WorldWideScience

Sample records for network ksnn 21st

  1. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Boholano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Preservice teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT resources both hardware and software, and curricula must be designed to promote a collaborative learner-centered environment to which students will relate and respond. This study determines the 21st century skills possessed by the pre-service teachers in terms of social networking. Pre-service teachers use computers in very advanced ways, but educators must remember that they still need guidance to use technology safely and effectively. Through social media the pre-service teachers can use a multitude of applications, including Web 2.0, for their projects. Smart social networking requires critical-thinking skills and the ability to integrate and evaluate real-world scenarios and authentic learning skills for validation.

  2. 21st Century leadership skills for learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Floor; Evers, Arnoud; Geijsel, Femke; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal: to prepare pupils for a life in a society that requires 21st century skills and actions Immediate focus: teachers and principals develop 21st century skills in the practice of their work → together with researchers principals co-create tools to support teacher learning.

  3. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholano, Helen B.

    2017-01-01

    Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Pre-service teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT…

  4. Proctoring the Joint Force: Networks, Hierarchy, and 21st Century Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    PROCTORING THE JOINT FORCE: NETWORKS, HIERARCHY, AND 21ST CENTURY WARFARE BY MAJOR DANIEL W. TIPPETT A THESIS PRESENTED...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Proctoring the Joint Force: Networks, Hierarchy, and 21st Century Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. Network news: innovations in 21st century systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Adam P; Schaffer, David V

    2011-03-18

    A decade ago, seminal perspectives and papers set a strong vision for the field of systems biology, and a number of these themes have flourished. Here, we describe key technologies and insights that have elucidated the evolution, architecture, and function of cellular networks, ultimately leading to the first predictive genome-scale regulatory and metabolic models of organisms. Can systems approaches bridge the gap between correlative analysis and mechanistic insights? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  7. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  8. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require…

  9. Introduction to the EU-network on trace element speciation: preparing for the 21(st) century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the EU-network is to bring together scientists with a background in analytical chemistry interested in speciation method development with potential users from industry and representatives from legislative bodies. The network started on 1/10/1997 for a duration of 2 years. A ...

  10. FY 1999 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Networked Computing for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — U.S.research and development R and D in computing, communications, and information technologies has enabled unprecedented scientific and engineering advances,...

  11. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-19

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  12. Probabilistic 21st and 22nd Century Sea-Level Projections at a Global Network of Tide-Gauge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Horton, Radley M.; Little, Christopher M.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Rasmussen, D. J.; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sea-level rise due to both climate change and non-climatic factors threatens coastal settlements, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Projections of mean global sea-level (GSL) rise provide insufficient information to plan adaptive responses; local decisions require local projections that accommodate different risk tolerances and time frames and that can be linked to storm surge projections. Here we present a global set of local sea-level (LSL) projections to inform decisions on timescales ranging from the coming decades through the 22nd century. We provide complete probability distributions, informed by a combination of expert community assessment, expert elicitation, and process modeling. Between the years 2000 and 2100, we project a very likely (90% probability) GSL rise of 0.5–1.2?m under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5, 0.4–0.9?m under RCP 4.5, and 0.3–0.8?m under RCP 2.6. Site-to-site differences in LSL projections are due to varying non-climatic background uplift or subsidence, oceanographic effects, and spatially variable responses of the geoid and the lithosphere to shrinking land ice. The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) constitutes a growing share of variance in GSL and LSL projections. In the global average and at many locations, it is the dominant source of variance in late 21st century projections, though at some sites oceanographic processes contribute the largest share throughout the century. LSL rise dramatically reshapes flood risk, greatly increasing the expected number of “1-in-10” and “1-in-100” year events.

  13. Hippocratic oath, 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand

    2010-04-01

    Hippocratic Oath was first promulgated in 400 BC. Since then it became mandatory to take this oath for any medical profesional who practices medicine. The Oath envisaged all the important guidelines required to be possessed before the medicine is practiced. Recently there had been debates over the traditional oath and various revisionist versions were recommended. The enormous available literature compells us to think and revisit the status of orignal oath vis a vis the practice of medicine in 21st Century.This theme is a part of Dr. KL Wig Oration of National Academy of Medical Sciences, delivered at Ahmedabad in December 2005.

  14. Humanists for 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Campàs

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available From certain critical considerations with respect to which, faced with the new challenges and transformations brought on by the information society which affect areas of culture, knowledge and learning, only fears and concerns arise, and, likewise, from a positive assessment of the Humanist manifesto for the 21st century, this paper reflects on three aspects that serve to reconfigure a new digital humanism: the complexity paradigm, the digital revolution and globalisation, leading to an invitation to form a political commitment and praxis to not convert humanists into a cultural illusion and mere ornamental whim of the system.

  15. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  16. Regime Change in North Africa: Possible Implications for 21st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the centre of these debates is the question of “Implications of the Arab Spring on Governance in Africa in the 21st Century”. This Article raises pertinent questions. It revisits the social and economic causes of these regime changes in North Africa; the role of ICT and its social media networks and; the future of repressive ...

  17. Urbanization in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarejos, R G

    1990-01-01

    Due to a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of rural-urban migration, overcrowding will be common in many cities around the world in the 21st century. Currently at 5.3 billion, the global population is expected to increase to 6 billion by the year 2000, and to 9 billion by 2025. Experts predict that urban centers will bear the brunt of the population growth. Rural areas have seen declines in the standard of living, partly due to natural disasters, civil war, and economic policies favoring urban centers. In search of jobs, better access to education, and health services, rural populations will flock to cities. But the rapid growth of cities will inevitably lead to the creation of slums, which will hamper urban development. Urban demographers predict that by the end of the century, 1/2 of the world's population will be urban, and 1/5 of these people will be concentrated in "mega cities," populations of 4 million or more. International migration will play a significant role, as people cross borders in search of opportunity. But contrary to the traditional model of urban growth, much of it will take place in developing countries. According to a 1985 study, developed nations had an urbanization level of 71%, compared to 31% in developing countries. However, experts calculate that by 2025, these levels will practically even out, with an urbanization level of 74% for developing countries and 77% for developed countries. By 2025, 25 cities will have populations of over 9 million, including Mexico City (25.8), Sao Paulo (24.0), Tokyo (20.2), Calcutta (16.5), Greater Bombay (16.0), and New York (15.8).

  18. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-09

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  19. Mentoring Surgeons for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singletary, S Eva

    2005-01-01

    Effective mentoring is especially critical in the training of surgeons. The practice of surgery in the 21st century is changing rapidly at every level, requiring a more complex approach to mentoring young...

  20. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  1. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  2. Universities as Hubs for Next-Generation Networks: A Model for Universities to Spur 21st Century Internet Access and Innovation in Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennett, Benjamin; Morris, Sarah J.; Byrum, Greta

    2012-01-01

    Based on a request for information (RFI) submitted to The University Community Next Generation Innovation Project (Gig.U), the paper describes a model for universities to develop next generation broadband infrastructure in their communities. In the our view universities can play a critical role in spurring next generation networks into their…

  3. A-21st-century-approach to firefighting in the Western US: How microwave-based seismic networks can change fire suppression from reactive to proactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Smith, K. D.; Williams, M. C.; Slater, D. E.; Plank, G.; McCarthy, M.; Rojas-Gonzalez, R.; Vernon, F.; Driscoll, N. W.; Hidley, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at UNR has recently embarked on a bold technical initiative, installing a high-speed (up to 190 Mb/sec) mountaintop-based Internet Protocol (IP) microwave network, enabling a myriad of sensor systems for Multi-Hazard Early Warning detection and response. In the Tahoe Basin, this system is known as AlertTahoe; a similar network has been deployed in north-central Nevada as part of a 5-year-long grant with BLM. The UNR network mirrors the successful HPWREN multi-hazard network run through UCSD; the UNR "Alert" program (Access to Leverage Emergency information in Real Time) has expanded on the original concept by providing a framework for early fire detection and discovery. Both systems do not rely on open-access public Internet services such as those provided by cellular service providers. Instead, they utilize private wireless communication networks to collect data 24/7 in real-time from multiple sensors throughout the system. Utilizing this restricted-access private communication platform enhances system reliability, capability, capacity and versatility for staff and its community of certified users. Both UNR and UCSD fire camera systems are presently being confederated under a common framework to provide end users (e.g., BLM, USFS, CalFire) a unified interface. Earthquake response has been both organizations' primary mission for decades; high-speed IP microwave fundamentally changes the playing field allowing for rapid early detection of wildfires, earthquakes and other natural disasters, greatly improving local and regional disaster response/recovery. For example, networked cameras can be optimally placed for wildfire detection and are significantly less vulnerable due infrastructure hardening and the ability to avoid extreme demands by the public on cellular and other public networks during a crisis. These systems also provide a backup for emergency responders to use when public access communications become overwhelmed or

  4. Materials for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, David

    2017-01-01

    The book is a general text that shows how materials can contribute to solving problems facing nations in the 21st century. It is illustrated with diverse applications and highlights the potential of existing materials for everyday life, healthcare and the economies of nations. There are 13 chapters and a glossary of 500 materials with their descriptions, historical development, their use or potential use and a range of references. Specific areas include synthetic polymers (e.g. nylon), natural polymers (e.g. proteins, cellulose) and the role of materials in the development of digital computers and in healthcare. Solid-state lighting, energy supplies in the 21st century, disruptive technologies and intellectual property, in particular patents, are discussed. The book concludes by asking how the 21st century will be characterised. Will it be the Silicon Age, Genomic Age or New Polymer Age, as examples?

  5. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  6. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  7. Traumatic childhood experiences in the 21st century: broadening and building on the ACE studies with data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K P; Briggs, Ernestine C; Layne, Christopher M; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Kim, Soeun; Lee, Robert C; Vivrette, Rebecca L; Pynoos, Robert S; Fairbank, John A

    2014-02-01

    The study objectives were to (a) examine the association between total number of trauma types experienced and child/adolescent behavioral problems and (b) determine whether the number of trauma types experienced predicted youth behavioral problems above and beyond demographic characteristics, using a diverse set of 20 types of trauma. Data came from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's (NCTSN) Core Data Set (CDS), which includes youth assessed and treated for trauma across the United States. Participants who experienced at least one type of trauma were included in the sample (N = 11,028; age = 1½-18 years; 52.3% girls). Random effects models were used to account for possible intraclass correlations given treatment services were provided at different NCTSN centers. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations among demographic characteristics, trauma, and emotional and behavioral problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Significant dose-response relations were found between total number of trauma types and behavior problems for all CBCL scales, except Sleep, one of the subscales only administered to 1½- to 5-year-olds. Thus, each additional trauma type endorsed significantly increased the odds for scoring above the clinical threshold. Results provide further evidence of strong associations between diverse traumatic childhood experiences and a diverse range of behavior problems, and underscore the need for a trauma-informed public health and social welfare approach to prevention, risk reduction, and early intervention for traumatized youth.

  8. Plasticity in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The 20th century has produced the theory of continuum plasticity as a powerful tool for engineering analysis. However it breaks down at length scales on the order of micrometers, i.e. the projected realm of miniature engineering in the 21st century. Discrete dislocation plasticity is presented as a

  9. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  10. Directed panspermia: a 21st century perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Roy D; Smith, Niall

    2017-05-01

    Applying 21st century technology to the design and development of a hypothetical extra-terrestrial colonisation programme, we reimagine 'directed panspermia' from the perspective of Crick and Orgel's 'technological society', 44 years after the publication of their original landmark paper.

  11. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  12. Towards a 21st century ready curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloon, N.G.J.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Brahimi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is generally viewed upon as being important for economic growth in the 21st century. Teaching entrepreneurship however seems to need another approach than regular education to fulfill the professional and ever changing needs. In this perspective active

  13. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  14. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  15. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  16. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  17. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following......In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  18. VISUAL LITERACY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Supsakova, Bozena

    2017-01-01

    The dominance of the pictorial world forms the beginning of the effect of new visual civilisation in the 21st century. Today, we already know that photograph, film and television are just fist stage of visual era. The modern phenomena of digitalisation and mass communication related to the development of information and communication technologies and Internet, dramatically saturate the pictures and pictorial messages to public space and thus also to our everyday life. Posters, billboards and ...

  19. Developing 21st Century Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    containing “required SSC.” Use this list to ensure the system is policed by the Senior Leader Development (SLD) and branch managers through the validation...colleges produce senior leaders who work as organizational managers , leaders , and operational artist. Department of Army should have a more focused...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t DEVELOPING 21ST CENTURY SENIOR LEADERS BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KEATON L. BEAUMONT United States Army

  20. High energy astrophysics 21st century workshop 'Space Capabilities in the 21st Century'. [NASA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhome, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of 20th-century NASA accomplishments and of the infrastructure and technology that NASA plans to have in place in the 21st century is presented. Attention is given to the Great Observatories Program, AXAF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Small Explorers Program, the Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors, and the X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer. Also discussed are earth-to-orbit communication links, transportation in the 1990s, the evolution of the space infrastructure, and the Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the possibilities of the 21st-century infrastructure, with emphasis on exploration on Mars and the moon. Topics addressed include telecommunications, navigation, information management, and 21st-century space science.

  1. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  2. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  3. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  4. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  5. Knowledge society in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Urbanová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the increasing need of education in 21st century and on some problems which emerged in this context – the economists prefer to emphasize the development and growth, profit and effectiveness, and they can overlook general, ethical, and essential problems and needs of the contemporary world. These problems are not resolved by simple algometrical approaches, but they require multi-disciplined paradigms, which can provide social sciences.Especially in the 21st century we need wide-ranging critical thinking as a basis of responsible ethical behaviour. However in the current educational environment in the tertiary educational system we can observe over-emphasizing of utilitarian requirements. We produce professionals who are expected to be able to find quick, effective but also far-seeing solutions of any given problem, which is in obvious contradiction. This article discussed three conceptions of a human with the emphasis on the concept of “homo socio-oeconomicus”. This concept enables to see the world in wide context and develops necessary critical thinking, which is also economically more advantageous from the long-term point of view. That is why education in sociological, psychological, philosophical, political and other social sciences should not be considered by economists as something useless without any economic value, but as something that can help them to understand themselves, their environment and the consequences of their decisions. This is the core of this contribution.

  6. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  7. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...... are not digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison...... of the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  8. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  9. Fighting With One Arm Behind Our Back: Cultural Capability in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    humiliation of ANSF members, urinating in public, widespread cursing and insulting Afghan security forces and civilians.12 American complaints...outlook on the part of Army leaders and better prepare them for the networked nature of the 21st century environment. PME provides the most fertile

  10. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  11. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  12. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  13. Evolving Technologies Require Educational Policy Change: Music Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renee

    2013-01-01

    There is growing discussion among education and government authorities on rethinking education in the 21st century. This increasing area of interest has come in response to the evolution of technology and its effect on the future needs and requirements of society. Online applications and social networking capabilities have accelerated in…

  14. From 21st century skills to 21st century human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta......In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....

  15. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  16. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  17. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  18. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Kinghorn, A

    2001-02-01

    The term pharmacognosy as a constituent scientific discipline of pharmacy has been in use for nearly 200 years, and it refers to studies on natural product drugs. During the last half of the 20th century, pharmacognosy evolved from being a descriptive botanical subject to one having a more chemical and biological focus. At the beginning of the 21st century, pharmacognosy teaching in academic pharmacy institutions has been given new relevance, as a result of the explosive growth in the use of herbal remedies (phytomedicines) in modern pharmacy practice, particularly in western Europe and North America. In turn, pharmacognosy research areas are continuing to expand, and now include aspects of cell and molecular biology in relation to natural products, ethnobotany and phytotherapy, in addition to the more traditional analytical method development and phytochemistry. Examples are provided in this review of promising bioactive compounds obtained in two multidisciplinary natural product drug discovery projects, aimed at the elucidation of new plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents and novel cancer chemopreventives, respectively. The systematic study of herbal remedies offers pharmacognosy groups an attractive new area of research, ranging from investigating the biologically active principles of phytomedicines and their mode of action and potential drug interactions, to quality control, and involvement in clinical trials.

  19. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  20. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  1. Vaccines for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  2. Forecasts for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, John

    1999-03-01

    The population of the world is increasing, mainly in the developing world, and is projected to saturate within about 100 years at up to twice the present population of 6 billion people [1]. Studies [2,3,4] show that, historically, the population growth rate has varied inversely as the annual per capita energy use in most parts of the developing world, where per capita energy use is typically less than 1 tonne of oil equivalent energy per year. However, in areas with more than 2 to 3 tonnes of oil equivalent of energy per year per person the growth rate is around zero. If this trend continues, a stable world population will require, allowing for energy efficiency improvements, some 2 to 3 times the present annual energy use. There is an abundance of energy in the world both exploited and potential to meet this need—fossil, fission, and renewables—but it is not evenly distributed, some is costly, and there are issues of environmental pollution in present use, that may limit use. Fusion energy is a potential longer-term source with attractive environmental features. It is the least developed energy option and still faces a challenging development path, but there are many of areas of the world that would benefit hugely from its deployment from the latter part of the 21st century onward, and it is important to consider how it might be deployed. Most fusion power plant options considered today show an economy of scale, owing to the fixed distance needed for shielding fusion neutrons, tritium breeding and handling the heat loads. One interesting approach is to use the power plant to co-produce electricity and hydrogen to facilitate the introduction of lower cost-of-electricity, multi-gigawatt power plants [5].

  3. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  4. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  5. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  6. The Workforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promote career direction with willingness to evaluate the level of academic interest, level of career focus and readiness for life away from home (attitudes, skills and knowledge of self. Impact on Society: Institutions must regularly evaluate curriculum to reflect the rapid technological changes and the globalization of world markets that reflect their mission and develop students’ mindset to always think big and think outside the box in order to be competitive in the global market. Change is external, transition is internal. It is important

  7. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  8. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  9. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  10. Sharing data under the 21st Century Cures Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mary A; Guerrini, Christi J; Bollinger, Juli M; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    On 13 December 2016, President Obama signed the 21st Century Cures Act ("the Act") into law. Many of its provisions support the creation of an "Information Commons," an ecosystem of separate but interconnected initiatives that facilitate open and responsible sharing of genomic and other data for research and clinical purposes. For example, the Act supports the National Institutes of Health in mandating data sharing, provides funding and guidance for the large national cohort program now known as All of Us, expresses congressional support for a global pediatric study network, and strengthens patient access to health information. The Act also addresses potential barriers to data sharing. For example, it makes the issuance of certificates of confidentiality automatic for federally funded research involving "identifiable, sensitive" information and strengthens the associated protections. At the same time, the Act exacerbates or neglects several challenges, for example, increasing complexity by adding a new definition of "identifiable" and failing to address the financial sustainability of data sharing and the scope of commercialization. In sum, the Act is a positive step, yet there is still much work to be done before the goals of broad data sharing and utilization can be achieved.

  11. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  12. Connectivism: 21st Century's New Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Dorothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Transformed into a large collaborative learning environment, the Internet is comprised of information reservoirs namely, (a) online classrooms, (b) social networks, and (c) virtual reality or simulated communities, to expeditiously create, reproduce, share, and deliver information into the hands of educators and students. Most importantly, the…

  13. L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments: The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes” are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs, which have an independent history of development within a culture; and The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions. Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

  14. Projecting 21st century coastal cliff retreat in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P. W.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Vitousek, S.

    2016-12-01

    In California, sea level is expected to rise over 1 m by 2100, with extreme projections approaching 3 m. Sea level rise (SLR) increases the frequency, severity, and duration of wave impacts on coastal cliffs, potentially accelerating cliff retreat rates. To assess the future risk to cliff-top infrastructure, densely populated Southern California cities like Los Angeles and San Diego require estimates of coastal retreat over long time (multi-decadal) and large spatial (>100 km) scales. We developed a suite of eight coastal cliff retreat models, ranging in complexity from empirical 1-D representations of cliff response to wave impacts to more intricate 2-D process-based models integrated with artificial neural networks. The ensemble produces a comprehensive estimate of time-averaged coastal cliff retreat with uncertainty, is applicable to different geological environments, and is flexible in application depending on processing power, available data, and/or available time (e.g. if processing power and time are limited, the fast 1-D models can be used as a `rapid assessment' tool). Global-to-local nested wave models provided the hindcasts (1980-2010) and forecasts (2010-2100) used to force the models, and waves were applied in combination with eight SLR scenarios ranging from 0.25 m to 2 m. In the more detailed models, tides, non-tidal residuals, and storm surge were included for the hindcast and forecast periods. For model calibration, a new automated cliff edge extraction routine was used to estimate historical cliff retreat rates from LiDAR data. Initial model application to Southern California suggests that 1 m of SLR during the 21st century will cause cliff retreat rates to increase on average by over 50% relative to historical rates. Model results also demonstrate how small-scale, episodic cliff failure events can coalesce through time into spatially uniform, long-term cliff retreat signals.

  15. The direction of cloud computing for Malaysian education sector in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Jazurainifariza; Rahman, M. Nordin A.; Kadir, M. Fadzil A.; Shamsudin, Syadiah Nor; Saany, Syarilla Iryani A.

    2017-08-01

    In 21st century, technology has turned learning environment into a new way of education to make learning systems more effective and systematic. Nowadays, education institutions are faced many challenges to ensure the teaching and learning process is running smoothly and manageable. Some of challenges in the current education management are lack of integrated systems, high cost of maintenance, difficulty of configuration and deployment as well as complexity of storage provision. Digital learning is an instructional practice that use technology to make learning experience more effective, provides education process more systematic and attractive. Digital learning can be considered as one of the prominent application that implemented under cloud computing environment. Cloud computing is a type of network resources that provides on-demands services where the users can access applications inside it at any location and no time border. It also promises for minimizing the cost of maintenance and provides a flexible of data storage capacity. The aim of this article is to review the definition and types of cloud computing for improving digital learning management as required in the 21st century education. The analysis of digital learning context focused on primary school in Malaysia. Types of cloud applications and services in education sector are also discussed in the article. Finally, gap analysis and direction of cloud computing in education sector for facing the 21st century challenges are suggested.

