Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
Modeling Network Interdiction Tasks
2015-09-17
118 xiii Table Page 36 Computation times for weighted, 100-node random networks for GAND Approach testing in Python ...in Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 38 Accuracy measures for weighted, 100-node random networks for GAND...networks [15:p. 1]. A common approach to modeling network interdiction is to formulate the problem in terms of a two-stage strategic game between two
Bi and tri-objective optimization in the deterministic network interdiction problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocco S, Claudio M.; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose; Salazar A, Daniel E.
2010-01-01
Solution approaches to the deterministic network interdiction problem have previously been developed for optimizing a single figure-of-merit of the network configuration (i.e. flow that can be transmitted between a source node and a sink node for a fixed network design) under constraints related to limited amount of resources available to interdict network links. These approaches work under the assumption that: (1) nominal capacity of each link is completely reduced when interdicted and (2) there is a single criterion to optimize. This paper presents a newly developed evolutionary algorithm that for the first time allows solving multi-objective optimization models for the design of network interdiction strategies that take into account a variety of figures-of-merit. The algorithm provides an approximation to the optimal Pareto frontier using: (a) techniques in Monte Carlo simulation to generate potential network interdiction strategies, (b) graph theory to analyze strategies' maximum source-sink flow and (c) an evolutionary search that is driven by the probability that a link will belong to the optimal Pareto set. Examples for different sizes of networks and network behavior are used throughout the paper to illustrate and validate the approach.
Hardness and Approximation for Network Flow Interdiction
Chestnut, Stephen R.; Zenklusen, Rico
2015-01-01
In the Network Flow Interdiction problem an adversary attacks a network in order to minimize the maximum s-t-flow. Very little is known about the approximatibility of this problem despite decades of interest in it. We present the first approximation hardness, showing that Network Flow Interdiction and several of its variants cannot be much easier to approximate than Densest k-Subgraph. In particular, any $n^{o(1)}$-approximation algorithm for Network Flow Interdiction would imply an $n^{o(1)}...
Deterministic network interdiction optimization via an evolutionary approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocco S, Claudio M.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel
2009-01-01
This paper introduces an evolutionary optimization approach that can be readily applied to solve deterministic network interdiction problems. The network interdiction problem solved considers the minimization of the maximum flow that can be transmitted between a source node and a sink node for a fixed network design when there is a limited amount of resources available to interdict network links. Furthermore, the model assumes that the nominal capacity of each network link and the cost associated with their interdiction can change from link to link. For this problem, the solution approach developed is based on three steps that use: (1) Monte Carlo simulation, to generate potential network interdiction strategies, (2) Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for maximum s-t flow, to analyze strategies' maximum source-sink flow and, (3) an evolutionary optimization technique to define, in probabilistic terms, how likely a link is to appear in the final interdiction strategy. Examples for different sizes of networks and network behavior are used throughout the paper to illustrate the approach. In terms of computational effort, the results illustrate that solutions are obtained from a significantly restricted solution search space. Finally, the authors discuss the need for a reliability perspective to network interdiction, so that solutions developed address more realistic scenarios of such problem
Decentralized Network Interdiction Games
2015-12-31
preventing attacks on critical computer communi- cations networks. Such problems have traditionally been looked at from a centralized decision-maker’s point...is critical from a military perspective to understand the cause and remedies for such efficiency loss. This project is exactly motivated and designed... utilitarian ; that is, θc(x1, . . . , xF ) := ∑ f∈F θf (xf , x−f ). A commonly used measure of Nash equilibria’s inefficiency is the price of anarchy
Network interdiction and stochastic integer programming
2003-01-01
On March 15, 2002 we held a workshop on network interdiction and the more general problem of stochastic mixed integer programming at the University of California, Davis. Jesús De Loera and I co-chaired the event, which included presentations of on-going research and discussion. At the workshop, we decided to produce a volume of timely work on the topics. This volume is the result. Each chapter represents state-of-the-art research and all of them were refereed by leading investigators in the respective fields. Problems - sociated with protecting and attacking computer, transportation, and social networks gain importance as the world becomes more dep- dent on interconnected systems. Optimization models that address the stochastic nature of these problems are an important part of the research agenda. This work relies on recent efforts to provide methods for - dressing stochastic mixed integer programs. The book is organized with interdiction papers first and the stochastic programming papers in the second part....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel; Rocco S, Claudio M.
2009-01-01
This paper introduces an evolutionary optimization approach that can be readily applied to solve stochastic network interdiction problems (SNIP). The network interdiction problem solved considers the minimization of the cost associated with an interdiction strategy such that the maximum flow that can be transmitted between a source node and a sink node for a fixed network design is greater than or equal to a given reliability requirement. Furthermore, the model assumes that the nominal capacity of each network link and the cost associated with their interdiction can change from link to link and that such interdiction has a probability of being successful. This version of the SNIP is for the first time modeled as a capacitated network reliability problem allowing for the implementation of computation and solution techniques previously unavailable. The solution process is based on an evolutionary algorithm that implements: (1) Monte-Carlo simulation, to generate potential network interdiction strategies, (2) capacitated network reliability techniques to analyze strategies' source-sink flow reliability and, (3) an evolutionary optimization technique to define, in probabilistic terms, how likely a link is to appear in the final interdiction strategy. Examples for different sizes of networks are used throughout the paper to illustrate the approach
Ad hoc Sensor Networks to Support Maritime Interdiction Operations
Osmundson, John; Bordetsky, Alex
2014-01-01
Networking sensors, decision centers, and boarding parties supports success in Maritime Interdiction Operations. Led by a team from Naval Post-graduate School (NPS), experiments were conducted in 2012 to test the use of ad-hoc, self-forming communication networks to link sensors, people, and decision centers. The experiments involved international participants and successfully shared valuable biometric and radiological sensor data between boarding parties and decis...
2015-03-01
biometric data collection. Capture role- player mock biometric data including finger prints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. (MOC training...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS by Adam R. Sinsel...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam R
Synthesis, Interdiction, and Protection of Layered Networks
2009-09-01
Infrastructure: A Quantitative Geographic Perspective, 2006. 113. Lawrence V. Snyder, Maria P. Scaparra, Mark S. Daskin , and Richard L. Church. Planning for...09-01 Abstract This research developed the foundation, theory, and framework for a set of analysis techniques to assist decision makers in analyzing...demonstrated on notional examples and were tested on a range of sample problem sets. iv Acknowledgements There are many people that I owe a great deal of
Disrupting Cocaine Trafficking Networks: Interdicting a Combined Social-Functional Network Model
2016-03-01
BENEFITS OF STUDY ....................................14 E. SOCIAL-FUNCTIONAL NETWORK DESCRIPTION .....................16 1. A Representative...data to maintain appropriate classification levels) of cocaine produced each month by the Colombian sources to the U.S. homeland, netting the...Tactical interdiction-centric operational approaches have improved over the years due to previous studies and research, but these approaches rely upon one
Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden D; Nekoogar, Faranak
2006-01-01
.... This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles...
Optimal interdiction of unreactive Markovian evaders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The network interdiction problem arises in a wide variety of areas including military logistics, infectious disease control and counter-terrorism. In the classical formulation one is given a weighted network G(N, E) and the task is to find b nodes (or edges) whose removal would maximally increase the least-cost path from a source node s to a target node r. In practical applications. G represenLs a transportation or activity network; node/edge removal is done by an agent, the 'interdictor' against another agent the 'evader' who wants to traverse G from s to t along the least-cost route. Our work is motivated by cases in which both agents have bounded rationality: e.g. when the authorities set up road blocks to catch bank robbers, neither party can plot its actions with full information about the other. We introduce a novel model of network interdiction in which the motion of (possibly) several evaders i. described by a Markov pr cess on G.We further suppose that the evaden; do not respond to interdiction decisions because of time, knowledge or computational constraint . We prove that this interdiction problem is NP-hard, like the classical formulation, but unlike the classical problem the objective function is submodular. This implies that the solution could be approximated within 1-lie using a greedy algorithm. Exploiting submodularity again. we demonstrate that a 'priority' (or 'lazy') evaluation algorithm can improve performance by orders of magnitude. Taken together, the results bring closer realistic solutions to the interdiction problem on global-scale networks.
Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments: C2 Experimentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordetsky, A; Dougan, A D; Nekoogar, F
2006-01-01
The paper addresses technological and operational challenges of developing a global plug-and-play Maritime Domain Security testbed for the Global War on Terrorism mission. This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) composed of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles. This long-haul network is combined with ultra-wideband (UWB) communications systems for wireless communications in harsh radio propagation channels. LLNL's UWB communication prototypes are designed to overcome shortcomings of the present narrowband communications systems in heavy metallic and constricted corridors inside ships. In the center of our discussion are networking solutions for the Maritime Interdiction Operation (MIO) Experiments in which geographically distributed command centers and subject matter experts collaborate with the Boarding Party in real time to facilitate situational understanding and course of action selection. The most recent experiment conducted via the testbed extension to the Alameda Island exercised several key technologies aimed at improving MIO. These technologies included UWB communications from within the ship to Boarding Party leader sending data files and pictures, advanced radiation detection equipment for search and identification, biometric equipment to record and send fingerprint files to facilitate rapid positive identification of crew members, and the latest updates of the NPS Tactical Network Topology facilitating reachback to LLNL, Biometric Fusion Center, USCG, and DTRA experts
Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments: C2 Experimentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordetsky, A; Dougan, A D; Nekoogar, F
2006-08-07
The paper addresses technological and operational challenges of developing a global plug-and-play Maritime Domain Security testbed for the Global War on Terrorism mission. This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) composed of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles. This long-haul network is combined with ultra-wideband (UWB) communications systems for wireless communications in harsh radio propagation channels. LLNL's UWB communication prototypes are designed to overcome shortcomings of the present narrowband communications systems in heavy metallic and constricted corridors inside ships. In the center of our discussion are networking solutions for the Maritime Interdiction Operation (MIO) Experiments in which geographically distributed command centers and subject matter experts collaborate with the Boarding Party in real time to facilitate situational understanding and course of action selection. The most recent experiment conducted via the testbed extension to the Alameda Island exercised several key technologies aimed at improving MIO. These technologies included UWB communications from within the ship to Boarding Party leader sending data files and pictures, advanced radiation detection equipment for search and identification, biometric equipment to record and send fingerprint files to facilitate rapid positive identification of crew members, and the latest updates of the NPS Tactical Network Topology facilitating reachback to LLNL, Biometric Fusion Center, USCG, and DTRA experts.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden; Chiann, Foo Y; Kilberg, Andres
2007-01-01
.... This joint Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) project, supported by partners from Sweden, Austria, and Singapore is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden; Chiann, Foo Y; Kilberg, Andres
2007-01-01
...) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to radiation detection sensors, and real-time radiation awareness collaboration with geographically distributed partners...
Evader Interdiction and Collateral Damage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01
In network interdiction problems, evaders (hostile agents or data packets) are moving through a network towards their targets and we wish to choose sensor placement locations in order to intercept them before they reach their destinations. Sensor locations should be chosen economically, balancing security gains with cost, including the inconvenience sensors inflict upon innocent travelers. We give optimal sensor allocation algorithms for several classes of special graphs and hardness and optimal approximation results for general graphs, including for deterministic or Markov chain-based and oblivious or reactive evaders. In a similar-sounding but much different problem setting posed by [10] where the innocent travelers can also be reactive, we again give optimal algorithms for special cases and hardness and (essentially) optimal approximation results on general graphs.
Maritime drug interdiction in international law
Kruit, P.J.J. van der
2007-01-01
The study focuses on the interdiction of trafficking in illicit drugs at sea as one part of the general problem of illicit drug trafficking. More specifically, the study focuses on the legal framework for the interdiction of illicit maritime drug trafficking under international law. Firstly, the
2015-06-03
Meanwhile, Coast Guard High Endurance Cutters (WHECs) built in the 1960s continue to carry out drug interdiction duties battling not only smugglers, but...underwater-challenge-in-caribbean.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (accessed December 20, 2014). 12 Inside Cocaine Submarines, USA: National Geographic Channel ...suspect the crew unloaded a cargo of cocaine before fleeing.21 In March 2006, the Calabrian mafia ordered a shipment of nine tons of cocaine ( retail
Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dougan, A.D.; Trombino, D.; Dunlop, W.; Bordetsky, A.
2010-01-01
The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors and biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better
Modern Advances to the Modular Fly-Away Kit (MFLAK) to Support Maritime Interdiction Operations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cross, Eric C
2007-01-01
This thesis will test the performance of an end-to-end network solution designed to augment Maritime Interdiction Operations that support boarding parties and their near real time communications with supporting agencies...
Interdicting Electrical Power Grids
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Alvarez, Rogelio
2004-01-01
... and extend some existing optimization models and algorithms and demonstrate the value of our techniques using standard reliability test networks from IEEE Our implementation of Benders decomposition...
vhv supply networks, problems of network structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raimbault, J
1966-04-01
The present and future power requirements of the Paris area and the structure of the existing networks are discussed. The various limitations that will have to be allowed for to lay down the structure of a regional transmission network leading in the power of the large national transmission network to within the Paris built up area are described. The theoretical solution that has been adopted, and the features of its final achievement, which is planned for about the year 2000, and the intermediate stages are given. The problem of the structure of the National Power Transmission network which is to supply the regional network was studied. To solve this problem, a 730 kV voltage network will have to be introduced.
Networks in social policy problems
Scotti, marco
2012-01-01
Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...
2011-07-19
...; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade Compliance Program; Smuggling Form AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... intention to initiate an information collection to support our smuggling, interdiction, and trade compliance... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the smuggling, interdiction, and trade...
Cascading Effects of Fuel Network Interdiction
2015-03-26
Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing C10T14 M ning and quarry ng C15T16 Food products, beverages and tobacco C17T19 Textiles, textile products...9369063 C15T16 Food products, beverages and tobacco 33278 70853 222.4224148 112593.0889 4705.413385 49.58915033 491.768614 81.36711771 1554.487224...THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology
Networks in Social Policy Problems
Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco
2012-08-01
1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.
Supply network configuration—A benchmarking problem
Brandenburg, Marcus
2018-03-01
Managing supply networks is a highly relevant task that strongly influences the competitiveness of firms from various industries. Designing supply networks is a strategic process that considerably affects the structure of the whole network. In contrast, supply networks for new products are configured without major adaptations of the existing structure, but the network has to be configured before the new product is actually launched in the marketplace. Due to dynamics and uncertainties, the resulting planning problem is highly complex. However, formal models and solution approaches that support supply network configuration decisions for new products are scant. The paper at hand aims at stimulating related model-based research. To formulate mathematical models and solution procedures, a benchmarking problem is introduced which is derived from a case study of a cosmetics manufacturer. Tasks, objectives, and constraints of the problem are described in great detail and numerical values and ranges of all problem parameters are given. In addition, several directions for future research are suggested.
Integrated network design and scheduling problems :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.
2014-01-01
We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Feasibility of High Energy Lasers for Interdiction Activities
2017-12-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS FEASIBILITY OF HIGH ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES by Carlos Abel Javier Romero... ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carlos Abel Javier Romero Chero 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...the people or cargo. High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons are an effective way to deliver energy precisely from a relative long range. This thesis studies
An Empirical Examination of Counterdrug Interdiction Program Effectiveness.
1997-01-01
Interdiction Coordinator indicated his belief that the results were significant and called a special meeting of The Interdiction Committee ( TIC ) to be...briefed on our findings. TIC members recommended that IDA collect the next few months of STRIDE data for further confirmation before sponsoring the...1988. CORAH, Produccion de la Coca en el Alto Huallaga y su Impacto Socio Economico, Lima, Peru, October 1994. Cootner, P.H., The Random Character of
Generalized network improvement and packing problems
Holzhauser, Michael
2016-01-01
Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.
Hub location problems in transportation networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan
2011-01-01
In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....
Mathematical Approaches to WMD Defense and Vulnerability Assessments of Dynamic Networks
2016-07-01
be reversed at a time. Continuing with the constraints of the problem , in (28) we enforce a capacity at every intersection of the transportation ...world telecommunication, transportation , and power grids. • Develop compact formulations for “generalized network interdiction problems ,” in which...In this problem , attacks are made at points in (Euclidean) space. Damage is inflicted on each arc by reducing its capacity as a function of the
Solving Dynamic Battlespace Movement Problems Using Dynamic Distributed Computer Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bradford, Robert
2000-01-01
.... The thesis designs a system using this architecture that invokes operations research network optimization algorithms to solve problems involving movement of people and equipment over dynamic road networks...
A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies
Shour, Robert
2009-01-01
A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.
Game Theoretic Problems in Network Economics and Mechanism Design Solutions
Narahari, Y; Narayanam, Ramasuri; Prakash, Hastagiri
2009-01-01
Explores game theoretic modeling and mechanism design for problem solving in Internet and network economics. This monograph contains an exposition of representative game theoretic problems in three different network economics situations and a systematic exploration of mechanism design solutions to these problems.
Solving Minimum Cost Multi-Commodity Network Flow Problem ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
2018-03-23
Mar 23, 2018 ... network-based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile ... Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP) and some ..... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic. Incident ... Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Surveying &.
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks
Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles
1992-01-01
In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.
Policy Safeguards and the Legitimacy of Highway Interdiction
2016-12-01
Adoption among Large Law Enforcement Agencies,” Crime & Delinquency 59, no. 1 (2013): 33, doi:10.1177/0011128708328863. 71 Drug Enforcement...correlation or validity could be established between the number of complaints and the impact of highway interdiction safeguards implemented by the...Engel, “The Impact of Drivers’ Race, Gender, and Age During Traffic Stops Assessing Interaction Terms and the Social Conditioning Model,” Crime
Solving network design problems via decomposition, aggregation and approximation
Bärmann, Andreas
2016-01-01
Andreas Bärmann develops novel approaches for the solution of network design problems as they arise in various contexts of applied optimization. At the example of an optimal expansion of the German railway network until 2030, the author derives a tailor-made decomposition technique for multi-period network design problems. Next, he develops a general framework for the solution of network design problems via aggregation of the underlying graph structure. This approach is shown to save much computation time as compared to standard techniques. Finally, the author devises a modelling framework for the approximation of the robust counterpart under ellipsoidal uncertainty, an often-studied case in the literature. Each of these three approaches opens up a fascinating branch of research which promises a better theoretical understanding of the problem and an increasing range of solvable application settings at the same time. Contents Decomposition for Multi-Period Network Design Solving Network Design Problems via Ag...
A Generalized Orienteering Problem for Optimal Search and Interdiction Planning
2013-09-01
proposed for the TOP. Boussier et al. (2007) presents a branch-and- price algorithm that relies on a pricing step within the column generation phase...dominates in all metric categories and B&B appears to be the least favorable. We use performance proles ( Dolan and Moré 2002) as a method for comparing...exceeded, with greater computing power it may be possible to obtain the optimal solution in a period of time that can support a 24-hour planning
PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS
OKUR, M. Cudi
2011-01-01
Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...
On the Update Problems for Software Defined Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Zakharov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The designing of network update algorithms is urgent for the development of SDN control software. A particular case of Network Update Problem is that of restoring seamlessly a given network configuration after some packet forwarding rules have been disabled (say, at the expiry of their time-outs. We study this problem in the framework of a formal model of SDN, develop correct and safe network recovering algorithms, and show that in general case there is no way to restore network configuration seamlessly without referring to priorities of packet forwarding rules.
Secure Wireless Sensor Networks: Problems and Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Hu
2003-08-01
Full Text Available As sensor networks edge closer towards wide-spread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, the main research focus has been on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and less emphasis was placed on security. This paper analyzes security challenges in wireless sensor networks and summarizes key issues that should be solved for achieving the ad hoc security. It gives an overview of the current state of solutions on such key issues as secure routing, prevention of denial-of-service and key management service. We also present some secure methods to achieve security in wireless sensor networks. Finally we present our integrated approach to securing sensor networks.
A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy
2012-01-01
for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem.......We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...
Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem
Gupta, Arpit
2016-11-02
Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.
78 FR 62951 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil
2013-10-22
...) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to.... 2014-02 of October 10, 2013--Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil...
Problem solving for wireless sensor networks
Garcia-Hernando, Ana-Belen; Lopez-Navarro, Juan-Manuel; Prayati, Aggeliki; Redondo-Lopez, Luis
2008-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an area of huge research interest, attracting substantial attention from industry and academia for its enormous potential and its inherent challenges. This reader-friendly text delivers a comprehensive review of the developments related to the important technological issues in WSN.
Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem
Gupta, Arpit; Birkner, Rü diger; Canini, Marco; Feamster, Nick; Mac-Stoker, Chris; Willinger, Walter
2016-01-01
, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have
Bidding for surplus in network allocation problems
Slikker, M.
2007-01-01
In this paper we study non-cooperative foundations of network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some
Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Networks of Spiking Neurons.
Jonke, Zeno; Habenschuss, Stefan; Maass, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Network of neurons in the brain apply-unlike processors in our current generation of computer hardware-an event-based processing strategy, where short pulses (spikes) are emitted sparsely by neurons to signal the occurrence of an event at a particular point in time. Such spike-based computations promise to be substantially more power-efficient than traditional clocked processing schemes. However, it turns out to be surprisingly difficult to design networks of spiking neurons that can solve difficult computational problems on the level of single spikes, rather than rates of spikes. We present here a new method for designing networks of spiking neurons via an energy function. Furthermore, we show how the energy function of a network of stochastically firing neurons can be shaped in a transparent manner by composing the networks of simple stereotypical network motifs. We show that this design approach enables networks of spiking neurons to produce approximate solutions to difficult (NP-hard) constraint satisfaction problems from the domains of planning/optimization and verification/logical inference. The resulting networks employ noise as a computational resource. Nevertheless, the timing of spikes plays an essential role in their computations. Furthermore, networks of spiking neurons carry out for the Traveling Salesman Problem a more efficient stochastic search for good solutions compared with stochastic artificial neural networks (Boltzmann machines) and Gibbs sampling.
Network capacity auctions: promise and problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newbery, David M.
2003-01-01
Well-designed auctions work favorably for allocating idiosyncratic properties efficiently. Auctions are used to allocate entry capacity for United Kingdom gas and inter-connector capacity for electricity in several European Union countries and can work well for allocating existing capacity, though careful auction design is needed to mitigate potential market power. Using auction prices to guide investment decisions in networks is problematic if bidders fear that sub-optimal investment will be compensated by regulatory fiat, lowering future capacity values. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-10-28
Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.
SOCIAL NETWORK OPTIMIZATION A NEW METHAHEURISTIC FOR GENERAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Sherafat
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In the recent years metaheuristics were studied and developed as powerful technics for hard optimization problems. Some of well-known technics in this field are: Genetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Ant Colony Optimization, and Swarm Intelligence, which are applied successfully to many complex optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce a new metaheuristic for solving such problems based on social networks concept, named as Social Network Optimization – SNO. We show that a wide range of np-hard optimization problems may be solved by SNO.
Controlled neural network application in track-match problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baginyan, S.A.; Ososkov, G.A.
1993-01-01
Track-match problem of high energy physics (HEP) data handling is formulated in terms of incidence matrices. The corresponding Hopfield neural network is developed to solve this type of constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). A special concept of the controlled neural network is proposed as a basis of an algorithm for the effective CSP solution. Results of comparable calculations show the very high performance of this algorithm against conventional search procedures. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
Cellular neural networks for the stereo matching problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taraglio, S.; Zanela, A.
1997-03-01
The applicability of the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) paradigm to the problem of recovering information on the tridimensional structure of the environment is investigated. The approach proposed is the stereo matching of video images. The starting point of this work is the Zhou-Chellappa neural network implementation for the same problem. The CNN based system we present here yields the same results as the previous approach, but without the many existing drawbacks
Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations
Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.
2006-01-01
Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria:
Solving constraint satisfaction problems with networks of spiking neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeno eJonke
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Network of neurons in the brain apply – unlike processors in our current generation ofcomputer hardware – an event-based processing strategy, where short pulses (spikes areemitted sparsely by neurons to signal the occurrence of an event at a particular point intime. Such spike-based computations promise to be substantially more power-efficient thantraditional clocked processing schemes. However it turned out to be surprisingly difficult todesign networks of spiking neurons that can solve difficult computational problems on the levelof single spikes (rather than rates of spikes. We present here a new method for designingnetworks of spiking neurons via an energy function. Furthermore we show how the energyfunction of a network of stochastically firing neurons can be shaped in a quite transparentmanner by composing the networks of simple stereotypical network motifs. We show that thisdesign approach enables networks of spiking neurons to produce approximate solutions todifficult (NP-hard constraint satisfaction problems from the domains of planning/optimizationand verification/logical inference. The resulting networks employ noise as a computationalresource. Nevertheless the timing of spikes (rather than just spike rates plays an essential rolein their computations. Furthermore, networks of spiking neurons carry out for the Traveling Salesman Problem a more efficient stochastic search for good solutions compared with stochastic artificial neural networks (Boltzmann machines and Gibbs sampling.
