. 'Naturemade' -- a new label; Naturemade - das neue Label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A

    2001-07-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed.

  17. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature...... is not completely understood. To obtain more insight into this, the acceleration selective module was performed followed by a velocity selective module, which is used in velocity selective arterial spin labeling (VS-ASL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers were scanned with various combinations...... of the control and label conditions in both the acceleration and velocity selective module. The cut-off acceleration (0.59 m/s(2)) or velocity (2 cm/s) was kept constant in one module, while it was varied over a large range in the other module. With the right subtractions this resulted in AccASL, VS...

  18. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  19. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  20. IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, F.; Kehayas, E.; Martinez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Information Society Technologies - all-optical LAbel SwApping employing optical logic Gates in NEtwork nodes (IST-LASAGNE) project aims at designing and implementing the first, modular, scalable, and truly all-optical photonic router capable of operating at 40 Gb/s. The results of the first p...... project year are presented in this paper, with emphasis on the implementation of network node functionalities employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops, as well as the definition of the network architecture and migration scenarios. © 2005 IEEE....

  1. New statin labeling requirements: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Megan R; Murphy, Bethany L

    2013-11-01

    As pharmacists advocate for appropriate use of medications to ensure safety and efficacy for patients, labeling requirements for medications should be considered before patients start new therapies or make changes to their current therapies. In early 2012, the Food and Drug Administration released new mandatory labeling requirements for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (more commonly known as "statins") regarding hepatic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and glycemic control. These requirements are based on a combination of studies, adverse-event reporting databases, and literature reviews. Pharmacists should be prepared to advocate for patient safety and be ready to inform patients and other health care providers of the new labeling requirements and the role pharmacists can play in altering current statin therapy.

  2. Arterial spin labeling for quantitative functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis

    2004-01-01

    BOLD effect imaging is very effective for detection and localization of brain activity, and is the dominant functional imaging technique in cognitive psychology. Despite its efficiency to detect and localize active site, the technique does not lend itself easily to quantifiable measurements. A growingly popular alternative is the use of arterial spin labeling (ASL) to obtain perfusion maps as the indicator of cerebral activation. In this paper, the principles and challenges of arterial spin labeling are discussed and the development of a new fast, two-coil pseudo-continuous labeling scheme is presented. The new scheme permits collection of a multi-slice subtraction pair in less than three seconds, depending on the subject's arterial transit times. The theoretical basis of the technique, as well as a model for quantification of perfusion from the ASL data, are presented. Experimental data from functional imaging experiments were collected to demonstrate the technique and its characteristics.

  3. VERTEX ANTIMAGIC TOTAL LABELING PADA GRAPHMULTICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus Arif Budi Prasetyo pythagors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelabelan graf merupakan bagian dari graf yang berkembang saat ini. Jenis pelabelan pada graf bergantungpada domainnya, yakni pelabelan sisi ajaib, pelabelan titik ajaib, dan pelabelan total ajaib. Pelabelan totalajaib pada graf dibedakan lagi berdasarkan komponen graf yang dievaluasi, yakni pelabelan total sisi ajaibdan pelabelan total titik ajaib. Pada pelabelan ajaib, bobot dari komponen graf yang dievaluasi adalah sama,jika bobotnya tidak sama maka dinamakan pelabelan tak-ajaib (antimagic. Misalkan G adalah graf denganbanyak titik p dan sisi q. Suatu pemetaan bijektif dari komponen-komponen graf ke bilangan bulat positif {1,2, …, (p+q} disebut called (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling (pelabelan total titik ajaib dari graf G jikabobot setiap titik (vertex merupakan barisan aritmetika naik. Pada artikel ini membahas bahwa grafmulticycle mCp memenuhi (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling dan beberapa bentuk pelabelannya.Kata kunci : graph multicycle, vertex antimagic total labeling

  4. ECOLOGICAL CERTIFICATION AND LABELLING OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Stefanica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of ecological certification and labelling in the field of tourism. In a tourist company, the certification schemes evaluate the general approach of environmental problems, and impose to the tourist services the observance of pre-established principles and guiding lines concerning the environment. They become for the tourist companies a behavioural standard in the development of their activity. The requirements within such schemes are often flexible and open to interpretation, and generally less controversial than the eco-labelling schemes. As compared to the certification schemes, the eco-labels attributed to the tourist services emphasise the impact over the environment of the services of tourist companies, on the basis of certain European criteria. These criteria refer to the whole life cycle of these tourist services.