  16. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  17. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  18. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these

  19. Designing Blended Learning Interventions for the 21st Century Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2017-01-01

    The learning requirements of diverse groups of students in higher education challenge educators to design learning interventions that meet the need of 21st century students. A model was developed to assist lecturers, especially those that are new to the profession, to use a blended approach to design meaningful learning interventions for…

  20. 21st Annual Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. 21st Annual Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society. Information and Announcements Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 108-108. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  2. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  3. Considerations for 21st-Century Disciplinary Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    While the conceiving of 21st-century schools has rightly included much discussion on curriculum and instruction, changing demands and conditions also present necessary changes in the way that student behavior is managed. A review of the literature on student discipline over the past decade reveals three particular issues that warrant attention in…

  4. [Prolegomenon of the Czech pharmacognosy: 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opletal, Lubomír

    2013-04-01

    The paper analyzes the basic features of the development of pharmacognosy as the oldest profile subject of pharmacy primarily in Europe during the 20th century. Historical consequences of its development are declared, which should create the basis for its embedment, new content and tasks in Czech pharmacy of the 21st century, especially in education at Czech universities.

  5. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  6. 21 st century librarians and effective information service delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It sheds light on the development of hybrid libraries as a panacea for meeting the information needs of twenty first century library users who exhibit much dexterity in using new technologies. It further explores emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the ...

  7. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robin; Natividad, Gloria; Spector, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective…

  8. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  9. 21st centuries skill implication on educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrahatnolo, T.; Munoto

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify skill needed in 21st centuries and its implication on Indonesia’s educational system. This research found that the 21st centuries skill application has more measurable benefits in some sections of life, such as critical thinking and problem solving, initiative, creativity, and entrepreneurship, communication, teamwork, metacognition (change of mindset), digital literature. This study applied qualitative data analysis. The data were taken from different sources and literature. The analysis showed that The 21st centuries education concept’s implementation can be applied in the curriculum of the required subject that is addressed to achieve learning and innovation skills competence and also technology and information media skills competence. While supporting subject group directed to achieve life and career skills competence. All subjects are the derivation from core subject 3R, which are reading, writing, and arithmetic. Based on the description above, it can be concluded that 21st centuries skill needs; (1) a life planning; (2) flexibility and adaptability; (3) initiative and self-management (4) entrepreneurship; (5) social and cultural interaction; (6) productivity and accountability; (7) leadership; (8) critical thinking, (9) problem solving; (10) communication; (11) collaboration and teamwork; (12) lifelong learning; and (13) digital literation.

  10. (ICT) and Teacher Education in the 21st Century Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also identifies ICT facilities such as computer, internet, World Wide Web, E-mail, video conferencing, teleconferencing and teleprocessing as relevant in teacher education. It also identifies poor curriculum, and inadequate facilities as factors that can impair ICT use in teachers training. It reveals that the 21st ...

  11. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  12. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  13. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  14. Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Fall 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromly, K.

    2000-10-19

    This issue of Buildings for the 21st Century, a quarterly newsletter on the DOE building programs and technology, highlights the new high-performance visitor center at Zion National Park, Maryland's new Clean Energy Incentive Act, the Ohio State Weatherization Program, the Rebuild America Program and Native American communities joining forces, and Energy Star{reg_sign} clothes washers.

  15. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  16. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  17. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  18. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  19. Questions for the 21st-Century Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians' (AASL) "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" (2007), with their emphasis on multiple literacies and the social context in which information skills develop, embrace instruction that engages students' critical thinking about the changing communications environment. An inquiry-based approach to…

  20. Zimbabwe's total solar eclipse June 21st 2001 | Unknown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first total solar eclipse of the 21st century attracted large numbers of scientists and spectators to the African sub-continent, but it wasn't just the sun - or lack of sun - that kept them occupied. For wildlife enthusiasts, the eclipse meant the chance to take part in a unique research project, initiated, designed and organised by ...

  1. Towards a Global 21 st Century African Popular Music: ASSATA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world is increasingly becoming a global village, due mainly to the technological advancements of the 21st century and increased interactions and collaborations between peoples of the earth. Consequently, compartmentalization of cultures is fast giving way to the emergence of a 'global mass culture' with increasing ...

  2. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  3. Training requirements for agriculture in the 21st century | Obioha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identified area of need, e.g. poultry, pigs, rabbits, vegetables, ornamental plants, organic fertilizers, orchard gardens, soya milk, soya cakes, etc. The NAAS and the faculty leadership can solicit funds for this novel enterprise which will enhance confidence, competence and proficiency for our graduates of the 21st century.

  4. Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st century | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...

  5. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  6. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  7. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  8. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  9. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  10. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  11. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  12. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary findings from a R&D project on developing 21st. Century literacies in a digital Storylab at a public library, doing digital animated storytelling, in collaboration with municipal schools. It will explore the implications for the approach to digital story......-based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual......, auditory and verbal with a fluency with digital tools. There is an interest to teach multimodal literacy in open schooling, while bridging informal and formal learning in hybrid environments, that is involving collaboration with libraries and museums. Designs for multimodal learning with animation may have...

  13. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    images is not permissible. iii Abstract Hybrid Warfare: The 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare, by MAJ Amos C. Fox, US Army, 73 pages. In...echelons far above a tactical battalion. Robert Leonhard suggests, “As the Cold War receded into the history books , the day-to-day reality of...Russian brand of hybrid warfare. Furthermore, Leonhard’s definition has more far-reaching applicability than other definitions analyzed, making it usable

  14. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  15. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  16. Designing vaccines for the 21st century society

    OpenAIRE

    Oretta eFinco; Rino eRappuoli

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the 21st century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human imm...

  17. Japan: Asian peacekeeper of the 21st century?

    OpenAIRE

    Young, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The building of a "New World Order" presents the United States with novel opportunities and problems. If the 21st century is to be the "Pacific Century," US-Japan relations will become the cornerstone of US policy. The ongoing drawdown of US forces places a renewed emphasis on the security relationship between the two countries. The United States has long desired an increase in the security role played by Japanese military ...

  18. Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y. S.; Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.

    1999-05-10

    The worldwide market share for crystalline-silicon solar cells has increased steadily in the last 10 years. In 1998, about 87% of the photovoltaic modules shipped worldwide are based on crystalline silicon. This dominance will likely continue into at least the first few years of the 21st century. The long-term growth of crystalline-silicon solar cells will depend on the development of low-cost polysilicon feedstock, silicon films, and advanced cell and module manufacturing processes.

  19. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identif...

  20. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  1. 21ST-CENTURY TEACHERS: THE STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Norahmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues regarding the demands of creative, innovative, and professional teachers are certainly on the concern of stakeholders and practitioners in education. Substantial efforts were conducted by the government to meet the 21st-century teachers having the four competencies required for being a teacher and coping with the needs of modern education. A survey research was conducted to collect respondents’ opinion as the main source of data to describe whether the 21st-century teachers are on the demands and to gain information that the students have a similar perception to teacher’s competencies required by the government. Seventy-five questionnaires related to the competencies were given to students of English Education Study Program of 2013 to 2016. The questionnaires were aimed at collecting written information dealing with what the students perceived towards the activities implemented by teachers in the process of teaching and learning. The result of questionnaire analysis revealed that most students expected the 21st-century teachers to have skills in teaching and in connecting it with the development of today’s technology and today’s student characteristics. The data also showed that the students constructed the same characteristics of teacher’s competencies required by the government regarding pedagogy, personality, sociality, and professionality.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  3. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  4. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary findings from a R&D project on developing 21st. Century literacies in a digital Storylab at a public library, doing digital animated storytelling, in collaboration with municipal schools. It will explore the implications for the approach to digital story......, auditory and verbal with a fluency with digital tools. There is an interest to teach multimodal literacy in open schooling, while bridging informal and formal learning in hybrid environments, that is involving collaboration with libraries and museums. Designs for multimodal learning with animation may have...

  5. Lawfare in Hybrid Wars: The 21st Century Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik

    2016-01-01

    In the context of ‘Hybrid Warfare’ as 21st Century’s threat to peace and security, this paper intends to address the role of Lawfare. The use of law as a weapon, Lawfare,1can have a tangible impact on democratic States when their adversaries use it in an exploitative way. Lawfare can be used in the context of Hybrid War.2 Examples of Hybrid Warfare as witnessed in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict of 2014/2015 and the ongoing conflict with Daesh are particularly sensitive to Lawfare due to an ap...

  6. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  7. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  8. 21st Century Power Partnership: September 2016 Fellowship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rambau, Prudence [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa); Mdhluli, Sipho [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2017-09-29

    This report details the 21st Century Power Partnership fellowship from September 2016. This Fellowship is a follow-up to the Technical Audit of Eskom's Medium- and Long-term Modelling Capabilities, conducted by U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in April 2016. The prospect and role of variable renewable energy (vRE) in South Africa poses new modelling-related challenges that Eskom is actively working to address by improving the fidelity of PLEXOS LT and ST models.

  9. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  10. Higher Education Leadership: Challenge of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutjipto Sutjipto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, higher education (HE will play a very crucial role; in spite of its limited resources, HE should be able to respond to the challenges caused by the very fast advancement of technology. For this purpose managers of HE should be professional, those who are prepared to become the managers, so that they reflect wide perspectives, good attitudes, and quality skills in managing the HE in such a competitive era. Higher education leadership is expected to make use of the system and opportunity to improve its performance

  11. Nursing and the 21st century: what's happened to leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbasi, Sally; Gaston, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This paper has stemmed from several conversations between the authors over recent times about the current state of leadership in nursing. The authors believe a lack of effective leadership has much to do with the times in which we live. As a result, this paper explores leadership against a backdrop of social and political change and seeks to revise the concept in light of 21st century developments. The demise of leadership is discussed and ideas about the emergence of new leadership brought to light. Finally the need for nurses and nursing to shake off the depressive effects of economic rationalism, join forces and unite for a cause is recommended.

  12. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... approach in which the process of decoding and negotiations around practices in social media is significant....

  13. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hendon SHEIKH ABDULLAH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.

  14. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  15. The state of forest vegetation management in Europe in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Nick; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Willoughby, Ian

    2011-01-01

    —Towards Environmental Sustainability was formed in 2005 and gathered scientists and practitioners from eighteen European countries with the objective of sharing current scientific advances and best practice in the field of forest vegetation management to identify common knowledge gaps and European research potentials......Abstract COST (COST is an intergovernmental framework for European cooperation in science and technology. COST funds network activities, workshops and conferences with the aim to reducing the fragmentation in European research) Action E47, European Network for Forest Vegetation Management....... This paper summarizes the work of the COST action and concludes that although diverse countries have by necessity adopted different means of addressing the challenges of forest vegetation management in Europe in the 21st century, some common themes are still evident. In all countries, there is a consensus...

  16. Creating a 21st-century intelligent health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newt, Gingrich; Nancy, Desmond

    2008-02-01

    In most areas of life, Americans enjoy the ease and convenience offered by advances in technology, communications, and transportation. Every day we experience the 21st-century model of America, which is one of effectiveness, accuracy, speed, flexibility, efficiency, lower cost, more choices, and greater achievement. We can shop online, compare prices for goods and services, and when decisions need to be made, we have access to a wide array of information sources to assist in making those decisions. In short, Americans enjoy great latitude in our power to determine what is best for us. This is not, however, the case when it comes to health and healthcare. In our current healthcare system, individuals are dependent on a structure that has resisted the natural progress and modernization achieved by market-oriented, 21st-century industries. The information age has been leaving health behind. Although it is the nature of a science- and technology-based entrepreneurial free market to provide more choices of higher quality at lower cost, in the healthcare sector, prices continue to rise, quality is inconsistent, and individuals lack the information, incentives, and power to make choices.

  17. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  18. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  19. Neonatal Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Korea in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kang Yeun; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Jong Soo

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the microbial cause and antibiotic susceptibility of neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis in Korean patients in the 21st century. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis between January 2000 and December 2015. We recorded the organism, antibiotic susceptibility, and antibiotics used. A total of 82 neonates were included in the study (53 males and 29 females), with a mean age of 17.5 ± 7.1 days. The most commonly isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43 cases, 52.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11 cases, 13.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (11 cases, 13.4%), Serratia marcescens (4 cases, 4.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 cases, 4.9%), and Enterobacter cloacae (3 cases, 3.7%). We found no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Resistance to methicillin (83.7%), macrolide (81.4%), and aminoglycoside (23.3%) was observed in patients with S. aureus infection. Conjunctivitis that did not improve with erythromycin or tobramycin generally improved with the additional use of tosufloxacin. The prevalence of neonatal gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis has decreased in the 21st century. However, methicillin-resistant S. aureus has been increasing, but these cases are responsive to tosufloxacin.

  20. PLACE IDENTITY IN 21ST CENTURY ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Sun (Sunny Choi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the built environment brought about by economic and cultural globalization have resulted in a blurring of national identities worldwide. Consequently, place identity has emerged as a central concern for setting the 21st century urban development agenda. This paper examines the ways in which specific aspects of urban typology relate with cultural engagements and meanings within old and new, in terms of the transferable values of place identity, particularly within South East and Far East Asian countries. Firstly, the theoretical and practical key concepts for design ideology are described in relation to the value of place identity within contemporary urban forms. These key concepts are then operationalized in order to identify the implementation of the role of place identity, not only within architectural typology, but also through a cultural sense of space and time; a hybrid typological language. The focus of this paper is to explore how the role of place identity in physical built form relates with design qualities and cultural engagement, and how the needs of local culture can be incorporated, sustained and developed alongside contemporary architecture and rapid urban development. The paper provides a critical reflection and discussion of 21st Century architecture in South Korea, particularly how the locally situated and informed might be reconciled with the global aspirations of the contemporary city.

  1. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  2. Managing data for the international, multicentre INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Cosgrove, C; Knight, H E; Cheikh Ismail, L; Juodvirsiene, L; Papageorghiou, A T; Al-Jabri, H; Domingues, M; Gilli, P; Kunnawar, N; Musee, N; Roseman, F; Carter, A; Wu, M; Altman, D G

    2013-09-01

    The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project data management was structured incorporating both a centralised and decentralised system for the eight study centres, which all used the same database and standardised data collection instruments, manuals and processes. Each centre was responsible for the entry and validation of their country-specific data, which were entered onto a centralised system maintained by the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford. A comprehensive data management system was designed to handle the very large volumes of data. It contained internal validations to prevent incorrect and inconsistent values being captured, and allowed online data entry by local Data Management Units, as well as real-time management of recruitment and data collection by the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford. To maintain data integrity, only the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford had access to all the eight centres' data, which were continually monitored. All queries identified were raised with the relevant local data manager for verification and correction, if necessary. The system automatically logged an audit trail of all updates to the database with the date and name of the person who made the changes. These rigorous processes ensured that the data collected in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project were of exceptionally high quality. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  3. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  4. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  5. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  6. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  7. Challenges of peace education in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Herrero Rico

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a review of the history of Peace Education (PE in Spain during the 20th century in order to propose, subsequently, the opportunities and challenges which PE has to face at the beginning of this new 21st century. With this historical and pedagogical revision of the PE we see what has been already done and what we have still pending to do as a peace educators and peace workers. Moreover, as we all know, to understand the present and todesign the future with a major guarantee it is first required knowing the past. This reflections and analysis come from the REM (Reconstructive-Empowering Approach which reconstructs our human competences to make peace and to empower us for the peaceful action from our personal and daily experiences.

  8. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Cinnamon; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-12-22

    Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science.

  9. Designing blended learning interventions for the 21st century student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2017-06-01

    The learning requirements of diverse groups of students in higher education challenge educators to design learning interventions that meet the need of 21st century students. A model was developed to assist lecturers, especially those that are new to the profession, to use a blended approach to design meaningful learning interventions for physiology. The aim of the model is to encourage methodical development of learning interventions, while the purpose is to provide conceptual and communication tools that can be used to develop appropriate operational learning interventions. A whole brain approach that encourages challenging the four quadrants is encouraged. The main arguments of the model are to first determine the learning task requirements, as these will inform the design and development of learning interventions to facilitate learning and the assessment thereof. Delivery of the content is based on a blended approach. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Phys21:Preparing Physics Students for 21st Century Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The Phys21: Preparing Physics Students for 21st Century Careersreport was commissioned by the APS and the AAPT and prepared by the Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs (J-TUPP). It addresses the question: What skills and knowledge should the next generation of undergraduate physics majors possess to be well prepared for a diverse set of careers? J-TUPP members were particularly interested to understand better the needs of students who do not plan to pursue academic research careers. The major findings of the report and a summary of the guidelines that were developed for revising the undergraduate curriculum, addressing the needs of an increasingly diverse population of students, providing professional skills development, and enhancing student engagement through high impact teaching practices will be presented.

  11. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  12. Caring and healing in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S L

    1998-01-01

    As the 21st century approaches, nurses must be prepared to offer new treatment methods when caring for children. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with human caring theory and complementary and alternative medicine, and to offer a practical way of integrating these methods into nursing care. Nurses can learn to choose simple, conservative, noninvasive, nonintrusive healing methods that are met with little resistance by other health care professionals. Clinical implications of the Nurse's Tool Box suggest methods such as drawing, acupressure, guided imagery, storytelling, therapeutic touch, soft music, and humor as ways to help children heal. By tapping into certain frequency currents through the use of these tools, nurses may build, repattern, or facilitate human energies to replenish children's minds, bodies, and souls, creating wholeness and harmony. By understanding human caring theory and complementary and alternative medicine, and by using a practical approach to healing, nurses in the new century can mend children in ways they never have before.

  13. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  14. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  15. Constitution-making in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Saunders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions have been made or changed in major ways in more than half the countries of the world in recent decades. This article deals with contemporary approaches to constitution-making, organising the analysis around three key phases: setting the agenda, in terms of both substance and process; design, drafting and approval; and implementation. It argues that, while all constitution-making processes are different, there are some distinctive features of constitution-making in the 21st century that include popular participation, the need to build trust, internationalisation in its various forms and the importance of process. The article canvasses examples of constitution-making practices that have been or are likely to be influential. It identifies and briefly explores some of the key tensions in constitution-making between, for example, international involvement and domestic ownership of a Constitution and public participation and leadership.

  16. Globalized Security: An Allied Industrial Base for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Globalized Security: An Allied Industry Base for the 21st Century 151 OP NION GLOBALIZED SECURITY: AN ALLIED INDUSTRIAL BASE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Lt...Col Shannon Sullivan, USAF During the Cold War, the United States maintained an extensive industrial base in the event of a global war with the Soviet...2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Globalized Security: An Allied Industrial Base for the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Arctic Ocean Pathways in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; van Gennip, Simon J.; Kelly, Stephen J.; Popova, Ekaterina E.; Yool, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    In the last three decades, changes in the Arctic environment have been occurring at an increasing rate. The opening up of large areas of previously sea ice-covered ocean affects the marine environment with potential impacts on Arctic ecosystems, including through changes in Arctic access, industries and societies. Changes to sea ice and surface winds result in large-scale shifts in ocean circulation and oceanic pathways. This study presents a high-resolution analysis of the projected ocean circulation and pathways of the Arctic water masses across the 21st century. The analysis is based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the ocean general circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at the 1/4-degree horizontal resolution. The atmospheric forcing is from HadGEM2-ES model output from IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) simulations performed for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5), and follow the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. During the 21st century the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increased by in excess of 4 deg. C. Annual mean Arctic sea ice thickness drops to less than 0.5m, and the Arctic Ocean is ice-free in summer from the mid-century. We use an off-line tracer technique to investigate Arctic pathways of the Atlantic and Pacific waters (AW and PW respectively) under this future climate. The AW tracers have been released in the eastern Fram Strait and in the western Barents Sea, whereas the PW tracer has been seeded in the Bering Strait. In the second half of the century the upper 1000 m ocean circulation shows a reduction in the eastward AW flow along the continental slopes towards the Makarov and Canada basins and a deviation of the PW flow away from the Beaufort Sea towards the Siberian coast. Strengthening of Arctic boundary current and intensification of the cyclonic gyre in the Nansen basin of the Arctic Ocean is accompanied by

  18. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  19. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY.... 2, the United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5...

  20. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Renewal. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Agriculture has renewed the Advisory...

  1. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  2. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  3. A Hollow Army in the 21st Century: Will History Repeat Itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    prepare for a future that has already happened.1 —R. Duane Ireland and Michael A. Hitt The second decade of the 21st Century promises to be a...1 R. Duane Ireland and Michael A. Hitt . Achieving and Maintaining Strategic Competitiveness in the 21st Century: The Role of Strategic

  4. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  5. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food...

  6. State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st Century Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st Century Defense by Lieutenant Colonel Paul B. Chauncey III...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st...relies heavily upon the partner’s cultural awareness and inherent regional interests in shaping the environment of the future.16 A thorough

  7. Transformational leadership: leading the way for midwives in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Rossana

    2005-01-01

    The current healthcare policy sets a clear agenda for midwifery leadership. A leadership style, which has the ability to transform organisations to meet the demands of the 21st century will be required. To achieve this, midwife leaders must become transformational. This paper illustrates the author's belief that transformational leadership is best placed to lead the way for midwives in the 21st century.

  8. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  9. 21st century pharmacovigilance: efforts, roles, and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Peter J; Louet, Hervé Le; Moride, Yola; Conti, Rena M

    2016-11-01

    In an era when the number of expedited and conditional review pathways for newly available brand-name drugs and biosimilar medicines to treat serious and life-threatening diseases is increasing, defining pharmacovigilance has never been more crucial. 21st century pharmacovigilance is not merely about uncovering, reporting, and addressing adverse events associated with already approved and marketed agents, but can be described as the systematic monitoring of the process of pre-market review and post-market surveillance, which includes the use of medicines in everyday practice. Pharmacovigilance identifies previously unrecognised adverse events or changes in the patterns of these effects, the quality and adequacy of drug supply, and should ensure effective communication with the public, health-care professionals, and patients about the optimum safety and effective use of medicines. In this paper, the first in a Series of three about drug safety in oncology, we discuss evolving challenges in the purview, roles, and responsibilities of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency with respect to pharmacovigilance efforts, with a special emphasis on oncology treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  11. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P.; Ramirez, Julio J.