Intelligence Collection Targeting and Interdiction of Dark Networks
2014-06-01
examples of terrorist technological communications countered by a baseline of NTM collection with OSINT and HUMINT only serving as enablers or...he visits while traveling as an ostensible tourist ( OSINT ) would be useful.54 In summary, Sims’s observation not only enforce the strategic
Algorithms for Scheduling and Network Problems
1991-09-01
time. We already know, by Lemma 2.2.1, that WOPT = O(log( mpU )), so if we could solve this integer program optimally we would be done. However, the...Folydirat, 15:177-191, 1982. [6] I.S. Belov and Ya. N. Stolin. An algorithm in a single path operations scheduling problem. In Mathematical Economics and
Analysing Stagecoach Network Problem Using Dynamic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we present a recursive dynamic programming algorithm for solving the stagecoach problem. The algorithm is computationally more efficient than the first method as it obtains its minimum total cost using the suboptimal policies of the different stages without computing the cost of all the routes. By the dynamic ...
A neural network approach to the orienteering problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golden, B.; Wang, Q.; Sun, X.; Jia, J.
1994-12-31
In the orienteering problem, we are given a transportation network in which a start point and an end point are specified. Other points have associated scores. Given a fixed amount of time, the goal is to determine a path from start to end through a subset of locations in order to maximize the total path score. This problem has received a considerable amount of attention in the last ten years. The TSP is a variant of the orienteering problem. This paper applies a modified, continuous Hopfield neural network to attack this NP-hard optimization problem. In it, we design an effective energy function and learning algorithm. Unlike some applications of neural networks to optimization problems, this approach is shown to perform quite well.
Reconstructing the Hopfield network as an inverse Ising problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Haiping
2010-01-01
We test four fast mean-field-type algorithms on Hopfield networks as an inverse Ising problem. The equilibrium behavior of Hopfield networks is simulated through Glauber dynamics. In the low-temperature regime, the simulated annealing technique is adopted. Although performances of these network reconstruction algorithms on the simulated network of spiking neurons are extensively studied recently, the analysis of Hopfield networks is lacking so far. For the Hopfield network, we found that, in the retrieval phase favored when the network wants to memory one of stored patterns, all the reconstruction algorithms fail to extract interactions within a desired accuracy, and the same failure occurs in the spin-glass phase where spurious minima show up, while in the paramagnetic phase, albeit unfavored during the retrieval dynamics, the algorithms work well to reconstruct the network itself. This implies that, as an inverse problem, the paramagnetic phase is conversely useful for reconstructing the network while the retrieval phase loses all the information about interactions in the network except for the case where only one pattern is stored. The performances of algorithms are studied with respect to the system size, memory load, and temperature; sample-to-sample fluctuations are also considered.
The Network Completion Problem: Inferring Missing Nodes and Edges in Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, M; Leskovec, J
2011-11-14
Network structures, such as social networks, web graphs and networks from systems biology, play important roles in many areas of science and our everyday lives. In order to study the networks one needs to first collect reliable large scale network data. While the social and information networks have become ubiquitous, the challenge of collecting complete network data still persists. Many times the collected network data is incomplete with nodes and edges missing. Commonly, only a part of the network can be observed and we would like to infer the unobserved part of the network. We address this issue by studying the Network Completion Problem: Given a network with missing nodes and edges, can we complete the missing part? We cast the problem in the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework where we use the observed part of the network to fit a model of network structure, and then we estimate the missing part of the network using the model, re-estimate the parameters and so on. We combine the EM with the Kronecker graphs model and design a scalable Metropolized Gibbs sampling approach that allows for the estimation of the model parameters as well as the inference about missing nodes and edges of the network. Experiments on synthetic and several real-world networks show that our approach can effectively recover the network even when about half of the nodes in the network are missing. Our algorithm outperforms not only classical link-prediction approaches but also the state of the art Stochastic block modeling approach. Furthermore, our algorithm easily scales to networks with tens of thousands of nodes.
An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.
Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.
An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinyu Liu
Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA, for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP, which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC. The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems and DNDPs (discrete network design problems repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions. Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.
76 FR 70635 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil
2011-11-15
...) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to...
75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia
2010-11-01
...) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary, because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to...
Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rak, Claire
2003-01-01
This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...
The War Against Trucks Aerial Interdiction in Southern Laos 1968-1972
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Nalty, Bernard C
2005-01-01
This history recounts an ambitious attempt by the Air Force to interdict traffic on the Ho Chi Minh Trail of southern Laos, as part of a plan to support the war in South Vietnam by impending the flow...
A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David
We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...... the available fleet of container vessels. The cargo transports make extensive use of transshipments between routes and the number of transshipments of the cargo flow is decisive for network profitability. Computational results are reported for the benchmark suite LINER-LIB 2012 following the industry standard...... of weekly departures on every schedule. The heuristic shows overall good performance and is able to find high quality solutions within competitive execution times. The matheuristic can also be applied as a decision support tool to improve an existing network by optimizing on a designated subset...
Neural network for solving convex quadratic bilevel programming problems.
He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie
2014-03-01
In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social networking sites: an adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.
Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K
2014-07-01
Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.
Observation and inverse problems in coupled cell networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joly, Romain
2012-01-01
A coupled cell network is a model for many situations such as food webs in ecosystems, cellular metabolism and economic networks. It consists in a directed graph G, each node (or cell) representing an agent of the network and each directed arrow representing which agent acts on which. It yields a system of differential equations .x(t)=f(x(t)), where the component i of f depends only on the cells x j (t) for which the arrow j → i exists in G. In this paper, we investigate the observation problems in coupled cell networks: can one deduce the behaviour of the whole network (oscillations, stabilization, etc) by observing only one of the cells? We show that the natural observation properties hold for almost all the interactions f
Pricing and Capacity Planning Problems in Energy Transmission Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer
strategy. In the Nordic electricity system a market with zonal prices is adopted. We consider the problem of designing zones in an optimal way explicitly considering uncertainty. Finally, we formulate the integrated problem of pipeline capacity expansion planning and transmission pricing in natural gas...... necessitates a radical change in the way we plan and operate energy systems. Another paradigm change which began in the 1990’s for electricity systems is that of deregulation. This has led to a variety of different market structures implemented across the world. In this thesis we discuss capacity planning...... and transmission pricing problems in energy transmission networks. Although the modelling framework applies to energy networks in general, most of the applications discussed concern the transmission of electricity. A number of the problems presented involves transmission switching, which allows the operator...
An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.
Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid
2018-01-01
Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.
On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds
Bansal, N.; Khandekar, R.; Könemann, J.; Nagarajan, V.; Peis, B.
2013-01-01
Iterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in the minimum
On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds
N. Bansal (Nikhil); R. Khandekar; J. Könemann (Jochen); V. Nagarajan; B. Peis
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in
Network Analysis of Students' Use of Representations in Problem Solving
McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric
2016-03-01
We present the preliminary results of a study on student use of representations in problem solving within the Modeling Instruction - Electricity and Magnetism (MI-E&M) course. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of college science topics and to succeed in their science courses. In this study, 70 students from the MI-E&M, calculus-based course were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). For each problem statement, students were asked which representations they would use in that given situation. We analyze the survey results through network analysis, identifying which representations are linked together in which contexts. We also compare the representation networks for those students who had already taken the first-semester Modeling Instruction Mechanics course and those students who had taken a non-Modeling Mechanics course.
Evolving neural networks for strategic decision-making problems.
Kohl, Nate; Miikkulainen, Risto
2009-04-01
Evolution of neural networks, or neuroevolution, has been a successful approach to many low-level control problems such as pole balancing, vehicle control, and collision warning. However, certain types of problems-such as those involving strategic decision-making-have remained difficult for neuroevolution to solve. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that such problems are difficult because they are fractured: The correct action varies discontinuously as the agent moves from state to state. A method for measuring fracture using the concept of function variation is proposed and, based on this concept, two methods for dealing with fracture are examined: neurons with local receptive fields, and refinement based on a cascaded network architecture. Experiments in several benchmark domains are performed to evaluate how different levels of fracture affect the performance of neuroevolution methods, demonstrating that these two modifications improve performance significantly. These results form a promising starting point for expanding neuroevolution to strategic tasks.
Augmented neural networks and problem structure-based heuristics for the bin-packing problem
Kasap, Nihat; Agarwal, Anurag
2012-08-01
In this article, we report on a research project where we applied augmented-neural-networks (AugNNs) approach for solving the classical bin-packing problem (BPP). AugNN is a metaheuristic that combines a priority rule heuristic with the iterative search approach of neural networks to generate good solutions fast. This is the first time this approach has been applied to the BPP. We also propose a decomposition approach for solving harder BPP, in which subproblems are solved using a combination of AugNN approach and heuristics that exploit the problem structure. We discuss the characteristics of problems on which such problem structure-based heuristics could be applied. We empirically show the effectiveness of the AugNN and the decomposition approach on many benchmark problems in the literature. For the 1210 benchmark problems tested, 917 problems were solved to optimality and the average gap between the obtained solution and the upper bound for all the problems was reduced to under 0.66% and computation time averaged below 33 s per problem. We also discuss the computational complexity of our approach.
A Formal Model and Verification Problems for Software Defined Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Zakharov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Software-defined networking (SDN is an approach to building computer networks that separate and abstract data planes and control planes of these systems. In a SDN a centralized controller manages a distributed set of switches. A set of open commands for packet forwarding and flow-table updating was defined in the form of a protocol known as OpenFlow. In this paper we describe an abstract formal model of SDN, introduce a tentative language for specification of SDN forwarding policies, and set up formally model-checking problems for SDN.
Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.
Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith
2016-10-01
Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MANAR Y. KASHMOLA
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The development of hybrid algorithms for solving complex optimization problems focuses on enhancing the strengths and compensating for the weakness of two or more complementary approaches. The goal is to intelligently combine the key elements of these approaches to find superior solutions to solve optimization problems. Optimal routing in communication network is considering a complex optimization problem. In this paper we propose a hybrid Hopfield Neural Network (HNN and Tabu Search (TS algorithm, this algorithm called hybrid HNN-TS algorithm. The paradigm of this hybridization is embedded. We embed the short-term memory and tabu restriction features from TS algorithm in the HNN model. The short-term memory and tabu restriction control the neuron selection process in the HNN model in order to get around the local minima problem and find an optimal solution using the HNN model to solve complex optimization problem. The proposed algorithm is intended to find the optimal path for packet transmission in the network which is fills in the field of routing problem. The optimal path that will be selected is depending on 4-tuples (delay, cost, reliability and capacity. Test results show that the propose algorithm can find path with optimal cost and a reasonable number of iterations. It also shows that the complexity of the network model won’t be a problem since the neuron selection is done heuristically.
A simulated annealing approach for redesigning a warehouse network problem
Khairuddin, Rozieana; Marlizawati Zainuddin, Zaitul; Jiun, Gan Jia
2017-09-01
Now a day, several companies consider downsizing their distribution networks in ways that involve consolidation or phase-out of some of their current warehousing facilities due to the increasing competition, mounting cost pressure and taking advantage on the economies of scale. Consequently, the changes on economic situation after a certain period of time require an adjustment on the network model in order to get the optimal cost under the current economic conditions. This paper aimed to develop a mixed-integer linear programming model for a two-echelon warehouse network redesign problem with capacitated plant and uncapacitated warehouses. The main contribution of this study is considering capacity constraint for existing warehouses. A Simulated Annealing algorithm is proposed to tackle with the proposed model. The numerical solution showed the model and method of solution proposed was practical.
Some dynamic resource allocation problems in wireless networks
Berry, Randall
2001-07-01
We consider dynamic resource allocation problems that arise in wireless networking. Specifically transmission scheduling problems are studied in cases where a user can dynamically allocate communication resources such as transmission rate and power based on current channel knowledge as well as traffic variations. We assume that arriving data is stored in a transmission buffer, and investigate the trade-off between average transmission power and average buffer delay. A general characterization of this trade-off is given and the behavior of this trade-off in the regime of asymptotically large buffer delays is explored. An extension to a more general utility based quality of service definition is also discussed.
A qualitative examination of the effects of international counter-drug interdictions.
Toth, Alexander G; Mitchell, Ojmarrh
2018-05-01
The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations. The findings indicate that sporadic counter-drug interdictions do not a have permanent deterrent effect on transnational drug smuggling operations. However, these types of law enforcement operations produce temporary alterations in drug trafficking, as traffickers adopted a variety of methods to thwart the efforts of law enforcement-often by relying on information acquired from corrupt local law enforcement. The results also indicate that while interdiction operations displaced trafficking activities (temporally, spatially, and methodological), there is little evidence that drug traffickers responded to such operations by moving into new areas (i.e., malign spatial displacement). Sporadic international drug interdiction programs do little to deter drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) from engaging in their illicit trade. Instead, DTOs adjust in a calculating manner to these operations to ensure that their illegal products reach consumer marketplaces, which is congruent with the rational choice theoretical perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balazs Godor
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.
Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology
Cojocaru, Radu Ionut
There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe
Towards overcoming the Monte Carlo sign problem with tensor networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bañuls Mari Carmen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The study of lattice gauge theories with Monte Carlo simulations is hindered by the infamous sign problem that appears under certain circumstances, in particular at non-zero chemical potential. So far, there is no universal method to overcome this problem. However, recent years brought a new class of non-perturbative Hamiltonian techniques named tensor networks, where the sign problem is absent. In previous work, we have demonstrated that this approach, in particular matrix product states in 1+1 dimensions, can be used to perform precise calculations in a lattice gauge theory, the massless and massive Schwinger model. We have computed the mass spectrum of this theory, its thermal properties and real-time dynamics. In this work, we review these results and we extend our calculations to the case of two flavours and non-zero chemical potential. We are able to reliably reproduce known analytical results for this model, thus demonstrating that tensor networks can tackle the sign problem of a lattice gauge theory at finite density.
Distance learning, problem based learning and dynamic knowledge networks.
Giani, U; Martone, P
1998-06-01
This paper is an attempt to develop a distance learning model grounded upon a strict integration of problem based learning (PBL), dynamic knowledge networks (DKN) and web tools, such as hypermedia documents, synchronous and asynchronous communication facilities, etc. The main objective is to develop a theory of distance learning based upon the idea that learning is a highly dynamic cognitive process aimed at connecting different concepts in a network of mutually supporting concepts. Moreover, this process is supposed to be the result of a social interaction that has to be facilitated by the web. The model was tested by creating a virtual classroom of medical and nursing students and activating a learning session on the concept of knowledge representation in health sciences.
A recurrent neural network for solving bilevel linear programming problem.
He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie; Huang, Junjian
2014-04-01
In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs.
Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use
Mason, Michael J.
2010-01-01
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
Route Selection Problem Based on Hopfield Neural Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Kojic
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Transport network is a key factor of economic, social and every other form of development in the region and the state itself. One of the main conditions for transport network development is the construction of new routes. Often, the construction of regional roads is dominant, since the design and construction in urban areas is quite limited. The process of analysis and planning the new roads is a complex process that depends on many factors (the physical characteristics of the terrain, the economic situation, political decisions, environmental impact, etc. and can take several months. These factors directly or indirectly affect the final solution, and in combination with project limitations and requirements, sometimes can be mutually opposed. In this paper, we present one software solution that aims to find Pareto optimal path for preliminary design of the new roadway. The proposed algorithm is based on many different factors (physical and social with the ability of their increase. This solution is implemented using Hopfield's neural network, as a kind of artificial intelligence, which has shown very good results for solving complex optimization problems.
Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Complex Groundwater Management Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppola, Emery; Poulton, Mary; Charles, Emmanuel; Dustman, John; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2003-01-01
As water quantity and quality problems become increasingly severe, accurate prediction and effective management of scarcer water resources will become critical. In this paper, the successful application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology is described for three types of groundwater prediction and management problems. In the first example, an ANN was trained with simulation data from a physically based numerical model to predict head (groundwater elevation) at locations of interest under variable pumping and climate conditions. The ANN achieved a high degree of predictive accuracy, and its derived state-transition equations were embedded into a multiobjective optimization formulation and solved to generate a trade-off curve depicting water supply in relation to contamination risk. In the second and third examples, ANNs were developed with real-world hydrologic and climate data for different hydrogeologic environments. For the second problem, an ANN was developed using data collected for a 5-year, 8-month period to predict heads in a multilayered surficial and limestone aquifer system under variable pumping, state, and climate conditions. Using weekly stress periods, the ANN substantially outperformed a well-calibrated numerical flow model for the 71-day validation period, and provided insights into the effects of climate and pumping on water levels. For the third problem, an ANN was developed with data collected automatically over a 6-week period to predict hourly heads in 11 high-capacity public supply wells tapping a semiconfined bedrock aquifer and subject to large well-interference effects. Using hourly stress periods, the ANN accurately predicted heads for 24-hour periods in all public supply wells. These test cases demonstrate that the ANN technology can solve a variety of complex groundwater management problems and overcome many of the problems and limitations associated with traditional physically based flow models
Algorithm for solving multicriteria problem of appointments on the networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. V. Bugaeev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To describe complex projects or various jobs that make up a set of interrelated activities, use the network schedule. Several variants of network models are used. 1. For practical use, the Gantt chart is the most widely used - it is a graphical representation of consecutive intervals of time and the use of resources. 2. The network graph is represented as a graph, where the vertices are an event (or its state at a certain point in time, and the connecting arcs (or edges are works. The graph model is used in the work. In this case, the events (the fact of the completion or the beginning of the work correspond to the vertices of the graph, and the work to the arcs, the orientation of which corresponds to the technology of this process. An important role in the project management model is played by the optimal assignment of performers to the existing list of works. With this formulation of the problem, the total implementation time or the length of the critical path on the graph can be used as a criterion. In this case, the criterion is imposed a restriction on the deadline for the execution of work (or the project as a whole. Thus, the total time spent on the project and the length of the critical path are represented by equally important characteristics of the project implementation, and they should be considered as two equivalent criteria for the multicriteria project management task. We have proposed an algorithm, in general, an approximate determination of the set of Pareto-optimal solutions of a given problem.
3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil
2010-01-01
... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...
77 FR 65457 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil
2012-10-29
... be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to the national security of that country... October 11, 2012 Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for...
76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia
2011-08-25
... suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary, because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to the national security of that... August 10, 2011 Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia...
75 FR 75853 - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil
2010-12-07
... be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's airspace is necessary because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to the national security of that country... October 15, 2010 Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil Memorandum for...
Library Automation and Networking in India: Problems and Prospects.
Vyas, S. D.
1997-01-01
Examines the information infrastructure and the impact of information technology in India. Highlights include attempts toward automation; library networking at the national and local level; descriptions of four major networks; library software; and constraints of networking in academic libraries. (LRW)
Sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through a recurrent neural network
Das, Raja
2017-11-01
In this paper we study the recurrent neural network for solving linear programming problems. To achieve optimality in accuracy and also in computational effort, an algorithm is presented. We investigate the sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through the neural network. A detailed example is also presented to demonstrate the performance of the recurrent neural network.
Enhancement of a model for Large-scale Airline Network Planning Problems
Kölker, K.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Lütjens, K.
2016-01-01
The main focus of this study is to solve the network planning problem based on passenger decision criteria including the preferred departure time and travel time for a real-sized airline network. For this purpose, a model of the integrated network planning problem is formulated including scheduling
Interdiction de Genre: La Loi Qui Fait Taire le Corp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renato Duro Dias
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Cette recherche discute les identités de genre avec la base dans l'analyse du travail La Ley no escrita (2012 d'Oihana Cordero. Le travail de l'artiste plasticien a comme l'objectif provoque la réflexion sur les lois et les normes juridiques-sociales qu'ils existent autour du caractère ficcional et le genre performatife, révélant de nouvelles lectures sur l'acte du corps. C'est un travail sculptural (KRAUSS, 1984, composé par une base blanche, une épée et un groupe de feuilles, dans lesquelles ils sont exprimés, par un contrat de genre, comme ils se prononcent, interseccionam et c'est des interdictions imposées aux possibilités de genre. Comme ceci, les règles et des règlements sont faits la preuve imposés par le binarisme du genre que la force soumet et ils arrêtent des identités pour le compte de la normalisation (normatisation des corps. Pour cette enquête les concepts de genre sont problematize, le corps subjugué, la normativité et de la performance dans le Butler (2012a, 2012b, 2013, Foucault (1997, 1998, 2014, Fraser (2002, 2006, 2009, Scott (2008, Cordero (2012 et Preciado (2011. Cordero (2012, dans son travail, nous présente les copies multiples d'un contrat de papier imprimé a passé par une épée. C'est une métaphore, une forme de représentation dogmatizé du corps par les actes visibles et invisibles qui compose et ils naturalisent les identités de genre dans une dualité obscurantiste homme/femme. Ce travail comme l'objet conceptuel (FREIRE 2006 produit la puissance exprimée pour en plus d'un document légal perforé, elle vise à provoquer les gens de contempler sur leurs pratiques et leurs corps, mais, par-dessus tout, réfléchir comme ces périmètres ont de transgression difficile. Lors de l'analyse de l'intersection possible des identités de genre et un objet artistique dans le domaine juridique est prévu pour gérer des éléments capables de révéler les technologies complexes corporels politiques
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raja Muhammad Asif Zahoor
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
A note on the consensus finding problem in communication networks with switching topologies
Haskovec, Jan
2014-01-01
In this note, we discuss the problem of consensus finding in communication networks of agents with dynamically switching topologies. In particular, we consider the case of directed networks with unbalanced matrices of communication rates. We
Open Problems in Network-aware Data Management in Exa-scale Computing and Terabit Networking Era
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balman, Mehmet; Byna, Surendra
2011-12-06
Accessing and managing large amounts of data is a great challenge in collaborative computing environments where resources and users are geographically distributed. Recent advances in network technology led to next-generation high-performance networks, allowing high-bandwidth connectivity. Efficient use of the network infrastructure is necessary in order to address the increasing data and compute requirements of large-scale applications. We discuss several open problems, evaluate emerging trends, and articulate our perspectives in network-aware data management.
Design and Optimisation Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Premkumar Karumbu,1.05 ECE,,+91-9448227167
2010-11-14
Nov 14, 2010 ... Wireless Networks of Multifunction Smart Sensors (WSNs). A smart sensor ... Energy and environment management networks in large buildings. Emerging ISA ... Monitoring mobile patients in hospitals and homes. Locating ...
Game Theoretic Solutions to Cyber Attack and Network Defense Problems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jr., , Jose B; Blasch, Erik; Kruger, Martin
2007-01-01
.... The protection and defense against cyber attacks to computer network is becoming inadequate as the hacker knowledge sophisticates and as the network and each computer system become more complex...
The transportation management division institutional program: Networking and problem solving
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGinnis, K.A.; Peterson, J.M.