  5. Superposition and alignment of labeled point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fober, Thomas; Glinca, Serghei; Klebe, Gerhard; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    2011-01-01

    Geometric objects are often represented approximately in terms of a finite set of points in three-dimensional euclidean space. In this paper, we extend this representation to what we call labeled point clouds. A labeled point cloud is a finite set of points, where each point is not only associated with a position in three-dimensional space, but also with a discrete class label that represents a specific property. This type of model is especially suitable for modeling biomolecules such as proteins and protein binding sites, where a label may represent an atom type or a physico-chemical property. Proceeding from this representation, we address the question of how to compare two labeled points clouds in terms of their similarity. Using fuzzy modeling techniques, we develop a suitable similarity measure as well as an efficient evolutionary algorithm to compute it. Moreover, we consider the problem of establishing an alignment of the structures in the sense of a one-to-one correspondence between their basic constituents. From a biological point of view, alignments of this kind are of great interest, since mutually corresponding molecular constituents offer important information about evolution and heredity, and can also serve as a means to explain a degree of similarity. In this paper, we therefore develop a method for computing pairwise or multiple alignments of labeled point clouds. To this end, we proceed from an optimal superposition of the corresponding point clouds and construct an alignment which is as much as possible in agreement with the neighborhood structure established by this superposition. We apply our methods to the structural analysis of protein binding sites.

  6. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data.

  7. Visualizing dengue virus through Alexa Fluor labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-07-09

    The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  8. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...... be easily understandable by everybody: the more recent the year the better the product. The scheme readily lends itself for an almost unlimited variety of products, and would also cover properties other than energy consumption. It is always up to date, it is globally applicable, and it encourages...

  9. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  10. Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988

  11. Buscopan labeled with carbon-14 and deuterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latli, Bachir; Stiasni, Michael; Hrapchak, Matt; Li, Zhibin; Grinberg, Nelu; Lee, Heewon; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-11-01

    Hyosine butyl bromide, the active ingredient in Buscopan, is an anticholinergic and antimuscarinic drug used to treat pain and discomfort caused by abdominal cramps. A straightforward synthesis of carbon-14- and deuterium-labeled Buscopan was developed using scopolamine, n-butyl-1-14 C bromide, and n-butyl-2 H9 bromide, respectively. In a second carbon-14 synthesis, the radioactive carbon was incorporated in the tropic acid moiety to follow its metabolism. Herein, we describe the detailed preparations of carbon-14- and deuterium-labeled Buscopan. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  13. Concurrent generation of an optical code label and payload data by use of phase and intensity modulators for all-optical packet switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi; Wada, Naoya; Kubota, Fumito

    2005-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the concurrent generation of an optical code label and payload data by use of off-the-shelf optical intensity and phase modulators in a tandem structure. This technique is capable of reconfigurable generation of an arbitrarily long optical code label of phase-shift keying concurrently with the generation of payload data, without the need for a special class of optical encoder. This technique will be powerful for all-optical packet switching networks, based on scalability and compactness, for optical code labels.

  14. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  15. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  16. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  17. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  18. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  19. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  20. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  1. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  2. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Berger

    Full Text Available Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  3. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  4. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-04-01

    Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature is not completely understood. To obtain more insight into this, the acceleration selective module was performed followed by a velocity selective module, which is used in velocity selective arterial spin labeling (VS-ASL). Nine healthy volunteers were scanned with various combinations of the control and label conditions in both the acceleration and velocity selective module. The cut-off acceleration (0.59 m/s2) or velocity (2 cm/s) was kept constant in one module, while it was varied over a large range in the other module. With the right subtractions this resulted in AccASL, VS-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. AccASL is able to label spins both in the macro- and meso-vasculature, as well as in the microvasculature.