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21st century. PMID:23493318

  12. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  13. 21st century nursing practice in Ghana: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, N T; Andrews, L D

    2011-06-01

    This article is intended to stimulate critical thinking and generate fruitful discussion on nursing practice in Ghana as experienced by the authors. Its rationale is to promote exchange of ideas and creative partnerships to ensure that right decisions are made in preparing competent, adaptable and resourceful nurses who can contribute to health for all in the 21st century. The challenges of nursing education, practice and migration in Ghana seem grim. There is inadequate capacity of training institutions, low staff morale, poor distribution and serious workforce shortages. Government reports and policy documents on nursing were sourced from official websites and reviewed and discussed in the context of the international scholarly published literature. The authors note that despite the severe crises, a number of opportunities such as improved home-based training, international nursing education partnerships and welfare and human resource development could foster effective nurse retention and managed migration. To address the issues with nursing health service delivery and nursing shortages in Ghana requires all stakeholders to move beyond the traditional stereotypes and be flexible and forward-looking. Needed policy options include expansion of local nursing education and training capacity, collaborative training opportunities, improving the welfare and retention rates of current staff and international exchange of nurse resources that is mutually beneficial to both source and sink countries. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  15. Tendencies in evolution of 21st century management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Buble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical paradigm of management formulated over century ago started to receive substantial critics already in the second half of 20th century. First attack on the paradigm appeared by the end of 1960s when the environment finally started to be treated as an important element of management. The second significant attack appeared in 1978 when Tom Peters (1978 developed the concept of eight principles of excellence which were in complete contradiction with the principles of classical paradigm of management. Peter Senge created further deflection from the paradigm in the 1990 with the concept of learning organization, while in the same year Michael Hammer and James Champy founded the thesis of organization of work around processes, as opposed to organization around tasks. At the beginning of 21st century a significant attack on the traditional paradigm of management was carried out by Peter Drucker who pointed out the changes which will emerge and their implications on enterprise, its organization and management. The greatest attack on classical paradigm of management was carried out by Gary Hamel (2007, stating that many management principles and systems are based on inadequate paradigm(s, and therefore manager's innovations represent ultimate source of competitive advantages. All of this led some authors to ask themselves a question: Is the end of management on the way? In search for an answer to this question, this paper shows that the end of management has not come, but its future is yet to be devised.

  16. Parasitic diseases: opportunities and challenges in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Colley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. Based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. The general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. Such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. However, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. Furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. A major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control, elimination and eradication of the parasitic diseases that pose major public health threats to the physical and cognitive development and health of so many people worldwide.

  17. Phylodynamic applications in 21st century global infectious disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Brittany D; Mavian, Carla; Chen, Xinguang; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Salemi, Marco; Min, Jae; Prosperi, Mattia Cf

    2017-01-01

    Phylodynamics, the study of the interaction between epidemiological and pathogen evolutionary processes within and among populations, was originally defined in the context of rapidly evolving viruses and used to characterize transmission dynamics. The concept of phylodynamics has evolved since the early 21st century, extending its reach to slower-evolving pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, and to the identification of influential factors in disease spread and pathogen population dynamics. The phylodynamic approach has now become a fundamental building block for the development of comparative phylogenetic tools capable of incorporating epidemiological surveillance data with molecular sequences into a single statistical framework. These innovative tools have greatly enhanced scientific investigations of the temporal and geographical origins, evolutionary history, and ecological risk factors associated with the growth and spread of viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika, and dengue and bacteria such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Capitalizing on an extensive review of the literature, we discuss the evolution of the field of infectious disease epidemiology and recent accomplishments, highlighting the advancements in phylodynamics, as well as the challenges and limitations currently facing researchers studying emerging pathogen epidemics across the globe.

  18. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  19. The 21st Century Cures Act: pharmacoeconomic boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to entry in healthcare markets constitute one of the overriding concerns of health economists. The recent enactment of the 21st Century Cures Act in the United States reduces statutory entry barriers to the discovery, development, testing, and licensing of drugs and medical devices. Drug and device makers also see the burdensome and time-consuming requirements of the Food and Drug Administration?s approval process as key barriers to lowering the costs of their products, considering it takes a decade of research amounting to $1 billion just to bring a single drug to the market. Along with novel opportunities for medical product innovation and faster treatment of diseases, the expedited approval process carries with it contentious challenges involving the safety, efficacy and value of drugs and devices. The ensuing trade-offs and unintended consequences of such a regulatory game-changer bring to the fore one of the most enduring debates between medicine and economics: Whether - or to what extent - cost and efficiency factors affect clinical inquiry into possible solutions to human illnesses. The practical and theoretical contributions of pharmacoeconomics should enlighten contemporary and future issues and discussions surrounding the implementation of this landmark legislation. After all, despite its undeniably good intent and far-reaching significance, no law can ever be perfect.

  20. Rethinking Approaches to Strategic Stability in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day conference on rethinking approaches to strategic stability in the 21st century on October 20-21, 2016 in Livermore, CA. The conference was jointly convened by Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and was held in partnership with the United States Department of State’s Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. The conference took place at LLNL’s Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) and included a range of representatives from U.S. government, academic, and private institutions, as well as representatives from U.S. allies in Europe and Asia.The following summary covers topics and discussions from each of the panels. It is not intended to capture every point in detail, but seeks to outline the range of views on these complex and inter-related issues while providing a general overview of the panel topics and discussions that took place. The conference was held under the Chatham House rule and does not attribute any remarks to any specific individual or institution. The views reflected in this report do not represent the United States Government, Department of State, or the national laboratories.

  1. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  2. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  3. A Computer-based 21st Century Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannathon Sangarun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a prototype computer-based reading comprehension program. It begins with a short description, at a general level, of theoretical issues relating to the learning of comprehension skills in a foreign/second language learning. These issues cover such areas as personal meaning-making on the basis of individual differences and the need for individualized intervention to maximize the comprehension process. Modern technology facilitates this process and enables simultaneous support of large numbers of students. Specifically, from a learning perspective, the program focuses on students’ personal understandings while, from a reading perspective, the construction of meaning is based on an interactive model where both high-level (global, inferential structures are elicited/studied as well as low-level structures (e.g. vocabulary, grammar. These principles are strengthened with research findings from studies in awareness and language processing based on eye-movement analysis. As part of its reading comprehensions focus, the system also has a strong commitment to the development of critical thinking skills, recognized as one of the most important 21st Century skills. The program is then described in detail, including its ability to store students’ responses and to be administered through standard learning management systems. Finally, an outline of planned future developments and enhancements is presented.

  4. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  5. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  6. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  7. Preparing for the 21st century: introducing a service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    While China's strong population policy remains unchanged, the State Family Planning (FP) Commission is experimenting with innovations designed to improve service delivery and promote gender equity. China entered demographic transition with a large population base which obviated the luxury of achieving the transition gradually over time. Because mortality rates have dropped dramatically and there is a large cohort of people of reproductive age, China adds 14-15 million people to its population each year. Were it not for the FP program, China's current population of 1.2 billion would be about 300 million higher. Economic reform has meant that most Chinese people have their basic needs met and can strive to improve the quality of their lives. These same reforms have weakened the collective systems of financing reproductive health systems, however, and new systems of local support must be found. China's Agenda 21, which sets goals for the 21st century, cites the education of girls and women as a key step to achieving a sustainable population size. In addition to an emphasis on reproductive health, China is initiating programs in adolescent health, sex education, and AIDS prevention. China's National FP Program for 1995-2000 emphasizes these changes and identifies a strong information, education, and communication component as a priority. Innovations, such as a participatory approach to training grassroots workers in interpersonal skills and counseling, are being field tested as a preliminary step toward full implementation. Training workshops are also being held to prepare FP leaders to uphold FP laws and protest the rights of the public.

  8. Cements in the 21(st) Century: Challenges, Perspectives, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Joseph J; Bullard, Jeffrey W; Sant, Gaurav; Banthia, Nemkumar; Brown, Kevin; Glasser, Fredrik P; Jones, Scott; Ley, Tyler; Livingston, Richard; Nicoleau, Luc; Olek, Jan; Sanchez, Florence; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Stutzman, Paul E; Sobolev, Konstantine; Prater, Tracie

    2017-07-01

    In a book published in 1906, Richard Meade outlined the history of portland cement up to that point(1). Since then there has been great progress in portland cement-based construction materials technologies brought about by advances in the materials science of composites and the development of chemical additives (admixtures) for applications. The resulting functionalities, together with its economy and the sheer abundance of its raw materials, have elevated ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete to the status of most used synthetic material on Earth. While the 20(th) century was characterized by the emergence of computer technology, computational science and engineering, and instrumental analysis, the fundamental composition of portland cement has remained surprisingly constant. And, although our understanding of ordinary portland cement (OPC) chemistry has grown tremendously, the intermediate steps in hydration and the nature of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the major product of OPC hydration, remain clouded in uncertainty. Nonetheless, the century also witnessed great advances in the materials technology of cement despite the uncertain understanding of its most fundamental components. Unfortunately, OPC also has a tremendous consumption-based environmental impact, and concrete made from OPC has a poor strength-to-weight ratio. If these challenges are not addressed, the dominance of OPC could wane over the next 100 years. With this in mind, this paper envisions what the 21(st) century holds in store for OPC in terms of the driving forces that will shape our continued use of this material. Will a new material replace OPC, and concrete as we know it today, as the preeminent infrastructure construction material?

  9. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  10. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    to address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  11. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  12. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  13. Echinococcosis in Serbia: an issue for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Radivojević, Sofija Katić; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2012-11-01

    Echinococcosis (hydatidosis) is traditionally endemic in Southeast Europe, Serbia included. In Serbia, echinococcosis is mandatory reportable, and this review analyzes the officially reported data as well as the research data published between 1998 and 2010. Official data on human and animal infections were obtained from the Institute of Public Health of Serbia (IPHS, 2010), and from the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management (MATFWM) and the Statistical Office, respectively. Published data were obtained by searching the Medline, Scopus, and Google databases using "echinococcosis," "hydatidosis," and "Serbia" as key words. In addition, the search included national journals and doctoral theses, as well as conference proceedings. Only Echinococcus granulosus has been reported in Serbia, with a total of 409 cases of human infection officially reported during the observed period as opposed to 820 cases described in clinical studies. No trend in the incidence of infection was shown among adults, but the number of cases in children continuously decreased over the period. Patients were more frequently female and from rural areas. Differences in the geographic distribution of cases were noted, with a lower incidence in the central part of country. Liver disease was by far the most common presentation, but cases of unusual cyst locations have been described. Among domestic animals, sheep were the most highly infected species. A decreasing incidence of echinococcosis in animals has been noted as of the 1970s. Echinococcosis continues to be endemic in Serbia in the 21st century, but despite predictions, neither official data nor those from clinical studies indicate its re-emergence. However, there is gross underreporting. Public health authorities should actively work to increase reporting, as only valid reported data provide an accurate basis for future control plans.

  14. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  15. Cancer risk among 21st century blood transfusion recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T O; Cairns, B J; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Beral, V

    2017-02-01

    Some carcinogenic viruses are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. Intensive viral screening of transfused blood now exists in most countries. In the UK, high-sensitivity nucleic acid amplification tests for hepatitis C virus were introduced in 1999 and it was thought that this would reduce, and possibly eliminate, transfusion-related liver cancer. We aimed to investigate cancer risk in recipients of blood transfusion in 2000 or after. A total of 1.3 million UK women recruited in 1998 on average were followed for hospital records of blood transfusion and for cancer registrations. After excluding women with cancer or precancerous conditions before or at the time of transfusion, Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks of 11 site-specific cancers for women with compared to without prior blood transfusion. During follow up, 11 274 (0.9%) women had a first recorded transfusion in 2000 or after, and 1648 (14.6%) of them were subsequently diagnosed with cancer, a mean 6.8 years after the transfusion. In the first 5 years after transfusion there were significant excesses for most site-specific cancers examined, presumably because some had preclinical cancer. However, 5 or more years (mean 8 years) after blood transfusion, there were significant excess risks only for liver cancer (adjusted relative risk = 2.63, 95%CI 1.45-4.78) and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (adjusted relative risk = 1.74, 1.21-2.51). When analyses were restricted to those undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, the commonest procedure associated with transfusion, these relative risks were not materially altered. In a large cohort of UK women, transfusions in the 21st century were associated with long-term increased risks of liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Some of these malignancies may have been caused by carcinogenic agents that are not currently screened for in transfused blood.

  16. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  17. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, M.

    The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to centuries and millennia. The

  18. World Future Mapping and Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vareikis Egidijus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe the methods of future studies, its possibilities and limitations, as well as to make some predictions about the real picture of the development of the 21st century. However, the planning is still not very reliable, and far from a “road map” framework. Thus, future studies are still balancing between science and scientific/artistic fiction. The set of methods of future investigation permits one to compose a few or even up to dozens of medium term or long term scenarios of the world’s future. There are a few well-proven laws of social and economic development as well as some partially predictable phenomena in the area of environment, biology, human ethic, etc. No future planning is secure from unpredictable phenomena – “black swans” – and their impact, nor secure from “political decisions” that destroy natural developments in society. So no one scenario can pretend to be absolutely right. The most frequent future scenarios are based on the wish to implement a copy of an existing “happy nation”, to fight undesirable trends, and create some kind of “dream society” while stimulating positives and inhibiting negative trends. The final version of a scenario depends also upon the “human factors”, e.g. knowledge, stereotypes of thinking, as well as the wishes of those who are financing the project. Generally they are “happy end” projects. This makes scenarios rather useless. Only the independent experts that present more realistic and reliable scenarios can help in the planning of medium term and long term futures. Currently many scenarios foresee the so-called American or European way of development, which is in fact the continuation of the existing world order. There is a growing number of publications about the emergence of China (and Russia as a great power as well as possibilities of a New Caliphate, New Messiah or new Orwellian style regimes.

  19. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  20. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  1. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  2. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele @

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... challenges inherent to the 21st century rural technology enhanced teaching and learning environment. The paper documents ... Keywords: classroom practice; gamification; mobile learning; teacher professional development; technology integration; toolkit ...... Towards a disruptive pedagogy: Changing ...

  3. Naval Warfare Doctrine-Is it Ready for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    world politics , the opportunity and responsibility to ensure that naval doctrine is ready for the demanding command and control challenges of the high-tech multinational world of 21st Century maritime

  4. The 21st-century college student: implications for athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Buxton, B

    1997-01-01

    With the onset of the 21 st century and increasing student diversity, institutions of higher education must become more attuned to the challenges, concerns, and needs of students entering the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. This review discusses the characteristics of the 21st-century college student. The sources for this information were courses of study in the authors' doctoral programs from 1980 to 1994. In the 21 st century, students of increasingly diverse ages, races, cultures, ethnicities, and classes will enter the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. Institutions of higher education that recognize the needs of their nontraditional students will be better able to serve these students. To effectively serve the 21st-century student, institutions of higher education must provide multicultural training, flexible schedules, accelerated programs, and learning experiences that are both practical and tangible.

  5. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  6. Aligning the governance structure of the NNSA laboratories: to meet 21st century national security challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laboratory Assessments Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Research Council

    2015-01-01

    Aligning the Governance Structure of the NNSA Laboratories to Meet 21st Century National Security Challenges is an independent assessment regarding the transition of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA...

  7. The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and China-ASEAN Industry Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu Jianren

    2016-01-01

      To construct the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road is an important part of the grand Belt and Road Initiative proposed by the Chinese government, and China-ASEAN industry cooperation is one of the main...

  8. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  9. Dilemmas of Brazilian schooling policies in the early 21st century: democratization, citizenship and social justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Roberto Rafael Dias da; Silva, Rodrigo Manoel Dias da

    2015-01-01

    ... of educational policies at the beginning of the 21st century. A documentary study identifies and interprets three political dilemmas that make up Brazil's policies for expanding the school sche...

  10. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  11. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bamber; R. Riva

    2010-01-01

    The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009). This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL) reduction for much of North Weste...

  12. Friends in Low Places: The Impact of Locations and Companions on 21st Birthday Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Tomkins, Mary M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends’ houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents’ homes, Fraternity/Sorority houses, and other. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, F...

  13. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    modeling and simulation tools, leveraging existing commercial innovations and technologies, and using open system architectures , frameworks, and... landscape of national security technology concerns in the 21st century. The Strategy is informed by the central premise of the President’s 2015 National...opportunities of the 21st century, there is significant diversity of statutory mission authorities, and structural models and operational authorities, among

  14. Projected changes in high ozone pollution events over the Eastern United States over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horrowitz, Larry W.; Naik, Vaishali

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few decades, thresholds for the United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3), established to protect public health and welfare, have been lowered repeatedly. We recently applied methods from extreme value theory (EVT) to maximum daily 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) observed by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) to quantify the significant decline in both frequency and magnitude of high O3 pollution events over the Eastern US from 1988 to 2009. These improvements to Eastern US air quality have been reported in prior studies and result from changes in air quality regulations and subsequent control measures (e.g., the "NOx SIP Call") as demonstrated by our analysis of 1-year and 5-year return levels. Here we extend this analysis to future projections of high O3 pollution events spanning the course of the 21st century. To this aim, we analyze simulations from the GFDL CM3 chemistry-climate model under selected Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (representing a moderate and strong climate warming with a global mean temperature change by 2100 compared to present day of +2.3K and +4.5K, respectively). Under both scenarios, NOx emissions decrease by ~80% over North America by 2100 under the assumption of aggressive ozone pollution controls. A third scenario, termed RCP4.5_WMGG, in which well-mixed greenhouse gases follow the RCP4.5 scenario but O3 and aerosol precursor emissions are held at 2005 levels, enables us to isolate the role of climate change from that of emission reductions. As we find a positive bias in GFDL CM3 MDA8 O3 compared to the Eastern US CASTNet O3 measurements during summer (a common feature in the current generation of models), we develop a correction method based on quantile-mapping. This bias correction effectively removes the model bias while preserving the temporal changes in MDA8 O3 as simulated under different RCPs over the course of the 21st

  15. TEACHING IN 21ST CENTURY: STUDENTS-TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY USE IN THE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Siti Fatimah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of technology encourages teachers especially who teach English as a foreign language to use it while presenting material and giving instruction in the classroom. Technology, as the newest instructional media developed in this globalization era, presents situation which helps the students to have new authentic and meaningful learning experiences engaging their effort and behavior by providing more fun and effective learning atmosphere. In addition, it provides the opportunity for the students to work collaboratively and easily access the information that can supplement their learning experience. Those benefits become the central part of 21st century education which should be optimized in order to create sophisticated learning immersion and maximize the quality of students in the future. In this research, some media techologies are introduced to one hundred student-teachers having Technology Enhanced Language Learning class. Those media, Prezi as online software presentation, Glogster as visual online poster,Edmodo as online networking application, Toondooas online cartoon strip making and Goanimateas animated video creation, are known as web-based instructional media which  can be used by them to teach English as a foreign language. However, questionnaire and interview are used to obtain the data.  It  aims to investigate their perception while preparing their teaching by using those applications.

  16. Implementation of a European e-Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bob; Bird, Ian; Hemmer, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes an implementation plan for the vision of an e-infrastructure as described in “A Vision for a European e-Infrastructure for the 21st Century”. The objective of the implementation plan is to put in place the e-infrastructure commons that will enable digital science by introducing IT as a service to the public research sector in Europe. The rationale calls for a hybrid model that brings together public and commercial service suppliers to build a network of Centres of Excellence offering a range of services to a wide user base. The platform will make use of and cooperate with existing European e-infrastructures by jointly offering integrated services to the end-user. This hybrid model represents a significant change from the status-quo and will bring benefits for the stakeholders: end-users, research organisations, service providers (public and commercial) and funding agencies. Centres of Excellence can be owned and operated by a mixture of commercial companies and public organisations...

  17. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  18. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  19. Promoting the 21st century scientific literacy skills through innovative chemistry instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Students need to be equipped with the 21st century skills/capabilities to ensure their competitiveness in the knowledge era. So, it is imperative that education at school should be changed in order to fulfill the need. However, there is not any specified approach on how to educate young students for the 21st century capabilities. Regardless the impediment for ts exist, we need to construct an innovative instruction that can develop the students' 21st century skills by incorporating the skills needed, based on contemporary theory of learning, necessary context of learning and appropriate assessment in a chemistry subject matter. This paper discuss the feasible skills to be promoted through chemistry course. Those skills/capabilities are scientific literacy, higher order thinking, communicationand collaboration and curiosity. The promoted are called the 21st century scientific literacy skills in which it emphasis on scientific literacy and embedded the other 21st century skills into the innovative chemistry instruction. The elements involve in the instruction such as inquiry and constructivist approach, nature of science, contemporary/socioscientific issues, critical thinking (higher order thinking).

  20. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  1. New Delivery Systems for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, James J.

    This paper presents an historical perspective on the development of educational delivery systems, and then turns to the challenges of the information age and the issues of developing new delivery systems in this challenging environment. The paper discusses the fragility of power sources and of the networked world; technological weaknesses; freedom…

  2. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  3. Science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) as mathematics learning approach in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaturrahmah, Naila; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    This 21st century demands competent human resources in science, technology, engineering design and mathematics so that education is expected to integrate the four disciplines. This paper aims to describe the importance of STEM as mathematics learning approach in Indonesia in the 21st century. This paper uses a descriptive analysis research method, and the method reveals that STEM education growing in developed countries today can be a framework for innovation mathematics in Indonesia in the 21st century. STEM education integrate understanding of science, math skills, and the available technology with the ability to perform engineering design process. Implementation of mathematics learning with STEM approach makes graduates trained in using of mathematics knowledge that they have to create innovative products that are able to solve the problems that exist in society.