1989-06-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has several programs related to transportation. While these programs may have differing missions and legislative authority, the required activities are frequently similar. To ensure a DOE-wide perspective in developing transportation policies and procedures, a DOE Transportation Institutional Task Force (Task Force) has been formed, which is the primary focus of this paper. The Task Force, composed of representatives from each of the major DOE transportation programs, meets periodically to exchange experiences and insights on institutional issues related to Departmental shipping. The primary purpose of the group is to identify opportunities for productive interactions with the transportation community, including interested and affected members of the public. This paper will also focus sharply on the networking of DOE with the State, Tribal, and local officials in fostering better understanding and in solving problems. An example of such activity is the DOE's cooperative agreement with the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium. A major effort is to encourage cooperative action in identifying, addressing, and resolving issues that could impede the transportation of radioactive materials
Cheng, Long; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Lin, Yingzi; Tan, Min; Zhang, Wenjun Chris; Wu, Fang-Xiang
2011-05-01
A recurrent neural network is proposed for solving the non-smooth convex optimization problem with the convex inequality and linear equality constraints. Since the objective function and inequality constraints may not be smooth, the Clarke's generalized gradients of the objective function and inequality constraints are employed to describe the dynamics of the proposed neural network. It is proved that the equilibrium point set of the proposed neural network is equivalent to the optimal solution of the original optimization problem by using the Lagrangian saddle-point theorem. Under weak conditions, the proposed neural network is proved to be stable, and the state of the neural network is convergent to one of its equilibrium points. Compared with the existing neural network models for non-smooth optimization problems, the proposed neural network can deal with a larger class of constraints and is not based on the penalty method. Finally, the proposed neural network is used to solve the identification problem of genetic regulatory networks, which can be transformed into a non-smooth convex optimization problem. The simulation results show the satisfactory identification accuracy, which demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Visualization of protein interaction networks: problems and solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agapito Giuseppe
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization concerns the representation of data visually and is an important task in scientific research. Protein-protein interactions (PPI are discovered using either wet lab techniques, such mass spectrometry, or in silico predictions tools, resulting in large collections of interactions stored in specialized databases. The set of all interactions of an organism forms a protein-protein interaction network (PIN and is an important tool for studying the behaviour of the cell machinery. Since graphic representation of PINs may highlight important substructures, e.g. protein complexes, visualization is more and more used to study the underlying graph structure of PINs. Although graphs are well known data structures, there are different open problems regarding PINs visualization: the high number of nodes and connections, the heterogeneity of nodes (proteins and edges (interactions, the possibility to annotate proteins and interactions with biological information extracted by ontologies (e.g. Gene Ontology that enriches the PINs with semantic information, but complicates their visualization. Methods In these last years many software tools for the visualization of PINs have been developed. Initially thought for visualization only, some of them have been successively enriched with new functions for PPI data management and PIN analysis. The paper analyzes the main software tools for PINs visualization considering four main criteria: (i technology, i.e. availability/license of the software and supported OS (Operating System platforms; (ii interoperability, i.e. ability to import/export networks in various formats, ability to export data in a graphic format, extensibility of the system, e.g. through plug-ins; (iii visualization, i.e. supported layout and rendering algorithms and availability of parallel implementation; (iv analysis, i.e. availability of network analysis functions, such as clustering or mining of the graph, and the
Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J
2011-06-01
Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Modern Advances to the Modular Fly-Away Kit (MFLAK) to Support Maritime Interdiction Operations
2007-09-01
MIO Maritime Interdiction Operations MMEA Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency MNF Multinational Force MOE Measure of Effectiveness MOP...the air to get a better picture of the situation in ZULU sector. 0836h X Day Air Boss – UAV Boss – Execute launch bird immediately and proceed...to ZULU sector and loiter on station until further notice. Ensure video surveillance commences when bird is on station. 0838h X Day UAV Boss
Effective teaming of airborne and ground assets for surveillance and interdiction
Muratore, Mark J.
2010-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) become more prevalent on the battlefield, ground forces will have to increasingly rely on them for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), as well as target marking, and overwatch operations. The Situational Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction Operations (SASIO) simulation analysis tool uses Design of Experiments (DOX) to study of aspects of UAV surveillance characteristics in co...
A new neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems.
Arjmandzadeh, Ziba; Safi, Mohammadreza; Nazemi, Alireza
2017-05-01
This paper presents a neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems. The original problem involving random interval variable coefficients is first transformed into an equivalent convex second order cone programming problem. A neural network model is then constructed for solving the obtained convex second order cone problem. Employing Lyapunov function approach, it is also shown that the proposed neural network model is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and it is globally convergent to an exact satisfactory solution of the original problem. Several illustrative examples are solved in support of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feed Forward Neural Network and Optimal Control Problem with Control and State Constraints
Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ová, Mária
2009-09-01
A feed forward neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The paper extends adaptive critic neural network architecture proposed by [5] to the optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. The proposed simulation method is illustrated by the optimal control problem of nitrogen transformation cycle model. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.
FCL: A solution to fault current problems in DC networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cointe, Y; Tixador, P; Villard, C
2008-01-01
Within the context of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to AC ones. New energy landscapes open the way of a diversified production. Innovative interconnection diagrams, in particular using DC buses, are under development. In this case it is not possible to defer the fault current interruption in the AC side. DC fault current cutting remains a difficult problem. FCLs (Fault Current Limiters) enable to limit the current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For this application Coated Conductors (CC) offer an excellent opportunity. Due to these promising characteristics we build a test bench and work on the implementation of these materials. The test bench is composed by 10 power amplifiers, to reach 4 kVA in many configurations of current and voltage. We carried out limiting experiments on DyBaCuO CC from EHTS, samples are about five centimeters long and many potential measuring points are pasted on the shunt to estimate the quench homogeneity. Thermal phenomena in FCLs are essential, numerical models are important to calculate the maximum temperatures. To validate these models we measure the CC temperature by depositing thermal sensors (Cu resistance) above the shunt layer and the substrate. An electrical insulation with a low thermal resistivity between the CC and the sensors is necessary. We use a thin layer of Parylene because of its good mechanical and electrical insulation properties at low temperature. The better quench behaviour of CC for temperatures close to the critical temperature has been confirmed. The measurements are in good agreement with simulations, this validates the thermal models
Problems in the design of multifunction meteor-radar networks
Nechitailenko, V. A.; Voloshchuk, Iu. I.
The design of meteor-radar networks is examined in connection with the need to conduct experiments on a mass scale in meteor geophysics and astronomy. Attention is given to network architecture features and procedures of communication-path selection in the organization of information transfer, with allowance for the features of the meteor communication link. The meteor link is considered as the main means to ensure traffic in the meteor-radar network.
Self-teaching neural network learns difficult reactor control problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouse, W.C.
1989-01-01
A self-teaching neural network used as an adaptive controller quickly learns to control an unstable reactor configuration. The network models the behavior of a human operator. It is trained by allowing it to operate the reactivity control impulsively. It is punished whenever either the power or fuel temperature stray outside technical limits. Using a simple paradigm, the network constructs an internal representation of the punishment and of the reactor system. The reactor is constrained to small power orbits
Dynamic shortest path problems : hybrid routing policies considering network disruptions
Sever, D.; Dellaert, N.P.; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.
2013-01-01
Traffic network disruptions lead to significant increases in transportation costs. We consider networks in which a number of links are vulnerable to these disruptions leading to a significantly higher travel time on these links. For these vulnerable links, we consider known link disruption
Omega-Harmonic Functions and Inverse Conductivity Problems on Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Berenstein, Carlos A; Chung, Soon-Yeong
2003-01-01
.... To do this, they introduce an elliptic operator DELTA omega and an omega-harmonic function on the graph, with its physical interpretation being the diffusion equation on the graph, which models an electric network...
Kim, Jeong-Nam
2018-01-01
This special issue of Health Communication compiles 10 articles to laud the promise and yet confront the problems in the digital networked information society related to public health. We present this anthology of symphony and cacophony of lay individuals' communicative actions in a digital networked information society. The collection of problems and promise of the new digital world may be a cornerstone joining two worlds-pre- and postdigital network society-and we hope this special issue will help better shape our future states of public health.
Second-order design problem in the Ancona geodetic network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldi, P.; Ferrari, G.; Postpischl, D.; Unguendoli, M.
1980-01-01
In this note an examination is made of the control network installed in the Ancona area in 1975 for seismotectonic studies. From an analysis of the network there arises the possibility of achieving a considerable improvement in the results by considering a plan of work derived from the a priori analysis of the covariance matrix and improving the atmospheric data fo the correction of electronic distance measurements, by the use of meteorological balloons. (author)
An analogue of Morse theory for planar linear networks and the generalized Steiner problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpunin, G A
2000-01-01
A study is made of the generalized Steiner problem: the problem of finding all the locally minimal networks spanning a given boundary set (terminal set). It is proposed to solve this problem by using an analogue of Morse theory developed here for planar linear networks. The space K of all planar linear networks spanning a given boundary set is constructed. The concept of a critical point and its index is defined for the length function l of a planar linear network. It is shown that locally minimal networks are local minima of l on K and are critical points of index 1. The theorem is proved that the sum of the indices of all the critical points is equal to χ(K)=1. This theorem is used to find estimates for the number of locally minimal networks spanning a given boundary set
Air-Land Battle Interdiction Model Corps Communications Module.
1984-06-01
communication network’s strengths and weaknesses. This method will closely emulate the ccmmunications obstacles that face V Corps in the Fulda Eowl area. (see...and the Dinamic Perfcince 0~ ~r niU~IT-onal -- DeIs, Y ’!7STmfof3 Ui’Versity 5i nt T ors 3r,7U1 8 4-.- *13. Weissinger-Baylcn, Grtage Can Decision
The Effects Of Disruptive Technology On Project Interdiction
2016-12-01
state of the art in personal privacy and anonymity is changing every day [11], [12]. 6 Disruptive technologies like cryptology and the blockchain ...only parties to be threatened by implementations of blockchain technology. Brooklyn-based software developer ConsenSys aims to provide the same...services as Google, utilizing a distributed network of computers that synchronizes information exchange via a blockchain implementation known as Ethereum
Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks
Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya
2015-01-01
This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.
A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David
2014-01-01
, while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...
Analyzing Human Communication Networks in Organizations: Applications to Management Problems.
Farace, Richard V.; Danowski, James A.
Investigating the networks of communication in organizations leads to an understanding of efficient and inefficient information dissemination as practiced in large systems. Most important in organizational communication is the role of the "liaison person"--the coordinator of intercommunication. When functioning efficiently, coordinators maintain…
Inverse problems in eddy current testing using neural network
Yusa, N.; Cheng, W.; Miya, K.
2000-05-01
Reconstruction of crack in conductive material is one of the most important issues in the field of eddy current testing. Although many attempts to reconstruct cracks have been made, most of them deal with only artificial cracks machined with electro-discharge. However, in the case of natural cracks like stress corrosion cracking or inter-granular attack, there must be contact region and therefore their conductivity is not necessarily zero. In this study, an attempt to reconstruct natural cracks using neural network is presented. The neural network was trained through numerical simulated data obtained by the fast forward solver that calculated unflawed potential data a priori to save computational time. The solver is based on A-φ method discretized by using FEM-BEM A natural crack was modeled as an area whose conductivity was less than that of a specimen. The distribution of conductivity in that area was reconstructed as well. It took much time to train the network, but the speed of reconstruction was extremely fast after once it was trained. Well-trained network gave good reconstruction result.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark
2006-01-25
End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our
Parallel algorithms for network routing problems and recurrences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wisniewski, J.A.; Sameh, A.H.
1982-01-01
In this paper, we consider the parallel solution of recurrences, and linear systems in the regular algebra of Carre. These problems are equivalent to solving the shortest path problem in graph theory, and they also arise in the analysis of Fortran programs. Our methods for solving linear systems in the regular algebra are analogues of well-known methods for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. A parallel version of Dijkstra's method, which has no linear algebraic analogue, is presented. Considerations for choosing an algorithm when the problem is large and sparse are also discussed
Qin, Sitian; Yang, Xiudong; Xue, Xiaoping; Song, Jiahui
2017-10-01
Pseudoconvex optimization problem, as an important nonconvex optimization problem, plays an important role in scientific and engineering applications. In this paper, a recurrent one-layer neural network is proposed for solving the pseudoconvex optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. It is proved that from any initial state, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the feasible region in finite time and stays there thereafter. It is also proved that the state of the proposed neural network is convergent to an optimal solution of the related problem. Compared with the related existing recurrent neural networks for the pseudoconvex optimization problems, the proposed neural network in this paper does not need the penalty parameters and has a better convergence. Meanwhile, the proposed neural network is used to solve three nonsmooth optimization problems, and we make some detailed comparisons with the known related conclusions. In the end, some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the performance of the proposed neural network.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee
2011-01-01
In wireless sensor networks, one of the key challenge is to achieve minimum energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. In fact, lifetime depends on many parameters: the topology of the sensor network, the data aggregation regime in the network, the channel access schemes, the routing...... protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...
Application of neural networks and cellular automata to calorimetric problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brenton, V; Fonvieille, H; Guicheney, C; Jousset, J; Roblin, Y; Tamin, F; Grenier, P
1994-09-01
Computing techniques based on parallel processing have been used to treat the information from the electromagnetic calorimeters in SLAC experiments E142/E143. Cluster finding and separation of overlapping showers are performed by a cellular automaton, pion and electron identification is done by using a multilayered neural network. Both applications are presented and their resulting performances are shown to be improved compared to more standard approaches. (author). 9 refs.; Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods (NL).
Application of neural networks and cellular automata to calorimetric problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Guicheney, C.; Jousset, J.; Roblin, Y.; Tamin, F.; Grenier, P.
1994-09-01
Computing techniques based on parallel processing have been used to treat the information from the electromagnetic calorimeters in SLAC experiments E142/E143. Cluster finding and separation of overlapping showers are performed by a cellular automaton, pion and electron identification is done by using a multilayered neural network. Both applications are presented and their resulting performances are shown to be improved compared to more standard approaches. (author)
Analysis of multimedian problems on time dependent networks
Salman, F Sibel
1994-01-01
Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Enginering and Science of Bilkent Univ., 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references leaves 81-85. Time dependency arises in transportation and computer-communication networks due to factors such as time varying demand, traffic intensity, and road conditions. This necessitates a locational decision to be based on an analysis involving a time horizon. In this st...
Multicast backup reprovisioning problem for Hamiltonian cycle-based protection on WDM networks
Din, Der-Rong; Huang, Jen-Shen
2014-03-01
As networks grow in size and complexity, the chance and the impact of failures increase dramatically. The pre-allocated backup resources cannot provide 100% protection guarantee when continuous failures occur in a network. In this paper, the multicast backup re-provisioning problem (MBRP) for Hamiltonian cycle (HC)-based protection on WDM networks for the link-failure case is studied. We focus on how to recover the protecting capabilities of Hamiltonian cycle against the subsequent link-failures on WDM networks for multicast transmissions, after recovering the multicast trees affected by the previous link-failure. Since this problem is a hard problem, an algorithm, which consists of several heuristics and a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed to solve it. The simulation results of the proposed method are also given. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can solve this problem efficiently.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Karakuts
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The basic problems of route network and aircraft fleet optimization and its role in airline strategic planning are considered. Measures to improve the methods of its implementation are proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan
2015-01-01
-commodity network flow problem with transit time constraints which puts limits on the duration of the transit of the commodities through the network. It is shown that for the particular application it does not increase the solution time to include the transit time constraints and that including the transit time...... is essential to offer customers a competitive product. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Interacting with Users in Social Networks: The Follow-back Problem
2016-05-02
These functions are known as network centrali- ties. They quantify how central a vertex is to the problem at hand, with the definition of centrality ...56 4.2.2 Twitter networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.2.3 Network centrality policies...tool can hinder the free movement of alternative ideas and information and thus can be analyzed through the A2/AD paradigm. Non-state adversaries have
Symposium Connects Government Problems with State of the Art Network Science Research
2015-10-16
Symposium Connects Government Problems with State-of-the- Art Network Science Research By Rajmonda S. Caceres and Benjamin A. Miller Network...the US Gov- ernment, and match these with the state-of-the- art models and techniques developed in the network science research community. Since its... science has grown significantly in the last several years as a field at the intersec- tion of mathematics, computer science , social science , and engineering
Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks
Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael
2018-01-01
This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...
Brands, Ties; van Berkum, Eric C.
2014-01-01
The optimization of infrastructure planning in a multimodal network is defined as a multi-objective network design problem, with accessibility, use of urban space by parking, operating deficit and climate impact as objectives. Decision variables are the location of park and ride facilities, train
Comparison of neural networks for solving the travelling salesman problem
Maire, La B.F.J.; Mladenov, V.M.
2012-01-01
The TSP deals with finding a shortest path through a number of cities. This seemingly simple problem is hard to solve because of the amount of possible solutions. Which is why methods that give a good suboptimal solution in a reasonable time are generally used. In this paper three methods were
Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks
Geven, S.A.J.
2016-01-01
Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually
On the Integrated Job Scheduling and Constrained Network Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette
This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resources, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. Furthermore, two resource demand...
Managing BTSs to Solve Handover Problem in Mobile Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wael Etaiwi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Handover is a key solution that improves the telecommunication services using GSM by assure the continual service delivery between two mobiles regardless of location's changes of the sender or receiver, and now GSM technology becomes applicable all over the world and the customers become more satisfied to the dealer's services delivery, But Handover suffers from a major problem refers to the limitation of hardware capacity of the BTS (Base Transfer Station. This approach consists of three schemes, the first one based on reserve an extra ports for handover purposes by implementing a software solution that control BTS ports. The second alternative scheme based on channel exchange between adjacent BTSs by shifting a chosen allocated signal to another adjacent free BTS and then allocating the new signal to the new free port. The third schema depends on carrying the Handover problem to another BTS to solve it if it didn't solved in the second schema.
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
2018-01-01
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a large-scale dataset published by Nature Publishing Group detailing the results of a survey about academics use of online social networking services. An ope...
Agribusiness networks in Bulgaria: Design and creative problem-solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doitchinova Julia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing integration of the global economy and the complex challenges of the business environment it is becoming crucial to focus and gain a full understanding on the role of the value chains' structure and functioning. This particularly refers to the countries from the post-communist Europe and their transformation and progress achieved in marketization and democratization. The present paper is purposeful towards providing an overall framework for assessment of the different forms of network structures in the agricultural sector and to identify as well their capacity to counteract market restrictions, and to benefit form the opportunities of the agribusiness development. The methodological framework bases on the transaction costs economics and the 4C concept. The paper presents methodology at two stages, where results of expert assessment and evaluation at national and regional level led to selection of three case studies to be presented in certain sectors of agribusiness.
Assessment of network inference methods: how to cope with an underdetermined problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline Siegenthaler
Full Text Available The inference of biological networks is an active research area in the field of systems biology. The number of network inference algorithms has grown tremendously in the last decade, underlining the importance of a fair assessment and comparison among these methods. Current assessments of the performance of an inference method typically involve the application of the algorithm to benchmark datasets and the comparison of the network predictions against the gold standard or reference networks. While the network inference problem is often deemed underdetermined, implying that the inference problem does not have a (unique solution, the consequences of such an attribute have not been rigorously taken into consideration. Here, we propose a new procedure for assessing the performance of gene regulatory network (GRN inference methods. The procedure takes into account the underdetermined nature of the inference problem, in which gene regulatory interactions that are inferable or non-inferable are determined based on causal inference. The assessment relies on a new definition of the confusion matrix, which excludes errors associated with non-inferable gene regulations. For demonstration purposes, the proposed assessment procedure is applied to the DREAM 4 In Silico Network Challenge. The results show a marked change in the ranking of participating methods when taking network inferability into account.
A two-layer recurrent neural network for nonsmooth convex optimization problems.
Qin, Sitian; Xue, Xiaoping
2015-06-01
In this paper, a two-layer recurrent neural network is proposed to solve the nonsmooth convex optimization problem subject to convex inequality and linear equality constraints. Compared with existing neural network models, the proposed neural network has a low model complexity and avoids penalty parameters. It is proved that from any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the equality feasible region in finite time and stays there thereafter. Moreover, the state is unique if the initial point lies in the equality feasible region. The equilibrium point set of the proposed neural network is proved to be equivalent to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality set of the original optimization problem. It is further proved that the equilibrium point of the proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Moreover, from any initial point, the state is proved to be convergent to an equilibrium point of the proposed neural network. Finally, as applications, the proposed neural network is used to solve nonlinear convex programming with linear constraints and L1 -norm minimization problems.
Consensus problem in directed networks of multi-agents via nonlinear protocols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xiwei; Chen Tianping; Lu Wenlian
2009-01-01
In this Letter, the consensus problem via distributed nonlinear protocols for directed networks is investigated. Its dynamical behaviors are described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Based on graph theory, matrix theory and the Lyapunov direct method, some sufficient conditions of nonlinear protocols guaranteeing asymptotical or exponential consensus are presented and rigorously proved. The main contribution of this work is that for nonlinearly coupled networks, we generalize the results for undirected networks to directed networks. Consensus under pinning control technique is also developed here. Simulations are also given to show the validity of the theories.
A non-penalty recurrent neural network for solving a class of constrained optimization problems.
Hosseini, Alireza
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explain a methodology to analyze convergence of some differential inclusion-based neural networks for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. For a general differential inclusion, we show that if its right hand-side set valued map satisfies some conditions, then solution trajectory of the differential inclusion converges to optimal solution set of its corresponding in optimization problem. Based on the obtained methodology, we introduce a new recurrent neural network for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. Objective function does not need to be convex on R(n) nor does the new neural network model require any penalty parameter. We compare our new method with some penalty-based and non-penalty based models. Moreover for differentiable cases, we implement circuit diagram of the new neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
2018-01-01
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a…
A polynomial time algorithm for solving the maximum flow problem in directed networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tlas, M.
2015-01-01
An efficient polynomial time algorithm for solving maximum flow problems has been proposed in this paper. The algorithm is basically based on the binary representation of capacities; it solves the maximum flow problem as a sequence of O(m) shortest path problems on residual networks with nodes and m arcs. It runs in O(m"2r) time, where is the smallest integer greater than or equal to log B , and B is the largest arc capacity of the network. A numerical example has been illustrated using this proposed algorithm.(author)
A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David
2012-01-01
The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...... programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...
The Threshold Shortest Path Interdiction Problem for Critical Infrastructure Resilience Analysis
2017-09-01
offered in the past by pizza delivery stores. A pizza parlor provides a delivery service to people living within a certain range from the restaurant ...disruptions that are outside of the pizza parlor’s control. Given this data, the owner of the restaurant can make decisions on offering the guarantee
Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos
2015-01-01
Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications
Network Model for The Problem of Integer Balancing of a Fourdimensional Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Smirnov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of integer balancing of a four-dimensional matrix is studied. The elements of the inner part (all four indices are greater than zero of the given real matrix are summed in each direction and each two- and three-dimensional section of the matrix; the total sum is also found. These sums are placed into the elements where one or more indices are equal to zero (according to the summing directions. The problem is to find an integer matrix of the same structure, which can be produced from the initial one by replacing the elements with the largest previous or the smallest following integer. At the same time, the element with four zero indices should be produced with standard rules of rounding - off. In the article the problem of finding the maximum multiple flow in the network of any natural multiplicity is also studied. There are arcs of three types: ordinary arcs, multiple arcs and multi-arcs. Each multiple and multi-arc is a union of linked arcs, which are adjusted with each other. The network constructing rules are described. The definitions of a divisible network and some associated subjects are stated. There are defined the basic principles for reducing the integer balancing problem of an -dimensional matrix ( to the problem of finding the maximum flow in a divisible multiple network of multiplicity . There are stated the rules for reducing the four-dimensional balancing problem to the maximum flow problem in the network of multiplicity 5. The algorithm of finding the maximum flow, which meets the solvability conditions for the integer balancing problem, is formulated for such a network.
The simplest problem in the collective dynamics of neural networks: is synchrony stable?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timme, Marc; Wolf, Fred
2008-01-01
For spiking neural networks we consider the stability problem of global synchrony, arguably the simplest non-trivial collective dynamics in such networks. We find that even this simplest dynamical problem—local stability of synchrony—is non-trivial to solve and requires novel methods for its solution. In particular, the discrete mode of pulsed communication together with the complicated connectivity of neural interaction networks requires a non-standard approach. The dynamics in the vicinity of the synchronous state is determined by a multitude of linear operators, in contrast to a single stability matrix in conventional linear stability theory. This unusual property qualitatively depends on network topology and may be neglected for globally coupled homogeneous networks. For generic networks, however, the number of operators increases exponentially with the size of the network. We present methods to treat this multi-operator problem exactly. First, based on the Gershgorin and Perron–Frobenius theorems, we derive bounds on the eigenvalues that provide important information about the synchronization process but are not sufficient to establish the asymptotic stability or instability of the synchronous state. We then present a complete analysis of asymptotic stability for topologically strongly connected networks using simple graph-theoretical considerations. For inhibitory interactions between dissipative (leaky) oscillatory neurons the synchronous state is stable, independent of the parameters and the network connectivity. These results indicate that pulse-like interactions play a profound role in network dynamical systems, and in particular in the dynamics of biological synchronization, unless the coupling is homogeneous and all-to-all. The concepts introduced here are expected to also facilitate the exact analysis of more complicated dynamical network states, for instance the irregular balanced activity in cortical neural networks
Relevant problems in collaborative processes of non-hierarchical manufacturing networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Andrés
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify some of existing problems associated with collaboration among SMEs of the same network. Concretely, the problems are focused. The research objective is to identify the most relevant problems existing when SMEs have to deal with decentralized decisions (DDM. Design/methodology/approach: Through the literature review there have been collected collaborative problems caused by inter-organizational barriers. The approach taken is a qualitative study and analysis that classifies collaborative problems from less important to very important. In light of this, we are able to identify what are the most relevant problems to study in the NHN collaborative context. Findings and Originality/value: The developed methodology allows researchers to indentify amongst the collaborative problems those that are most relevant to solve in the NHN context, with the main aim of providing solutions in the future. The research aim is to provide the expert in the collaborative field a starting point to address the collaborative problems SMEs can find when belonging to collaborative networks. Research limitations/implications: Not all the problems that appear when an SME establish collaborative relationships, in a NHN, are considered. The identified problems have been arisen because there are discussed in the literature for addressing collaborative problems among networked partners. Identified problems are also considered because there are relevant to achieve collaboration among SMEs. Originality/value: The degree of coverage and the degree of significance is the taxonomy criteria used to identify the importance of solution degree of the encountered collaborative problems, in NHN context, in order to provide a future research of solutions to overcome them.