  5. Structured Labels in Random Forests for Semantic Labelling and Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschieder, Peter; Bulò, Samuel Rota; Pelillo, Marcello; Bischof, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, known as Random Forests, have become a valuable machine learning tool for addressing many computer vision problems. Despite their popularity, few works have tried to exploit contextual and structural information in random forests in order to improve their performance. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective way to integrate contextual information in random forests, which is typically reflected in the structured output space of complex problems like semantic image labelling. Our paper has several contributions: We show how random forests can be augmented with structured label information and be used to deliver structured low-level predictions. The learning task is carried out by employing a novel split function evaluation criterion that exploits the joint distribution observed in the structured label space. This allows the forest to learn typical label transitions between object classes and avoid locally implausible label configurations. We provide two approaches for integrating the structured output predictions obtained at a local level from the forest into a concise, global, semantic labelling. We integrate our new ideas also in the Hough-forest framework with the view of exploiting contextual information at the classification level to improve the performance on the task of object detection. Finally, we provide experimental evidence for the effectiveness of our approach on different tasks: Semantic image labelling on the challenging MSRCv2 and CamVid databases, reconstruction of occluded handwritten Chinese characters on the Kaist database and pedestrian detection on the TU Darmstadt databases.

  6. From Protein Sequence to Protein Function via Multi-Label Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Yan, Lin; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Sequence describes the primary structure of a protein, which contains important structural, characteristic, and genetic information and thereby motivates many sequence-based computational approaches to infer protein function. Among them, feature-base approaches attract increased attention because they make prediction from a set of transformed and more biologically meaningful sequence features. However, original features extracted from sequence are usually of high dimensionality and often compromised by irrelevant patterns, therefore dimension reduction is necessary prior to classification for efficient and effective protein function prediction. A protein usually performs several different functions within an organism, which makes protein function prediction a multi-label classification problem. In machine learning, multi-label classification deals with problems where each object may belong to more than one class. As a well-known feature reduction method, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been successfully applied in many practical applications. It, however, by nature is designed for single-label classification, in which each object can belong to exactly one class. Because directly applying LDA in multi-label classification causes ambiguity when computing scatters matrices, we apply a new Multi-label Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) approach to address this problem and meanwhile preserve powerful classification capability inherited from classical LDA. We further extend MLDA by l 1 -normalization to overcome the problem of over-counting data points with multiple labels. In addition, we incorporate biological network data using Laplacian embedding into our method, and assess the reliability of predicted putative functions. Extensive empirical evaluations demonstrate promising results of our methods.

  7. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.

  8. Orthogonal optical labeling based on a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and a 2.5 Gbit/s IM label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate label encoding/erasure and transmission for an orthogonally labeled signal using a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload and an IM label. The influence of the modulation depth and the label erasure are discussed....

  9. The GÉANT network: addressing current and future needs of the HEP community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenzo; Usman, Mian

    2015-12-01

    The GÉANT infrastructure is the backbone that serves the scientific communities in Europe for their data movement needs and their access to international research and education networks. Using the extensive fibre footprint and infrastructure in Europe the GÉANT network delivers a portfolio of services aimed to best fit the specific needs of the users, including Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure, end-to-end performance monitoring, advanced network services (dynamic circuits, L2-L3VPN, MD-VPN). This talk will outline the factors that help the GÉANT network to respond to the needs of the High Energy Physics community, both in Europe and worldwide. The Pan-European network provides the connectivity between 40 European national research and education networks. In addition, GÉANT also connects the European NRENs to the R&E networks in other world region and has reach to over 110 NREN worldwide, making GÉANT the best connected Research and Education network, with its multiple intercontinental links to different continents e.g. North and South America, Africa and Asia-Pacific. The High Energy Physics computational needs have always had (and will keep having) a leading role among the scientific user groups of the GÉANT network: the LHCONE overlay network has been built, in collaboration with the other big world REN, specifically to address the peculiar needs of the LHC data movement. Recently, as a result of a series of coordinated efforts, the LHCONE network has been expanded to the Asia-Pacific area, and is going to include some of the main regional R&E network in the area. The LHC community is not the only one that is actively using a distributed computing model (hence the need for a high-performance network); new communities are arising, as BELLE II. GÉANT is deeply involved also with the BELLE II Experiment, to provide full support to their distributed computing model, along with a perfSONAR-based network monitoring system. GÉANT has also

  10. What's in a Name? Evaluating the Effects of the "Sex Offender" Label on Public Opinions and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-10-01