  4. Management Accounting as a Knowledge Based Organization Value Driver for the 21st Century Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraban Marius Costin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century information and information technology revolution has made its mark onclassical business functions like business support services. Management accounting, a still youngbusiness activity has transformed from reactive cost determination focus to proactive valuecreating and considerate resource business driver. Management accounting is on the way toasserting itself as a proactive business value driver for the modern 21st century businessorganizations. The present paper is presenting the arguments that support the transformation ofmanagement accounting from the “bean counter” score keeping role to value driver supported byknowledge, the prime commodity of the 21st century business environment. Managementaccounting is the business partner that delivers reliable and accurate data and information for thebusiness decision process that is more and more influenced globalization, internationalization andaccelerating and dynamic markets. Can modern companies afford to disregard the dormant valuedrivers from within their own business organization?

  5. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  6. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie C. Quieng; Pearly P. Lim; Maria Rita D. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cogniti...

  7. Is the Bush Doctrine the Right American National Security Strategy for the Beginning of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT IS THE BUSH DOCTRINE THE RIGHT AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY? by...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is The Bush Doctrine the Right American National Security Strategy for the Beginning of the 21st Century? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Beck TITLE: Is The Bush Doctrine The Right American National Security Strategy For The Beginning Of The 21st Century? FORMAT: Strategy Research Project

  8. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  9. [Frontier fields of plant chemical ecology in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chuihua

    2002-03-01

    It has focused on chemical interactions between plant and other organisms, which mediated by secondary plant metabolites in recent years. Induced chemical defense in plant, plant chemical communication, relationships between secondary plant metabolites and evolution, chemical relationships between plant and human and chemical ecology of marine plant are the frontier fields needed attention of plant chemical ecology in the 21st century. Progress in these frontier fields of plant chemical ecology will play an important role in sustainable development, particular in increasing agricultural production and effective control of pest, disease and weed under ecological security in the 21st century.

  10. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  11. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    diffuse field of 'death-in-design', highlighting the potentiality and problematics concerning the specific designs for a contemporary western death culture. The findings in this paper are contextualized through an qualitative ethnographic study of Danish designers, architects and cemetery users...... each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  12. Optimalization of production inside logistics chain for 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Pupavac

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world numerous logistics chains exist, competing for similar jobs in different markets throughout the world. By connecting the supply and demand, i.e. production and consumption, logistics chains create national, regional and global logistics network which task is to maximise total generated value. Generated valueis defined as the difference between the price of finished product or service and the input necessary to create such products. The chain profitability is shown by the difference between the income obtained through sale of products or services and total expenditure in that chain. Accordingly, this scientific debate researches the possibilityof production optimisation within logistic chain by application of dynamic programming method with emphasis on information technologies.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Knowledge and Implementation of 21st Century Instructional Practices among Elementary School Teachers Whose Administrators Participated in the 2006-2007 21st Century Leadership Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples, Elisabeth Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe levels of knowledge and implementation of 21st century instructional practices among elementary school teachers whose administrators participated in the 2006-2007 21st Century Leadership Institute. A researcher-developed survey was used to collect data from 242 elementary teachers from 22 West Virginia…

  14. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  15. The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Ester; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; de Haan, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with

  16. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture....C. App., the United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the Advisory Committee...

  17. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture..., 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the Advisory...

  18. Enhancing 21st Century Skills with AR: Using the Gradual Immersion Method to Develop Collaborative Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Jorge C.; Arámburo-Lizárraga, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    As 21st century skills (e.g., creativity and collaboration) are informally developed by tech-savvy learners in the Digital Age, technology-based strategies to develop such skills in non-formal and formal contexts are necessary to reduce the gap between academic and business organizations on the one hand, and the revolutionary wave of self-taught…

  19. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  20. CONNECT: Linking Energy, Security, and Prosperity in the 21st Century - JISEA 2017 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-02

    This report demonstrates 2016 highlights of the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis' (JISEA's) work. The Annual Report overviews JISEA's research and analysis accomplishments in natural gas and methane emissions; nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems; the 21st Century Power Partnership; and more.

  1. Do One-to-One Initiatives Bridge the Way to 21st Century Knowledge and Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Inan, Fethi A.; Ross, Steven M.; Strahl, J. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation of the overall effectiveness of Michigan's Freedom to Learn (FTL) One-to-One initiative. The major goal of the FTL initiative was to help students to gain 21st century knowledge and skills while increasing their learning and achievement through the integration of over 20,000 laptop computers…

  2. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States.

  3. California Energy Systems for the 21st Century 2016 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boutelle, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weed, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-25

    The California Energy Systems for the 21st Century (CES-21) Program is a public-private collaborative research and development program between the California Joint Utilities1 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this annual report is to provide the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC or Commission) with a summary of the 2016 progress of the CES-21 Program.

  4. Towards Reducing the Burden of Global Environmental Related Health Problems in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanipekun, Johnson Adetunji; Babatunde, Joseph Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health issues are major risk factors in the global burden of disease. This paper therefore focuses on the most important link between health and environment. It discusses the most important environmental threats to health in the 21st Century especially in the low and middle income countries. It reviews the burden of disease from…

  5. The challenges of crop production in Nigeria for the 21st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation of Nigeria's fast disappearing wealth of genetic resources as a basis for development of crop idiotypes was seen as a great debt owed to the future generation. Biotechnology, like the Green Revolution of the 20th century, was identified as probably the unfolding revolutionary technology for the 21st century, ...

  6. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  7. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  8. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  9. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  10. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  11. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via

  12. Special issue: engineering toxins for 21st-century therapies: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-12-01

    This special issue on 'Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies' provides a critical review of the current state of multifaceted aspects of toxin research by some of the leading researchers in the field. It also highlights the clinical potential and challenges for development of novel biologics based on engineered toxin derived products. © 2011 The Author Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  13. Aspect of Intergroup Relations in 21st Century Nigeria: Emblem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on the aspects of intergroup relations in 21st century Nigeria: Emblem of Ethnicity, Religious Fundamentalism and National Security Crisis, 2000-2014. The objective of the paper is to contribute to some existing literature on the state of intergroup relations in Nigeria. Besides, it would provoke further ...

  14. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  15. The Six Pillars of Character in 21st Century Newbery Award Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Gail Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative content analysis was to determine how the The Six Pillars of Character as defined by the Character Counts! Curriculum are exemplified in 21st century Newbery Award books (2000-2010). A team of 5 reader/coders, all experienced educational professionals, examined each of the 11 titles in order to investigate…

  16. Career counselling in the 21st century: South African institutions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some salient aspects of 21st century career counselling, including the history of career counselling in South Africa and elsewhere, the need for a changed approach to career counselling at all levels, and the interplay between the different waves in psychology are explicated. Helping models in career counselling, the ...

  17. Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st century change in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity Citation Leadley, P., Pereira, H.M., Alkemade, R., Fernandez-Manjarrés, J.F., Proença, V., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Walpole, M.J. (2010) Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st century change in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services...

  18. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  19. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  20. Orchestrating 21st Century Learning in Higher Education: A Perspective on Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Kiili, Carita; Smith, Blaine E.

    2017-01-01

    For universities to meet the 21st-century learning needs of today's students, it is important they allow students to take an active role in developing pedagogy and sharing their perspective. This paper introduces design-based research aiming to develop a pedagogic approach to support technology-enhanced learning practices at the university level…

  1. Public Health Nursing in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Women and Children's Health

    OpenAIRE

    Peckover, Sue; Mogotlane, Sophie; Glavin, Kari; Aston, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This special issue focuses upon public health nursing with women and children in the 21st century. There are 6 papers which address a range of topics illustrating some of the opportunities and challenges arising in this area of nursing work from Ireland, Norway, Finland, UK, Canada, and Brazil.

  2. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in

  3. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  4. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  5. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Susan Moran; Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos; Alfredo Huete; Mitchel P. McClaran; Yongguang Zhang; Erik P. Hamerlynck; David J. Augustine; Stacey A. Gunter; Stanley G. Kitchen; Debra P. C. Peters; Patrick J. Starks; Mariano Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The early 21st-century drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that...

  6. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  7. Are you speaking French in Japan? Home care's 21st-century leadership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, C D; Seago, M L

    1995-10-01

    Home care leadership is headed for change in the 21st century in demographics as well as legislative issues. With the influx of men into a female-dominated industry, leadership in home care will need to integrate the language of traditional male and female culture into a workable management style.

  8. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  9. Climate change may restrict dryland forest regeneration in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Petrie; J. B. Bradford; R. M. Hubbard; W. K. Lauenroth; C. M. Andrews; D. R. Schlaepfer

    2017-01-01

    The persistence and geographic expansion of dryland forests in the 21st century will be influenced by how climate change supports the demographic processes associated with tree regeneration. Yet, the way that climate change may alter regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative framework that estimates forest regeneration potential (RP) as a function of key...

  10. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  11. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  12. Race to the future: Integrating 21st century skills into science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio Duran; Daniel Yaussy; Leslie. Yaussy

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show The Amazing Race. It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and use...

  13. Workplace, Organizational, and Societal: Three Domains of Learning for 21st-Century Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, Lyle; Barto, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Interconnections between workplace and organizational learning can highlight the ongoing changes taking place that prestage the need for learning cities and regions. The diverse institutions that comprise cities and regions can function as organizational learning mechanisms in the 21st century. Learning cities themselves can also be conceptualized…

  14. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  15. New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century. Supporting Research and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-15

    71730_DAPS_RSRCH.qx 9/22/99 4:19 PM Page 9 U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century 10 NEW WORLD COMING justified anticipation that Thomas Alva ... Edison threw the switch that electrified Pearl Street in lower Manhattan in 1882, but it took another thirty years before the commercial and social

  16. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  17. Watershed management in the United States in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Thorud; George W. Brown; Brian J. Boyle; Clare M. Ryan

    2000-01-01

    Views of watershed management in the 21st Century are presented in terms of concept, status, progress and future of watershed planning. The watershed as a unit will increasingly be the basis of planning because the concept is widely understood, many state and federal laws require such a focus, and watersheds are a logical entity for monitoring purposes. Impediments to...

  18. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  19. 75 FR 5634 - Grand Challenges of the 21st Century; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... the ``grand challenges'' of the 21st century. This Request for Information (RFI) is designed to... (4) models for creating an ``architecture of participation'' that allows many individuals and... his contemporary and future colleagues busy for a century. Others pursue an advance in technological...

  20. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized

  1. Using the Digital Transmedia Magazine Project to Support Students with 21st-Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…

  2. The Significance of Dewey's "Democracy and Education" for 21st-Century Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of Dewey's "Democracy and Education" for "21st-century education," a term used by proponents of curricular standardization and digital ubiquity in classrooms. Though these domains have distinct advocacy groups, they often share similar assumptions about the primary purposes of schooling as…

  3. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  4. Tradition and the Pace of Change in 21st Century Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Chad

    2011-01-01

    "Character," "creativity," "real-world problem solving," "communication skills," "teaming," and "leadership" are some of the skills and values that will be expected of graduates. In the conversation about what constitutes a high-quality 21st century school, however, the more complex question is about the varied paths schools might take to achieve…

  5. Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

  6. Addressing the 21st Century Paradox: Integrating Entrepreneurship in the Computer Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; Babb, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    The Computer Information Systems (CIS) discipline faces an identity crisis: although demand for CIS graduates is growing, student enrollment is either in decline, or is at least soft or flat in many cases. This has been referred to as the 21st century paradox. As one solution to this problem, we propose to integrate entrepreneurship in the CIS…

  7. Rethinking the Framework for 21st-Century Education: Toward a Communitarian Conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.; Goh, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the current frameworks for 21st-century education by critiquing the individualist view of education that underpins them. It is argued that such a view of education overemphasizes technical rationality and neglects the importance of moral values and the role of the community in shaping the individual's identity, ethics, and…

  8. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  9. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  10. A Framework for the "Entrepreneurial" Learner of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers-Hild, Connie; King, James W.; Foster, John E.; Fritz, Susan M.; Waller, Steven S.; Wheeler, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Successful distance learners and entrepreneurs may be similar in that they seek out and capitalize on opportunities and marshal resources to achieve their goals. Further, entrepreneurial behavior is a vital asset in the rapidly changing global knowledge economy of the 21 st Century. This paper presents a theoretical framework for examining the…

  11. Climate change may restrict dryland forest regeneration in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M.D.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Andrews, Caitlin; Schlaepfer, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    The persistence and geographic expansion of dryland forests in the 21st century will be influenced by how climate change supports the demographic processes associated with tree regeneration. Yet, the way that climate change may alter regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative framework that estimates forest regeneration potential (RP) as a function of key environmental conditions for ponderosa pine, a key dryland forest species. We integrated meteorological data and climate projections for 47 ponderosa pine forest sites across the western United States, and evaluated RP using an ecosystem water balance model. Our primary goal was to contrast conditions supporting regeneration among historical, mid-21st century and late-21st century time frames. Future climatic conditions supported 50% higher RP in 2020–2059 relative to 1910–2014. As temperatures increased more substantially in 2060–2099, seedling survival decreased, RP declined by 50%, and the frequency of years with very low RP increased from 25% to 58%. Thus, climate change may initially support higher RP and increase the likelihood of successful regeneration events, yet will ultimately reduce average RP and the frequency of years with moderate climate support of regeneration. Our results suggest that climate change alone may begin to restrict the persistence and expansion of dryland forests by limiting seedling survival in the late 21st century.

  12. The economic impact of climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The national version of FUND3. 6 is used to backcast the impacts of climate change to the 20th century and extrapolate to the 21st century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water

  13. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  14. Promoting Children's Learning through Technology Literacy: Challenges to School Librarians in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejikeme, Anthonia N.; Okpala, Helen N.

    2017-01-01

    In today's world of technological revolution, children need to be encouraged to be ready to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century. This paper presents an overview of the application of technologies in children's learning environment which apparently will give them the opportunity of making use of their thinking skills in order…

  15. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  16. A Generic Qualitative Investigation of Academic Stress in College Students in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ibrahim Glenn, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This document presents an investigation of the experience of academic stress of college students in the early 21st century. It was an independent generic qualitative investigation that sought to examine the ideas, beliefs, and overt opinions of this construct in order to fill a gap that existed in the literature concerning the lack of documented…

  17. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  18. The politics of plasticity: Sex and gender in the 21st century brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The Politics of Plasticity examines how sex and gender are imag(in)ed in the 21st century brain. At the beginning of this century, the idea that the brain is plastic (i.e. that its structure and function change throughout life) began to replace the idea that adult brains are fixed. The claim that

  19. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  20. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years.

  1. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing

  2. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  3. educating and training south african officers for the 21st century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deon Visser

    officers for their perceived role scenario in the twenty-first century. 1. The author is indebted to ... individual practice…understanding that they are simultaneously warfigthers, leaders of character, members of a ... military scenario of the 21st century, the threat perception of a nation is obviously an important guideline, since it ...

  4. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  5. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  6. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  7. Life Designing: A Paradigm for Career Construction in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Nota, Laura; Rossier, Jerome; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Guichard, Jean; Soresi, Salvatore; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovative responses in an international forum. We used…

  8. Friends in low places: The impact of locations and companions on 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Tomkins, Mary M; DiBello, Angelo M; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends' houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents' homes, and Fraternity/Sorority houses. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, Fraternity/Sorority members, and none (alone). Participants consumed an average of 7.6 drinks and reached an average eBAC of .15 during their 21st birthday celebrations. Locations accounted for 20%/18% of the variance in number of drinks and eBAC, respectively, whereas companions accounted for 23%/20% of the variance. Drinking with romantic partners was associated with less drinking, whereas drinking with Fraternity/Sorority members was associated with more drinking. Stepwise regressions combining locations and companions suggested that, overall, celebrating in a bar setting and with Fraternity and Sorority members were the strongest variables associated with drinking. With the exception of a bar setting, companions were the most important contextual factors associated with 21st birthday drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  10. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their…

  11. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to renew the Advisory Committee on...

  12. Weather, Climate, Web 2.0: 21st Century Students Speak Climate Science Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cheryl White; Kennedy, Teresa; Odell, Michael R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) employ extensive scaffolding that results in cognitive load reduction and allows students to learn in complex domains. Hybrid teacher professional development models (PDM) using 21st century social collaboration tools embedding PBL and IL shows promise as a systemic approach for increasing…

  13. Developing and Modeling 21st-Century Skills with Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Jacquelyn M.; Roshandel, Shadi; Michaels, Rosemarie; Truesdell, Elizabeth

    This study describes a collaboration in one northern California university between three teacher education programs (multiple subject, single subject, and education specialist) that explores how and to what extent faculty are developing and modeling the 21st-century skills in preservice teachers. In addition, this study analyzes preservice…

  14. User satisfaction as a marketing strategy in the 21 st century library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of information technology and globalization has led to an increase in competition among the information providers. Libraries must improve the quality of their services to enable them take the challenges of information in the 21st century. This therefore calls for a better understanding of the specific needs of ...

  15. Developing 21st Century Skills through a Constructivist-Constructionist Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Ah-Nam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology innovation and 21st century skills are increasingly important in the 21st century workplace. The purpose of this study is to propose an instructional strategy that develop constructivist-constructionist learning environment that simultaneously develop chemistry knowledge and 21st century skills. Based on constructivist and constructionist learning theories, we identified three central guiding principles for this study: (1 engage students in discovery and problem solving task through teamwork, (2 provide opportunities for communicating ideas, and (3 involve students in the process of design. An intervention module, Malaysian Kimia (chemistry Digital Game known as MyKimDG, was developed as a mechanism for creating the learning environment. In this study, students were required to work collaboratively to design educational media that help their peers who face difficulty in learning particular concept. They were guided to go through the IDPCR (Inquiry, Discover, Produce, Communicate and Review phases. It is hypothesized that MyKimDG can create learning environment that allows students to deepen subject content knowledge and practice various 21st century skills in real situation. This study employed quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest control group design. Results suggest that this approach is able to improve the acquisition of chemistry knowledge and high productivity skill.

  16. Tracking the Internet into the 21st Century

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The Internet was designed in 1973, began operation in 1983, became widely known to the general public in 1993 and now has become a global infrastructure for all forms of communication. The network is relatively unaware of the applications that use it and also relatively insensitive to the technologies that transport its Internet "packets" around the world. Where did the Internet come from? What is its condition today? How will it be used tomorrow? What might we expect it to look like in the next decade? What technical and international policy challenges does the Internet pose? Could it be made to operate across our solar system to support manned and robotic exploration? Answers to these questions and more will be provided in this presentation. Short Biography: Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief Internet evangelist for Google. Cerf served as a senior vice president of MCI from 1994-2005, as VP of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives from 1986-1994, as VP MCI from 1982-1986, and ...

  17. Main Dynamics of Turkish-African Relations in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therence Atabong Njuafac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an overview of Turkey’s increased engagement towards Africa, especially in terms of its potentials, future perspectives and limits of the relations. It portrays and examines the main essence of Turkey’s foreign policy in Africa, and equally analyses the main reason or aspects behind the relations with Africa within the 21st century. It tries to answer the questions of why Turkey has so much interest in Africa now. In other words, it explores more the economic interaction (diplomacy that fosters the relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century. It equally shows the economic aspects as key instrument in building relations between Turkey and Africa. This continent known as Africa in the 90s was never a concern to Turkey as it is in this 21st century, since Turkey paid more attention to its relations with the West, and its close neighbors like Middle East, Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It discusses some of the main political, economic, religious, cultural and strategic motivations behind Turkey’s interest in Africa, as well as some of the challenges face along the line in the 21st century. This paper consists of three main sections. The first section presents the relations between Turkey and Africa during Ottoman Empire, Turkish foreign policy toward Africa in Cold War period. It also gives an overview of Turkey’s relations with Africa, Turkey’s policy in Africa and the main elements shaping relations between Turkey and Africa. Then, the various approaches, mainly economic diplomacy approach in maintaining relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century are presented.Turkey’s increasing use of soft power strategies drive a great desire to tie both the economy of Turkey and Africa more closely. From the aforementioned, Turkey’s soft power content ranges from professional and cultural exchange, agriculture, and humanitarian assistance.

  18. Developing Skills for Youth in the 21st Century: The Role of Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…

  19. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  20. Preparing Teachers and Librarians to Collaborate to Teach 21st Century Skills: Views of LIS and Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Gross, Melissa; Witte, Shelbie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an exploratory research project in which library and information studies (LIS) faculty and education faculty were asked about their views on teaching pre-service school librarians and teachers 21st Century Skills (as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills) and librarian-teacher collaboration.…

  1. 21St Century Atmospheric Forecasting for Space Based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.; Craddock, M.; Kiley, H.; Mason, M.

    2016-09-01

    DA system are local surface observations of temperature, pressure, winds and moisture (also known as the Standard Meteorological Variables, SMV), local vertical soundings of SMV, and local radar reflectivities from the National Weather Service NEXRAD radar network. A series of DA experiments have been set up and conducted on the Maui High Performance Computing System, Riptide supercomputer. Initial results show a marked improvement of the cloud and optical turbulence forecasts over the control run without data assimilation. Detailed results will be presented at the conference.