Decentralized coverage control problems for mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks
Savkin, A; Xi, Z; Javed, F; Matveev, A; Nguyen, H
2015-01-01
This book introduces various coverage control problems for mobile sensor networks including barrier, sweep and blanket. Unlike many existing algorithms, all of the robotic sensor and actuator motion algorithms developed in the book are fully decentralized or distributed, computationally efficient, easily implementable in engineering practice and based only on information on the closest neighbours of each mobile sensor and actuator and local information about the environment. Moreover, the mobile robotic sensors have no prior information about the environment in which they operation. These various types of coverage problems have never been covered before by a single book in a systematic way. Another topic of this book is the study of mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks. Many modern engineering applications include the use of sensor and actuator networks to provide efficient and effective monitoring and control of industrial and environmental processes. Such mobile sensor and actuator networks are abl...
2016-09-09
main alternative means—not necessarily mutually exclusive : we can strike at the enemy’s troops themselves, either by killing them or preventing...rail yards, harbors, and airfields. If forces or supplies are critically needed at the front, the enemy may not have the luxury of dispersing them
A Bio-Inspired Approach to Traffic Network Equilibrium Assignment Problem.
Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2018-04-01
Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes. At last, we demonstrate that the Physarum solver converges to the user-optimized (Wardrop) equilibrium by dynamically updating the costs of links in the network. In addition, convergence of the developed algorithm is proved. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with several other algorithms, including the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, conjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, biconjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, and gradient projection algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadi, A.; Varahram, M.H.
2007-01-01
In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)
2012-09-13
46, 1989. [75] S. Melkote and M.S. Daskin . An integrated model of facility location and transportation network design. Transportation Research Part A ... a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/DS/ENS/12-09 THE AVERAGE NETWORK FLOW PROBLEM...focused thinking (VFT) are used sparingly, as is the case across the entirety of the supply chain literature. We provide a VFT tutorial for supply chain
DOE Network 2025: Network Research Problems and Challenges for DOE Scientists. Workshop Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2016-02-01
The growing investments in large science instruments and supercomputers by the US Department of Energy (DOE) hold enormous promise for accelerating the scientific discovery process. They facilitate unprecedented collaborations of geographically dispersed teams of scientists that use these resources. These collaborations critically depend on the production, sharing, moving, and management of, as well as interactive access to, large, complex data sets at sites dispersed across the country and around the globe. In particular, they call for significant enhancements in network capacities to sustain large data volumes and, equally important, the capabilities to collaboratively access the data across computing, storage, and instrument facilities by science users and automated scripts and systems. Improvements in network backbone capacities of several orders of magnitude are essential to meet these challenges, in particular, to support exascale initiatives. Yet, raw network speed represents only a part of the solution. Indeed, the speed must be matched by network and transport layer protocols and higher layer tools that scale in ways that aggregate, compose, and integrate the disparate subsystems into a complete science ecosystem. Just as important, agile monitoring and management services need to be developed to operate the network at peak performance levels. Finally, these solutions must be made an integral part of the production facilities by using sound approaches to develop, deploy, diagnose, operate, and maintain them over the science infrastructure.
A problem of finding an acceptable variant in generalized project networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Blokh
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A project network often has some activities or groups of activities which can be performed at different stages of the project. Then, the problem of finding an optimal/acceptable time or/and optimal/acceptable order of such an activity or a group of activities arises. Such a problem emerges, in particular, in house-building management when the beginnings of some activities may vary in time or/and order. We consider a mathematical formulation of the problem, show its computational complexity, and describe an algorithm for solving the problem.
Problem-Solving Methods for the Prospective Development of Urban Power Distribution Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Karpenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article succeeds the former A. P. K nko’ and A. I. Kuzmina’ ubl t on titled "A mathematical model of urban distribution electro-network considering its future development" (electronic scientific and technical magazine "Science and education" No. 5, 2014.The article offers a model of urban power distribution network as a set of transformer and distribution substations and cable lines. All elements of the network and new consumers are determined owing to vectors of parameters consistent with them.A problem of the urban power distribution network design, taking into account a prospective development of the city, is presented as a problem of discrete programming. It is in deciding on the optimal option to connect new consumers to the power supply network, on the number and sites to build new substations, and on the option to include them in the power supply network.Two methods, namely a reduction method for a set the nested tasks of global minimization and a decomposition method are offered to solve the problem.In reduction method the problem of prospective development of power supply network breaks into three subtasks of smaller dimension: a subtask to define the number and sites of new transformer and distribution substations, a subtask to define the option to connect new consumers to the power supply network, and a subtask to include new substations in the power supply network. The vector of the varied parameters is broken into three subvectors consistent with the subtasks. Each subtask is solved using an area of admissible vector values of the varied parameters at the fixed components of the subvectors obtained when solving the higher subtasks.In decomposition method the task is presented as a set of three, similar to reduction method, reductions of subtasks and a problem of coordination. The problem of coordination specifies a sequence of the subtasks solution, defines the moment of calculation termination. Coordination is realized by
Nasertdinova, A. D.; Bochkarev, V. V.
2017-11-01
Deep neural networks with a large number of parameters are a powerful tool for solving problems of pattern recognition, prediction and classification. Nevertheless, overfitting remains a serious problem in the use of such networks. A method of solving the problem of overfitting is proposed in this article. This method is based on reducing the number of independent parameters of a neural network model using the principal component analysis, and can be implemented using existing libraries of neural computing. The algorithm was tested on the problem of recognition of handwritten symbols from the MNIST database, as well as on the task of predicting time series (rows of the average monthly number of sunspots and series of the Lorentz system were used). It is shown that the application of the principal component analysis enables reducing the number of parameters of the neural network model when the results are good. The average error rate for the recognition of handwritten figures from the MNIST database was 1.12% (which is comparable to the results obtained using the "Deep training" methods), while the number of parameters of the neural network can be reduced to 130 times.
Identifying and localizing network problems using the PuNDIT project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batista, Jorge; McKee, Shawn; Dovrolis, Constantine; Lee, Danny
2015-01-01
In today's world of distributed collaborations of scientists, there are many challenges to providing effective infrastructures to couple these groups of scientists with their shared computing and storage resources. The Pythia Network Diagnostic InfrasTructure (PuNDIT[1]) project is integrating and scaling research tools and creating robust code suitable for operational needs addressing the difficult challenge of automating the detection and location of network problems.PuNDIT is building upon the de-facto standard perfSONAR[2] network measurement infrastructure deployed in Open Science Grid(OSG)[3] and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid(WLCG)[4]to gather and analyze complex real-world network topologies coupled with their corresponding network metrics to identify possible signatures of network problems from a set of symptoms. The PuNDIT Team is working closely with the perfSONAR developers from ESnet and Internet2 to integrate PuNDIT components as part of the perfSONAR Toolkit. A primary goal for PuNDIT is to convert complex network metrics into easily understood diagnoses in an automated way. We will report on the project progress to-date in working with the OSG and WLCG communities, describe the current implementation including some initial results and discuss future plans and the project timeline. (paper)
A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Pisinger, David
The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...... programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...... transhipment cost. The problem is solved with branch-and-cut using clover and transhipment inequalities. Computational results are reported for instances with up to 15 ports....
Sánchez-Pérez, J F; Marín, F; Morales, J L; Cánovas, M; Alhama, F
2018-01-01
Mathematical models simulating different and representative engineering problem, atomic dry friction, the moving front problems and elastic and solid mechanics are presented in the form of a set of non-linear, coupled or not coupled differential equations. For different parameters values that influence the solution, the problem is numerically solved by the network method, which provides all the variables of the problems. Although the model is extremely sensitive to the above parameters, no assumptions are considered as regards the linearization of the variables. The design of the models, which are run on standard electrical circuit simulation software, is explained in detail. The network model results are compared with common numerical methods or experimental data, published in the scientific literature, to show the reliability of the model.
2018-01-01
Mathematical models simulating different and representative engineering problem, atomic dry friction, the moving front problems and elastic and solid mechanics are presented in the form of a set of non-linear, coupled or not coupled differential equations. For different parameters values that influence the solution, the problem is numerically solved by the network method, which provides all the variables of the problems. Although the model is extremely sensitive to the above parameters, no assumptions are considered as regards the linearization of the variables. The design of the models, which are run on standard electrical circuit simulation software, is explained in detail. The network model results are compared with common numerical methods or experimental data, published in the scientific literature, to show the reliability of the model. PMID:29518121
Definition of new 3D invariants. Applications to pattern recognition problems with neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proriol, J.
1996-01-01
We propose a definition of new 3D invariants. Usual pattern recognition methods use 2D descriptions of 3D objects, we propose a 2D approximation of the defined 3D invariants which can be used with neural networks to solve pattern recognition problems. We describe some methods to use the 2 D approximants. This work is an extension of previous 3D invariants used to solve some high energy physics problems. (author)
Latorre, Vittorio
2014-01-01
We propose to solve large instances of the non-convex optimization problems reformulated with canonical duality theory. To this aim we propose an interior point potential reduction algorithm based on the solution of the primal-dual total complementarity (Lagrange) function. We establish the global convergence result for the algorithm under mild assumptions and demonstrate the method on instances of the Sensor Network Localization problem. Our numerical results are promising and show the possi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Rabbani
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, fiber-optic due to having greater bandwidth and being more efficient compared with other similar technologies, are counted as one the most important tools for data transfer. In this article, an integrated mathematical model for a three-level fiber-optic distribution network with consideration of simultaneous backbone and local access networks is presented in which the backbone network is a ring and the access networks has a star-star topology. The aim of the model is to determine the location of the central offices and splitters, how connections are made between central offices, and allocation of each demand node to a splitter or central office in a way that the wiring cost of fiber optical and concentrator installation are minimized. Moreover, each user’s desired bandwidth should be provided efficiently. Then, the proposed model is validated by GAMS software in small-sized problems, afterwards the model is solved by two meta-heuristic methods including differential evolution (DE and genetic algorithm (GA in large-scaled problems and the results of two algorithms are compared with respect to computational time and objective function obtained value. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is provided. Keyword: Fiber-optic, telecommunication network, hub-location, passive splitter, three-level network.
Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J
2018-01-01
Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.
Towards a Versatile Problem Diagnosis Infrastructure for LargeWireless Sensor Networks
Iwanicki, Konrad; Steen, van Maarten
2007-01-01
In this position paper, we address the issue of durable maintenance of a wireless sensor network, which will be crucial if the vision of large, long-lived sensornets is to become reality. Durable maintenance requires tools for diagnosing and fixing occurring problems, which can range from
On Unrooted and Root-Uncertain Variants of Several Well-Known Phylogenetic Network Problems
van Iersel, L.J.J.; Kelk, Steven; Stougie, Leen; Boes, Olivier
2017-01-01
The hybridization number problem requires us to embed a set of binary rooted phylogenetic trees into a binary rooted phylogenetic network such that the number of nodes with indegree two is minimized. However, from a biological point of view accurately inferring the root location in a phylogenetic
1991-06-01
Proceedings of The National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , pages 181-184, The American Association for Aritificial Intelligence , Pittsburgh...Intermediary Resource: Intelligent Executive Computer Communication John Lyman and Carla J. Conaway University of California at Los Angeles for Contracting...Include Security Classification) Interim Report: Distributed Problem Solving: Adaptive Networks With a Computer Intermediary Resource: Intelligent
A Branch-and-Price Approach to the Feeder Network Design Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santini, Alberto; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Røpke, Stefan
2017-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of designing a container liner shipping feeder network. The designer has to choose which port to serve during many rotations that start and end at a central hub. Many operational characteristics are considered, such as variable leg-by-leg speeds and cargo...
Quadratic head loss approximations for optimisation problems in water supply networks
Pecci, Filippo; Abraham, E.; I, Stoianov
2017-01-01
This paper presents a novel analysis of the accuracy of quadratic approximations for the Hazen–Williams (HW) head loss formula, which enables the control of constraint violations in optimisation problems for water supply networks. The two smooth polynomial approximations considered here minimise the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland
2017-01-01
A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary
Chen, Zhong; Liu, June; Li, Xiong
2017-01-01
A two-stage artificial neural network (ANN) based on scalarization method is proposed for bilevel biobjective programming problem (BLBOP). The induced set of the BLBOP is firstly expressed as the set of minimal solutions of a biobjective optimization problem by using scalar approach, and then the whole efficient set of the BLBOP is derived by the proposed two-stage ANN for exploring the induced set. In order to illustrate the proposed method, seven numerical examples are tested and compared with results in the classical literature. Finally, a practical problem is solved by the proposed algorithm. PMID:29312446
Solving the Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems Via the Neural Network Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalid Haddouch
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A wide variety of real world optimization problems can be modelled as Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems (WCSPs. In this paper, we model this problem in terms of in original 0-1 quadratic programming subject to leaner constraints. View it performance, we use the continuous Hopfield network to solve the obtained model basing on original energy function. To validate our model, we solve several instance of benchmarking WCSP. In this regard, our approach recognizes the optimal solution of the said instances.
An L∞/L1-Constrained Quadratic Optimization Problem with Applications to Neural Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leizarowitz, Arie; Rubinstein, Jacob
2003-01-01
Pattern formation in associative neural networks is related to a quadratic optimization problem. Biological considerations imply that the functional is constrained in the L ∞ norm and in the L 1 norm. We consider such optimization problems. We derive the Euler-Lagrange equations, and construct basic properties of the maximizers. We study in some detail the case where the kernel of the quadratic functional is finite-dimensional. In this case the optimization problem can be fully characterized by the geometry of a certain convex and compact finite-dimensional set
Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks for Maritime Interdiction Operations and Regional Security
2012-09-01
include constraining or denying of supplies or other trading privileges, and even the liberty of moving people out of a particular area. The...line every day. This leads to flexibility and performance and cost trade -offs. Furthermore, the continuous evolution of both communication and...Ranger7 Data Sheet,” Calzoni Marine Handling and Lighting Solutions, Bologna, Italy, May 2009. [48] “ Intergrator UAV Specification Sheet,” Insitu
A minimum resource neural network framework for solving multiconstraint shortest path problems.
Zhang, Junying; Zhao, Xiaoxue; He, Xiaotao
2014-08-01
Characterized by using minimum hard (structural) and soft (computational) resources, a novel parameter-free minimal resource neural network (MRNN) framework is proposed for solving a wide range of single-source shortest path (SP) problems for various graph types. The problems are the k-shortest time path problems with any combination of three constraints: time, hop, and label constraints, and the graphs can be directed, undirected, or bidirected with symmetric and/or asymmetric traversal time, which can be real and time dependent. Isomorphic to the graph where the SP is to be sought, the network is activated by generating autowave at source neuron and the autowave travels automatically along the paths with the speed of a hop in an iteration. Properties of the network are studied, algorithms are presented, and computation complexity is analyzed. The framework guarantees globally optimal solutions of a series of problems during the iteration process of the network, which provides insight into why even the SP is still too long to be satisfied. The network facilitates very large scale integrated circuit implementation and adapt to very large scale problems due to its massively parallel processing and minimum resource utilization. When implemented in a sequentially processing computer, experiments on synthetic graphs, road maps of cities of the USA, and vehicle routing with time windows indicate that the MRNN is especially efficient for large scale sparse graphs and even dense graphs with some constraints, e.g., the CPU time taken and the iteration number used for the road maps of cities of the USA is even less than ∼ 2% and 0.5% that of the Dijkstra's algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Botond Molnár
Full Text Available There has been a long history of using neural networks for combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. Symmetric Hopfield networks and similar approaches use steepest descent dynamics, and they always converge to the closest local minimum of the energy landscape. For finding global minima additional parameter-sensitive techniques are used, such as classical simulated annealing or the so-called chaotic simulated annealing, which induces chaotic dynamics by addition of extra terms to the energy landscape. Here we show that asymmetric continuous-time neural networks can solve constraint satisfaction problems without getting trapped in non-solution attractors. We concentrate on a model solving Boolean satisfiability (k-SAT, which is a quintessential NP-complete problem. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the stable fixed points of the neural network and the k-SAT solutions and we present numerical evidence that limit cycles may also be avoided by appropriately choosing the parameters of the model. This optimal parameter region is fairly independent of the size and hardness of instances, this way parameters can be chosen independently of the properties of problems and no tuning is required during the dynamical process. The model is similar to cellular neural networks already used in CNN computers. On an analog device solving a SAT problem would take a single operation: the connection weights are determined by the k-SAT instance and starting from any initial condition the system searches until finding a solution. In this new approach transient chaotic behavior appears as a natural consequence of optimization hardness and not as an externally induced effect.
Method of Geometric Connected Disk Cover Problem for UAV realy network deployment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuang Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of the effective connectivity of a large number of mobile combat units in the future aeronautic swarm operation, this paper proposes an idea of using UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to build, and studies the deployment of the network. User coverage and network connectivity are important for a relay network planning which are studied separately in traditional ways. In order to effectively combine these two factors while the network’s survivability is taken into account. Firstly, the concept of node aggregation degree is proposed. Secondly, a performance evaluation parameter for UAV relay network is proposed based on node aggregation degree, then analyzes the lack of deterministic deployment and presents one a PSO (VFA-PSO deployment algorithm based on virtual force. Finally, compared with the existing algorithms, the validity and stability of the algorithm are verified. The experimental results show that the VFA-PSO algorithm can effectively improve the network coverage and the survivability of the network under the premise of ensuring the network connectivity, and has better deployment effect.
PROACTIVE APPROACH TO THE INCIDENT AND PROBLEM MANAGEMENT IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vjeran Strahonja
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Proactive approach to communication network maintenance has the capability of enhancing the integrity and reliability of communication networks, as well as of reducing maintenance costs and overall number of incidents. This paper presents approaches to problem and incident prevention with the help of root-cause analysis, aligning that with the goal to foresee software performance. Implementation of proactive approach requires recognition of enterprise's current level of maintenance better insights into available approaches and tools, as well as their comparison, interoperability, integration and further development. The approach we are proposing and elaborating in this paper lies on the construction of a metamodel of the problem management of information technology, particularly the proactive problem management. The metamodel is derived from the original ITIL specification and presented in an object-oriented fashion by using structure (class diagrams conform to UML notation. Based on current research, appropriate metrics based on the concept of Key Performance Indicators is suggested.
Cichocki, A; Unbehauen, R
1994-01-01
In this paper a new class of simplified low-cost analog artificial neural networks with on chip adaptive learning algorithms are proposed for solving linear systems of algebraic equations in real time. The proposed learning algorithms for linear least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS) and data least squares (DLS) problems can be considered as modifications and extensions of well known algorithms: the row-action projection-Kaczmarz algorithm and/or the LMS (Adaline) Widrow-Hoff algorithms. The algorithms can be applied to any problem which can be formulated as a linear regression problem. The correctness and high performance of the proposed neural networks are illustrated by extensive computer simulation results.
A review on application of neural networks and fuzzy logic to solve hydrothermal scheduling problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroon, S.; Malik, T.N.; Zafar, S.
2014-01-01
Electrical power system is highly complicated having hydro and thermal mix with large number of machines. To reduce power production cost, hydro and thermal resources are mixed. Hydrothermal scheduling is the optimal coordination of hydro and thermal plants to meet the system load demand at minimum possible operational cost while satisfying the system constraints. Hydrothermal scheduling is dynamic, large scale, non-linear and non-convex optimization problem. The classical techniques have failed in solving such problem. Artificial Intelligence Tools based techniques are used now a day to solve this complex optimization problem because of their no requirements on the nature of the problem. The aim of this research paper is to provide a comprehensive survey of literature related to both Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) as effective optimization algorithms for the hydrothermal scheduling problem. The outcomes along with the merits and demerits of individual techniques are also discussed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, M.
2014-01-01
problem. The methods are computationally evaluated on test instances arising from telecommunications with up to 500 jobs and 500 machines. Results show that solving the integrated job scheduling and constrained network routing problem to optimality is very difficult. The exact solution approach performs......This paper examines the problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job has a certain demand, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. A job cannot start before all its demands have...... arrived at the machine. Furthermore, two resource demand transmissions cannot use the same edge in the same time period. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number of geographically distributed machines work together for solving large problems. The machines are connected through...
Heuristic for solving capacitor allocation problems in electric energy radial distribution networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria A. Biagio
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of the capacitor allocation problem in radial distribution networks is to minimize technical losses with consequential positive impacts on economic and environmental areas. The main objective is to define the size and location of the capacitors while considering load variations in a given horizon. The mathematical formulation for this planning problem is given by an integer nonlinear mathematical programming model that demands great computational effort to be solved. With the goal of solving this problem, this paper proposes a methodology that is composed of heuristics and Tabu Search procedures. The methodology presented explores network system characteristics of the network system reactive loads for identifying regions where procedures of local and intensive searches should be performed. A description of the proposed methodology and an analysis of computational results obtained which are based on several test systems including actual systems are presented. The solutions reached are as good as or better than those indicated by well referenced methodologies. The technique proposed is simple in its use and does not require calibrating an excessive amount of parameters, making it an attractive alternative for companies involved in the planning of radial distribution networks.
A Very Large Area Network (VLAN) knowledge-base applied to space communication problems
Zander, Carol S.
1988-01-01
This paper first describes a hierarchical model for very large area networks (VLAN). Space communication problems whose solution could profit by the model are discussed and then an enhanced version of this model incorporating the knowledge needed for the missile detection-destruction problem is presented. A satellite network or VLAN is a network which includes at least one satellite. Due to the complexity, a compromise between fully centralized and fully distributed network management has been adopted. Network nodes are assigned to a physically localized group, called a partition. Partitions consist of groups of cell nodes with one cell node acting as the organizer or master, called the Group Master (GM). Coordinating the group masters is a Partition Master (PM). Knowledge is also distributed hierarchically existing in at least two nodes. Each satellite node has a back-up earth node. Knowledge must be distributed in such a way so as to minimize information loss when a node fails. Thus the model is hierarchical both physically and informationally.
Storage Solutions for Power Quality Problems in Cyprus Electricity Distribution Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Poullikkas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a prediction of the effects of introducing energy storage systems on the network stability of the distribution network of Cyprus and a comparison in terms of cost with a traditional solution is carried out. In particular, for solving possible overvoltage problems, several scenarios of storage units' installation are used and compared with the alternative solution of extra cable connection between the node with the lowest voltage and the node with the highest voltage of the distribution network. For the comparison, a case study of a typical LV distribution feeder in the power system of Cyprus is used. The results indicated that the performance indicator of each solution depends on the type, the size and the position of installation of the storage unit. Also, as more storage units are installed the better the performance indicator and the more attractive is the investment in storage units to solve power quality problems in the distribution network. In the case where the technical requirements in voltage limitations according to distribution regulations are satisfied with one storage unit, the installation of an additional storage unit will only increase the final cost. The best solution, however, still remains the alternative solution of extra cable connection between the node with the lowest voltage and the node with the highest voltage of the distribution network, due to the lower investment costs compared to that of the storage units.
A service flow model for the liner shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel M.
2014-01-01
. The formulation alleviates issues faced by arc flow formulations with regards to handling multiple calls to the same port. A problem which has not been fully dealt with earlier by LSNDP formulations. Multiple calls are handled by introducing service nodes, together with port nodes in a graph representation...... of the network and a penalty for not flowed cargo. The model can be used to design liner shipping networks to utilize a container carrier’s assets efficiently and to investigate possible scenarios of changed market conditions. The model is solved as a Mixed Integer Program. Results are presented for the two...
A note on the consensus finding problem in communication networks with switching topologies
Haskovec, Jan
2014-05-07
In this note, we discuss the problem of consensus finding in communication networks of agents with dynamically switching topologies. In particular, we consider the case of directed networks with unbalanced matrices of communication rates. We formulate sufficient conditions for consensus finding in terms of strong connectivity of the underlying directed graphs and prove that, given these conditions, consensus is found asymptotically. Moreover, we show that this consensus is an emergent property of the system, being encoded in its dynamics and not just an invariant of its initial configuration. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Tight bounds on the size of neural networks for classification problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pauw, T. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Mathematique
1997-06-01
This paper relies on the entropy of a data-set (i.e., number-of-bits) to prove tight bounds on the size of neural networks solving a classification problem. First, based on a sequence of geometrical steps, the authors constructively compute an upper bound of O(mn) on the number-of-bits for a given data-set - here m is the number of examples and n is the number of dimensions (i.e., R{sup n}). This result is used further in a nonconstructive way to bound the size of neural networks which correctly classify that data-set.