    Particularly over the past two decades, the terms sex offender and juvenile sex offender (JSO) have attained increasingly common usage in media and public policy discourse. Although often applied as factual descriptors, the labels may evoke strong subconscious associations with a population commonly presumed to be compulsive, at high risk of re-offense, and resistant to rehabilitation. Such associations, in turn, may exert considerable impact on expressions of support for certain policies as well as public beliefs and opinions about adults and youth who have perpetrated sexual offenses. The current study systematically evaluated the impact of the "sex offender" and "JSO" labels through series of items administered to a nationally stratified and matched sample from across the United States. The study employed an experimental design, in which one group of participants (n = 498) ranked their levels of agreement with a series of statements utilizing these labels, and a control group (n = 502) responded to a matched set of statements substituting the labels with more neutral descriptive language. Findings support the hypothesis that use of the "sex offender" label strengthens public support for policies directed at those who have perpetrated sexual crimes, including public Internet disclosure, residency restrictions, and social networking bans. The "JSO" label is demonstrated to produce particularly robust effects, enhancing support for policies that subject youth to public Internet notification and affecting beliefs about youths' propensity to re-offend as adults. Implications for public policy, media communication, and research are explored and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... ZIP code), and license number of the manufacturer. (iii) Lot number, including sublot designations... (including ZIP Code), and license number of the manufacturer. (4) Lot number, including sublot designations...

  12. Statically checking confidentiality via dynamic labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, Wolter; Warnier, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for verifying confidentiality for programs, based on abstract interpretation. The framework is formally developed and proved correct in the theorem prover PVS. We use dynamic labeling functions to abstractly interpret a simple programming language via modification

  13. On the complexity of labeled oriented trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots. Keywords. ... such that the following inductive process defines every generator of P to be good and there is no such set consisting of n − 1 ... The author has written a small program to check the complexity of LOTs. Many 'small'.

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Content] KidsHealth for Parents for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions ... labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control ...

  15. Academic Deficiency: Student Experiences of Institutional Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch-Gilbert, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Limited existing research examines how undergraduate students in the United States experience the process of being identified as deficient due to their academic performance. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of college students on academic probation who were labeled academically deficient. Students…

  16. Label-Free Sensing on Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays of biological molecules such as DNAs, proteins, carbohydrates, and small molecules provide a high-throughput platform for screening tens of thousands of biomolecular interactions simultaneously, facilitating the functional characterization of these biomolecules in areas of genomics, proteomics, glycomics, and cytomics. Routinely, analysis of binding reactions between solution-phased probes and surface-immobilized targets involves some kinds of fluorescence-based detection methods. Even though these methods have advantages of high sensitivity and wide dynamic range, labeling probes and/or targets inevitably changes their innate properties and in turn affects probe-target interactions in often uncharacterized ways. Therefore, in recent years, various label-free sensing technologies have been developed for characterizing biomolecular interactions in microarray format. These biosensors, to a certain extent, take the place of fluorescent methods by providing a comparable sensitivity as well as retaining the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules to be investigated. More importantly, some of these biosensors are capable of real-time monitoring probe-target interactions, providing the binding affinities of these reactions. Using label-free biosensors in microarrays has become a current trend in developing high-throughput screening platforms for drug discoveries and applications in all areas of "-omics." This article is aimed to provide principles and recent developments in label-free sensing technologies applicable to microarrays, with special attentions being paid to surface plasmon resonance microscopy and oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscopy.

  17. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Appliance Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... appliances the figure is 500 employees). Lamp catalog sellers qualify as small businesses if their sales are...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Giving Teens a ... a Child Cope With a Parent's Suicide? How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Child Cope With a Parent's Suicide? How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How ... choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in ... Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  1. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office... University (OSU), Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center (FAPC), is announcing a public workshop...

  2. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü

    Purpose: Quantitative airway assessment is often performed in specific branches to enable comparison of measurements between patients and over time. Little is known on the accuracy in locating these branches. We determined inter- and intra-observer agreement of manual labeling of segmental bronch...

  3. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  4. Carbon-14 labeling of drug candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sung Whi; Tanga, Mary J. [SRI International, Menlo Park (United States); Pyun, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung-Joon [Korea Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Seok [Dong-Kook Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Utilizing the 'degradation and reconstruction method,' Carbon-14 labeling of two biologically active compounds were prepared: a new pimaradiene type (acanthoic acid), (-)-pimara-9(11), 15-diene-19-oic acid (A-1), a morphine analogue DK-1001 (6,14-endo-ethano-7-(2-hydroxy-2-cyclopropyl-2-methyl) tetrahydrooripavine(B-1)

  5. 21 CFR 640.70 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 640.70 Section 640.70 Food and Drugs... manufacturing of positive control reagents for the serologic test for syphilis. (10) Name, address, and license number of the manufacturer. (11) The statement “Negative by a test for antibody to HIV”, or equivalent...