  2. Current standing and future prospects for the technologies proposed to transform toxicity testing in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences publication, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, proposes a paradigm shift in toxicology from current animal-based testing towards the application of emerging technologies, i.e., assays based on human cells or non-mammalian models, high throughput testing, omics approaches, systems biology, and computational modeling. These technologies should be used to identify how chemicals interact with cellular response networks and alter them to toxicity pathways. According to the authors, such a new paradigm would provide a better scientific understanding and more adequate data to predict the adverse effects of chemicals on human health. As expected from a vision document, the report enthusiastically and optimistically describes a radical transformation of toxicology from current practices to a new approach. Several toxicologists have commented on the report, and although they generally confirm the importance of the vision, they pose critical questions regarding its feasibility. Unlike the theoretical concepts, which are carefully described, many practical aspects of how to establish the vision are less well defined. Today's technologies provide great opportunities, although many challenges remain regarding their development, implementation, and validation to adequately assess human health effects. To bring the envisioned toxicology closer to concrete implementation, it is important to identify the current knowledge gaps in the vision and develop solutions. The goal of this review is to evaluate the technologies proposed as to their maturation to transform toxicity testing in the 21st century. This paper will provide an overview of the current standing by defining advantages, limitations, and developmental needs. In doing so, I do not intend to point out obstacles but, rather, to focus on current opportunities to advance toxicity testing for human risk assessment.

  3. Can a 1960s library be transformed for the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Delcarmine

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the renovation of Grenoble University's library. It is the main inter-university documentary cooperation service (SICD2 network in Grenoble, which serves two Universities: Stendhal and Pierre Mendès France. Administratively it is attached to the latter. After the 1989 Micquel Report, which was a severe appraisal of France's university libraries, the state showed its intention to upgrade them by preparing the U2000 programme. The objectives were to create more working places, unrestricted access to documentation, improve user comfort, and change the image of the libraries. In June 1994, replying to representations by the President of Grenoble's Université Pierre Mendès-France (UPMF on safety problems at the Law and Humanities Library, the Construction and Maintenance Department at the Ministry of Education requested an "all-encompassing approach to upgrading work, covering safety and refurbishment to as-new standard", and stipulated that "this policy review should be conducted as part of the preparation of the new establishment contract". This context gave rise to the rehabilitation and restructuring of the library. In 1995, the universities and the SICD set themselves an ambition: to turn the 1960s library into a documentary resource for the 21st century, making it the lynchpin of the SICD library network and providing suitable premises. The project symbolically called "Doc2000" was created. After a long gestation period, during which funding was gradually secured, the project entered the execution phase. The relevance of the project was tested by numerous twists and turns: a fruitless invitation to tender and shifting project ownership; three university presidents; two SICD directors and one interim-director, who also directed the university library; and the involvement of two project leaders. I intend to show how hard it is for the library, at the end of the process chain, to reconcile and align the scheduling of the

  4. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills. The s....... The second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use.......Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills...

  5. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  6. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  7. Environmental literacy with green chemistry oriented in 21st century learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarlis, Ibnu, Suhadi; Rahayu, Sri; Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the design of chemistry subject with green chemistry oriented to improve students' environmental literacy as one of the important requirements of 21st century learning. This research used R&D design which consisted of four stages, i.e. preliminary study, the study of literature, development of materials, and expert and empirical validation. This article presents the results of preliminary study and the study of literature. It can be concluded from the results of an analysis that environmental literacy is one of the important components of learning outcomes which should be pursued in 21st century teaching. Philosophy of green chemistry plays an important role to reduce and prevent pollution of environment. Principles of green chemistry can be integrated into learning environment as learning outcomes or nurturant effects of learning.

  8. Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis; Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    in the same transdisciplinary discourse? The research questions to be addressed in this panel are: • Which is your theoretical framework and why have you chosen it as relevant for the 21st century? • How do you conceive the concept of play in relation to concepts of e.g. culture, media, learning, design, age......BIN Norden conference 2014 Accepted panel ________________________________________ Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century Participants in the panel are: Associate professor Herdis Toft, University of Southern Denmark (organizer), Professor Beth Juncker, University of Copenhagen......, Associate professor Carsten Jessen, Aarhus University, Assistant professor Helle Skovbjerg Karoff, University of Aalborg and Assistant professor Rikke Toft Nørgård, Aarhus University. This panel represents and discusses different concepts of play and play culture in both diachronic and synchronic dimensions...

  9. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  10. Energy, development and environment: planetary stakes in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France) Programme Interdisciplinaire de Recherche sur les Sciences pour l' Energie et les Matieres Premieres (PIRSEM))

    1989-11-01

    Are energy consumption management and recourse to renewable energies significant ways to respond to the stakes of the 21st Century. Energy management, far from constituting a brake to progress, is a dynamic and structuring element for progress in the medium and long term, examples chosen from highly varied fields of economic and social activity are given. The penetration of renewable energies into the energy balances of the 21 st Century, is examined. It is necessary to complete the conventional analysis of renewable energy resources by a rational, priced approach to renewable energy reserves the preparation of renewable energy reserve maps, region by region is made. Ecological consequences of the various energy strategies proposed in the medium and long term, especially the greenhouse effect problem are discussed.

  11. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: Framing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Johnson, Ann

    2017-05-01

    The NASN Code of Ethics upholds that it is the responsibility of the school nurse to maintain competency and pursue personal and professional growth. Designing professional development activities that are relevant and support the needs of the school nurse can be a challenge. The Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice provides a model rooted in evidence-based standards of practice that can be utilized to assess an existing professional development program and identify gaps in learning opportunities. Nurse leaders can use the Framework for 21st Century Nursing Practice to provide a roadmap toward a professional development program that will be meaningful to school nurse staff, help restore or maintain joy in their practice, and allow them to achieve the goal of advancing the well-being, academic success, and lifelong achievement and health of students.

  12. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  13. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  14. A global learning-centered approach to higher education: workplace development in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tasso Eira de Aquino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the 21st century economy requires corporations, organizations, and professionals to face a common challenge: diverse individuals need consistent motivation towards building competences that increase personal marketability using a combination of higher education and professional development. This article represents an evolving report summary and non-traditional learning-centered approach focusing on adult competences necessary for succeeding in the competitive global marketplace of the 21st century. The purpose of this article is to understand the needs of constantly changing employer demands in the work environment. Exploring contemporary approaches related to skill development, adult education, and learning processes, will be the path towards higher levels of professional success. This article will provide readers with an enlightening discussion focusing on the necessary adult skills and competencies professionals need to succeed in the global marketplace.

  15. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kessler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century

  16. Managing medical groups: 21st century challenges and the impact of physician leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E; Keogh, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Physician group managers and administrators charged with leading medical groups in the 21st century face a set of old and new challenges and opportunities. Leadership is assumed to make the difference between a successful and not-so-successful medical group. Yet, there is little research about how physician manager leadership styles contribute to the success of medical group practices. This article is a study of physician leadership styles using the DiSC, based upon a sample of 232 physician managers. Dominance (D) and conscientiousness (C) were the two dominant styles found in this study. Moreover, the two dominant combination leadership styles fall under the categories of the "creative" and the 'perfectionist." The article formulates practical recommendations for both physician managers and administrators for leading medical groups to respond more effectively to the challenges and opportunities facing medical groups in the 21st century.

  17. There Is More to Love: Meeting and Mating in The 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Carbino, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores how individuals meet and mate in the 21st Century. Technology has always influenced the way we date, but meeting a partner online is increasingly common. I employ a mixed methods approach to understand the complex online dating space. Using three unique data sources, I explore how facial attractiveness, gender, and third parties structure online dating interactions. In chapter one, I examine the influence of facial attractiveness and demographic factors on initiati...

  18. Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Alden Rivers, Bethany; Richardson, John T E

    2014-01-01

    The development of learners’ capacities for critical reflection is an important learning outcome for 21st century business education. Theories suggest that a learner holds a particular orientation to reflection, and that this perspective will be influenced by his or her underlying beliefs. This, coupled with an increased focus on the student experience, personal development, and self-regulation in higher education, offers scope for considering instructional design from a second-order perspect...

  19. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  20. A Bold 21st Century Strategy for U.S. Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-13

    Staff G-2, United States Army , 7 April 2004,14-20. 27 Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990 to 2005...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT A BOLD 21ST CENTURY STRATEGY FOR U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE ISR by Mr. Jack L...Kimberly Department of Army Civilian Colonel John H. Schnibben Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of

  1. Media and communication in Asia in early 21st century: Changes, continuities, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kjetil Sandvik; Christian Hviid Mortensen

    2017-01-01

    Asia has some of the largest, most dynamic, diversified, and complicated media industries in the world (McKinsey & Company, 2015). Entering the 21st Century, the rapid economic and political developments of Asia further energize the growth of media locally and globally (for general discussion, see, e.g., Keane [2006]; Thussu [2006], specific discussions on the cases of Korea [Kim, 2013], Japan [Iwabuchi, 2004], China [Sun, 2009]). In a reflection on the increasing importance of Asian players ...

  2. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    and Singapore , was established with the purpose of regional cooperation in economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields...COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL BRIDGING THE SAN FRANCISCO SYSTEM : 21st CENTURY STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE ASIAN-PACIFIC By...the disproportionate security and economic burdens of key bilateral alliances that grew to embody the “San Francisco System .” The United States

  3. Enriching STEM with the arts to better prepare 21st century citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Charles

    2018-01-01

    Why should we consider integrating the Arts with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics? Is this just another curriculum fad? In this paper I argue that STEAM (STEM + Arts) Education is an important response to the pressing need to prepare young people with higher-order abilities to deal positively and productively with 21st Century global crises that are impacting the economy, the natural environment and our diverse cultural heritage.

  4. Forever young – why we still love vampires in the 21st century.

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria Antónia

    2012-01-01

    Forever young – why we still love vampires in the 21st century. The astonishingly enduring influence of the vampire myth on many young people today is a phenomenon that reveals the relevance of one of the nineteenth century's most powerful surviving archetypes, which never seems to fade. Yet since Bela Lugosi's portrayal of Bram Stoker's Dracula, the figure of the vampire has undergone many transformations; in recent years, this is thanks to Anne Rice's Vampire Chronicles and other work...

  5. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  6. Restructuring leadership for 21st century schools : how transformational leadership and trust cultivate teacher leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Longwell-McKean, Paula Cheree

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature on effective leadership styles has emerged as 21st century leaders face higher student expectations, more demands on teachers and lack of support from the public. An examination of the effects of transactional and transformational leadership provides educators with indications as to the best practices with regard to transforming the direction of schools. Proponents of transformational leadership recommend this approach as the best fit for today's changing times. T...

  7. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  8. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  9. Developing 21st century skills in chemistry classrooms: Opportunities and challenges of STEAM integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinugrahaningsih, Tritiyatma; Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad

    2017-08-01

    The paper portrays the first year of two-year study in integration Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM) in chemistry learning. The research focused on developing 21st-century skills of chemistry students in secondary schools. The 21st-century skills as a set of abilities that students need to develop in facing the future challenge which involves learning, literacy, and life skills. The study was conducted in two secondary schools both public and private school in topics of hydrocarbon, petroleum, solubility, and acid base in year 10 and 11. The qualitative methodology was applied to explore the students' learning experiences and understanding the research context. Data was collected through observation, interview, reflective journal, and 21st-century rubric. The STEAM approach was integrated through modification of project-based learning model. The students had opportunities to develop their own projects by integrating chemistry and STEAM principles to their project. The results show that students have developed their critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, collaboration and argumentation skills, leadership and responsibility, information and literacy skills. The researchers faced the challenges of integrating STEAM within the chemistry curricula, empowering students, and managing the teaching and time resources. Students have started to challenge their critical and creative thinking within the existing learning environments. Integrating STEAM into chemistry learning has developed students' 21st-century skills in those three areas. Teachers also learned to develop their competencies for being facilitators and agents of change, in addition to skills development in dealing with students' differences.

  10. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillman Lawrence M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century.

  11. Control and Optimization of Regenerative Power Flow in 21st Century Airlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    SYSTEMS REPORT NUMBER THE BRADLEY DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINNERING 657, WHITTEMORE HALL BLACKSBURG, VA 24061-0111 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...investigated the optimization of the power distribution system and some of its components for 21st century airlifters. Herein we describe the formulation of an...optimization problem for typical components found in a power distribution system : an input filter and a buck converter. The optimization formulation

  12. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  13. Historical and Projected Surface Temperature over India during the 20(th) and 21(st) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ghouse; Kishore, P; Ratnam, M Venkat; Jayaraman, A; Agha Kouchak, Amir; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Velicogna, Isabella

    2017-06-07

    Surface Temperature (ST) over India has increased by ~0.055 K/decade during 1860-2005 and follows the global warming trend. Here, the natural and external forcings (e.g., natural and anthropogenic) responsible for ST variability are studied from Coupled Model Inter-comparison phase 5 (CMIP5) models during the 20(th) century and projections during the 21(st) century along with seasonal variability. Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and Land Use (LU) are the major factors that gave rise to warming during the 20(th) century. Anthropogenic Aerosols (AA) have slowed down the warming rate. The CMIP5 projection over India shows a sharp increase in ST under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 where it reaches a maximum of 5 K by the end of the 21(st) century. Under RCP2.6 emission scenarios, ST increases up to the year 2050 and decreases afterwards. The seasonal variability of ST during the 21(st) century shows significant increase during summer. Analysis of rare heat and cold events for 2080-2099 relative to a base period of 1986-2006 under RCP8.5 scenarios reveals that both are likely to increase substantially. However, by controlling the regional AA and LU change in India, a reduction in further warming over India region might be achieved.

  14. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  15. Developing a TPACK measurement instrument for 21st century pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Valtonen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Future skills, so-called 21st century skills, emphasise collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and especially ICT skills (Voogt & Roblin, 2012. Teachers have to be able to use various pedagogical approaches and ICT in order to support the development of their students’ 21st century skills (Voogt & Roblin, 2012. These skills, particularly ICT skills, pose challenges for teachers and teacher education. This paper focuses on developing an instrument for measuring pre-service teachers’ knowledge related to ICT in the context of 21st century skills.Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK; Mishra & Kohler, 2006 was used as a theoretical framework for designing the instrument. While the TPACK framework is actively used, the instruments used to measure it have proven challenging. This paper outlines the results of the development process of the TPACK-21 instrument. A new assessment instrument was compiled and tested on pre-service teachers in Study1 (N=94. Based on these results, the instrument was further developed and tested in Study2 (N=267. The data of both studies were analysed using multiple quantitative methods in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments. The results provide insight into the challenges of the development process itself and also suggest new solutions to overcome these difficulties.

  16. STEM-21CS Module: Fostering 21st Century Skills through Integrated STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaqikah Mohamad Khalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia calls for a society that is highly knowledgeable in the field of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM and equipped with 21st century skills to provide professional workforce that can compete globally. The application of a STEM interdisciplinary approach and teaching and learning (T&L strategies such as problem-based and inquiry-based learning are proposed in development of the STEM-21CS Module in order to foster 21st century skills in the existing science curricula. A majority of real-world issues today are interdisciplinary in which they require students to comprehend the need to integrate multiple disciplines to solve them. STEM-21CS Module allows students to master scientific knowledge and subsequently master other disciplinary skills. It is aimed at improving students’ abilities to enrich their knowledge through hands-on and minds-on activities. The field of engineering requires the knowledge of product design and inventive problem solving skills. The integration of information technology in T&L is recommended in meeting the current needs of the Net Generation. Besides that, mathematics plays a vital role in providing computational tools, especially in analysing data. The STEM-21CS Module is expected to nurture 21st century skills such as digital era literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and noble values among Malaysian students.

  17. Dignified Teacher Working Conditions in the 21st Century, an Inalienable Right, not an Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiselle María Garbanzo-Vargas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The author develops the topic of appropriate teacher working conditions in the challenging 21st Century. The objective is the contextualization of the emergent society in the 21st Century; propose a review of the Latin American educational context and the working conditions of education professionals. Another objective is to review the working conditions of teachers in different educations systems, including Europe and Latin America, among others. The profile of the 21st Century educator is defined in this paper, in comparison to teachers in the traditional society. In addition, this paper includes some indicators of consensus in different educational realities, and their integration in the cognitive, operational and institutional areas. The main conclusions include the necessity of policy-making to support dignified teacher working conditions, which is basic for an inclusive education of quality, in accordance with the demands of a challenging emerging society. The author concludes that this issue does not come to an end; it must always be in the educational agenda of society.

  18. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  19. Tools for 21st Century Diplomacy: An Approach to Improved Information and Communication Technology for Romania's Foreign Affairs Ministry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bikson, Tora

    2002-01-01

    Information gathering, analysis, interpretation, decisionmaking and dissemination--as well as the documentation of these actions--must be treated as critical business processes by government entities in the 21st century...

  20. Digital Literacy Skills Among Librarians In University Libraries In The 21st Century In Edo And Delta States Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emiri; Ogochukwu T

    2015-01-01

    .... These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria...

  1. 78 FR 78382 - Notice of January 10, 2014, Meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will be held on January 10, 2014, at 9:00 a.m... January 10, 2014, from 1:00 p.m.to 1:45 p.m. Written comments will be accepted prior to, during, or after... National Park Service Notice of January 10, 2014, Meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory...

  2. Support for the 21st-Century Reserve Force: Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    21st-Century Reserve Force: Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their Families 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...R P O R A T I O N Support for the 21st Century Reserve Force Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their...Century Reserve Force Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their Families Laura Werber, Agnes Gereben Schaefer

  3. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Perception toward Hands-on Lab Activity and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. H.; Risdianto, E.; Sutarno, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the hands-on lab activities and 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers at a university in Bengkulu. The respondents of this study were 113 students who have been finished and were following the laboratory course. The research instrument was questionnaire. The explored aspects of laboratory activities were motivation, the importance of laboratory activities, equipment, laboratory activities process, suitability of curriculum, assessment, laboratory design, and the 21st century skills training. The 21st century skills explored consist of learning and innovation skills, life and careers skills, and media, information and technology skills. The data obtained will be analyzed descriptively. Based on the results of data analysis was obtained that they have a good perception toward the aspect of motivation, the importance of hands-on lab activities, and laboratory activities process; and the perception was fair for other aspects. The lowest perception score was obtained in the aspects of the 21st century skills training. This result was in accordance with the 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers which were still in moderate category. So it is necessary to develop a model of laboratory activities design that can training and enhancing the 21st century skills for pre-service physics teachers.

  4. 21st century climate change in the European Alps--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Beniston, Martin; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500-2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2010-01-01

    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  6. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  7. Evolution of mean, variance and extremes in 21st century temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C. Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warming of the climate system can result in very large corresponding changes in the occurrence of climate extremes. Temperature extremes may occur due to a shift in the whole distribution, where there is an increase in the entire temperature probability distribution, or to changes in the shape of the distribution, such as an increase in variability causing a widening of the distribution. Understanding the precise characteristics of changes in temperature distributions in response to background warming is an important aspect of fully understanding changes in heat extremes and their associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. This study investigates projected 21st century changes in the characteristics of mean, maximum and minimum temperature on daily- and annual- timescales for various regions (Australia, Asia, Europe and North America using data from seven models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5. Using the RCP8.5 experiment we show that an increase in mean temperature throughout the 21st century is a consistent feature of all models for each region. Changes in the variance of simulated temperatures are equivocal, with the sign and magnitude of variance changes in the 21st century varying in different models and regions. A quantile regression analysis demonstrates differences in upper and lower quantile slopes, relative to the mean, including a consistent skew in daily temperatures towards hot extremes. These potentially complex characteristics of temperature changes should not be overlooked, as temperature extremes are potentially more sensitive to changes in the variance and higher order moments than in the mean. Furthermore, a wider range of extreme temperature behaviour may have important consequences for various stakeholders, due to impacts on public health, agriculture and ecological systems.

  8. Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): description of an innovative research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P'ng, Christine; Ito, Emma; How, Christine; Bezjak, Andrea; Bristow, Rob; Catton, Pam; Fyles, Anthony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Jaffray, David; Kelley, Shana; Wong, Shun; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2012-08-01

    To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled "Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century" (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting "extracurricular" knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital Literacy Skills Among Librarians In University Libraries In The 21st Century In Edo And Delta States Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descriptive survey and the population consists of all librarians from university libraries in the aforementioned states in Nigeria. The instrument used to generate data is the questionnaire and the date generated was analyzed using simple percentages and frequency count for research questions and SPSS version 14.0. The findings show that electronic mailing social networking use of PDAs mobile phones and internet surfing are the major DLS amongst librarians. It was also discovered that librarians acquired DLS through colleagues assistance trial and error IT programmes and formal education while librarians level of use of DLS is low amongst other findings. Researcher recommends that management of university libraries should provide training for librarians so as to help update their knowledge in application of digital skills and digital skill competence should be giving more attention during recruitment of librarians amongst others.

  10. The past as prelude to the future for understanding 21st-century climate effects on Rocky Mountain Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Todd, Andrew S.; Al-chokhachy, Robert; Roberts, James; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Bioclimatic models predict large reductions in native trout across the Rocky Mountains in the 21st century but lack details about how changes will occur. Through five case histories across the region, we explore how a changing climate has been affecting streams and the potential consequences for trout. Monitoring records show trends in temperature and hydrographs consistent with a warming climate in recent decades. Biological implications include upstream shifts in thermal habitats, risk of egg scour, increased wildfire disturbances, and declining summer habitat volumes. The importance of these factors depends on the context, but temperature increases are most relevant where population boundaries are mediated by thermal constraints. Summer flow declines and wildfires will be important where trout populations are fragmented and constrained to small refugia. A critical information gap is evidence documenting how populations are adjusting to long-term habitat trends, so biological monitoring is a priority. Biological, temperature, and discharge data from monitoring networks could be used to develop accurate vulnerability assessments that provide information regarding where conservation actions would best improve population resilience. Even with better information, future uncertainties will remain large due to unknowns regarding Earth's ultimate warming trajectory and how effects translate across scales. Maintaining or increasing the size of habitats could provide a buffer against these uncertainties.

  11. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century.

  12. Role of model initialization for projections of 21st-century Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adalgeirsdóttir, G.; Aschwanden, A.; Khroulev, C.