A dual exterior point simplex type algorithm for the minimum cost network flow problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geranis George
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A new dual simplex type algorithm for the Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP is presented. The proposed algorithm belongs to a special 'exterior- point simplex type' category. Similarly to the classical network dual simplex algorithm (NDSA, this algorithm starts with a dual feasible tree-solution and reduces the primal infeasibility, iteration by iteration. However, contrary to the NDSA, the new algorithm does not always maintain a dual feasible solution. Instead, the new algorithm might reach a basic point (tree-solution outside the dual feasible area (exterior point - dual infeasible tree.
Modeling Multilevel Supplier Selection Problem Based on Weighted-Directed Network and Its Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chia-Te Wei
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of economy, the supplier network is becoming more and more complicated. It is important to choose the right suppliers for improving the efficiency of the supply chain, so how to choose the right ones is one of the important research directions of supply chain management. This paper studies the partner selection problem from the perspective of supplier network global optimization. Firstly, this paper discusses and forms the evaluation system to estimate the supplier from the two indicators of risk and greenness and then applies the value as the weight of the network between two nodes to build a weighted-directed supplier network; secondly, the study establishes the optimal combination model of supplier selection based on the global network perspective and solves the model by the dynamic programming-tabu search algorithm and the improved ant colony algorithm, respectively; finally, different scale simulation examples are given to testify the efficiency of the two algorithms. The results show that the ant colony algorithm is superior to the tabu search one as a whole, but the latter is slightly better than the former when network scale is small.
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
2015-04-01
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.
A PSO based Artificial Neural Network approach for short term unit commitment problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AFTAB AHMAD
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Unit commitment (UC is a non-linear, large scale, complex, mixed-integer combinatorial constrained optimization problem. This paper proposes, a new hybrid approach for generating unit commitment schedules using swarm intelligence learning rule based neural network. The training data has been generated using dynamic programming for machines without valve point effects and using genetic algorithm for machines with valve point effects. A set of load patterns as inputs and the corresponding unit generation schedules as outputs are used to train the network. The neural network fine tunes the best results to the desired targets. The proposed approach has been validated for three thermal machines with valve point effects and without valve point effects. The results are compared with the approaches available in the literature. The PSO-ANN trained model gives better results which show the promise of the proposed methodology.
A Bayesian network approach to the database search problem in criminal proceedings
2012-01-01
Background The ‘database search problem’, that is, the strengthening of a case - in terms of probative value - against an individual who is found as a result of a database search, has been approached during the last two decades with substantial mathematical analyses, accompanied by lively debate and centrally opposing conclusions. This represents a challenging obstacle in teaching but also hinders a balanced and coherent discussion of the topic within the wider scientific and legal community. This paper revisits and tracks the associated mathematical analyses in terms of Bayesian networks. Their derivation and discussion for capturing probabilistic arguments that explain the database search problem are outlined in detail. The resulting Bayesian networks offer a distinct view on the main debated issues, along with further clarity. Methods As a general framework for representing and analyzing formal arguments in probabilistic reasoning about uncertain target propositions (that is, whether or not a given individual is the source of a crime stain), this paper relies on graphical probability models, in particular, Bayesian networks. This graphical probability modeling approach is used to capture, within a single model, a series of key variables, such as the number of individuals in a database, the size of the population of potential crime stain sources, and the rarity of the corresponding analytical characteristics in a relevant population. Results This paper demonstrates the feasibility of deriving Bayesian network structures for analyzing, representing, and tracking the database search problem. The output of the proposed models can be shown to agree with existing but exclusively formulaic approaches. Conclusions The proposed Bayesian networks allow one to capture and analyze the currently most well-supported but reputedly counter-intuitive and difficult solution to the database search problem in a way that goes beyond the traditional, purely formulaic expressions
The Bilevel Design Problem for Communication Networks on Trains: Model, Algorithm, and Verification
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Yin Tian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to solve the problem of train communication network design. Firstly, we put forward a general description of such problem. Then, taking advantage of the bilevel programming theory, we created the cost-reliability-delay model (CRD model that consisted of two parts: the physical topology part aimed at obtaining the networks with the maximum reliability under constrained cost, while the logical topology part focused on the communication paths yielding minimum delay based on the physical topology delivered from upper level. We also suggested a method to solve the CRD model, which combined the genetic algorithm and the Floyd-Warshall algorithm. Finally, we used a practical example to verify the accuracy and the effectiveness of the CRD model and further applied the novel method on a train with six carriages.
Shortest path problem on a grid network with unordered intermediate points
Saw, Veekeong; Rahman, Amirah; Eng Ong, Wen
2017-10-01
We consider a shortest path problem with single cost factor on a grid network with unordered intermediate points. A two stage heuristic algorithm is proposed to find a feasible solution path within a reasonable amount of time. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, computational experiments are performed on grid maps of varying size and number of intermediate points. Preliminary results for the problem are reported. Numerical comparisons against brute forcing show that the proposed algorithm consistently yields solutions that are within 10% of the optimal solution and uses significantly less computation time.
Nguyen, Hoa G.; Castelli, Robin
2014-06-01
The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. In 2011, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific conducted user evaluations on a number of small throwable robots and sensors, verified the requirements, and developed the key performance parameters (KPPs) for an MIO robot. Macro USA Corporation was then tasked to design and develop two prototype systems, each consisting of one control/display unit and two small amphibious Stingray robots. Technical challenges included the combination paddle wheel/shock-absorbing wheel, the tradeoff between impact resistance, size, and buoyancy, and achieving adequate traction on wet surfaces. This paper describes the technical design of these robots and the results of subsequent user evaluations by VBSS teams.
Interdits et interdictions dans le droit de la fonction publique Prohibitions in Civil Service Law
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Nicolas Guillet
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Dans le droit français de la fonction publique, les interdits découlent de la situation légale et réglementaire faite aux agents publics. Cette situation juridique objective en constitue le fondement et conduit à une forme d’indétermination de leur étendue. Pour autant, l’apparition de la notion de « déontologie du fonctionnaire » laisse apparaître une mutation de la logique d’interdiction. Cette mutation se traduit par une invitation au respect de bonnes pratiques professionnelles mais aussi à une normalisation des comportements des agents publics.In the French law concerning civil service, prohibitions originate in the situation of the civil servants according to law and regulations. This objective legal situation constitutes the basis of these prohibitions and leads to a sort of indetermination in their scope. However the apparition of the concept of “civil servant’s deontology” shows a mutation in the prohibition’s logics. This mutation is translated into an invitation to respect good professional practices but also into a normalisation of the behaviour of civil servants.
A neural-network approach to the problem of photon-pair combinatorics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awes, T.C.
1990-06-01
A recursive neural-network algorithm is applied to the problem of correctly pairing photons from π 0 , η, and higher resonance decays in the presence of a large background of photons resulting from many simultaneous decays. The method uses the full information of the multi-photon final state to suppress the selection of false photon pairs which arise from the many combinatorial possibilities. The method is demonstrated for simulated photon events under semirealistic experimental conditions. 3 refs., 3 figs
Problems With Deployment of Multi-Domained, Multi-Homed Mobile Networks
Ivancic, William D.
2008-01-01
This document describes numerous problems associated with deployment of multi-homed mobile platforms consisting of multiple networks and traversing large geographical areas. The purpose of this document is to provide insight to real-world deployment issues and provide information to groups that are addressing many issues related to multi-homing, policy-base routing, route optimization and mobile security - particularly those groups within the Internet Engineering Task Force.
A neural network approach to breast cancer diagnosis as a constraint satisfaction problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tourassi, Georgia D.; Markey, Mia K.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Floyd, Carey E. Jr.
2001-01-01
A constraint satisfaction neural network (CSNN) approach is proposed for breast cancer diagnosis using mammographic and patient history findings. Initially, the diagnostic decision to biopsy was formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem. Then, an associative memory type neural network was applied to solve the problem. The proposed network has a flexible, nonhierarchical architecture that allows it to operate not only as a predictive tool but also as an analysis tool for knowledge discovery of association rules. The CSNN was developed and evaluated using a database of 500 nonpalpable breast lesions with definitive histopathological diagnosis. The CSNN diagnostic performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC). The results of the study showed that the CSNN ROC area index was 0.84±0.02. The CSNN predictive performance is competitive with that achieved by experienced radiologists and backpropagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANNs) presented before. Furthermore, the study illustrates how CSNN can be used as a knowledge discovery tool overcoming some of the well-known limitations of BP-ANNs
An Improved Routing Optimization Algorithm Based on Travelling Salesman Problem for Social Networks
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Naixue Xiong
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A social network is a social structure, which is organized by the relationships or interactions between individuals or groups. Humans link the physical network with social network, and the services in the social world are based on data and analysis, which directly influence decision making in the physical network. In this paper, we focus on a routing optimization algorithm, which solves a well-known and popular problem. Ant colony algorithm is proposed to solve this problem effectively, but random selection strategy of the traditional algorithm causes evolution speed to be slow. Meanwhile, positive feedback and distributed computing model make the algorithm quickly converge. Therefore, how to improve convergence speed and search ability of algorithm is the focus of the current research. The paper proposes the improved scheme. Considering the difficulty about searching for next better city, new parameters are introduced to improve probability of selection, and delay convergence speed of algorithm. To avoid the shortest path being submerged, and improve sensitive speed of finding the shortest path, it updates pheromone regulation formula. The results show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve convergence speed and search ability for achieving higher accuracy and optimal results.
The application of neural network techniques to magnetic and optical inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, H.V.
2000-12-01
The processing power of the computer has increased at unimaginable rates over the last few decades. However, even today's fastest computer can take several hours to find solutions to some mathematical problems; and there are instances where a high powered supercomputer may be impractical, with the need for near instant solutions just as important (such as in an on-line testing system). This led us to believe that such complex problems could be solved using a novel approach, whereby the system would have prior knowledge about the expected solutions through a process of learning. One method of approaching this kind of problem is through the use of machine learning. Just as a human can be trained and is able to learn from past experiences, a machine is can do just the same. This is the concept of neural networks. The research which was conducted involves the investigation of various neural network techniques, and their applicability to solve some known complex inverse problems in the field of magnetic and optical recording. In some cases a comparison is also made to more conventional methods of solving the problems, from which it was possible to outline some key advantages of using a neural network approach. We initially investigated the application of neural networks to transverse susceptibility data in order to determine anisotropy distributions. This area of research is proving to be very important, as it gives us information about the switching field distribution, which then determines the minimum transition width achievable in a medium, and affects the overwrite characteristics of the media. Secondly, we investigated a similar situation, but applied to an optical problem. This involved the determination of important compact disc parameters from the diffraction pattern of a laser from a disc. This technique was then intended for use in an on-line testing system. Finally we investigated another area of neural networks with the analysis of magnetisation maps and
Li, Ming; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril
2015-12-04
Coverage control is one of the most fundamental issues in directional sensor networks. In this paper, the coverage optimization problem in a directional sensor network is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. It takes into account the coverage rate of the network, the number of working sensor nodes and the connectivity of the network. The coverage problem considered in this paper is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events and heterogeneity of the sensor nodes in terms of sensing radius, field of angle and communication radius. To solve this multi-objective problem, we introduce a learning automata-based coral reef algorithm for adaptive parameter selection and use a novel Tchebycheff decomposition method to decompose the multi-objective problem into a single-objective problem. Simulation results show the consistent superiority of the proposed algorithm over alternative approaches.
An Effective Recommender Algorithm for Cold-Start Problem in Academic Social Networks
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Vala Ali Rohani
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Abundance of information in recent years has become a serious challenge for web users. Recommender systems (RSs have been often utilized to alleviate this issue. RSs prune large information spaces to recommend the most relevant items to users by considering their preferences. Nonetheless, in situations where users or items have few opinions, the recommendations cannot be made properly. This notable shortcoming in practical RSs is called cold-start problem. In the present study, we propose a novel approach to address this problem by incorporating social networking features. Coined as enhanced content-based algorithm using social networking (ECSN, the proposed algorithm considers the submitted ratings of faculty mates and friends besides user’s own preferences. The effectiveness of ECSN algorithm was evaluated by implementing it in MyExpert, a newly designed academic social network (ASN for academics in Malaysia. Real feedbacks from live interactions of MyExpert users with the recommended items are recorded for 12 consecutive weeks in which four different algorithms, namely, random, collaborative, content-based, and ECSN were applied every three weeks. The empirical results show significant performance of ECSN in mitigating the cold-start problem besides improving the prediction accuracy of recommendations when compared with other studied recommender algorithms.
A hopfield-like artificial neural network for solving inverse radiation transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Hoon
1997-02-01
In this thesis, we solve inverse radiation transport problems by an Artificial Neural Network(ANN) approach. ANNs have many interesting properties such as nonlinear, parallel, and distributed processing. Some of the promising applications of ANNs are optimization, image and signal processing, system control, etc. In some optimization problems, Hopfield Neural Network(HNN) which has one-layered and fully interconnected neurons with feed-back topology showed that it worked well with acceptable fault tolerance and efficiency. The identification of radioactive source in a medium with a limited number of external detectors is treated as an inverse radiation transport problem in this work. This kind of inverse problem is usually ill-posed and severely under-determined; however, its applications are very useful in many fields including medical diagnosis and nondestructive assay of nuclear materials. Therefore, it is desired to develop efficient and robust solution algorithms. Firstly, we study a representative ANN model which has learning ability and fault tolerance, i.e., feed-forward neural network. It has an error backpropagation learning algorithm processed by reducing error in learning patterns that are usually results of test or calculation. Although it has enough fault tolerance and efficiency, a major obstacle is 'curse of dimensionality'--required number of learning patterns and learning time increase exponentially proportional to the problem size. Therefore, in this thesis, this type of ANN is used as benchmarking the reliability of the solution. Secondly, another approach for solving inverse problems, a modified version of HNN is proposed. When diagonal elements of the interconnection matrix are not zero, HNN may become unstable. However, most problems including this identification problem contain non-zero diagonal elements when programmed on neural networks. According to Soulie et al., discrete random iterations could produce the stable minimum state
A Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network Problem by Using Hybrid Priority-Based Genetic Algorithm
Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu
Today remanufacturing problem is one of the most important problems regarding to the environmental aspects of the recovery of used products and materials. Therefore, the reverse logistics is gaining become power and great potential for winning consumers in a more competitive context in the future. This paper considers the multi-stage reverse Logistics Network Problem (m-rLNP) while minimizing the total cost, which involves reverse logistics shipping cost and fixed cost of opening the disassembly centers and processing centers. In this study, we first formulate the m-rLNP model as a three-stage logistics network model. Following for solving this problem, we propose a Genetic Algorithm pri (GA) with priority-based encoding method consisting of two stages, and introduce a new crossover operator called Weight Mapping Crossover (WMX). Additionally also a heuristic approach is applied in the 3rd stage to ship of materials from processing center to manufacturer. Finally numerical experiments with various scales of the m-rLNP models demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat
2015-01-01
when large problems are considered. In an earlier work, we proposed a computer-aided framework for synthesis and design of process networks. In this contribution, we expand the framework by including methods and tools developed to structure, automate and simplify the mathematical formulation......The developments obtained in recent years in the field of mathematical programming considerably reduced the computational time and resources needed to solve large and complex Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problems. Nevertheless, the application of these methods in industrial practice...... is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...
Statistical learning problem of artificial neural network to control roofing process
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Lapidus Azariy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Now software developed on the basis of artificial neural networks (ANN has been actively implemented in construction companies to support decision-making in organization and management of construction processes. ANN learning is the main stage of its development. A key question for supervised learning is how many number of training examples we need to approximate the true relationship between network inputs and output with the desired accuracy. Also designing of ANN architecture is related to learning problem known as “curse of dimensionality”. This problem is important for the study of construction process management because of the difficulty to get training data from construction sites. In previous studies the authors have designed a 4-layer feedforward ANN with a unit model of 12-5-4-1 to approximate estimation and prediction of roofing process. This paper presented the statistical learning side of created ANN with simple-error-minimization algorithm. The sample size to efficient training and the confidence interval of network outputs defined. In conclusion the authors predicted successful ANN learning in a large construction business company within a short space of time.
A new cut-based algorithm for the multi-state flow network reliability problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Wei-Chang; Bae, Changseok; Huang, Chia-Ling
2015-01-01
Many real-world systems can be modeled as multi-state network systems in which reliability can be derived in terms of the lower bound points of level d, called d-minimal cuts (d-MCs). This study proposes a new method to find and verify obtained d-MCs with simple and useful found properties for the multi-state flow network reliability problem. The proposed algorithm runs in O(mσp) time, which represents a significant improvement over the previous O(mp 2 σ) time bound based on max-flow/min-cut, where p, σ and m denote the number of MCs, d-MC candidates and edges, respectively. The proposed algorithm also conquers the weakness of some existing methods, which failed to remove duplicate d-MCs in special cases. A step-by-step example is given to demonstrate how the proposed algorithm locates and verifies all d-MC candidates. As evidence of the utility of the proposed approach, we present extensive computational results on 20 benchmark networks in another example. The computational results compare favorably with a previously developed algorithm in the literature. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed to find all d-MCs for the multi-state flow networks. • The proposed method can prevent the generation of d-MC duplicates. • The proposed method is simpler and more efficient than the best-known algorithms
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L
2010-01-01
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
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Wahyudi Sutopo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the rising competitive environment with shorter product life cycles and high customization forces industries to increase their flexibility, speed up their response, and enhance concurrent engineering designs. To integrate these prospects, supply chain collaboration becomes a pertinent strategy for industries to strengthen their competitiveness. The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision. The optimimum supply chain profit can be identified by mathematical model of network design problem. The Mathematical Model takes into consideration the uncertainity in negotiation of supply chain, transportation problems, and locationallocation of products from supplier to buyer in the planning based on the time value of money. The results show that the model can be used to optimize the supply chain profit. The supplier gets a profit because income were received in the initial contract, while the buyer profit comes from lower pay.
A parallel algorithm for solving linear equations arising from one-dimensional network problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesina, G.L.
1991-01-01
One-dimensional (1-D) network problems, such as those arising from 1- D fluid simulations and electrical circuitry, produce systems of sparse linear equations which are nearly tridiagonal and contain a few non-zero entries outside the tridiagonal. Most direct solution techniques for such problems either do not take advantage of the special structure of the matrix or do not fully utilize parallel computer architectures. We describe a new parallel direct linear equation solution algorithm, called TRBR, which is especially designed to take advantage of this structure on MIMD shared memory machines. The new method belongs to a family of methods which split the coefficient matrix into the sum of a tridiagonal matrix T and a matrix comprised of the remaining coefficients R. Efficient tridiagonal methods are used to algebraically simplify the linear system. A smaller auxiliary subsystem is created and solved and its solution is used to calculate the solution of the original system. The newly devised BR method solves the subsystem. The serial and parallel operation counts are given for the new method and related earlier methods. TRBR is shown to have the smallest operation count in this class of direct methods. Numerical results are given. Although the algorithm is designed for one-dimensional networks, it has been applied successfully to three-dimensional problems as well. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs
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R. Rajakumar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Seyedali Mirjalili et al. (2014 introduced a completely unique metaheuristic technique particularly grey wolf optimization (GWO. This algorithm mimics the social behavior of grey wolves whereas it follows the leadership hierarchy and attacking strategy. The rising issue in wireless sensor network (WSN is localization problem. The objective of this problem is to search out the geographical position of unknown nodes with the help of anchor nodes in WSN. In this work, GWO algorithm is incorporated to spot the correct position of unknown nodes, so as to handle the node localization problem. The proposed work is implemented using MATLAB 8.2 whereas nodes are deployed in a random location within the desired network area. The parameters like computation time, percentage of localized node, and minimum localization error measures are utilized to analyse the potency of GWO rule with other variants of metaheuristics algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO and modified bat algorithm (MBA. The observed results convey that the GWO provides promising results compared to the PSO and MBA in terms of the quick convergence rate and success rate.
INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SECURITY – A PRESENT NATO PROBLEM
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LIVIU TATOMIR
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A situation often met in the Romanian Armed Forces in recent years is the need for interconnecting two networks (domains with different levels of classification. Considering that the Romanian armed troops are involved in numerous missions with NATO partners, solutions, already implemented across the organization, are considered to be applied in domestic systems, also. This paper presents the solutions adopted by NATO in order to solve the problem of cross -domains interconnections. We present the maturity level reached by these solutions and the possibility of implementing these solutions in the Romanian Armed Forces, with or without specific adaptation to our own rules and regulations. The goal is to use a NATO already proved solution to our national classified networks.
An Integrated Approach for Reliable Facility Location/Network Design Problem with Link Disruption
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Davood Shishebori
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Proposing a robust designed facility location is one of the most effective ways to hedge against unexpected disruptions and failures in a transportation network system. This paper considers the combined facility location/network design problem with regard to transportation link disruptions and develops a mixed integer linear programming formulation to model it. With respect to the probability of link disruptions, the objective function of the model minimizes the total costs, including location costs, link construction costs and also the expected transportation costs. An efficient hybrid algorithm based on LP relaxation and variable neighbourhood search metaheuristic is developed in order to solve the mathematical model. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm has suitable efficiency in terms of duration of solution time and determining excellent solution quality.
Trust, Privacy, and Frame Problems in Social and Business E-Networks, Part 1
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Jeff Buechner
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Privacy issues in social and business e-networks are daunting in complexity—private information about oneself might be routed through countless artificial agents. For each such agent, in that context, two questions about trust are raised: Where an agent must access (or store personal information, can one trust that artificial agent with that information and, where an agent does not need to either access or store personal information, can one trust that agent not to either access or store that information? It would be an infeasible task for any human being to explicitly determine, for each artificial agent, whether it can be trusted. That is, no human being has the computational resources to make such an explicit determination. There is a well-known class of problems in the artificial intelligence literature, known as frame problems, where explicit solutions to them are computationally infeasible. Human common sense reasoning solves frame problems, though the mechanisms employed are largely unknown. I will argue that the trust relation between two agents (human or artificial functions, in some respects, is a frame problem solution. That is, a problem is solved without the need for a computationally infeasible explicit solution. This is an aspect of the trust relation that has remained unexplored in the literature. Moreover, there is a formal, iterative structure to agent-agent trust interactions that serves to establish the trust relation non-circularly, to reinforce it, and to “bootstrap” its strength.
Inverse problems in 1D hemodynamics on systemic networks: a sequential approach.
Lombardi, D
2014-02-01
In this work, a sequential approach based on the unscented Kalman filter is applied to solve inverse problems in 1D hemodynamics, on a systemic network. For instance, the arterial stiffness is estimated by exploiting cross-sectional area and mean speed observations in several locations of the arteries. The results are compared with those ones obtained by estimating the pulse wave velocity and the Moens-Korteweg formula. In the last section, a perspective concerning the identification of the terminal models parameters and peripheral circulation (modeled by a Windkessel circuit) is presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The Problem of Privacy in Capitalism and the Alternative Social Networking Site Diaspora*
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Sebastian Sevignani
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, l examine the alternative social networking site Diaspora* from a Marxist standpoint. The investigation focuses on privacy, and contributes to a better understanding of this issue within the context of capitalism in general. First, I describe Diaspora*’s way of production by pointing out its alternative character as part of the free software and copyleft movement. Second, dominant theories of privacy related to individual control, exclusion, and property are introduced. Third, the problem of privacy in capitalism is described wherein dominant concepts of privacy will be contextualised on behalf of a critical political economy analysis that refers to the Marxian concept of ideology critique, Marx’s differentiation between a societal sphere of production and a societal sphere of circulation, and his analysis of capitalist fetishisms. Fourth, taking into account the problem of privacy in capitalism, the alternative potential of Diaspora* is evaluated. Finally, a brief outline of a Marxist theory of privacy is proposed.
Charpiat, B; Mille, F; Fombeur, P; Machon, J; Zawadzki, E; Bobay-Madic, A
2018-05-21
The development of information systems in French hospitals is mandatory. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of exchanges carried out within social networks, dealing with problems encountered with hospital pharmacies information systems. Messages exchanged via the mailing list of the Association pour le Digital et l'Information en Pharmacie and abstracts of communications presented at hospital pharmacists trade union congresses were analyzed. Those referring to information systems used in hospital pharmacies were selected. From March 2015 to June 2016, 122 e-mails sent by 80 pharmacists concerned information systems. From 2002 to 2016, 45 abstracts dealt with this topic. Problems most often addressed in these 167 documents were "parameterization and/or functionalities" (n=116), interfaces and complexity of the hospital information systems (n=52), relationship with health information technologies vendors and poor reactivity (n=32), additional workload (n=32), ergonomics (n=30), insufficient user training (n=22). These problems are interdependent, lead to errors and in order to mitigate their consequences, they compel pharmacy professionals to divert a significant amount of working hours to the detriment of pharmaceutical care and dispensing and preparing drugs. Hospital pharmacists are faced with many problems of insecurity and inefficiency generated by information systems. Researches are warranted to determine their cost, specify their deleterious effects on care and identify the safest information systems. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems
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Gabriel A. Fonseca Guerra
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems. The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs, and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.