  6. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ... take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  8. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.4 Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall mean... biological product; (2) Appearing upon any immediate carton or box used to package such final container; and...

  9. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and

  10. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... compromise sterility, shall bear the hour of expiration. (4) If tests for unexpected antibodies are positive...

  11. Preparation of Labeled Aflatoxins with High Specific Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D. P. H.; Mateles, R. I.

    1971-01-01

    Resting cells of Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 were used to prepare highly labeled aflatoxins from labeled acetate. High synthetic activity in growing cells was evidenced only during 40 to 70 hr of incubation. Glucose was required for high incorporation efficiency, whereas the concentration of the labeled acetate determined the specific activity of the product. When labeled acetate was continuously added to maintain a concentration near but not exceeding 10 mm, in a culture containing 30 g of glucose per liter, 2% of its labels could be recovered in the purified aflatoxins which have a specific activity more than three times that of the labeled acetate. PMID:4329435

  12. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  13. Resolving epidemic network failures through differentiated repair times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Manzano, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate epidemic failure spreading in large-scale transport networks under generalisedmulti-protocol label switching control plane. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network,they design several strategies for cost-effective network...... performance improvement via differentiated repair times. First, theyidentify the most vulnerable and the most strategic nodes in the network. Then, via extensive event-driven simulations theyshow that strategic placement of resources for improved failure recovery has better performance than randomly...

  14. Measuring social networks for medical research in lower-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura; Patel, Shivani A; Narayan, K M Venkat; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2014-01-01

    Social networks are believed to affect health-related behaviors and health. Data to examine the links between social relationships and health in low- and middle-income country settings are limited. We provide guidance for introducing an instrument to collect social network data as part of epidemiological surveys, drawing on experience in urban India. We describe development and fielding of an instrument to collect social network information relevant to health behaviors among adults participating in a large, population-based study of non-communicable diseases in Delhi, India. We discuss basic characteristics of social networks relevant to health including network size, health behaviors of network partners (i.e., network exposures), network homogeneity, network diversity, strength of ties, and multiplexity. Data on these characteristics can be collected using a short instrument of 11 items asked about up to 5 network members and 3 items about the network generally, administered in approximately 20 minutes. We found high willingness to respond to questions about social networks (97% response). Respondents identified an average of 3.8 network members, most often relatives (80% of network ties), particularly blood relationships. Ninety-one percent of respondents reported that their primary contacts for discussing health concerns were relatives. Among all listed ties, 91% of most frequent snack partners and 64% of exercise partners in the last two weeks were relatives. These results demonstrate that family relationships are the crux of social networks in some settings, including among adults in urban India. Collecting basic information about social networks can be feasibly and effectively done within ongoing epidemiological studies.

  15. Measuring Social Networks for Medical Research in Lower-Income Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura; Patel, Shivani A.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Cunningham, Solveig A.

    2014-01-01

    Social networks are believed to affect health-related behaviors and health. Data to examine the links between social relationships and health in low- and middle-income country settings are limited. We provide guidance for introducing an instrument to collect social network data as part of epidemiological surveys, drawing on experience in urban India. We describe development and fielding of an instrument to collect social network information relevant to health behaviors among adults participating in a large, population-based study of non-communicable diseases in Delhi, India. We discuss basic characteristics of social networks relevant to health including network size, health behaviors of network partners (i.e., network exposures), network homogeneity, network diversity, strength of ties, and multiplexity. Data on these characteristics can be collected using a short instrument of 11 items asked about up to 5 network members and 3 items about the network generally, administered in approximately 20 minutes. We found high willingness to respond to questions about social networks (97% response). Respondents identified an average of 3.8 network members, most often relatives (80% of network ties), particularly blood relationships. Ninety-one percent of respondents reported that their primary contacts for discussing health concerns were relatives. Among all listed ties, 91% of most frequent snack partners and 64% of exercise partners in the last two weeks were relatives. These results demonstrate that family relationships are the crux of social networks in some settings, including among adults in urban India. Collecting basic information about social networks can be feasibly and effectively done within ongoing epidemiological studies. PMID:25153127

  16. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  17. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  18. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  19. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  20. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An