    2014-01-01

    Model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to 21st-century sea-level rise are performed with a state-of-the-art ice-sheet model (Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM)). The climate-forcing fields are obtained from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ice2sea, in which......). These model simulations do not account for the recently observed acceleration of ice streams and consequent thinning rates, the changing ice discharge that may result from the spatial and temporal variability of ocean forcing, or the feedback occurring between ice-sheet elevation changes and climate forcing...

  13. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  14. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  15. Community mobilisation in the 21st century: updating our theory of social change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The article explores the Freirian theory of social change underpinning health-related community mobilisation in poor and marginalised communities. Highlighting potential shortcomings of its essentialist understandings of power and identity, and linear notions of change, it examines how lessons from the 'new left', and burgeoning global protest movements, can rejuvenate the field given the growing complexity of 21st-century social inequalities. It suggests the need for a pastiche of approaches to accommodate health struggles in different times and places. However, while needing some updating, Freire's profound and actionable understandings of the symbolic and material dimensions of social inequalities remain a powerful starting point for activism.

  16. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  17. Digital services in the 21st century a strategic and business perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Digital Services in the 21st Century provides a holistic approach to understanding telecommunications by addressing the emergence and dominance of new digital services, consumer and economic dynamics, and the creation of content by service providers. The authors cover the main products and services that are provided by telecommunications operators (in general information and communication technologies providers). Key topics discussed include enriched communications, fixed and mobile broadband, financial services for unbanked customers in emerging markets, Pay TV, data communications for machines, and digital home. As opposed to technical-driven textbooks, this book also addresses customer demand and the competitive nature between telecommunications operators and Internet providers that compete to provide compelling services.

  18. Hugo Chávez's 21st century socialism and the resource curse in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cabdi Yusuf, Ayaan; Filipovska, Kalina; Mahamed, Safa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the following problem formulation: How did the presidency of Hugo Chávez affect the resource curse in Venezuela? This was done by looking at the aftermath of president Chávez’s 21st century Socialism and the consequences of this policy on the oil industry and the Venezuelan economy. Despite being a resource-rich country, Venezuela has been subject to an unstable economy due to the presence of the resource curse. Therefore, this project investigates th...

  19. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...... organization of work, the changing partner and manager roles and basic changes in the HR-model. The dilemma the paper highlights is the tension between a still more centralized and efficiency oriented management and the basic need for development of professional human resources and leadership. The paper sees...

  20. The Island Image and Global Links in Puerto Rican Cinema of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks back at the production of Puerto Rican films in the 1980s and 1990s as the point of departure for young Puerto Rican filmmakers in the first decades of the 21st century. Even as the stories of this newer generation differ, their concern with the island image and diasporic movement continue to question Puerto Rican identity. Problems of local film production and outside distribution remain for each film project. This essay analyzes a number of key films by a diverse group of directors whose goal is to rethink the concept of a Puerto Rican cinema.

  1. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gobiet@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: sven.kotlarski@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: martin.beniston@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: g.heinrich@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: jan.rajczak@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  2. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  3. Indoor air quality in the 21st century: search for excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air...... are rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested...

  4. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, R.; Randin, C. F.; Thuiller, W.

    2011-01-01

    accompanied by decreased precipitation, such as the Pyrenees and the Eastern Austrian Alps, will likely be greater than on florae in regions where the increase in temperature is less pronounced and rainfall increases concomitantly, such as in the Norwegian Scandes and the Scottish Highlands. This suggests......Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...

  5. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  6. [History of oyster as drug from the origin to the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Since Antiquity, oyster is a subject of interest and medical use, as indicated by Oribiase and Galien. From the 17th century, this unique drug was proposed by physicians for various diseases, and more often for (la rage). One could think that that drug disappeared at the 20th and 21st centuries. But we can observe that it was still recommended by several authors as drug. Still today, companies offer oyster under various forms for allopathic and homeopathic treatments, as well as for food supplement. Research are ongoing to discover active substances within oyster and their potential medical interests.

  7. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  8. Projections of the 21st Century Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin Extreme Precipitation Events

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cui; Zhi-Hong, Jiang; Wei-Lin, Chen; Ruo-Yu, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the 1961–1990 observed daily precipitation in the Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, and the HadCM3 model data for IPCC SRES A1B climate projections, the simulation capabilities of the BP-CCA downscaling approach for extreme precipitation indices of the current climate are assessed by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA). In addition, future extreme precipitation indices in the middle and late 21st century are projected. The results show that simul...

  9. Emerging patterns of simulated regional climatic changes for the 21st century due to anthropogenic forcings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Whetton, Peter H.; Jones, Richard G.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse temperature and precipitation changes for the late decades of the 21st century (with respect to present day conditions) over 23 land regions of the world from 18 recent transient, climate change experiments with coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs). The analysis...... involves two different forcing scenarios and nine models, and it focuses on model agreement in the simulated regional changes for the summer and winter seasons. While to date very few conclusions have been presented on regional climatic changes, mostly limited to some broad latitudinal bands, our analysis...

  10. Using Wikis to teach History Education to 21st Century Learners: A Hermeneutic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Sebbowa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that history education is becoming dangerously obsolete, as it does not always relate to the contemporary needs of 21st century learners, who often find history useless and irrelevant to their present situation. This challenge is attributed to, among other reasons, the way history is taught through largely lecture-driven pedagogies that significantly reduced active learner engagement. This article draws on Gadamer’s Hermeneutic philosophy to advocate for dialogue in understanding and interpreting history artifacts using 21st century technologies. Gadamerian Hermeneutics focuses on horizons of understanding through open–ended questioning and answering between past and present rather than transmission to passive audiences. The article argues for the collaborative interpretation of history meanings between teachers and students mediated by a Wiki. The methodology involved a case study of pre-service teachers enrolled at Makerere University in Uganda. The purely qualitative study draws on Gilly Salmon’s five-stage model of online learning. The findings indicate that participants successfully engaged with the first three stages - access and motivation, online socialisation, and information exchange  - but less so with stages four and five, knowledge construction and development. The paper concludes by proposing a framework that could be useful to teachers wanting to facilitate history education using modern approaches that are relevant and meaningful to today’s learners.

  11. World Politics in Early 21st Century: Theoretical Forecasts and Contemporary Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Lantsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the forecasts concerning trends in world politics of the early 21st century created by Francis Fukuyama, Samuel Huntington and Immanuel Wallerstein. Though none of the forecasts was completely accurate, all of them spoke of the tendencies that could be later observed in world politics. Despite many experts criticized Fukuyama’s concept of the ‘end of history’, Western elites had been making foreign policies of their countries in accordance with the concept until recently.The article explains how such policies came to contradict contemporary state of affairs. In accordance with Huntington’s expectations, the role of civilizational factor in world politics of the early 21st century signifi cantly grew compared to previous periods. However, the character of civilizational factor’s infl uence on political processes appeared to be different compared to what Huntington expected. The article underlines the accuracy of Wallerstein’s forecast concerning the consequences of mass South-North migration. At the same time, the article concludes, his forecast, likewise the other two, also requires adaptation to contemporary situation in societal development.

  12. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  13. Evidence-based toxicology for the 21st century: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Andersen, Melvin; Becker, Richard A; Betts, Kellyn; Boekelheide, Kim; Carney, Ed; Chapin, Robert; Devlin, Dennis; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Fowle, John R; Harlow, Patricia; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Holsapple, Michael; Jacobs, Abigail; Judson, Richard; Naidenko, Olga; Pastoor, Tim; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowan, Andrew; Scherer, Roberta; Shaikh, Rashid; Simon, Ted; Wolf, Douglas; Zurlo, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on "Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges" in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathway-based testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century" as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that effort forward. The workshop served to clarify evidence-based approaches and to provide food for thought on substantive and administrative activities for the EBTC. Priority activities include conducting pilot studies to demonstrate the value of evidence-based approaches to toxicology, as well as conducting educational outreach on these approaches.

  14. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gill; Austin, Christopher P; Balapure, Anil K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bucher, John R; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Fowle, John R; Kavlock, Robert J; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A; Muotri, Alysson R; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved.

  15. The Role of Billionaires in the Economic Paradigm of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo TOMÉ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyses the importance of billionaires in the economy of the 21st century. We assume that rich people and organizations existed since civilization exists, but billionaires are a different phenomenon and they appear within a very specific context. This paper analyses the cause of the existence of billionaires and also discusses some consequences of that existence. The methodology of the paper is basically a search of data and information online coupled with reasoning about the topic. We conclude that, quite crucially, billionaires are a distinctive feature of the economy of the 21st century, both by the facts which cause them and the consequences that derive from the billionaires’ existence. Moreover, all those causes and consequences thrive and are related to the knowledge economy. The study is original because even if the top 1% persons have been studied recently, no systematic analysis of causes and effects of billionaires nor the relation with the knowledge economy has been done. The conclusions of the paper matter for politicians, analysts, the billionaires themselves, and all those that live in the knowledge economy. The paper is a limited effort but it defines decisive questions for the world’s future.

  16. Projected changes in significant wave height toward the end of the 21st century: Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Ole Johan; Reistad, Magnar; Breivik, Øyvind; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta; Ingolf Eide, Lars; Gramstad, Odin; Magnusson, Anne Karin; Natvig, Bent; Vanem, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Wind field ensembles from six CMIP5 models force wave model time slices of the northeast Atlantic over the last three decades of the 20th and the 21st centuries. The future wave climate is investigated by considering the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The CMIP5 model selection is based on their ability to reconstruct the present (1971-2000) extratropical cyclone activity, but increased spatial resolution has also been emphasized. In total, the study comprises 35 wave model integrations, each about 30 years long, in total more than 1000 years. Here annual statistics of significant wave height are analyzed, including mean parameters and upper percentiles. There is general agreement among all models considered that the mean significant wave height is expected to decrease by the end of the 21st century. This signal is statistically significant also for higher percentiles, but less evident for annual maxima. The RCP8.5 scenario yields the strongest reduction in wave height. The exception to this is the north western part of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea, where receding ice cover gives longer fetch and higher waves. The upper percentiles are reduced less than the mean wave height, suggesting that the future wave climate has higher variance than the historical period.

  17. [Curse and blessing of combat ophthalmology in the 20th and 21st centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, H

    2009-08-01

    Combat injuries in the literature are dominated by reports on the rescue of life and body trauma treatment of casualties. In the 20th and 21st centuries, preservation of the eyes would be more and more an extremely important goal. In World War I and II and along with the trends in current warfare, automatic weapons and conventional munitions like shrapnel will continue to cause a significant percentage of all ocular trauma in combat. There are also laser weapons which have the potential to cause blinding eye injuries. In spite of the curse of war there are also blessings of combat ophthalmology like the invention of the intraocular lens after the Second World War, when the plexiglas of a broken cockpit canopy was found to be inert in penetrating eye injuries. A significant ly better eye protection was developed following terror attacks, such as terrorist blasts in the 21st century. Finally, every new generation of military ophthalmologists has had to learn on its own from earlier armed conflicts and some of this knowledge could be helpful for our patients in more peaceful times. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  18. Archimedes in the 21st Century : World Conference at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the “Archimedes in the 21st Century” world conference, held at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in 2013. This conference focused on the enduring and continuing influence of Archimedes in our modern world, celebrating his centuries of influence on mathematics, science, and engineering.  Archimedes planted the seeds for a myriad of seminal ideas that would grow over the ages. Each chapter surveys the growth of one or more of these seeds, and the fruit that they continue to bear to this day. The conference speakers contributing to this book are actively involved in STEM fields whose origins trace back to Archimedes, many of whom have conducted and published research that extends Archimedes’ work into the 21st century. The speakers are not historians, so while historical context is provided, this book is uniquely focused on the works themselves as opposed to their history.   The breadth and depth of Archimedes’ influence will inspire, deligh...

  19. 21st century neurobehavioral theories of decision making in addiction: Review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Athamneh, Liqa N; Stein, Jeffrey S; Pope, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    This review critically examines neurobehavioral theoretical developments in decision making in addiction in the 21st century. We specifically compare each theory reviewed to seven benchmarks of theoretical robustness, based on their ability to address: why some commodities are addictive; developmental trends in addiction; addiction-related anhedonia; self-defeating patterns of behavior in addiction; why addiction co-occurs with other unhealthy behaviors; and, finally, means for the repair of addiction. We have included only self-contained theories or hypotheses which have been developed or extended in the 21st century to address decision making in addiction. We thus review seven distinct theories of decision making in addiction: learning theories, incentive-sensitization theory, dopamine imbalance and systems models, opponent process theory, strength models of self-control failure, the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory, and the triadic systems theory of addiction. Finally, we have directly compared the performance of each of these theories based on the aforementioned benchmarks, and highlighted key points at which several theories have coalesced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydrology for the late 20th century and mid 21st century. By looking at differences between the future and baseline periods, mid-century changes to surface hydrology relative to the late 20th century can be evaluated in our study region. Using dynamical downscaling techniques and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we develop a detailed high-resolution climatology for the Los Angeles region from coarse-resolution North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data and output from five "business as usual" global climate model (GCMs) simulations in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) data archive. Output from the dynamical downscaling WRF simulations is then used to force the offline Noah Land Surface Model (Noah-LSM), which simulates near-surface state variables and surface turbulent fluxes. This methodology allows us to assess potential impacts of climate change to surface hydrology in the Los Angeles region at scales relevant to local policy makers or water resources planners.

  1. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  2. American internal medicine in the 21st century: can an Oslerian generalism survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-09-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine.

  3. International estimated fetal weight standards of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, J; Villar, J; Salomon, L J; Ohuma, E; Ruyan, P; Altman, D G; Nosten, F; Craik, R; Munim, S; Cheikh Ismail, L; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Norris, S; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Noble, J A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Purwar, M; Victora, C G; Uauy, R; Bhutta, Z; Kennedy, S; Papageorghiou, A T

    2017-04-01

    Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide. Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21st Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured within 12 h of delivery by dedicated research anthropometrists using standardized methods and identical electronic scales. Live babies without any congenital abnormality, who were born within 14 days of the last ultrasound scan, were selected for inclusion. As most births occurred at around 40 weeks' gestation, we constructed a bootstrap model selection and estimation procedure based on resampling of the complete dataset under an approximately uniform distribution of birth weight, thus enriching the sample size at extremes of fetal sizes, to achieve consistent estimates across the full range of fetal weight. We constructed reference centiles using second-degree fractional polynomial models. Of the overall population, 2404 babies were born within 14 days of the last ultrasound scan. Mean time between the last scan and birth was 7.7 (range, 0-14) days and was uniformly distributed. Birth weight was best estimated as a function of AC and HC (without FL) as log(EFW) = 5.084820 - 54.06633 × (AC/100)3  - 95.80076 × (AC/100)3  × log(AC/100) + 3

  4. Enhancement of collaboration activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Dave D.; Gargar, Clare V., Lady; Nallano, Gerlett Grace D.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty first century learners have incredibly diverse learning interests, needs, and aspirations. Engaging middle school students and sculpting successful, confident, and creative learners is a constant endeavor for educators [4]. In the 21st century classroom environments in which students can develop the skills they need in workplace. Collaboration occurs when students work together to create, discuss challenge and develop deeper critical thinking. In today's workplace, collaboration is essential as only few tasks are completed alone (Calgary and Park, 2016). The collaborative project-based curriculum used in this classroom develops the higher order thinking skills, effective communication skills, and knowledge of technology that students will need in the 21st century workplace. The study therefore aims to promote collaboration skills among learners as it is deemed as one of the top 21st century skills. Collaborative learning unleashes a unique intellectual and social synergy. This study aims to enhance the collaborative skills of students through conducting collaboration activities in learning the Ecosystem. This research utilizes pretest-posttest and employs descriptive research designs. It uses modified activities about the lesson on Ecosystem and utilizes a Collaboration Rubric to rate the modified activities. The activities were rated by ten In-Service teachers and there are 105 students who participated in doing the activities. The paired t-test is then used to analyze the data. The In-Service teachers evaluated the 1st and 2nd adapted activity and are rated as fair. Thus, the modified activities were enhanced since the ratings of each activity did not meet the criterion of the collaboration rubric. As for the 3rd adapted activity is rated as excellent and is ready for implementation. The evaluators provided comments and suggestions such as producing colored pictures on the activities, omitting some questions, and making the words simpler to enhance the

  5. Earthquake: Game-based learning for 21st century STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Abigail Christine

    To play is to learn. A lack of empirical research within game-based learning literature, however, has hindered educational stakeholders to make informed decisions about game-based learning for 21st century STEM education. In this study, I modified a research and development (R&D) process to create a collaborative-competitive educational board game illuminating elements of earthquake engineering. I oriented instruction- and game-design principles around 21st century science education to adapt the R&D process to develop the educational game, Earthquake. As part of the R&D, I evaluated Earthquake for empirical evidence to support the claim that game-play results in student gains in critical thinking, scientific argumentation, metacognitive abilities, and earthquake engineering content knowledge. I developed Earthquake with the aid of eight focus groups with varying levels of expertise in science education research, teaching, administration, and game-design. After developing a functional prototype, I pilot-tested Earthquake with teacher-participants (n=14) who engaged in semi-structured interviews after their game-play. I analyzed teacher interviews with constant comparison methodology. I used teachers' comments and feedback from content knowledge experts to integrate game modifications, implementing results to improve Earthquake. I added player roles, simplified phrasing on cards, and produced an introductory video. I then administered the modified Earthquake game to two groups of high school student-participants (n = 6), who played twice. To seek evidence documenting support for my knowledge claim, I analyzed videotapes of students' game-play using a game-based learning checklist. My assessment of learning gains revealed increases in all categories of students' performance: critical thinking, metacognition, scientific argumentation, and earthquake engineering content knowledge acquisition. Players in both student-groups improved mostly in critical thinking, having

  6. Climate change and malaria risk in the European part of Russia in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartova, N.; Malkhazova, S.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for European part of Russia (EPR) in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "A2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; creating of maps of malaria risk; analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia (particularly for EPR) the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets for EPR are presented in the grid 2x2. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift

  7. Climate change and malaria risk in Russia in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, S.; Shartova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for Russia in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "А2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: - define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; - creating of maps of malaria risk; - analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets are presented in the grid 2х20. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift of the beginning of malaria transmission

  8. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, Jon; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  9. Respiratory research networks in Europe and beyond: aims, achievements and aspirations for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Martin-Loeches

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infection, such as intensive care unit (ICU-related respiratory infections, remain the most frequently encountered morbidity of ICU admission, prolonging hospital stay and increasing mortality rates. The epidemiology of ICU-related respiratory infections, particularly nonventilated ICU-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, appears to be quite different among different countries. European countries have different prevalence, patterns and mechanism of resistance, as well as different treatments chosen by different attending physicians. The classical clinical research process in respiratory infections consists of the following loop: 1 identification of knowledge gaps; 2 systematic review and search for adequate answers; 3 generation of study hypotheses; 4 design of study protocols; 5 collection clinical data; 6 analysis and interpretation of the results; and 7 implementation of the results in clinical practice.

  10. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  11. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.; Burgess, Neil David; Cabeza, Mar

    2012-01-01

    exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light of methodological as well as biological uncertainties. Here, we provide a framework to address methodological......Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate...... projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17...

  12. The second conference on lunar bases and space activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles in this report.

  13. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These papers comprise a peer-review selection of presentations by authors from NASA, LPI industry, and academia at the Second Conference (April 1988) on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, sponsored by the NASA Office of Exploration and the Lunar Planetary Institute. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics covered by this volume include (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon, (2) lunar base site selection, (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats, and (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This booklet is an introduction to several new strategies for designing, developing, and retrofitting energy-efficient laboratories. It is the result of a collaboration among staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), several national laboratories, and their contractors. They are collaborating to meet the goals of a joint EPA-DOE initiative, 'Laboratories for the 21st Century,' which was established to help government and private-sector laboratory designers, engineers, owners, and operators work together to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs. This booklet describes many energy-efficient strategies that can be done during laboratory planning and programming; design; engineering; and commissioning, operation, and maintenance. There is also a discussion of on-site power generation and clean sources of electricity from renewable energy.

  15. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  16. Developmental neurotoxicity - challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lena; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years neurodevelopmental problems in children have increased at a rate that suggests lifestyle factors and chemical exposures as likely contributors. When environmental chemicals contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) becomes an enormous concern. But how can it be tackled? Current animal test- based guidelines are prohibitively expensive, at $ 1.4 million per substance, while their predictivity for human health effects may be limited, and mechanistic data that would help species extrapolation are not available. A broader screening for substances of concern requires a reliable testing strategy, applicable to larger numbers of substances, and sufficiently predictive to warrant further testing. This review discusses the evidence for possible contributions of environmental chemicals to DNT, limitations of the current test paradigm, emerging concepts and technologies pertinent to in vitro DNT testing and assay evaluation, as well as the prospect of a paradigm shift based on 21st century technologies.

  17. Old themes, new directions--occupational therapy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, H M; Cardwell, M T; Robinson, I M; Brintnell, E S

    1986-11-01

    The paper begins with a brief look at directions for the future of occupational therapy as expressed in occupational therapy literature over the past six decades. The major contributions in the areas of practice, research and education, professional organization, and theory/knowledge base are highlighted. It then considers current social issues in Canadian society which have a bearing on occupational therapy and implications for its future development: population trends, health status and hospitalization, universal access to health and social services, unemployment, client expectations, multiculturism, medical ethics, family breakdown and child abuse. It looks at the occupational therapy profession in relation to these social issues and concludes with a summary of implications for occupational therapy and predictions for its future into the 21st century based on the analysis of these trends.