Fernández Caballero, Juan Carlos; Martínez, Francisco José; Hervás, César; Gutiérrez, Pedro Antonio
2010-05-01
This paper proposes a multiclassification algorithm using multilayer perceptron neural network models. It tries to boost two conflicting main objectives of multiclassifiers: a high correct classification rate level and a high classification rate for each class. This last objective is not usually optimized in classification, but is considered here given the need to obtain high precision in each class in real problems. To solve this machine learning problem, we use a Pareto-based multiobjective optimization methodology based on a memetic evolutionary algorithm. We consider a memetic Pareto evolutionary approach based on the NSGA2 evolutionary algorithm (MPENSGA2). Once the Pareto front is built, two strategies or automatic individual selection are used: the best model in accuracy and the best model in sensitivity (extremes in the Pareto front). These methodologies are applied to solve 17 classification benchmark problems obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) repository and one complex real classification problem. The models obtained show high accuracy and a high classification rate for each class.
Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems.
Fonseca Guerra, Gabriel A; Furber, Steve B
2017-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not) of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems). The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs), and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.
A Location-Inventory-Routing Problem in Forward and Reverse Logistics Network Design
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Qunli Yuchi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study a new problem of location-inventory-routing in forward and reverse logistic (LIRP-FRL network design, which simultaneously integrates the location decisions of distribution centers (DCs, the inventory policies of opened DCs, and the vehicle routing decision in serving customers, in which new goods are produced and damaged goods are repaired by a manufacturer and then returned to the market to satisfy customers’ demands as new ones. Our objective is to minimize the total costs of manufacturing and remanufacturing goods, building DCs, shipping goods (new or recovered between the manufacturer and opened DCs, and distributing new or recovered goods to customers and ordering and storage costs of goods. A nonlinear integer programming model is proposed to formulate the LIRP-FRL. A new tabu search (NTS algorithm is developed to achieve near optimal solution of the problem. Numerical experiments on the benchmark instances of a simplified version of the LIRP-FRL, the capacitated location routing problem, and the randomly generated LIRP-FRL instances demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed NTS algorithm in problem resolution.
A Bi-Level Programming Model for the Railway Express Cargo Service Network Design Problem
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Boliang Lin
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Service network design is fundamentally crucial for railway express cargo transportation. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and high expected operational incomes. Different configurations of these objectives will have different impacts on the quality of freight transportation services. In this paper, a bi-level programming model for the railway express cargo service network design problem is proposed. The upper-level model forms the optimal decisions in terms of the service characteristics, and the low-level model selects the service arcs for each commodity. The rail express cargo is strictly subject to the service commitment, the capacity restriction, flow balance constraints, and logical relationship constraints among the decisions variables. Moreover, linearization techniques are used to convert the lower-level model to a linear one so that it can be directly solved by a standard optimization solver. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway Line is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed solution approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yin; WEI Zhiyuan; ZHANG Yinping; WANG Xin
2017-01-01
Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40％ of total building energy usage.In central heating systems,heat is often transfened from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers arc installed at heat source,substations and terminals respectively.For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperarure,increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving.In this paper,the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established.Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity,the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method.The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger.It also indicates that in order to improve the thernmal performance of the whole system,more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small.This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.
AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM IN WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yee Shin Chia
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The channel assignment problem in wireless mobile network is the assignment of appropriate frequency spectrum to incoming calls while maintaining a satisfactory level of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC constraints. An effective channel assignment strategy is important due to the limited capacity of frequency spectrum in wireless mobile network. Most of the existing channel assignment strategies are based on deterministic methods. In this paper, an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA based channel assignment strategy is introduced for resource management and to reduce the effect of EMC interferences. The most significant advantage of the proposed optimization method is its capability to handle both the reassignment of channels for existing calls as well as the allocation of channel to a new incoming call in an adaptive process to maximize the utility of the limited resources. It is capable to adapt the population size to the number of eligible channels for a particular cell upon new call arrivals to achieve reasonable convergence speed. The MATLAB simulation on a 49-cells network model for both uniform and nonuniform call traffic distributions showed that the proposed channel optimization method can always achieve a lower average new incoming call blocking probability compared to the deterministic based channel assignment strategy.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A
2015-11-01
Previous research has suggested an association between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and mental health problems such as psychological distress, suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. The present study examined the link between the use of social networking sites and psychological distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and tested the mediating role of cyberbullying victimization on these associations in adolescents. The sample consisted of a group of 11-to-20-year-old individuals (n=5126, 48% females; mean±SD age: 15.2±1.9 years) who completed the mental health portion of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) in 2013. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the mediation models. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education, use of SNSs was associated with psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.03, 1.22-3.37), suicidal ideation (3.44, 1.54-7.66) and attempts (5.10, 1.45-17.88). Cyberbullying victimization was found to fully mediate the relationships between the use of SNSs with psychological distress and attempts; whereas, it partially mediated the link between the use of SNSs and suicidal ideation. Findings provide supporting evidence that addressing cyberbullying victimization and the use of SNSs among adolescents may help reduce the risk of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
An MPCC Formulation and Its Smooth Solution Algorithm for Continuous Network Design Problem
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Guangmin Wang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Continuous network design problem (CNDP is searching for a transportation network configuration to minimize the sum of the total system travel time and the investment cost of link capacity expansions by considering that the travellers follow a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE to choose their routes. In this paper, the CNDP model can be formulated as mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCC by describing UE as a non-linear complementarity problem (NCP. To address the difficulty resulting from complementarity constraints in MPCC, they are substituted by the Fischer-Burmeister (FB function, which can be smoothed by the introduction of the smoothing parameter. Therefore, the MPCC can be transformed into a well-behaved non-linear program (NLP by replacing the complementarity constraints with a smooth equation. Consequently, the solver such as LINDOGLOBAL in GAMS can be used to solve the smooth approximate NLP to obtain the solution to MPCC for modelling CNDP. The numerical experiments on the example from the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible.
The Location-Routing Problem with Full Truckloads in Low-Carbon Supply Chain Network Designing
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Cheng Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, low-carbon supply chain network design has been the focus of studies as the development of low-carbon economy. The location-routing problem with full truckloads (LRPFT is investigated in this paper, which extends the existing studies on the LRP to full truckloads problem within the regional many-to-many raw material supply network. A mathematical model with dual objectives of minimizing total cost and environmental effects simultaneously is developed to determine the number and locations of facilities and optimize the flows among different kinds of nodes and routes of trucks as well. A novel multiobjective hybrid approach named NSGA-II-TS is proposed by combining a known multiobjective algorithm, NSGA-II, and a known heuristics, Tabu Search (TS. A chromosome presentation based on natural number and modified partially mapping crossover operator for the LRPFT are designed. Finally, the computational effectiveness of the hybrid approach is validated by the numerical results and a practical case study is applied to demonstrate the tradeoff between total cost and CO2 emission in the LRPFT.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Witkowski
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Józef Putek (1892–1974, Juris Doctor, was distinguished people’s radical, peasant activist and member of parliment. He began his political career in his native village Chocznia, where, since 1919, he held the office of the Vogt. His uncompromising anticlericalism, fierce criticism of the Church and its position in the nation, brought about the conflict with the parson of Chocznia, Józef Dunajecki. Putek accused the parson of mismanagement and lawlessness in having at one’s disposal church wealth. A critical moment in the conflict between the Vogt and parson Dunajecki was the matter of the foundation of bells. The purchase was financed by parishioners and emigrants from Chocznia, who lived in Detroit and Chicago. Józef Putek objected to hanging bells on the church tower. Incursion to the church and stamping one of the bells was a direct cause of interdict. Another reason for the interdict by archbishop Adam Stefan Sapieha was the effect of anticlerical political and publicistic activity of the Vogt. Some examples include, publishing in Chocznia a radical newspaper „Sztandar Chłopski”. In 1929 Dr. Jur. Putek was canceled from the post of the Vogt and soon after that, in 1930, was imprisoned by the Sanation government in the fortress of Brześć.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauget, M.
2007-12-01
This research is about the application of neural networks used in the external radiotherapy domain. The goal is to elaborate a new evaluating system for the radiation dose distributions in heterogeneous environments. The al objective of this work is to build a complete tool kit to evaluate the optimal treatment planning. My st research point is about the conception of an incremental learning algorithm. The interest of my work is to combine different optimizations specialized in the function interpolation and to propose a new algorithm allowing to change the neural network architecture during the learning phase. This algorithm allows to minimise the al size of the neural network while keeping a good accuracy. The second part of my research is to parallelize the previous incremental learning algorithm. The goal of that work is to increase the speed of the learning step as well as the size of the learned dataset needed in a clinical case. For that, our incremental learning algorithm presents an original data decomposition with overlapping, together with a fault tolerance mechanism. My last research point is about a fast and accurate algorithm computing the radiation dose deposit in any heterogeneous environment. At the present time, the existing solutions used are not optimal. The fast solution are not accurate and do not give an optimal treatment planning. On the other hand, the accurate solutions are far too slow to be used in a clinical context. Our algorithm answers to this problem by bringing rapidity and accuracy. The concept is to use a neural network adequately learned together with a mechanism taking into account the environment changes. The advantages of this algorithm is to avoid the use of a complex physical code while keeping a good accuracy and reasonable computation times. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mi Gan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid growth of logistics distribution highlights the problems including the imperfect infrastructure of logistics distribution network, the serious shortage of distribution capacity of each individual enterprise, and the high cost of distribution in China. While the development of sharing economy makes it possible to achieve the integration of whole social logistic resources, big data technology can grasp customer’s logistics demand accurately on the basis of analyzing the customer’s logistics distribution preference, which contributes to the integration and optimization of the whole logistics resources. This paper proposes a kind of intensive distribution logistics network considering sharing economy, which assumes that all the social logistics suppliers build a strategic alliance, and individual idle logistics resources are also used to deal with distribution needs. Analyzing customer shopping behavior by the big data technology to determine customer’s logistics preference on the basis of dividing the customer’s logistics preference into high speed, low cost, and low pollution and then constructing the corresponding objective function model according to different logistics preferences, we obtain the intensive distribution logistics network model and solve it with heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mechanism of interest distribution of the participants in the distribution network and puts forward an improved interval Shapley value method considering both satisfaction and contribution, with case verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. The results showed that, compared with the traditional Shapley method, distribution coefficient calculated by the improved model could be fairer, improve stakeholder satisfaction, and promote the sustainable development of the alliance as well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mubayi, V.
1995-05-01
The consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can be limited by various protective actions, including emergency responses and long-term measures, to reduce exposures of affected populations. Each of these protective actions involve costs to society. The costs of the long-term protective actions depend on the criterion adopted for the allowable level of long-term exposure. This criterion, called the ''long term interdiction limit,'' is expressed in terms of the projected dose to an individual over a certain time period from the long-term exposure pathways. The two measures of offsite consequences, latent cancers and costs, are inversely related and the choice of an interdiction limit is, in effect, a trade-off between these two measures. By monetizing the health effects (through ascribing a monetary value to life lost), the costs of the two consequence measures vary with the interdiction limit, the health effect costs increasing as the limit is relaxed and the protective action costs decreasing. The minimum of the total cost curve can be used to calculate an optimal long term interdiction limit. The calculation of such an optimal limit is presented for each of five US nuclear power plants which were analyzed for severe accident risk in the NUREG-1150 program by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Cerebellum-inspired neural network solution of the inverse kinematics problem.
Asadi-Eydivand, Mitra; Ebadzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Darlot, Christian; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan
2015-12-01
The demand today for more complex robots that have manipulators with higher degrees of freedom is increasing because of technological advances. Obtaining the precise movement for a desired trajectory or a sequence of arm and positions requires the computation of the inverse kinematic (IK) function, which is a major problem in robotics. The solution of the IK problem leads robots to the precise position and orientation of their end-effector. We developed a bioinspired solution comparable with the cerebellar anatomy and function to solve the said problem. The proposed model is stable under all conditions merely by parameter determination, in contrast to recursive model-based solutions, which remain stable only under certain conditions. We modified the proposed model for the simple two-segmented arm to prove the feasibility of the model under a basic condition. A fuzzy neural network through its learning method was used to compute the parameters of the system. Simulation results show the practical feasibility and efficiency of the proposed model in robotics. The main advantage of the proposed model is its generalizability and potential use in any robot.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Behery
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic system of neural networks (NNs that has the ability to simulate and predict many of applied problems. The system architectures are automatically reorganized and the experimental process starts again, if the required performance is not reached. This processing is continued until the performance obtained. This system is first applied and tested on the two spiral problem; it shows that excellent generalization performance obtained by classifying all points of the two-spirals correctly. After that, it is applied and tested on the shear stress and the pressure drop problem across the short orifice die as a function of shear rate at different mean pressures for linear low-density polyethylene copolymer (LLDPE at 190∘C. The system shows a better agreement with an experimental data of the two cases: shear stress and pressure drop. The proposed system has been also designed to simulate other distributions not presented in the training set (predicted and matched them effectively.
A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks
Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos
2011-05-01
We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, K.E.; Ransom, V.H.; Roth, P.A.
1987-03-01
The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems that may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. As an assessment of current capability the code was applied to a number of physical problems, both conceptual and actual experiments. Results indicate that the numerical solution to the basic conservation equations is technically sound, and that generally good agreement can be obtained when modeling relevant hydrodynamic experiments. The assessment also demonstrates basic fusion system modeling capability and verifies compatibility of the code with both CDC and CRAY mainframes. Areas where improvements could be made include constitutive modeling, which describes the interfacial exchange term. 13 refs., 84 figs
Selected Problems of Determining the Course of Railway Routes by Use of GPS Network Solution
Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary
2011-09-01
The main problem related to railroad surveying design and its maintenance is the necessity to operate in local geodetic reference systems caused by the long rail sections with straight lines and curvatures of the running edge. Due to that reason the geodetic railroad classical surveying methods requires to divide all track for a short measurement section and that caused additional errors. Development of the Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning methods operating in the standardized World Geodetic System (WGS-84) allowed verification of capability of utilization GPS measurements for railroad surveying. It can be stated that implemented satellite measurement techniques opens a whole new perspective on applied research and enables very precise determination of data for railway line determining, modernization and design. The research works focused on implementation GNSS multi-receivers measurement positioning platform for projecting and stock-taking working based on polish active geodesic network ASG-EUPOS, as a reference frame. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track few campaigns were realized in 2009 and 2010. Leica GPS Total station system 1200 SmartRover (with ATX1230 GG antennas) receivers were located in the diameter of the measurement platform. Polish Active Geodetic Network ASG-EUPOS was used as a reference network transmitted Real Time Kinematic Positioning Service according to RTCM 3.1 standard. Optimum time period were selected for GNSS campaign and testing area was chosen without large obstructions. The article presents some surveying results of the measurement campaigns and also discusses the accuracy of the course determination. Analyzes and implementation of results in railroad design process are also discussed.
Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Mootoo, Candace; Fountain, Christine; Rasmussen, Andrew; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Bertuccio, Rebecca F
2017-10-01
A growing body of literature indicates that the mental distress experienced by survivors of war is a function of both experienced trauma and stressful life events. However, the majority of these studies are limited in that they 1) employ models of psychological distress that emphasize underlying latent constructs and do not allow researchers to examine the unique associations between particular symptoms and various stressors; and 2) use one or more measures that were not developed for that particular context and thus may exclude key traumas, stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology. The current study addresses both these limitations by 1) using a novel conceptual model, network analysis, which assumes that symptoms covary with each other not because they stem from a latent construct, but rather because they represent meaningful relationships between the symptoms; and 2) employing a locally developed measure of experienced trauma, stressful life problems and symptoms of psychopathology. Over the course of 2009-2011, 337 survivors of the Sri Lankan civil war were administered the Penn-RESIST-Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire (PRPWPQ). Network analysis revealed that symptoms of psychopathology, problems pertaining to lack of basic needs, and social problems were central to the network relative to experienced trauma and other types of problems. After controlling for shared associations, social problems in particular were the most central, significantly more so than traumatic events and family problems. Several particular traumatic events, stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology that were central to the network were also identified. Discussion emphasizes the utility of such network models to researchers and practitioners determining how to spend limited resources in the most impactful way possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robust transient stabilisation problem for a synchronous generator in a power network
Verrelli, C. M.; Damm, G.
2010-04-01
The robust transient stabilisation problem (with stability proof) of a synchronous generator in an uncertain power network with transfer conductances is rigorously formulated and solved. The generator angular speed and electrical power are required to be kept close, when mechanical and electrical perturbations occur, to the synchronous speed and mechanical input power, respectively, while the generator terminal voltage is to be regulated, when perturbations are removed, to its pre-fault reference constant value. A robust adaptive nonlinear feedback control algorithm is designed on the basis of a third-order model of the synchronous machine: only two system parameters (synchronous machine damping and inertia constants) along with upper and lower bounds on the remaining uncertain ones are supposed to be known. The conditions to be satisfied by the remote network dynamics for guaranteeing ℒ2 and ℒ∞ robustness and asymptotic relative speed and voltage regulation to zero are weaker than those required by the single machine-infinite bus approximation: dynamic interactions between the local deviations of the generator states from the corresponding equilibrium values and the remote generators states are allowed.
Walker, Sandra; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne
2018-02-01
Social network processes impact on the genesis and management of mental health problems. There is currently less understanding of the way people negotiate networked relationships in times of crisis compared to how they manage at other times. This paper explores the patterns and nature of personal network involvement at times of crises and how these may differ from day-to-day networks of recovery and maintenance. Semi-structured interviews with 25 participants with a diagnosis of long-term mental health (MH) problems drawn from recovery settings in the south of England. Interviews centred on personal network mapping of members and resources providing support. The mapping interviews explored the work of network members and changes in times of crisis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a framework analysis. Three key themes were identified: the fluidity of network relationality between crisis and recovery; isolation as a means of crises management; leaning towards peer support. Personal network input retreated at times of crisis often as result of "ejection" from the network by participants who used self-isolation as a personal management strategy in an attempt to deal with crises. Peer support is considered useful during a crisis, whilst the role of services was viewed with some ambiguity. Social networks membership, and type and depth of involvement, is subject to change between times of crisis and everyday support. This has implications for managing mental health in terms of engaging with network support differently in times of crises versus recovery and everyday living. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure
Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai
2016-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.
Solution Algorithm for a New Bi-Level Discrete Network Design Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qun Chen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A new discrete network design problem (DNDP was pro-posed in this paper, where the variables can be a series of integers rather than just 0-1. The new DNDP can determine both capacity improvement grades of reconstruction roads and locations and capacity grades of newly added roads, and thus complies with the practical projects where road capacity can only be some discrete levels corresponding to the number of lanes of roads. This paper designed a solution algorithm combining branch-and-bound with Hooke-Jeeves algorithm, where feasible integer solutions are recorded in searching the process of Hooke-Jeeves algorithm, lend -ing itself to determine the upper bound of the upper-level problem. The thresholds for branch cutting and ending were set for earlier convergence. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Kappas, A; Drummond, G S; Munson, D P; Marshall, J R
2001-12-01
MP to moderate or prevent the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia in newborns (preterm, near-term, term with high PBCs [15-18 mg/dL], ABO-incompatibility; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) has been extensively studied in carefully conducted clinical trials the results of which have been reported earlier. This inhibitor of bilirubin production has demonstrated marked efficacy in moderating the course of hyperbilirubinemia in all diagnostic groups of unconjugated neonatal jaundice. The 2 cases described in this report confirmed the efficacy of SnMP in terminating progression of hyperbilirubinemia in infants in whom phototherapy had failed to sufficiently control the problem and whose parents, for religious reasons, would not permit exchange transfusions. Interdiction of severe hyperbilirubinemia by inhibiting the production of bilirubin with SnMP can be an effective alternative to the use of exchange transfusion in the management of severe newborn jaundice that has not responded sufficiently to light treatment to ease concern about the development of bilirubin encephalopathy.
Dynamically Partitionable Autoassociative Networks as a Solution to the Neural Binding Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Jeffrey Hayworth
2012-09-01
Full Text Available An outstanding question in theoretical neuroscience is how the brain solves the neural binding problem. In vision, binding can be summarized as the ability to represent that certain properties belong to one object while other properties belong to a different object. I review the binding problem in visual and other domains, and review its simplest proposed solution – the anatomical binding hypothesis. This hypothesis has traditionally been rejected as a true solution because it seems to require a type of one-to-one wiring of neurons that would be impossible in a biological system (as opposed to an engineered system like a computer. I show that this requirement for one-to-one wiring can be loosened by carefully considering how the neural representation is actually put to use by the rest of the brain. This leads to a solution where a symbol is represented not as a particular pattern of neural activation but instead as a piece of a global stable attractor state. I introduce the Dynamically Partitionable AutoAssociative Network (DPAAN as an implementation of this solution and show how DPANNs can be used in systems which perform perceptual binding and in systems that implement syntax-sensitive rules. Finally I show how the core parts of the cognitive architecture ACT-R can be neurally implemented using a DPAAN as ACT-R’s global workspace. Because the DPAAN solution to the binding problem requires only ‘flat’ neural representations (as opposed to the phase encoded representation hypothesized in neural synchrony solutions it is directly compatible with the most well developed neural models of learning, memory, and pattern recognition.
Liu, Mengting; Amey, Rachel C; Forbes, Chad E
2017-12-01
When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks. In this study, we outline how hidden Markov modeling based on multivoxel pattern analysis can be used to quantify unique brain states underlying complex network interactions that yield either successful or unsuccessful problem solving in more neutral or stressful situations. We provide evidence that brain network stability and states underlying synchronous interactions in regions integral for problem-solving processes are key predictors of whether individuals succeed or fail in stressful situations. Findings also suggested that individuals utilize discriminate neural patterns in successfully solving problems in stressful or neutral situations. Findings overall highlight how hidden Markov modeling can provide myriad possibilities for quantifying and better understanding the role of global network interactions in the problem-solving process and how the said interactions predict success or failure in different contexts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faridah Hani Mohamed Salleh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Gene regulatory network (GRN reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C as a direct interaction (A → C. Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.
Salleh, Faridah Hani Mohamed; Zainudin, Suhaila; Arif, Shereena M
2017-01-01
Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C) as a direct interaction (A → C). Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.
Shorikov, A. F.; Butsenko, E. V.
2017-10-01
This paper discusses the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. On the basis of network modeling proposed a new economic and mathematical model and a method for solving the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. Network economic and mathematical modeling allows you to determine the optimal time and calendar schedule for the implementation of the investment project and serves as an instrument to increase the economic potential and competitiveness of the enterprise. On a meaningful practical example, the processes of forming network models are shown, including the definition of the sequence of actions of a particular investment projecting process, the network-based work schedules are constructed. The calculation of the parameters of network models is carried out. Optimal (critical) paths have been formed and the optimal time for implementing the chosen technologies of the investment project has been calculated. It also shows the selection of the optimal technology from a set of possible technologies for project implementation, taking into account the time and cost of the work. The proposed model and method for solving the problem of managing investment projects can serve as a basis for the development, creation and application of appropriate computer information systems to support the adoption of managerial decisions by business people.
Mental disorders as networks of problems : A review of recent insights
Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Cramer, Angelique O. J.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Borsboom, Denny
The network perspective on psychopathology understands mental disorders as complex networks of interacting symptoms. Despite its recent debut, with conceptual foundations in 2008 and empirical foundations in 2010, the framework has received considerable attention and recognition in the last years.
A path based model for a green liner shipping network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
2011-01-01
Liner shipping networks are the backbone of international trade providing low transportation cost, which is a major driver of globalization. These networks are under constant pressure to deliver capacity, cost effectiveness and environmentally conscious transport solutions. This article proposes...
Problems and Prospects in Automation and Networking in Libraries in India
Pradip, Joshi; Nikose, S.M.
2010-01-01
This article presents Scenario of Automation and the networking of academic libraries are still in their formative stages. The reasons for, prerequisites of, and benefits of networking are given. Networking systems at the national and local levels are described, as are the salient features of INFLIBNET, which has been functioning since 1988. There are also three metropolitan networks, viz., DELNET, CALIBNET, and BONET. The libraries of the three metropolitan cities are already reaping the ben...