  18. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the laboratories in the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center complex in Seattle, Washington, include extensive use of efficient lighting, variable-air-volume controls, variable-speed drives, motion sensors, and high-efficiency chillers and motors. With about 532,000 gross square feet, the complex is estimated to use 33% less electrical energy than most traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  19. Sustainable development of Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milorad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the development process in Serbia in the first decade of the 21st century. At the beginning we clearly defined the difference between simple growth of national economy and its development. It is obvious that the growth of revenue in the period 2001-2008 could not be marked as development compared by all of the major macroeconomic indicators. Also there is no doubt that similar (or same growth pattern as in the analyzed period could not be a development model in the future. Because of that, we proposed at the end of the paper new elements of Serbian development - based on KBE (knowledge based economy in the industry sector energy and all other types of efficiency measures and enhancing of personnel capabilities and training of employees as comparative advantages of Serbian Economy.

  20. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal...... on pharmacokinetic models for the given exposure condition. This practice would enhance human relevance of test results, and would cover several test agents, compared to traditional toxicological testing strategies. As all the tools that are necessary to implement the vision are currently available or in an advanced...... stage of development, the key prerequisites to achieving this paradigm shift are a commitment to change in the scientific community, which could be facilitated by a broad discussion of the vision, and obtaining necessary resources to enhance current knowledge of pathway perturbations and pathway assays...

  1. Latin-American inmigration in Spain in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora García Ballesteros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Latino-American immigration in Spain increased in the last fourth of the 20th century and in the first decade of the 21st century, promoted by historical and social links and by bilateral covenants. Country provenance also changed due to the social-economic and political circumstances the countries were going through. Nowadays, most immigrants come from Ecuador and Colombia. The main effects that this emigration had on the countries of origin as well as immigrants’ legal situation in Spain are studied. The age and gender structures and their health situation are also analysed. Later on, their spatial distribution is looked into, specially in Madrid and Barcelona where almost half of Latin-Americans are concentrated. In the last part, labour and their main activities are examined as well as the existing differences depending on the country of origin.

  2. Intercultural-global competencies for the 21st century and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, Philip; Kirkpatrick, Mary K

    2015-05-01

    Increased diversity exists in Anglo-Saxon countries, such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. By 2050, no single ethnic group is expected to be in a majority in the United States. Health care reform points to an urgent need for health care professionals, such as nursing, medicine, allied health, nutrition, and other interdisciplinary health care team members, to serve a multi-ethnic population by developing intercultural-global and 21st-century competencies. Nurse educators must acknowledge the need to familiarize themselves and integrate these competencies into university and continuing education programs by evaluating and reporting outcomes. All nurses can be expected to have these competencies as global citizens through local, intercultural, and global interactions and exchanges. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. The school history in the beginnings of the 21st century: changes, losses and conquests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores school history in the beginnings of the 21st century. It analyses the current intentions, contents and practices in order to indicate the changes, conquests and losses (in comparison with the 20th century. It focuses on the secondary level (Province of Buenos Aires across scholar, normative and pedagogic sources. The article indicates that school history today presents changes that reveal a break of the discipline’s code formed at the end of the 19th century and developed during great part of the 20th century (characterized as civilizing, patriotic, elitist, factual, bookish, memory learning. Also, it shows a new code with a great importance in the contemporary and recent times, and critical and plural spirit. Also it appears that school history shows important conquests - in relation with the Latin American perspective and the recent history- and certain losses - in relation with a collective identity and the narrative character-

  4. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  5. A 21st century perspective as a primer to introductory physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Lorenzo J, E-mail: ljc@physics.utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Much effort over many years has been devoted to the reform of the teaching of physics. This has led to many new and imaginative approaches in the content and delivery of material. Great strides have been made in the delivery, and the content has been continually supplemented. However, attempts to modernize the basic structure of the presentation have faced resistance, and the majority of introductory physics textbooks in wide adoption today have a general structure that has changed little in over 60 years. Thus, in comparison to biology, chemistry, geology, etc, physics is unique in that its introductory course is not a survey of the current status of the field. In an attempt to circumvent this problem in a tractable way, we have developed a qualitative front-end course designed to create a 21st century perspective that can be embedded into the beginning of a standard introductory physics sequence.

  6. [Technological innovations for the 21st century: synthesis of optical and biotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, K

    2001-05-01

    As the population ages in many developing countries, preventive-rather treatment-based medicine would be the key to improved and cost-effective health care in the 21st century. To accomplish this goal, we have developed a fully automated DNA assay system, called "optical rapid assay(ORA)" utilizing and combining micromachine and optical technologies. This system consists of innovative preparatory modules, a free flow electrophoresis for separation of DNA from other contaminants in the specimens, an extremely compact and effective microreactor for PCR, and two reflection null comparative ellipsometry for direct detection of hybridized target DNA without any labelled reagents. The total system will undoubtedly contributes to early diagnosis of serious infections such as viral hepatitis, and future standardization of DNA assays. Simultaneously, each module of the system provides a potential tool for R & D of DNA based diagnoses and therapies.

  7. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek

    2006-01-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  8. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  9. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-12-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the laboratories in the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center complex in Seattle, Washington, include extensive use of efficient lighting, variable-air-volume controls, variable-speed drives, motion sensors, and high-efficiency chillers and motors. With about 532,000 gross square feet, the complex is estimated to use 33% less electrical energy than most traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  10. ICT CHALLENGES IN THE 21ST CENTURY BUSINESS ENGLISH UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lustigová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the nature of the study, the objectives of this paper are to demonstrate practical approach to using ICT tools in teaching Business English to university-level students. By offering specific examples for efficient integration of selected technologies within undergraduate classroom the study concentrates on practical and yet motivated solutions to many issues faced by the university teachers and students within the teaching-learning process. The study explores the importance of establishing an authentic business context via the invaluable help of ICT tools. This authentic context facilitates smooth acquisition of language proficiency and multitude of other skills for students’ future career use. Based on actual classroom teaching/research, this study demonstrates that meaningful use of ICT tools allows the 21st century Business English teachers and students to keep pace with the ever-changing business world.

  11. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  12. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, Anthony David; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

  13. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  14. CESM-simulated 21st Century Changes in Large Scale Crop Water Requirements and Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, S.; Badger, A.; Drewniak, B. A.; O'Neill, B. C.; Ren, X.

    2014-12-01

    We assess potential changes in crop water requirements and corresponding yields relative to the late 20th century in major crop producing regions of the world by using the Community Land Model (CLM) driven with 21st century meteorology from RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The RCP4.5 simulation allows us to explore the potential for averted societal impacts when compared to the RCP8.5 simulation. We consider the possibility for increased yields and improved water use efficiency under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 due to the CO2 fertilization effect (also known as concentration-carbon feedback). We address uncertainty in the current understanding of plant CO2 fertilization by repeating the simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect. Simulations without CO2 fertilization represent the radiative effect of elevated CO2 (i.e., warming) without representing the physiological effect of elevated CO2 (enhanced carbon uptake and increased water use efficiency by plants during photosynthesis). Preliminary results suggest that some plants may suffer from increasing heat and drought in much of the world without the CO2 fertilization effect. On the other hand plants (especially C3) tend to grow more with less water when models include the CO2 fertilization effect. Performing 21st century simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect brackets the potential range of outcomes. In this work we use the CLM crop model, which includes specific crop types that differ from the model's default plant functional types in that the crops get planted, harvested, and potentially fertilized and irrigated according to algorithms that attempt to capture human management decisions. We use an updated version of the CLM4.5 that includes cotton, rice, and sugarcane, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring rye, as well as temperate and tropical maize and soybean.

  15. Remembering Florence Nightingale's panorama: 21st-century nursing--at a critical crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deva-Marie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale lived and worked in response to her times--yet also ahead of her time. She insisted on pursuing a career even though her wealthy family could have provided her with a lifetime of leisure. Because she was a woman, this choice to work outside her home was all the more unusual. Nightingale was also a vanguard woman because she chose nursing, a role that was considered the work of desperate, impoverished women who lived on the street like prostitutes. In addition to these unusual choices, Nightingale's career was unique beyond anyone in her time. She was one of the most prolific authors of the 19th century. In addition to being an early role model for nursing, Nightingale was also a leader in several other fields emerging in her time, including social work, statistical analysis, and print journalism. As a global thinker, Nightingale would have loved 21st century. She noted cultural, social, and economic concerns, particularly in relation to health and to the discipline of nursing. She urged nurses to progress in their practice and to think outside their official domains. She responded to the culture of the 19th century by envisioning what could be changed. Working with her talents and available resources, she evolved the health care culture of the 20th century and beyond. She called all of this work "Health-Nursing." As we remember and further study the extraordinary panorama that is our Nightingale legacy, we are creating and shaping our relevant, emerging 21st century nursing practice.

  16. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  17. Examining the relationship between typical drinking behavior and 21st birthday drinking behavior among college students: implications for event-specific prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Lindgren, Kristen P; Fossos, Nicole; Neighbors, Clayton; Oster-Aaland, Laura

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to: (i) compare 21st birthday drinking with typical drinking; (ii) assess the prevalence of negative consequences and risk behaviors experienced during the 21st birthday week; and (iii) examine the role of typical drinking and 21st birthday drinking in explaining 21st birthday week negative consequences and risk behaviors. Participants (n = 306; 50% male) included college students turning 21 at a Midwestern public university in the United States. Approximately 1 week prior to their 21st birthday, students completed measures of typical past 3-month alcohol consumption via a web-based survey. Following their birthday, students (n = 296; 50% male) completed measures of 21st birthday week drinking as well as negative consequences and risk behaviors. Findings indicated that students consumed considerably larger amounts of alcohol during the week of their 21st birthdays in comparison to typical weekly consumption. Additionally, students experienced a variety of negative consequences and risk behaviors during the week of their 21st birthday, including hangovers, vomiting and not remembering part of the previous evening. Negative binomial regression results indicated that those most likely to experience more negative consequences and risk behaviors associated with 21st birthday drinking were those who consumed heavy amounts of alcohol the week of their birthday, but who did not typically drink excessively. Findings underscore the need to develop event-specific prevention approaches for occasions associated with extreme drinking and provide direction for considering who may be at greatest risk for problems associated with celebratory drinking.

  18. German model. Challenge on the way to the 21st century. Das Deutschland-Modell. Herausforderungen auf dem Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestel, E.; Bauerschmidt, R.; Gottwaldt, M.; Huebl, L.; Moeller, K.P.; Oest, W.; Stroebele, W.

    1980-06-01

    The German model is a consequent continuation of the work which has already lead to the Mesarovic-Pestel world-model and the 2nd report to the Club of Rome: The authors, members of the Institut fuer angewandte Systemforschung und Prognose (ISP) at Hanover, founded in 1975 by Professor Pestel, show the problems and challenges on the way to the 21st century on the basis of numerous model calculations. The German model consists of a number of coupled sub-models investigating the developments in the fields of population, education, economics, energy and labour market. Germany's role in the international network and its contribution to the North-South dialogue is taken into consideration. In the much-discussed energy sector, the calculations show that future requirements will probably be much lower than expected. Until the turn of the century, there will be no serious problems in energy and raw materials supply and consequently no structural changes.

  19. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    quickly formed, have already started, and presumably have also followed previously unpredictable directions. In this scenario, it is normal and healthy for the entire community to question itself as of whether it is a set of proceedings the best way to document and communicate to peers (present and future) the work that has been done at a precise time and the vivid and live ideas of a precise moment in the evolution of the discipline. Pointing the attention to a specific CHEP event alone does not give the right answer: in fact, the heritage value lies in the quality and continuity of the documentation work, despite the changes of times, trends and actors. The CHEP proceedings, in their variety and thanks to the condensed form of knowledge they offer, are what most likely will be more easily preserved for future generations, thanks to the outstanding efforts over digital libraries for all kinds of cultural heritage. Since 1985, this long-standing tradition continued with the 21st CHEP edition in Okinawa. The successful model that brings together high-energy and nuclear physicist and computer scientists was repeated in the Okinawa prefecture, an outstanding location consisting of a few dozen small islands in the southern half of the Nansei Shoto, the island chain which stretches over about one thousand kilometres from Kyushu to Taiwan. The OIST (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology) centre hosted the event, and offered an outstanding location and efficient facilities for the event. As for the CHEP history, contributions from 'general purpose' physics experiments mixed together with highly specialized work on the frontier of precision and intensity. The year 2015 is marked by the LHC restart in Run 2. Experimental groups at the LHC reviewed and presented their Run 1 experiences in detail, and reported the work done in acquiring the latest computing and software technologies, as well as in evolving their computing models in preparation for Run 2 (and beyond). On the

  20. 21st Century Skills and the English Foreign Language Classroom: A Call for More Awareness in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Yamith José

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century demands the explicit integration of learning strategies, digital competences and career abilities. Schools in general and EFL classrooms in particular should provide students with practices and processes focused on acquiring and developing, among other things, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, self-direction, and…

  1. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  2. Relationship of Teachers' Ratings of Kindergarteners' 21st Century Skills and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Choi, Taehoon

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of kindergarten teachers' ratings of their students' 21st century skills (college readiness skills) with students' behavioral and academic performance. Teachers rated the frequency that their students (n = 579) demonstrated persistence, curiosity, affective, and cognitive (e.g., critical thinking) behaviors…

  3. Elementary School Teachers' Beliefs about the Role of Technology in 21st-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, LaToya J.; Gibson, Philip; Cotten, Shelia R.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advancements have led to changes in the expectations placed on K-12 teachers. Teachers are now expected to better equip students with 21st-century skills, making it important to understand teachers' beliefs about the role of technology in teaching and learning and the skills their students need to be successful. Using a qualitative…

  4. Honoring 15 Years of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: A Polity-Centered Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sarah Fierberg

    2010-01-01

    Emphasizing the intersection of policy and politics, this paper uses Theda Skocpol's polity-centered approach (1992) to analyze two key moments in the history of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program: (1) 1998, when the program's budget grew from $40 million to $200 million; and (2) 2003, when President Bush attempted to cut…

  5. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Clean, Reliable, and Resilient Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    The 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) serves as an open, collaborative platform for sharing policy and regulatory best practices in the service of power system transformation. Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. This fact sheet details the 21CPP South Africa Programme.

  6. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last ...

  7. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. In Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop

  8. Gauging Teachers' Needs with Regard to Technology- Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) of 21st Century Skills in the Classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Boon, Jo; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Several trends in society have led to a request towards schools to integrate 21st Century Skills and technology enhanced formative assessment (TEFA) in their curricula. Although there are frameworks defined at an international level, implementation of technology enhanced formative assessment

  9. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María-Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013, 17-21 September). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. Presentation at the Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop

  10. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Selva

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  11. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  12. Far Away, so Close: Preservices School Library Media Specialists' Perceptions of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Marcia A.; Dickinson, Gail K.

    2009-01-01

    Preservice school library media specialists will implement the AASL Standards for the "21st Century Learner" in their new roles. Drafted in 2007, the Standards reflect principles which school library media specialist must impart to learners to prepare them to be knowledge consumers, producers, and communicators in global environments.…

  13. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N., tech. ed. Bengston

    2005-01-01

    Protecting natural areas in the face of urbanization is one of the most important challenges for conservation in the 21st century. The papers in this collection examine key issues related to growth management and selected approaches to managing urban growth and minimizing its social and environmental costs. They were presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the Society...

  14. Implications of the 21st Century Cures Act for the Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    The 21st Century Cures Act provides funding for key initiatives relevant to the behavioral and social sciences and includes administrative provisions that facilitate health research and increase the privacy protections of research participants. At about the same time as the passage of the Act, the National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral…

  15. Fostering Students' 21st Century Skills through Project Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL) in Integrated STEM Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Husin, Wan Nor Fadzilah; Mohamad Arsad, Nurazidawati; Othman, Oziah; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Iksan, Zanaton

    2016-01-01

    Students nowadays need to be equipped with twenty first century skills in order to ensure their competitiveness in this era of globalization, especially in the science and technology sector. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the changes of 21st century skills among students after participating in an integrated Science, Technology,…

  16. Carbon dynamics of forest in Washington, USA: 21st century projections based on climate-driven changes in fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    During the 21st century, climate-driven changes in fire regimes will be a key agent of change in forests of the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Understanding the response of forest carbon (C) dynamics to increases in fire will help quantify limits on the contribution of forest C storage to climate change mitigation and prioritize forest types for...

  17. Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries : analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheffield, J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the analysis of global and regional drought over the second half of the 20th century from a retrospective model simulation of the terrestrial water cycle, and projected 21st century changes using multi-scenario data from multiple climate models. A global meteorological forcing dataset is

  18. Developing "Design Minds" for the 21st Century through a Public Sector Initiated Online Design Education Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Christian; Wright, Natalie; Roxburgh, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Education in the 21st century demands a model for understanding a new culture of learning in the face of rapid change, open access data and geographical diversity. Teachers no longer need to provide the latest information because students themselves are taking an active role in peer collectives to help create it. This paper examines, through an…

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal gastroschisis using three-dimensional ultrasound: Comparison between the 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fen Tsai

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Although without statistical significance, higher prenatal diagnosis rate before the third trimester in the 21st century was noted. The improvement of 3D US has remarkable advantages in adding novel visual depiction of a 3D lesion of a 3D fetus in 3D US after reconstruction and thus assists substantially in prenatal diagnosis, genetic consultation, and perinatal management of gastroschisis.

  20. Music Education for Life: The Three Artistic Processes--Paths to Lifelong 21st-Century Skills through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The "Three Artistic Processes" provide a powerful model for organizing standards-based music teaching and assessment as well as a vision of the musically educated student. They also clarify how student-centered music education helps children master 21st-century skills necessary for future success. This article outlines why and how music teachers…

  1. Communication, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving: A Suggested Course for All High School Students in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlgren, Terresa

    2013-01-01

    The skills of communication, critical thinking, and problem solving are essential to thriving as a citizen in the 21st century. These skills are required in order to contribute as a member of society, operate effectively in post-secondary institutions, and be competitive in the global market. Unfortunately they are not always intuitive or simple…

  2. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.

    2010-04-01

    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  3. Academia in the 21st century. An analysis of trends and perspectives in higher education and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harry F.; Huisman, Jeroen; Klemperer, A.M.; van der Meulen, Barend; Neave, Guy; Theisens, H.C.; van der Wende, Marijk

    2002-01-01

    What are world wide the main trends that will or should have an impact on the future of academia? What is expected from academia by different stakeholders in the years to come? These and related questions are addressed in CHEPS¿s report ¿Academia in the 21st century. An analysis of trends and

  4. 77 FR 20046 - Establishment of the Gateway National Recreation Area Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Establishment of the Gateway National Recreation Area Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee AGENCY... Interior (Secretary) is announcing the establishment of the Gateway National Recreation Area Fort Hancock... relating to future uses of the Fort Hancock Historic Landmark District of Gateway National Recreation area...

  5. Effective School Leadership Competencies: A Psychometric Study of the NASSP 21st Century School Administrator Skills Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiedan

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the psychometric properties of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) 21st Century School Administrator Skills instrument. The researcher used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the number of underlying dimensions of the instrument and the pattern of item-factor relationships, estimate the…

  6. Administrative and Leadership Innovation in the 21st Century: A Secondary School Sub-Sector Perspective in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaume-Mwinzi, Regina K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have indicated that in education, the traditional management paradigm maintains an inward focus with the aim of cutting costs, upholding rules and division of labour. However, the 21st century has ushered in a new revolution in education leadership structures which are less hierarchical, more flattened and more fluid organizations. The…

  7. A Profile of Early 21st Century Teachers of Northwest Ohio: The Relationship between Teachers' Technology Integration and Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, encapsulated the national concern and immediate need for educational change in order to prepare our students for the 21st century by stating, "The urgency to improve our children's schools has never been greater." Therefore, in order to develop students with the skills and knowledge…

  8. Prioritizing the 21st Century Superintendent's Skill Set and Knowledge Base from the School Board Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Teri L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent that specific research based skill sets and areas of knowledge emerged as highly important, moderately important, and less important from the perspective of school board leadership as it pertains to 21st century superintendents. The study further disaggregated the data by specific school…

  9. Reaching In, Reaching Out: Faith Schools, Community Engagement, and 21st-Century Skills for Intercultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie; Glenn, Meli; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do Jewish and Muslim faith schools in Britain play a role in promoting and contributing to community cohesion? What 21st-century skills around intercultural understanding do they foster? This book examines the nuances of faith in school settings and draws on a case study of Jewish and Muslim faith schools. The authors show how these…

  10. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  11. Women's Career Investment and the Returns: Career Benefits and Barriers in the 21st Century Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philomena M.

    2010-01-01

    The key to building successful strategies as a higher education practitioner promoting 21st century green economy career awareness for women attending urban universities, demands advocating for benefits, and subverting potential barriers, to positively influence career choices. Women's career investment and returns increase when proper strategies…

  12. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event-Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief…

  14. Revisiting Risk in the 21st Century. Forum Focus. Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forum for Youth Investment, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Over the past year, dozens of articles have been published about excessive youth borrowing and spending (leading to high amounts of debt), new reactions to negative body image (such as plastic surgery), as well as more familiar risks like premarital sex and smoking. In Forum Focus: Revisiting Risk in the 21st Century, we explore these challenges…

  15. Boreal snow cover variations induced by aerosol emissions in the middle of the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménégoz, M.; Krinner, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Boucher, O.; Ciais, P.

    2012-11-01

    We used a coupled climate-chemistry model to quantify the impacts of aerosols on snow cover both for the present-day and for the middle of the 21st century. Black carbon (BC) deposition over continents induces a reduction in the Mean Number of Days With Snow at the Surface (MNDWS) that ranges from 0 to 10 days over large areas of Eurasia and Northern America for the present-day relative to the pre-industrial period. This is mainly due to BC deposition during the spring, a period of the year when the remaining of snow accumulated during the winter is exposed to both strong solar radiation and large amount of aerosol deposition induced themselves by a high level of transport of particles from polluted areas. North of 30° N, this deposition flux represents 222 Gg BC month-1 on average from April to June in our simulation. A large reduction in BC emissions is expected in the future in the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Considering this scenario in our simulation leads to a decrease in the spring BC deposition down to 110 Gg month-1 in the 2050s in the RCP8.5 scenario. However, despite the reduction of the aerosol impact on snow, the MNDWS is strongly reduced by 2050, with a decrease ranging from 10 to 100 days from pre-industrial values over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction is essentially due to temperature increase, which is quite strong in the RCP8.5 scenario in the absence of climate mitigation policies. Moreover, the projected sea-ice retreat in the next decades will open new routes for shipping in the Arctic. However, a large increase in shipping emissions in the Arctic by the mid 21st century does not lead to significant changes of BC deposition over snow-covered areas in our simulation. Therefore, the MNDWS is clearly not affected through snow darkening effects associated to these Arctic ship emissions. In an experiment without nudging toward atmospheric reanalyses, we simulated however some changes of the MNDWS

  16. Effects of 21st birthday brief interventions on college student celebratory drinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Grant, Sean

    2015-11-01

    College students' 21st birthday celebrations often involve consumption of extreme amounts of alcohol as well as alcohol-related risks. This systematic review aims to determine whether birthday-focused, individually-targeted, no-contact (email or letter-based) brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) reduce college students' 21st birthday celebratory drinking. A systematic search identified 9 randomized evaluations with 10 interventions to reduce 21st birthday drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were measured. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize the effects of the interventions. There was no evidence that birthday-focused BAIs reduce quantities of alcohol consumed during birthday celebrations (g = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.03 to 0.13]). The interventions were associated with significant reductions in estimated BAC levels (g = 0.20, 95% CI [0.07 to 0.33]), but this effect was small in absolute terms. The quality of this body of evidence was very low, as evaluated using the GRADE approach. In particular, it was limited by substantial participant attrition post-randomization due to included studies' recruitment and randomization procedures. There is no evidence that birthday-focused, individually-targeted BAIs reduce the quantity of alcohol consumed by students during 21st birthday celebrations, although these interventions may yield small beneficial effects on estimated BAC. Many methodological concerns were identified in included studies. This area of research would benefit from theory-based RCTs that are well-designed and executed. Future research should also investigate strategies other than birthday-focused, individually-targeted, brief interventions to curb 21st birthday celebratory drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mid-21st century projections of hydroclimate in Western Himalayas and Satluj River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan climate system is sensitive to global warming and climate change. Regional hydrology and the downstream water flow in the rivers of Himalayan origin may change due to variations in snow and glacier melt in the region. This study examines the mid-21st century climate projections over western Himalayas from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). All the global climate models used in the present analysis indicate that the study region would be warmer by mid-century. The temperature trends from all the models studied here are statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. Multi-model ensemble spreads show that there are large differences among the models in their projections of future climate with spread in temperature ranging from about 1.5 °C to 5 °C over various areas of western Himalayas in all the seasons. Spread in precipitation projections lies between 0.3 and 1 mm/day in all the seasons. Major shift in the timing of evaporation maxima and minima is noticed. The GFDL_ESM2G model products have been downscaled to Satluj River basin using the weather research and forecast (WRF) model and impact of climate change on streamflow has been studied. The reduction of precipitation during JJAS is expected to be > 3-6 mm/day in RCP8.5 as compared to present climate. It is expected that precipitation amount shall increase over Satluj basin in future (mid-21st century) The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model has been used to simulate the Satluj streamflow for the present and future climate using GFDL_ESM2G precipitation and temperature data as well as the WRF model downscaled data. The computations using the global model data show that total annual discharge from Satluj will be less in future than that in present climate, especially in peak discharge season (JJAS). The SWAT model with downscaled output indicates that during

  18. Global change in streamflow extremes under climate change over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asadieh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is expected to intensify the Earth's hydrological cycle and increase flood and drought risks. Changes over the 21st century under two warming scenarios in different percentiles of the probability distribution of streamflow, and particularly of high and low streamflow extremes (95th and 5th percentiles, are analyzed using an ensemble of bias-corrected global climate model (GCM fields fed into different global hydrological models (GHMs provided by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP to understand the changes in streamflow distribution and simultaneous vulnerability to different types of hydrological risk in different regions. In the multi-model mean under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5 scenario, 37 % of global land areas experience an increase in magnitude of extremely high streamflow (with an average increase of 24.5 %, potentially increasing the chance of flooding in those regions. On the other hand, 43 % of global land areas show a decrease in the magnitude of extremely low streamflow (average decrease of 51.5 %, potentially increasing the chance of drought in those regions. About 10 % of the global land area is projected to face simultaneously increasing high extreme streamflow and decreasing low extreme streamflow, reflecting the potentially worsening hazard of both flood and drought; further, these regions tend to be highly populated parts of the globe, currently holding around 30 % of the world's population (over 2.1 billion people. In a world more than 4° warmer by the end of the 21st century compared to the pre-industrial era (RCP8.5 scenario, changes in magnitude of streamflow extremes are projected to be about twice as large as in a 2° warmer world (RCP2.6 scenario. Results also show that inter-GHM uncertainty in streamflow changes, due to representation of terrestrial hydrology, is greater than the inter-GCM uncertainty due to simulation of climate change

  19. Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain) during 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Jéssica; Peña, Juan Carlos; Miró, Josep Ramon; Aran, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events (HWE) can cause an abrupt increase in mortality. A HWE was defined as a 7-day sequence following a key-day labelled by the 95th percentile of Barcelona daily mortality (see Peña et al., 2015). The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis (MVA) integrating different atmospheric levels (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa) was undertaken. The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The Max Planck Institute Earth system model was used to study two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) during the 21st century. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation (Q-Q). The MVA applied to the observed period (1990-2015) distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods. These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period (1961-2005) after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period (1990-2005) is twice more than during the cold period (1976-1989) due to an intensification of the warm masses. In the RCP 4.5 scenario (2006-2100 period) a positive and significant trend is shown in synoptic patterns which provoke HWE in Barcelona, especially during August; in the RCP 8.5 scenario there is no significant trend, but the intensification of the warm masses is higher.

  20. Global change in streamflow extremes under climate change over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadieh, Behzad; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2017-11-01

    Global warming is expected to intensify the Earth's hydrological cycle and increase flood and drought risks. Changes over the 21st century under two warming scenarios in different percentiles of the probability distribution of streamflow, and particularly of high and low streamflow extremes (95th and 5th percentiles), are analyzed using an ensemble of bias-corrected global climate model (GCM) fields fed into different global hydrological models (GHMs) provided by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to understand the changes in streamflow distribution and simultaneous vulnerability to different types of hydrological risk in different regions. In the multi-model mean under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario, 37 % of global land areas experience an increase in magnitude of extremely high streamflow (with an average increase of 24.5 %), potentially increasing the chance of flooding in those regions. On the other hand, 43 % of global land areas show a decrease in the magnitude of extremely low streamflow (average decrease of 51.5 %), potentially increasing the chance of drought in those regions. About 10 % of the global land area is projected to face simultaneously increasing high extreme streamflow and decreasing low extreme streamflow, reflecting the potentially worsening hazard of both flood and drought; further, these regions tend to be highly populated parts of the globe, currently holding around 30 % of the world's population (over 2.1 billion people). In a world more than 4° warmer by the end of the 21st century compared to the pre-industrial era (RCP8.5 scenario), changes in magnitude of streamflow extremes are projected to be about twice as large as in a 2° warmer world (RCP2.6 scenario). Results also show that inter-GHM uncertainty in streamflow changes, due to representation of terrestrial hydrology, is greater than the inter-GCM uncertainty due to simulation of climate change. Under both forcing

  1. Climate change projections for Ukraine in the 21st century based on the best RCM ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatiuk, Natalia; Krakovska, Svitlana; Palamarchuk, Liudmyla; Bilozerova, Alla

    2013-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCM) results obtained within the European project FP-6 ENSEMBLES for scenario SRES A1B were used for the analysis and projections of climate change in Ukraine. RCM ensembles of 10 RCMs for air temperature and 4 RCMs for precipitation were applied according to previous studies when the best models and ensembles for Ukraine were determined between 14 RCMs of the ENSEMBLES. Changes of key climatic characteristics (multiyear monthly and annual mean and extreme values of air temperature and amount of precipitation) for the territory of Ukraine were analyzed for 20-year periods in the past (1961-1990), modern time (1991-2010) and future periods: near (2011-2030), middle (2031-2050) and far future (2081-2100). Projections were obtained relative to modern reference period 1991-2010. Since the country has a large territory with a variety of orographic conditions and the underlying surface, climate of Ukraine has essential differences in various regions. That is why projections of climatic changes for the 21st century were obtained for the whole country and separately for 5 standard regions combined by similar physiographic conditions and usually used for weather forecast in Ukraine. The main obtained results are as follows. Significant differences in air temperature growth and precipitation change distribution were found between the regions, seasons and months. In particular, the highest temperature rise was pointed in the South region in summer season (far future period) and in the North and East regions from November to January (near and middle future). The biggest differences in precipitation changes were found in the East, Center and South regions for all future periods. Decreasing by more than 50% in summer and increasing by 60% in autumn were determined at the end of the 21st century in the East region. In overall more than 150 maps and datasets were obtained for whole Ukraine and her 5 regions based on the ensemble approach: 12 monthly plus

  2. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Fooks

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  3. Enhancement of knowledge construction activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoche, Margarette Anne U.; Taladua, Janica Mae M.; Panal, Geicky Pearl C.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Myrna, H. Lahoylahoy

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to enhance knowledge construction activities on its design particularly the objectives, support materials, student activities and assessment tools. Activities from the 2nd Quarter of Science Learners Material were the basis in the adaptation of activities. The adapted activities were evaluated by the In-service Science teachers and undergone modification by the researchers based on the teacher's comments and suggestions. It was then evaluated, revised, and validated, tried-out using the 21st CLD Rubric. Subjects of the study were 110 students from Grade 7-B, Grade 7-D, Grade 7-F in Geronima Cabrera National High School, Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte during the academic year 2016-2017, the study to determine their learning capabilities investigated by the use of Knowledge Construction Activities in the 21st Century Classroom, to investigate how the lessons were understood and appreciated by students, to stimulate interpretation, analysis, synthesizing, or evaluating ideas and develop critical thinking. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from the students' scores in three activities. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of students. Mean scores between the pretest and posttest showed a mean difference of 3.35, thus the null hypothesis was rejected. It could be concluded with sufficient evidence to show that the students had basically low prior knowledge about the topic ecosystem. A significant difference was seen in the pretest and posttest, scores of the activities and Ecosystem model results after the implementation phase that a knowledge construction type of activity was better than the traditional one for it promoted meaningful learning and active engagement of students. Based on the results, it was clear that the use of knowledge construction activities had an effect on student's achievement in comparison to traditional teaching method. Thus, it was

  4. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  5. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Stable Funding for Innovation and Continuous Improvement. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Harris, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As the only federal funding stream that provides dedicated funds for afterschool programs across the country, the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative plays an important role in supporting the innovation that takes place in afterschool programs. Social innovation has been defined as "a novel solution to a social…

  6. Learner Dashboards a Double-Edged Sword? Students' Sense-Making of a Collaborative Critical Reading and Learning Analytics Environment for Fostering 21st-Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Ling Tan, Jennifer; Koh, Elizabeth; Jonathan, Christin; Yang, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The affordances of learning analytics (LA) tools and solutions are being increasingly harnessed for enhancing 21st century pedagogical and learning strategies and outcomes. However, use cases and empirical understandings of students' experiences with LA tools and environments aimed at fostering 21st century literacies, especially in the K-12…

  7. Teaching Math in the 21st Century, by Barry Garelick [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Barry Garelick recently retired from a long career as an analyst for the Environmental Protection Agency. Probably most individuals toward the end of their careers prepare for a retirement of less work and increased leisure; Garelick attended evening classes to become a public school teacher. (Incidentally, he has written entertainingly about his graduate school experience in earlier publications. He timed his teacher’s certification to coincide with his retirement from the federal government, moved to the west coast, passed his California licensure examinations in mathematics, and started looking for work. Teaching Math in the 21st Century lightheartedly journals Garelick’s experience during a school year in which he substituted at two schools for full-time teachers on long leaves of absence. Each chapter is a short story about a day’s experience with a teaching challenge, a challenging experience with a student, or experiences with parents, faculty, or administration. His chapters could sequence a slice-of-life television series about an ordinary guy with good intentions trying to do an essential job for skeptical kids who need him, hamstrung by an out-of-touch bureaucracy mostly posing impediments.

  8. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C

    2016-12-01

    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic EROI Assessment of the IPCC 21st Century Electricity Production Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Neumeyer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Return on Investment (EROI is an important measure of the energy gain of an electrical power generating facility that is typically evaluated based on the life cycle energy balance of a single facility. The EROI concept can be extended to cover a collection of facilities that comprise a complete power system and used to assess the expansion and evolution of a power system as it transitions from one portfolio mix of technologies to another over time. In this study we develop a dynamic EROI model that simulates the evolution of a power system and we perform an EROI simulation of one of the electricity production scenarios developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC covering the global supply of electricity in the 21st century. Our analytic tool provides the means for evaluation of dynamic EROI based on arbitrary time-dependent demand scenarios by modeling the required expansion of power generation, including the plowback needed for new construction and to replace facilities as they are retired. The results provide insight into the level of installed and delivered power, above and beyond basic consumer demand, that is required to support construction during expansion, as well as the supplementary power that may be required if plowback constraints are imposed. In addition, sensitivity to EROI parameters, and the impact of energy storage efficiency are addressed.

  10. The 'special obligations' of the modern Hippocratic Oath for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Bernabeo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Profound advances and discoveries in medicine have markedly improved the lives of many over the 50 years since the modern Hippocratic Oath was written. Regrettably, these advances were and continue to be implemented suboptimally and inequitably across the globe. 'Special obligations to all my fellow humans' is an important theme of the modern Oath. From this perspective, we reflect on the special obligations of the medical profession, and examine how these obligations have changed over the past 50 years. We draw from perspectives of the social contract, professionalism, quality improvement, patient safety and a group of 31 international colleagues involved in medical education as we examine these obligations for individual doctors, health care institutions and medical education systems. The perspectives of the 31 clinician-educators helped us to situate the meaning of the theme of 'special obligations' in the context of challenges facing medical education and health care in the 21st century. Improving the quality of care and patient safety, and reducing health care disparities are now paramount as 'special obligations' for doctors, health care systems and medical education organisations, and require us to work collectively and collaboratively in an increasingly interconnected world. In our view, traditions such as the Hippocratic Oath will be worthy of public support only when the medical profession demonstrates in meaningful and transparent ways that it is meeting its social and civic obligations to make the world, not just health care, a better place. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Scientific Interests of 21st Century Clinical Oral Implant Research: Topical Trend Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Bernhard; Valkova, Vesela; Ubaidha Maheen, Ceeneena; Fürhauser, Lukas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Seeman, Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination between ongoing and solved research questions may help to distinguish established dogmas from evidence-based implant dentistry. The purpose of this study was to investigate topics of interest in the field of oral implant science and evolving thematic trends in clinical studies during the last decade. Electronic and manual searches of English literature were performed to identify clinical studies on oral implants. Out of 15,695 publications screened, 2,875 clinical investigations were included. Among the most prevalent topics were immediate loading (14.3%), bone substitutes (11.6%), lateral sinus grafting (10.7%), implant overdentures (10.5%), single-tooth implant crowns (8.8%), cross-arch implant bridges (8.0%), immediate implant placement (7.5%), implant surfaces (7.0%), simultaneous implant placement and augmentation (6.4%) as well as guided bone regeneration (5.3%). Significant increase of scientific interest was seen in immediate loading (+6.3%, p research on implant overdentures (-6.6%, p = .033) and tooth-to-implant connection (-2.5%, p = .010) was on the decline. Literature coverage, since the beginning of the 21st century, has seen greater focus on surgical topics compared to prosthodontic issues (p = .005) while only few topics experienced decrease of interest indicating scientific consensus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4 models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001–2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001–2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  13. Impact of LULCC on the emission of BVOCs during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogs, Sebastian; Arneth, Almut; Anthoni, Peter; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stehfest, Elke

    2017-09-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) is one of the key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. In addition to greenhouse gases such as CO2 or CH4, LULCC affects also the emission of other carbon trace gases such as biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). We investigate the impact of changing LULCC on the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes during the 21st century using seven different land-use projections, applying the dynamic vegetation modelling framework LPJ-GUESS. Climate change, and atmospheric CO2-concentration are based on the RCP2.6 scenario. The different LULCC-scenarios explore the impact of different land-based climate change mitigation strategies (such as afforestation and avoided deforestation, or bioenergy). We show that the increase of land area under crops or grassland would lead to a significant decrease of BVOC emissions, with a strong negative correlation between the fraction of managed global land area and the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes. But the choice of crops is important, especially for the bioenergy scenarios in which increasing fractional cover leads to decreasing BVOC emissions in our simulations; use of woody bioenergy crops can reverse this decrease. The strong impact of LULCC on the global and regional emission of BVOCs implies the need to include the impact of these changes in projections of atmospheric composition and air quality.

  14. A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

  15. What Kind of Society Russia Is Building in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Lukyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the outcome of the social and economic reorganiza- tion conducted in Russia in the last two decades, analyzing the present situation, psy- chological atmosphere in society and personal feelings, which reflect, on the one hand, the growing prosperity, and on the other hand – life dissatisfaction, spiritual emptiness, loneliness, disability of life control. The three most widely spread answers to the question concerning the society type being built in Russia in the 21st century are given. The first one – the official opinion characteristic of the ambitious, empowered people - holds that we are building the democratic, civil and legal society or the consumer society; the sec- ond one - the common men’s opinion, based on emotions rather than theoretical conclu- sions - holds that we are doing nothing at all; whereas the third opinion reflects the real- ity. In conclusion, the existing economic model is defined by the author as reflecting the soviet-liberal way of doing business, which, in his opinion, is rather dangerous both for the state and society, and therefore should be transformed in the interest of the national economy instead of the interest of big businesses. 

  16. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  17. Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat of the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M. Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tall building is the most dominating symbol of the cities and a human-made marvel that defies gravity by reaching to the clouds. It embodies unrelenting human aspirations to build even higher. It conjures a number of valid questions in our minds. The foremost and fundamental question that is often asked: Why tall buildings? This review paper seeks to answer the question by laying out arguments against and for tall buildings. Then, it provides a brief account of the historic and recent developments of tall buildings including their status during the current economic recession. The paper argues that as cities continue to expand horizontally, to safeguard against their reaching an eventual breaking point, the tall building as a building type is a possible solution by way of conquering vertical space through agglomeration and densification. Case studies of some recently built tall buildings are discussed to illustrate the nature of tall building development in their respective cities. The paper attempts to dispel any discernment about tall buildings as mere pieces of art and architecture by emphasizing their truly speculative, technological, sustainable, and evolving nature. It concludes by projecting a vision of tall buildings and their integration into the cities of the 21st century.

  18. Media and communication in Asia in early 21st century: Changes, continuities, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asia has some of the largest, most dynamic, diversified, and complicated media industries in the world (McKinsey & Company, 2015. Entering the 21st Century, the rapid economic and political developments of Asia further energize the growth of media locally and globally (for general discussion, see, e.g., Keane [2006]; Thussu [2006], specific discussions on the cases of Korea [Kim, 2013], Japan [Iwabuchi, 2004], China [Sun, 2009]. In a reflection on the increasing importance of Asian players in global communication industry, Keane describes that “Asianness is colonizing international communications markets” (2006: 839-840 with the impacts ranging from the production of hardware (i.e., East Asian technology to content (e.g., Japanese manga, anime and TV formats and South Korean popular culture and from the cross-over of directors and actors from Asia to Hollywood and the world. Yet, a lack of timely understanding of media and communication in a fast-changing Asia is hindering not only our interpretation of the significance of media in social transformation in Asia, but also the efforts to de-westernize (e.g., Park & Curran, 2000; Wang, 2010 or internationalize communication studies (Lee, 2014.

  19. Peripartum hysterectomy in the first decade of the 21st century.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tadesse, W

    2012-02-01

    We reviewed the role of peripartum hysterectomy (PH) in the first decade of the 21st century. The study was confined to women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more between 2000 and 2009, and who required a hysterectomy within 72 h of delivery for obstetric reasons. Individual case records were reviewed. There were 19 cases of PH in 78,961 deliveries giving an incidence of 1 in 4,156 (0.02%). Of the 19 cases, 95% were delivered by caesarean section and 89% had one or more prior sections. The indications were placental bed pathology (79%), uterine atony (16%) and uterine trauma (5%). Of the 19 hysterectomies, 16 (84%) were total and a gynaecological oncologist was involved in nine (56%) of these cases. There were no maternal or fetal deaths, but a mother required an average blood transfusion of 10 units. The overall rate of PH was remarkably low compared with other studies but it is likely to increase in the future because of the strong association between increasing caesarean section rates and placental bed pathology. The potential involvement of the cervix and other pelvic structures by placental pathology means that PH in the future will be more challenging, and the hysterectomy will need to be total rather than subtotal.

  20. Curriculum as praxis: Ensuring quality technical education in Singapore for the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiew Ming Yek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical education and training to the overall success of the nation are often cited. Technical education and training, which is globally perceived as having a lower status than "academic" curricula, has largely overcome its "image" problem in Singapore. Singaporeans have seemingly embraced technical education and training as an accessible, attractive mode of education, which therefore enjoys a high participation rate. The success and quality of technical education and training were affirmed when its main provider, the Institute of Technical Education, became the first educational institution in Singapore to win the Singapore Quality Award in October 2005. This paper provides a review of the contemporary education system and curriculum in Singapore with a focus on technical education and training vis-à-vis a vision of education and training in and for postmodern knowledge societies. Suggestions are made on how the technical education and training sector in Singapore can further develop and thrive in the 21st century, while continuing to be accessible and of high quality.