Data Mining and Privacy of Social Network Sites' Users: Implications of the Data Mining Problem.
Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Islam, Md Zahidul
2015-08-01
This paper explores the potential of data mining as a technique that could be used by malicious data miners to threaten the privacy of social network sites (SNS) users. It applies a data mining algorithm to a real dataset to provide empirically-based evidence of the ease with which characteristics about the SNS users can be discovered and used in a way that could invade their privacy. One major contribution of this article is the use of the decision forest data mining algorithm (SysFor) to the context of SNS, which does not only build a decision tree but rather a forest allowing the exploration of more logic rules from a dataset. One logic rule that SysFor built in this study, for example, revealed that anyone having a profile picture showing just the face or a picture showing a family is less likely to be lonely. Another contribution of this article is the discussion of the implications of the data mining problem for governments, businesses, developers and the SNS users themselves.
Non-intrusive reduced order modeling of nonlinear problems using neural networks
Hesthaven, J. S.; Ubbiali, S.
2018-06-01
We develop a non-intrusive reduced basis (RB) method for parametrized steady-state partial differential equations (PDEs). The method extracts a reduced basis from a collection of high-fidelity solutions via a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and employs artificial neural networks (ANNs), particularly multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), to accurately approximate the coefficients of the reduced model. The search for the optimal number of neurons and the minimum amount of training samples to avoid overfitting is carried out in the offline phase through an automatic routine, relying upon a joint use of the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. This guarantees a complete offline-online decoupling, leading to an efficient RB method - referred to as POD-NN - suitable also for general nonlinear problems with a non-affine parametric dependence. Numerical studies are presented for the nonlinear Poisson equation and for driven cavity viscous flows, modeled through the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both physical and geometrical parametrizations are considered. Several results confirm the accuracy of the POD-NN method and show the substantial speed-up enabled at the online stage as compared to a traditional RB strategy.
PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY: STATUS OF A PROBLEM TODAY. RUSSIAN NETWORK OF JMF-CENTERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Latysheva
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The problems of primary immunodeficiency in Russia and the ways of solving of them are discussed in the article. Primary immunodeficiency is a group of rare diseases, so awareness of this pathology in the medical community and among patients is very low. This leads to late diagnosis and inadequate treatment of patients with such conditions. The result of the late beginning of treatment is early development of disability, and the high mortality rate of patients, as well as the high costs of the treatment of complications of primary immunodeficiency and sick-leave certificates for the government. Today in time and adequate therapy allows patients not only to reach adulthood without signs of disability, and to lead an active way of life, but to have healthy children. Given the high cost of therapy in many countries, the issue of providing patients with life-saving drugs remains unresolved. The global practice is to involve social organizations and funds. One of the foundations supporting educational programs, development of laboratories and research in the field of primary immunodeficiency is the Foundation of the Jeffrey Modell. A network of centres for primary immunodeficiency supported by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF-centers has started its functioning over the territory of the Russian Federation since 2011 in order to improve diagnostics and treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency. A brief description of activity of these centers is presented in the article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balino, Jorge L.; Larreteguy, Axel E.; Andrade Lima, Fernando R.
1995-01-01
The differential method was applied to the sensitivity analysis for water hammer problems in hydraulic networks. Starting from the classical water hammer equations in a single-phase liquid with friction, the state vector comprising the piezometric head and the velocity was defined. Applying the differential method the adjoint operator, the adjoint equations with the general form of their boundary conditions, and the general form of the bilinear concomitant were calculated. The discretized adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary conditions were programmed and solved by using the so called method of characteristics. As an example, a constant-level tank connected through a pipe to a valve discharging to atmosphere was considered. The bilinear concomitant was calculated for this particular case. The corresponding sensitivity coefficients due to the variation of different parameters by using both the differential method and the response surface generated by the computer code WHAT were also calculated. The results obtained with these methods show excellent agreement. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
Mushkin, I.; Solomon, S.
2017-10-01
We study the inverse contagion problem (ICP). As opposed to the direct contagion problem, in which the network structure is known and the question is when each node will be contaminated, in the inverse problem the links of the network are unknown but a sequence of contagion histories (the times when each node was contaminated) is observed. We consider two versions of the ICP: The strong problem (SICP), which is the reconstruction of the network and has been studied before, and the weak problem (WICP), which requires "only" the prediction (at each time step) of the nodes that will be contaminated at the next time step (this is often the real life situation in which a contagion is observed and predictions are made in real time). Moreover, our focus is on analyzing the increasing accuracy of the solution, as a function of the number of contagion histories already observed. For simplicity, we discuss the simplest (deterministic and synchronous) contagion dynamics and the simplest solution algorithm, which we have applied to different network types. The main result of this paper is that the complex problem of the convergence of the ICP for a network can be reduced to an individual property of pairs of nodes: the "false link difficulty". By definition, given a pair of unlinked nodes i and j, the difficulty of the false link (i,j) is the probability that in a random contagion history, the nodes i and j are not contaminated at the same time step (or at consecutive time steps). In other words, the "false link difficulty" of a non-existing network link is the probability that the observations during a random contagion history would not rule out that link. This probability is relatively straightforward to calculate, and in most instances relies only on the relative positions of the two nodes (i,j) and not on the entire network structure. We have observed the distribution of false link difficulty for various network types, estimated it theoretically and confronted it
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suprayogi Suprayogi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a location problem in a supply chain network. The problem addressed in this paper is motivated by an initiative to develop an efficient supply chain network for supporting the agricultural activities. The supply chain network consists of regions, warehouses, distribution centers, plants, and markets. The products include a set of inbound products and a set of outbound products. In this paper, definitions of the inbound and outbound products are seen from the region’s point of view. The inbound product is the product demanded by regions and produced by plants which flows on a sequence of the following entities: plants, distribution centers, warehouses, and regions. The outbound product is the product demanded by markets and produced by regions and it flows on a sequence of the following entities: regions, warehouses, and markets. The problem deals with determining locations of the warehouses and the distribution centers to be opened and shipment quantities associated with all links on the network that minimizes the total cost. The problem can be considered as a strategic supply chain network problem. A solution approach based on genetic algorithm (GA is proposed. The proposed GA is examined using hypothetical instances and its results are compared to the solution obtained by solving the mixed integer linear programming (MILP model. The comparison shows that there is a small gap (0.23%, on average between the proposed GA and MILP model in terms of the total cost. The proposed GA consistently provides solutions with least total cost. In terms of total cost, based on the experiment, it is demonstrated that coefficients of variation are closed to 0.
Nourifar, Raheleh; Mahdavi, Iraj; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi
2017-09-01
Decentralized supply chain management is found to be significantly relevant in today's competitive markets. Production and distribution planning is posed as an important optimization problem in supply chain networks. Here, we propose a multi-period decentralized supply chain network model with uncertainty. The imprecision related to uncertain parameters like demand and price of the final product is appropriated with stochastic and fuzzy numbers. We provide mathematical formulation of the problem as a bi-level mixed integer linear programming model. Due to problem's convolution, a structure to solve is developed that incorporates a novel heuristic algorithm based on Kth-best algorithm, fuzzy approach and chance constraint approach. Ultimately, a numerical example is constructed and worked through to demonstrate applicability of the optimization model. A sensitivity analysis is also made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onomi, T; Nakajima, K
2014-01-01
We have proposed a superconducting Hopfield-type neural network for solving the N-Queens problem which is one of combinatorial optimization problems. The sigmoid-shape function of a neuron output is represented by the output of coupled SQUIDs gate consisting of a single-junction and a double-junction SQUIDs. One of the important factors for an improvement of the network performance is an improvement of a threshold characteristic of a neuron circuit. In this paper, we report an improved design of coupled SQUID gates for a superconducting neural network. A step-like function with a steep threshold at a rising edge is desirable for a neuron circuit to solve a combinatorial optimization problem. A neuron circuit is composed of two coupled SQUIDs gates with a cascade connection in order to obtain such characteristics. The designed neuron circuit is fabricated by a 2.5 kA/cm 2 Nb/AlOx/Nb process. The operation of a fabricated neuron circuit is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, we discuss about the performance of the neural network using the improved neuron circuits and delayed negative self-connections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouransari, Nasibeh; Maréchal, Francois
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Synthesizing industrial size heat recovery network with match reduction approach. • Targeting TSI with minimum exchange between process subsystems. • Generating a feasible close-to-optimum network. • Reducing tremendously the HLD computational time and complexity. • Generating realistic network with respect to the plant layout. - Abstract: This paper presents a targeting strategy to design a heat recovery network for an industrial plant by dividing the system into subsystems while considering the heat transfer opportunities between them. The methodology is based on a sequential approach. The heat recovery opportunity between process units and the optimal flow rates of utilities are first identified using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The site is then divided into a number of subsystems where the overall interaction is resumed by a pair of virtual hot and cold stream per subsystem which is reconstructed by solving the heat cascade inside each subsystem. The Heat Load Distribution (HLD) problem is then solved between those packed subsystems in a sequential procedure where each time one of the subsystems is unpacked by switching from the virtual stream pair back into the original ones. The main advantages are to minimize the number of connections between process subsystems, to alleviate the computational complexity of the HLD problem and to generate a feasible network which is compatible with the minimum energy consumption objective. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a number of case studies, discussed and compared with the relevant results from the literature
Convergence speed of consensus problems over undirected scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Wei; Dou Li-Hua
2010-01-01
Scale-free networks and consensus behaviour among multiple agents have both attracted much attention. To investigate the consensus speed over scale-free networks is the major topic of the present work. A novel method is developed to construct scale-free networks due to their remarkable power-law degree distributions, while preserving the diversity of network topologies. The time cost or iterations for networks to reach a certain level of consensus is discussed, considering the influence from power-law parameters. They are both demonstrated to be reversed power-law functions of the algebraic connectivity, which is viewed as a measurement on convergence speed of the consensus behaviour. The attempts of tuning power-law parameters may speed up the consensus procedure, but it could also make the network less robust over time delay at the same time. Large scale of simulations are supportive to the conclusions. (general)
The application of deep confidence network in the problem of image recognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chumachenko О.І.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In order to study the concept of deep learning, in particular the substitution of multilayer perceptron on the corresponding network of deep confidence, computer simulations of the learning process to test voters was carried out. Multi-layer perceptron has been replaced by a network of deep confidence, consisting of successive limited Boltzmann machines. After training of a network of deep confidence algorithm of layer-wise training it was found that the use of networks of deep confidence greatly improves the accuracy of multilayer perceptron training by method of reverse distribution errors.
Problems of organization and development of the Latvian energy efficiency network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, B.; Puikevica-Puikevska, I.
1999-01-01
The idea to create an Energy Efficiency Network (Network) was put forward in Canada. In 1989 similar activities started in Norway. Taking account the difficult economical situation in the Latvia industry, such a Network would help to develop our enterprises under conditions of competition. In the future, this Network is to ensure a stabile operation of the international level. Therefore Network's purposes are: to promote decision-making process with due account for the energy efficiency measures and environment-friendly energy use in industry; to encourage reducing the specific consumption of energy; to promote the information exchange among industrial enterprises as well as with new technology suppliers, and service and consulting enterprises. The task of Network is to process information on the activities of enterprises, to perform computations and to show the condition of every enterprise in the same branch of industry, by means of diagrams and tables, as well as to reveal weak points of the enterprise. The benefits of the Network participants: Network information data base allows the participants to compare their energy efficiency data with those of other enterprises in the same branch of industry; opportunity to receive information on the newest achievements in the energy efficiency measures; opportunity to familiarise themselves with the necessary project documentation, reports, ets. Network's activities are organised due consideration for particular needs of an enterprise reported directly by the participants of the enterprise. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Maheut
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm that solves the supply network configuration and operations scheduling problem in a mass customization company that faces alternative operations for one specific tool machine order in a multiplant context. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, the supply chain network configuration and operations scheduling problem is presented. A model based on stroke graphs allows the design of an algorithm that enumerates all the feasible solutions. The algorithm considers the arrival of a new customized order proposal which has to be inserted into a scheduled program. A selection function is then used to choose the solutions to be simulated in a specific simulation tool implemented in a Decision Support System. Findings and Originality/value: The algorithm itself proves efficient to find all feasible solutions when alternative operations must be considered. The stroke structure is successfully used to schedule operations when considering more than one manufacturing and supply option in each step. Research limitations/implications: This paper includes only the algorithm structure for a one-by-one, sequenced introduction of new products into the list of units to be manufactured. Therefore, the lotsizing process is done on a lot-per-lot basis. Moreover, the validation analysis is done through a case study and no generalization can be done without risk. Practical implications: The result of this research would help stakeholders to determine all the feasible and practical solutions for their problem. It would also allow to assessing the total costs and delivery times of each solution. Moreover, the Decision Support System proves useful to assess alternative solutions. Originality/value: This research offers a simple algorithm that helps solve the supply network configuration problem and, simultaneously, the scheduling problem by considering alternative operations. The proposed system
Alcohol use among adolescents as a coordination problem in a dynamic network
Corten, R.; Knecht, A.
2013-01-01
Whereas most research on substance (ab)use by adolescents studies only the effects of personal networks of adolescents, we propose a theoretical approach that allows for predictions on the effects of the macro-level social network structure on usage rates. We model alcohol use as risk-dominant but
The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem
Herrera-Yagüe, C.; Schneider, C. M.; Couronné, T.; Smoreda, Z.; Benito, R. M.; Zufiria, P. J.; González, M. C.
2015-01-01
The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure. PMID:26035529
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
2010-01-01
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…
Sample problem calculations related to two-phase flow transients in a PWR relief-piping network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.
1981-03-01
Two sample problems related with the fast transients of water/steam flow in the relief line of a PWR pressurizer were calculated with a network-flow analysis computer code STAC (System Transient-Flow Analysis Code). The sample problems were supplied by EPRI and are designed to test computer codes or computational methods to determine whether they have the basic capability to handle the important flow features present in a typical relief line of a PWR pressurizer. It was found necessary to implement into the STAC code a number of additional boundary conditions in order to calculate the sample problems. This includes the dynamics of the fluid interface that is treated as a moving boundary. This report describes the methodologies adopted for handling the newly implemented boundary conditions and the computational results of the two sample problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracies achieved in the STAC code results, analytical solutions are also obtained and used as a basis for comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Castillo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.
Quissell, Kathryn
2017-09-10
Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Thematic network for a Phebus FPT1 international standard problem (THENPHEBISP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, B.; Haste, T.; Krausmann, E.; Dickinson, S.; Gyenes, G.; Duspiva, J.; Rosa, F. de; Paci, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Scholytssek, W.; Allelein, H.-J.; Guentay, S.; Arien, B.; Marguet, S.; Leskovar, M.; Sartmadjiev, A.
2005-01-01
The THENPHEBISP 2-year thematic network started in December 2001, and was concerned with OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem 46, itself based on the Phebus FPT1 core degradation/source term experiment. The aim was to assess the capability of computer codes to model in an integrated way the physical processes taking place during a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor, from the initial stages of core degradation, the fission product transport through the primary circuit and the behaviour of the released fission products in the containment. ISP-46, coordinated by IRSN/DRS Cadarache, attracted 33 participating organisations, from 23 countries and international bodies, who submitted 47 base case calculations and 21 best-estimate calculations, using 15 different codes. The thermal behaviour of the fuel bundle and the hydrogen production were generally well captured, and good agreement for the core final state could be obtained with a suitable choice of bulk fuel relocation temperature, however this is unlikely to be representative of all plant studies so sensitivity calculations are needed with the modelling in its current state. Total volatile fission product release was simulated, but its kinetics, and the overall modelling of semi-volatile, low-volatile and structural material release (Ag/In/Cd, Sn) needs improvement. Overall retention in the circuit is well predicted, but calculations underestimate deposits in the upper plenum and overestimate those in the steam generator, also the volatility of some elements could be better predicted. Containment thermal hydraulics and depletion rate of aerosols are well calculated, but with difficulties related to partition amongst the deposition mechanisms. Calculation of iodine chemistry in the containment turned out to be more difficult. Its quality strongly depends of the calculation of release and transport in the integral codes. The major difficulties are related to the existence of gaseous iodine in the
Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-02-01
We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free networks in an external bias (magnetic field). Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First, we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show that the system has a spin-glass phase in a field, i.e., exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanche distributions when the system is driven by a field at zero temperature to test if the system displays self-organized criticality. Numerical results suggest that avalanches (damage) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability when the decay exponent of the interaction degree is less than or equal to 2, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions can be fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.
Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu
2003-01-01
In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.
Data-Intensive Cloud Service Provision for Research Institutes: the Network Connectivity Problem
Cass, Tony; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
2016-01-01
Much effort (and money) has been invested in recent years to ensure that academic and research sites are well interconnected with high-capacity networks that, in most cases, span national and continental boundaries. However, these dedicated research and education networks, whether national (NRENs) or trans-continental (RENs), frequently have Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) that restrict their use by commercial entities, notably Cloud Service Providers (CSPs). After a brief summary of the issues involved, we describe three approaches to removing the network connectivity barrier that threatens to limit the ability of academic and research institutions to profit effectively from services offered by CSPs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauget, M
2007-12-15
This research is about the application of neural networks used in the external radiotherapy domain. The goal is to elaborate a new evaluating system for the radiation dose distributions in heterogeneous environments. The al objective of this work is to build a complete tool kit to evaluate the optimal treatment planning. My st research point is about the conception of an incremental learning algorithm. The interest of my work is to combine different optimizations specialized in the function interpolation and to propose a new algorithm allowing to change the neural network architecture during the learning phase. This algorithm allows to minimise the al size of the neural network while keeping a good accuracy. The second part of my research is to parallelize the previous incremental learning algorithm. The goal of that work is to increase the speed of the learning step as well as the size of the learned dataset needed in a clinical case. For that, our incremental learning algorithm presents an original data decomposition with overlapping, together with a fault tolerance mechanism. My last research point is about a fast and accurate algorithm computing the radiation dose deposit in any heterogeneous environment. At the present time, the existing solutions used are not optimal. The fast solution are not accurate and do not give an optimal treatment planning. On the other hand, the accurate solutions are far too slow to be used in a clinical context. Our algorithm answers to this problem by bringing rapidity and accuracy. The concept is to use a neural network adequately learned together with a mechanism taking into account the environment changes. The advantages of this algorithm is to avoid the use of a complex physical code while keeping a good accuracy and reasonable computation times. (author)
1981-04-15
BLANK ADD LINK DATA TO LIBRARY 0 DELETE LINK DATA FROM LIBRARY C CHANGE ONE OR MORE VARIABLES OF DEFINED LINK IN LIBARY 25 ALTERATIONST...DELETE TERMINAL DATA FROM LIBRARY C CHANGE ONE OR MORE VARIABLES OF OEFINED TERMINAL IN LIBARY Unlike link data only one card is needed to change the...sector data cards identify the sets of data to be selected from the data library. Each data set is defined by a five digit number. The first four digits
The Use of Meta-Level Control for Coordination in a Distributed Problem Solving Network,
1983-01-01
crucial aspect of the design organizational structuring in coordinating the local activity of achs decentralized network control policies. It is...TEMTED EXflD.MENTS WITn and ratings of the subgoals." Threshold values indicating ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCIURING IkeA usaw lani of a subal are specif’ied in...the monitoring are. This environmental vehicle, approximate position, time frame, and belief. The scenario was designed to test the networks ability
An Exploratory Application of Neural Networks to the Sortie Generation Forecasting Problem
1991-09-01
research of Dr. David A. Diener, Major, USAF. As the initial research increment to be improved upon by future researchers, this study (1) provides a... David A. Diener, Major, USAF, who virtually transformed my dream of exploring neural network techniques into concrete reality. His talents in...New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978. Barron R. L., Gilstrap, L. 0., and Shrier , S. "Polynomial al and Neural Networks: Analogies and Engineering
Isak Shabani; Betim Cico; Agni Dika
2012-01-01
In this paper, we have presented an algorithm for data synchronization based on Web Services (WS), which allows software applications to work well on both configurations Online and "Offline", in the absence of the network. For this purpose is in use Electronic Student Management System (ESMS) at University of Prishtina (UP) with the appropriate module. Since the use of ESMS, because of a uncertain supply of electricity, disconnecting the network and for other reasons which are not under the c...
A reconstruction problem for a class of phylogenetic networks with lateral gene transfers.
Cardona, Gabriel; Pons, Joan Carles; Rosselló, Francesc
2015-01-01
Lateral, or Horizontal, Gene Transfers are a type of asymmetric evolutionary events where genetic material is transferred from one species to another. In this paper we consider LGT networks, a general model of phylogenetic networks with lateral gene transfers which consist, roughly, of a principal rooted tree with its leaves labelled on a set of taxa, and a set of extra secondary arcs between nodes in this tree representing lateral gene transfers. An LGT network gives rise in a natural way to a principal phylogenetic subtree and a set of secondary phylogenetic subtrees, which, roughly, represent, respectively, the main line of evolution of most genes and the secondary lines of evolution through lateral gene transfers. We introduce a set of simple conditions on an LGT network that guarantee that its principal and secondary phylogenetic subtrees are pairwise different and that these subtrees determine, up to isomorphism, the LGT network. We then give an algorithm that, given a set of pairwise different phylogenetic trees [Formula: see text] on the same set of taxa, outputs, when it exists, the LGT network that satisfies these conditions and such that its principal phylogenetic tree is [Formula: see text] and its secondary phylogenetic trees are [Formula: see text].
Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A
2015-09-01
This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir I. Volchikhin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is to accelerate the solution of neural network biometrics inverse problem on an ordinary desktop computer. Materials and Methods: To speed up the calculations, the artificial neural network is introduced into the dynamic mode of “jittering” of the states of all 256 output bits. At the same time, too many output states of the neural network are logarithmically folded by transitioning to the Hamming distance space between the code of the image “Own” and the codes of the images “Alien”. From the database of images of “Alien” 2.5 % of the most similar images are selected. In the next generation, 97.5 % of the discarded images are restored with GOST R 52633.2-2010 procedures by crossing parent images and obtaining descendant images from them. Results: Over a period of about 10 minutes, 60 generations of directed search for the solution of the inverse problem can be realized that allows inversing matrices of neural network functionals of dimension 416 inputs to 256 outputs with restoration of up to 97 % information on unknown biometric parameters of the image “Own”. Discussion and Conclusions: Supporting for 10 minutes of computer time the 256 qubit quantum superposition allows on a conventional computer to bypass the actual infinity of analyzed states in 5050 (50 to 50 times more than the same computer could process realizing the usual calculations. The increase in the length of the supported quantum superposition by 40 qubits is equivalent to increasing the processor clock speed by about a billion times. It is for this reason that it is more profitable to increase the number of quantum superpositions supported by the software emulator in comparison with the creation of a more powerful processor.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan
2013-01-01
structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large......The formulation of Enterprise-Wide Optimization (EWO) problems as mixed integer nonlinear programming requires collecting, consolidating and systematizing large amount of data, coming from different sources and specific to different disciplines. In this manuscript, a generic and flexible data...... problems, while ensuring at the same time data consistency and quality at the application stage....
Some welding problems in the gas reinjection network at Hassi-Messaoud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birette, J J; Lamau, H
1966-07-01
The pipeline network for the injection gas in the Hassi Messaoud Field covers about 50 sq km and consists of 6-in. and 8-in. pipe, maximum working pressure 476 atm. Considerations of safety and reliability, together with easy welding operations in the desert, dictated the choice of a carbon-manganese-silicon alloy steel for the pipe; the wall thickness was calculated considering the stresses in the various parts of the network. Special welding techniques has to be developed, in view of the extreme variations in ambient temperature. This also required close and continuous quality control of the welding operations. All joints were prefabricated and pre-tested. Automatic welding was used in the shop, but only manual welding in the field. The network has now been in operation for 2 years, without any troubles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rious, V.
2007-10-01
This thesis analyses how the long term coordination between generation and transmission is organised in a liberalized power system. It relies on a modular analysis framework that allows us to separate the coordination mechanisms into distinct modules. The governance structure of the power network completes this analysis framework. In a rationale of institutional complementarity, this governance structure impacts the way the TSOs effectively implement the power flow management. The proactive behaviour of the TSO for the coordination of generation and transmission can be explained in two ways. Firstly, the network investment can be the only effective process of long term coordination between generation and transmission. Secondly, when forecasting network investment, the TSO can prepare the accommodation of the fast-built generation units and detect the potential failures of locational incentive signals. (author)
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James
2015-11-01
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.
Problems associated with the use of social networks--a pilot study.
Szczegielniak, Anna; Pałka, Karol; Krysta, Krzysztof
2013-09-01
The definition of addiction is that it is an acquired, strong need to perform a specific activity or continued use of mood alerting substances. Increasing discussion about the development of Internet addiction, which like other addictions, have their roots in depression, impaired assessment esteem and social anxiety shows that it affects all users of the global network, regardless of gender or age. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of social networking on the ongoing behavior of respondents- the first step of a study on the possibility of dependence on social networks. The study was based on an authors questionnaire placed on popular polish websites on February 2013. Questions related to the types and frequency of specific activities undertaken by the private profiles of users. The study involved 221 respondents, 193 questionnaires were filled in completely and correctly, without missing any questions. 83.24% admitted to using social networking sites, 16.76% indicated that they never had their own profile. An overwhelming number of respondents are a member of Facebook (79.17%), specialized portals related to their profession or work were used by only 13.89%, Our-class (6.25%) and Twitter was a primary portal for one person only. Nobody marked a participation in dating services. There is a big difference between the addiction to the Internet and addictions existing within the Internet; the same pattern applies to social networking. There is a need to recognize the "social networking" for a particular activity, irrespective of Facebook, Twitter and Nasza-Klasa, which are commercial products.
Guillemin, F.; Knessl, C.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.
2014-01-01
Contrary to what we claimed in [5], the solution to the Riemann–Hilbert problem (4) considered in [5] for some domain Dx is in general not the restriction to Dx of the solution to the modified Riemann–Hilbert problem (6) in [5]. This occurs only when Dx is a circle, which is not the case considered
Box, Simon
2014-12-01
Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regula Julia Leemann
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In training networks, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises pool their resources to train apprentices within the framework of the dual VET system, while an intermediary organisation is tasked with managing operations. Over the course of their apprenticeship, the apprentices switch from one training company to another on a (half- yearly basis. Drawing on a case study of four training networks in Switzerland and the theoretical framework of the sociology of conventions, this paper aims to understand the reasons for the slow dissemination and reluctant adoption of this promising form of organising VET in Switzerland. The results of the study show that the system of moving from one company to another creages a variety of free-rider constellations in the distribution of the collectively generated corporative benefits. This explains why companies are reluctant to participate in this model. For the network to be sustainable, the intermediary organisation has to address discontent arising from free-rider problems while taking into account that the solutions found are always tentative and will often result in new free-rider problems.
Wireless three-hop networks with stealing II : exact solutions through boundary value problems
Guillemin, F.; Knessl, C.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.
2013-01-01
We study the stationary distribution of a random walk in the quarter plane arising in the study of three-hop wireless networks with stealing. Our motivation is to find exact tail asymptotics (beyond logarithmic estimates) for the marginal distributions, which requires an exact solution for the
A greedy construction heuristic for the liner service network design problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard
is challenging due to the size of a global liner shipping operation and due to the hub-and-spoke network design, where a high percentage of the total cargo is transshipped. We present the first construction heuristic for large scale instances of the LSN-DP. The heuristic is able to find a solution for a real...
Studying Pensions Funds Through an Infinite Servers Nodes Network: A Theoretical Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M; Filipe, J A
2012-01-01
This study intends to present a representation of a pensions fund through a stochastic network with two infinite servers nodes. With this representation it is allowed to deduce an equilibrium condition of the system with basis on the identity of the random rates expected values, for which the contributions arrive to the fund and the pensions are paid by the fund. In our study a stochastic network is constructed where traffic is represented. This network allows to study the equilibrium in the system and it is admissible to get a balance to a pensions fund. A specific case is studied. When the arrivals from outside at nodes A and B are according to a Poisson process, with rates λ A and λ B , respectively, the system may be seen as a two nodes network where the first node is a M/G/∞ queue and second a M t /G/∞ queue. For this case in the long term the conditions of equilibrium are as follows: m A λ A α A = m B (ρλ A + λ B )α B . In this formula it is established a relationship among the two nodes. Several examples are given in the study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P.M.
2013-01-01
Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.
2013-11-15
Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential
Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.
User Matching with Relation to the Stable Marriage Problem in Cognitive Radio Networks
Hamza, Doha R.
2017-03-20
We consider a network comprised of multiple primary users (PUs) and multiple secondary users (SUs), where the SUs seek access to a set of orthogonal channels each occupied by one PU. Only one SU is allowed to coexist with a given PU. We propose a distributed matching algorithm to pair the network users, where a Stackelberg game model is assumed for the interaction between the paired PU and SU. The selected secondary is given access in exchange for monetary compensation to the primary. The PU optimizes the interference price it charges to a given SU and the power allocation to maintain communication. The SU optimizes its power demand so as to maximize its utility. Our algorithm provides a unique stable matching. Numerical results indicate the advantage of the proposed algorithm over other reference schemes.
Mission: Impossible; It’s Time to Pull the Military Out of Drug Interdiction
1997-01-01
greatly complicated the mmjuana law enforcement problem Domestlc production has reduced prices and de&ntrahzed Qstnbutlon, while indoor agronomic...techmques have greatly increased potency Annual seizures of marijuana now total less than 50,000 pounds - an amount we were seizing every five to SIX days...relative bulkiness, a constramt that does not apply to cocame, heroin, or any of the other drugs likely to be smuggled m the future I As marijuana
Twitter, Facebook, and Ten Red Balloons: Social Network Problem Solving and Homeland Security
Ford, Christopher M.
2011-01-01
This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (February 2011), v.7 no.1 This essay, the winner of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) Essay Contest in 2010, looks at how homeland security could benefit from crowd-sourced applications accessed through social networking tools such as Twitter and Facebook. Christopher M. Ford looks at the apparent efficacy of two such endeavors: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency'۪s (DARPA) competition to find ten 8-foot balloo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Fursanov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article reflects algorithmization of search methods of effective replacement of consumer transformers in distributed electrical networks. As any electrical equipment of power systems, power transformers have their own limited service duration, which is determined by natural processes of materials degradation and also by unexpected wear under different conditions of overload and overvoltage. According to the standards, adapted by in the Republic of Belarus, rated service life of power transformers is 25 years. But it can be situations that transformers should be better changed till this time – economically efficient. The possibility of such replacement is considered in order to increase efficiency of electrical network operation connected with its physical wear and aging.In this article the faults of early developed mathematical models of transformers replacement were discussed. Early such worked out transformers were not used. But in practice they can be replaced in one substation but they can be successfully used in other substations .Especially if there are limits of financial resources and the replacement needs more detail technical and economical basis.During the research the authors developed the efficient algorithm for determining of optimal location of transformers at substations of distributed electrical networks, based on search of the best solution from all sets of displacement in oriented graph. Suggested algorithm allows considerably reduce design time of optimal placement of transformers using a set of simplifications. The result of algorithm’s work is series displacement of transformers in networks, which allow obtain a great economic effect in comparison with replacement of single transformer.
Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.
Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle
2012-09-04
Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil
2018-01-01
In this paper, we address a multi-period supply chain network redesign problem in which customer zones have price-dependent stochastic demand for multiple products. A novel multi-stage stochastic program is proposed to simultaneously make tactical decisions including products' prices and strategic...... redesign decisions. Existing uncertainty in potential demands of customer zones is modeled through a finite set of scenarios, described in the form of a scenario tree. The scenarios are generated using a Latin Hypercube Sampling method and then a forward scenario construction technique is employed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.
2011-01-01
Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.
Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots
Woo, Gordon
Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.
2014-03-01
information base MIO maritime interdiction operations MPU man portable unit NLOS non-line-of-site NMS network management system NOC...administrator. For smaller networks, the economic feasibility for a comprehensive NMS might not be worth the investment. Instead, an application designed to... MPU -4s with Samsung devices attached to host a variety of IP-based applications. These nodes were utilized by the BTs to sweep the vessel in a
Data management problems with a distributed computer network on nuclear power stations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, I.
1980-01-01
It is generally accepted within the Central Electricity Generating Board that the centralized process computers at some nuclear power plants are going to be replaced with distributed systems. Work on the theoretical considerations involved in such a replacement, including the allocation of data within the system, is going on with the goal of developing a simple, pragmatic approach to the determination of the required system resilience. A flexible network architecture which can accomodate expansions in the future and can be understood by non-computer specialists can thus be built up. (LL)
Capacitated Hub Routing Problem in Hub-and-Feeder Network Design: Modeling and Solution Algorithm
Gelareh , Shahin; Neamatian Monemi , Rahimeh; Semet , Frédéric
2015-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we address the Bounded Cardinality Hub Location Routing with Route Capacity wherein eachhub acts as a transshipment node for one directed route. The number of hubs lies between a minimum anda maximum and the hub-level network is a complete subgraph. The transshipment operations take place atthe hub nodes and flow transfer time from a hub-level transporter to a spoke-level vehicle influences spoketo-hub allocations. We propose a mathematical model and a b...
The Land Transport Network in the Post-Soviet Space- Problems and Prospective Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergej Schlichter
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Road and rail networks in the post-Soviet space are analysedin view of the demands in transportation to be expected inthe 2 I st centwy. The road system is found te1ribly underdel'elopedin terms of density and canying capacity. It widely fails tofulfil the necessary feeder function for the rail system. Both railand road ~ystems need substantial improvements to allow forthe wgent economic recove1y of that lQige area between thosevital and dynamic regions in east (China, south (Middle Eastund west (Europe.
A Branch-and-bound Algorithm for the Network Diversion Problem
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Erken, Ozgur
2002-01-01
...). We develop and test a specialized branch-and-hound algorithm for this NP-complete problem. The algorithm is based on partitioning the solution space with respect to edges in certain s-t cuts and yields a non- standard, non-binary enumeration tree...
Supply chain network design problem for a new market opportunity in an agile manufacturing system
Babazadeh, Reza; Razmi, Jafar; Ghodsi, Reza
2012-08-01
The characteristics of today's competitive environment, such as the speed with which products are designed, manufactured, and distributed, and the need for higher responsiveness and lower operational cost, are forcing companies to search for innovative ways to do business. The concept of agile manufacturing has been proposed in response to these challenges for companies. This paper copes with the strategic and tactical level decisions in agile supply chain network design. An efficient mixed-integer linear programming model that is able to consider the key characteristics of agile supply chain such as direct shipments, outsourcing, different transportation modes, discount, alliance (process and information integration) between opened facilities, and maximum waiting time of customers for deliveries is developed. In addition, in the proposed model, the capacity of facilities is determined as decision variables, which are often assumed to be fixed. Computational results illustrate that the proposed model can be applied as a power tool in agile supply chain network design as well as in the integration of strategic decisions with tactical decisions.
PROBLEM OF ECOLOGICAL NETWORK DEVELOPMENT IN BIG CITIES, USING MOSCOW AS AN EXAMPLE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyko Valeriya Mikhaylovna
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Creating stable system of protected areas in the city is practically impossible. The optimal way out of this situation is, to our mind, connected with such ecosystem management strategy that ensures spontaneous development of preserved natural ecosystems with simultaneous effective urban planting. It should be noted that the problems of the recreational ecosystem exploitation, despite many years of research, are not fully solved, and, considering recreation in urban protected areas, especially in the city, get a new trend. It seems reasonable nowadays to try to shuffle off the burden of active recreation from forest ecosystems on buffer zones. These zones should be specially created or restored because of carrying out projects on ecological rehabilitation, planted areas or natural planted areas. For the staff of the protected area system it creates additional opportunities for shifting of forces in the solution of other problems on maintaining and restoring biodiversity.
Elastic tracking versus neural network tracking for very high multiplicity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harlander, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1991-04-01
A new Elastic Tracking (ET) algorithm is proposed for finding tracks in very high multiplicity and noisy environments. It is based on a dynamical reinterpretation and generalization of the Radon transform and is related to elastic net algorithms for geometrical optimization. ET performs an adaptive nonlinear fit to noisy data with a variable number of tracks. Its numerics is more efficient than that of the traditional Radon or Hough transform method because it avoids binning of phase space and the costly search for valid minima. Spurious local minima are avoided in ET by introducing a time-dependent effective potential. The method is shown to be very robust to noise and measurement error and extends tracking capabilities to much higher track densities than possible via local road finding or even the novel Denby-Peterson neural network tracking algorithms. 12 refs., 2 figs
A hybrid model using decision tree and neural network for credit scoring problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Arzy Soltan
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Nowadays credit scoring is an important issue for financial and monetary organizations that has substantial impact on reduction of customer attraction risks. Identification of high risk customer can reduce finished cost. An accurate classification of customer and low type 1 and type 2 errors have been investigated in many studies. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a new method, which chooses the best neural network architecture based on one column hidden layer MLP, multiple columns hidden layers MLP, RBFN and decision trees and ensembling them with voting methods. The proposed method of this paper is run on an Australian credit data and a private bank in Iran called Export Development Bank of Iran and the results are used for making solution in low customer attraction risks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcondes, Eduardo; Goldbarg, Elizabeth; Goldbarg, Marco; Cunha, Thatiana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)
2008-07-01
A major problem about the planning of production in refinery is the determination of what should be done in each stage of production as a horizon of time. Among such problems, distribution of oil products through networks of pipelines is a very significant problem because of its economic importance. In this work, a problem of distribution of oil through a network of pipelines is modeled. The network studied is a simplification of a real network. There are several restrictions to be met, such as limits of storage, transmission or receipt of limits and limitations of transport. The model is adopted bi-goal where you want to minimize the fragmentation and the time of transmission, given the restrictions of demand and storage capacity. Whereas the occupancy rate of networks is increasingly high, is of great importance optimize its use. In this work, the technique of optimization by Cloud of particles is applied to the problem of distribution of oil products by networks of pipelines. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Tsiropoulou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a joint resource allocation problem is studied in a multi-service Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA wireless network. Mobile users request various services with different Quality of Service (QoS characteristics and they determine in a distributed and non-cooperative manner a joint subcarrier and power allocation towards fulfilling their QoS prerequisites. Initially, a well-designed utility function is formulated to appropriately represent users’ diverse QoS prerequisites with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers allocation problem is solved based on a multilateral bargaining model, where users are able to select different discount factors to enter the bargaining game, thus better expressing their different needs in system resources with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers mapping is realized based either on the localized SC-FDMA method where the subcarriers are sequentially allocated to the users or the distributed SC-FDMA via considering the maximum channel gain policy, where each subcarrier is allocated to the user with the maximum channel gain. Given the subcarriers assignment, an optimization problem with respect to users’ uplink transmission power is formulated and solved, in order to determine the optimal power allocation per subcarrier assigned to each user. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via modeling and simulation and extensive numerical results are presented.
Application of wireless sensor network to problems of detection and tracking of radioactive sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuy, P
2006-01-01
International efforts are being conducted to warranty a continuous control of radioactive sources. A theoretical and practical study has been achieved about the feasibility of installing wireless sensor networks on nuclear installations, or plants that uses radioactive material. The study is faced through the implementation of a system designed over the relatively new platform of motes, that gives a great flexibility for distributing sensors taking advantages of new wireless technologies and high-level programming. The work shows an analysis of the state of the technique of sensors, detectors, antennas and power supply including nuclear power supply. It also shows contributions on these fields by experimentation and proposed designs. Three applications that justify the technology are shown and a demonstration project is proposed. The social improvements of the system basically are a technical approach to the continuous control of radioactive sources during their life cycle and the online monitoring of the staff with the possibility of identifying and optimizing the procedures that are the maximum of expositions in practice or detecting potentials expositions [es
Grover, Jeff
2016-01-01
This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...
The North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017: A New Look at an Old Problem
Adams, D. K.
2017-12-01
Quantifying moisture recycling and determining water vapor source regions for deep convective precipitation have been problematic, particular in tropical continental regions. More than an academic concern, modeling convective precipitation, from cloud-resolving to global climate models, depends critically on properly representing atmospheric water vapor transport, its vertical distribution, as well as surface latent heat flux contributions. The North American Monsoon region, given its complex topography, proximity to warm oceans, striking vegetation "green up" and oftentimes subtle dynamical forcing is particular challenging in this regard. Recent studies, employing modeling and observational approaches, give a prominent role for moisture recycling in fomenting deep convective precipitation. Likewise, these studies argue for the increased importance of transport from the Gulf of Mexico/Central America and the Atlantic Ocean, relative to the Pacific Ocean/Gulf of California. In this presentation, we critically review these studies which served to motivate the NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017, detailed here. This bi-national (Mexico-US) 3-month campaign to examine water vapor source regions, and specifically, land-surface water vapor fluxes consists of 10 experimental GPS meteorological sites as well as TLALOCNet and Suominet GPS sites in the Mexican states of Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Baja California and in Arizona and New Mexico. Near Rayón Sonora, inside the larger regional GPSmet array, a 30km eddy covariance flux tower triangular array, with collocated GPSmet, measures continuous energy fluxes and precipitable water vapor. Preliminary results examining the local flux contribution in the triangular array to total precipitable water vapor measured are presented. Further research is then outlined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiuping Xu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.
da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; de Brito, Silvana Rossy; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Rocha, Cláudio Alex Jorge; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa
2016-01-01
The published literature reveals several arguments concerning the strategic importance of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions for developing countries where the digital divide is a challenge. Large-scale ICT interventions can be an option for countries whose regions, both urban and rural, present a high number of digitally excluded people. Our goal was to monitor and identify problems in interventions aimed at certification for a large number of participants in different geographical regions. Our case study is the training at the Telecentros.BR, a program created in Brazil to install telecenters and certify individuals to use ICT resources. We propose an approach that applies social network analysis and mining techniques to data collected from Telecentros.BR dataset and from the socioeconomics and telecommunications infrastructure indicators of the participants' municipalities. We found that (i) the analysis of interactions in different time periods reflects the objectives of each phase of training, highlighting the increased density in the phase in which participants develop and disseminate their projects; (ii) analysis according to the roles of participants (i.e., tutors or community members) reveals that the interactions were influenced by the center (or region) to which the participant belongs (that is, a community contained mainly members of the same region and always with the presence of tutors, contradicting expectations of the training project, which aimed for intense collaboration of the participants, regardless of the geographic region); (iii) the social network of participants influences the success of the training: that is, given evidence that the degree of the community member is in the highest range, the probability of this individual concluding the training is 0.689; (iv) the North region presented the lowest probability of participant certification, whereas the Northeast, which served municipalities with similar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohori, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Setsu, Nenso; Watanabe, K. (Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan))
1994-04-20
The accelerated approximate solution of combinatorial optimization problems by symmetry integrating hopfield neural network (NN) has been applied to many combinatorial problems such as the traveling salesman problem, the network planning problem, etc. However, the hopfield NN converges to local minimum solutions very slowly. In this paper, a general inclination model composed by introducing an accelerated parameter to the hopfield model is proposed, and it has been shown that the acceleration parameter can make the model converge to the local minima more quickly. Moreover, simulation experiments for random quadratic combinatorial problems with two and twenty-five variables were carried out. The results show that the acceleration of convergence makes the attraction region of the local minimum change and the accuracy of solution worse. If an initial point is selected around the center of unit hyper cube, solutions with high accuracy not affected by the acceleration parameter can be obtained. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. J. Escudero-Garzás
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The trend in wireless networks is that several wireless radio access technologies (RATs coexist in the same area, forming heterogeneous networks in which the users may connect to any of the available RATs. The problem of associating a user to the most suitable RAT, known as network selection problem (NSP, is of capital importance for the satisfaction of the users in these emerging environments. However, also the satisfaction of the operator is important in this scenario. In this work, we propose that a connection may be served by more than one RAT by using multi-RAT terminals. We formulate the NSP with multiple RAT association based on utility functions that take into consideration both user’s satisfaction and provider’s satisfaction. As users are characterized according to their expected quality of service, our results exhaustively analyze the influence of the user’s profile, along with the network topology and the type of applications served.
Tucker, Jalie A; Foushee, H Russell; Simpson, Cathy A
2009-01-01
A large gap exists in the United States between population need and the utilization of treatment services for substance-related problems. Surveying consumer preferences may provide valuable information for developing more attractive services with greater reach and impact on population health. A state-level telephone survey using random digit dialling sampling methods assessed preferences for available professional, mutual help, and lay resources, as well as innovative computerized and self-help resources that enhance anonymity (N=439 households in Alabama). Respondents preferred help that involved personal contact compared to computerized help or self-help, but were indifferent whether personalized help was dispensed by professional or lay providers. Attractive service features included lower cost, insurance coverage, confidentiality, rapid and convenient appointments, and addressing functional problems and risks of substance misuse. Respondents in households with a member who misused substances rated services more negatively, especially if services had been used. The findings highlight the utility of viewing substance misusers and their social networks as consumers, and the implications for improving the system of care and for designing and marketing services that are responsive to user preferences are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Xiang Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The cost-based system optimum problem in networks with continuously distributed value of time is formulated as a path-based form, which cannot be solved by the Frank-Wolfe algorithm. In light of magnitude improvement in the availability of computer memory in recent years, path-based algorithms have been regarded as a viable approach for traffic assignment problems with reasonably large network sizes. We develop a path-based gradient projection algorithm for solving the cost-based system optimum model, based on Goldstein-Levitin-Polyak method which has been successfully applied to solve standard user equilibrium and system optimum problems. The Sioux Falls network tested is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise
2016-01-01
The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...
For a consistent policy in the struggle against proliferation networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlumberger, Guillaume; Gruselle, Bruno
2007-01-01
Proliferation networks operate like companies. They must be capable of coordinating a series of elementary logistics, financial and technical functions. Due to the increase in worldwide exchanges, the reinforcement of existing export control tools alone will not be sufficient to face the increase in proliferation flows. Despite widespread reporting in the media, interdiction operations also can only have limited effect on networks, due to their occasional nature, if they are undertaken independently of an approach targeting other functions. It also seems hardly realistic to wish to neutralize a proliferation network only by freezing part of its credits in the framework of a repressive approach. Setting up an overall policy provides a means of coordinating intelligence actions, repression tools and interdiction means both nationally and internationally, and therefore appears as the only viable solution in the struggle against proliferation networks. This is a complex task for it requires the organization of inter-ministerial (or interagency) responsibilities, and in particular it requires an equilibrium between long term and short term actions. Finally, it depends on the reinforcement of links between the administrations involved and private participants including service companies, financial institutions and enterprises. (authors)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石玺
2013-01-01
目前国内农业企业普遍存在着网络营销观念意识淡薄、人才缺乏、网络营销水平低下、网站推广不力等诸多问题；而要解决这些问题的就必须加强农业企业管理人员培训,树立正确网络营销意识；建设专业化网络营销队伍,提升服务水平；采用信息发布、第三方网络营销平台、Email营销等方法提高网络营销水平；建设农业企业网站并搭建企业自己的网络品牌.%At present, it has widespread problems in domestic agricultural enterprises, such as laek of Internet marketing concept consciousness and human resource, the low level of network marketing, ineffective website promotion; And to solve these problems, we must strengthen the training management personnel of agricultural enterprise, sets up the correct network marketing consciousness; build professional network marketing team, improve the service level; adopt to information release, the third party network marketing platform, Email marketing and other methods to enhance the level of network marketing; set up agricultural enterprise web site and build own network brand.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Souza, Thaianne Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Catalao, GO (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text. What the Brazilian soccer championship, Hollywood actors, the network of the Internet, the spread of viruses and electric distribution network have in common? Until less than two decade ago, the answer would be 'nothing' or 'almost nothing'. However, the answer today to this same question is 'all' or 'almost all'. The answer to these questions and more can be found through a sub-area of statistical physics | called science of complex networks that has been used to approach and study the most diverse natural and non-natural systems, such as systems/social networks, information, technological or biological. In this work we study the distribution network of electric power in Brazil (DEEB), from a perspective of complex networks, where we associate stations and/or substations with a network of vertices and the links between the vertices we associate with the transmission lines. We are doing too a comparative study with the best-known models of complex networks, such as Erdoes-Renyi, Configuration Model and Barabasi-Albert, and then we compare with results obtained in real electrical distribution networks. Based on this information, we do a comparative analysis using the following variables: connectivity distribution, diameter, clustering coefficient, which are frequently used in studies of complex networks. We emphasize that the main objective of this study is to analyze the robustness of the network DEEB, and then propose alternatives for network connectivity, which may contribute to the increase of robustness in maintenance projects and/or expansion of the network, in other words our goal is to make the network to proof the blackouts or improve the endurance the network against the blackouts. For this purpose, we use information from the structural properties of networks, computer modeling and simulation. (author)
Sta?ková, K.; Olsder, J.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.
2009-01-01
In this paper, the dynamic optimal toll design problem is considered as a one leader-many followers hierarchical non-cooperative game. On a given network the road authority as the leader tolls some links in order to reach its objective, while travelers as followers minimize their perceived travel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krylov, V.A.; Pisarenko, V.P.
1982-01-01
Methods of modeling complex power networks with short circuits in the networks are described. The methods are implemented in integrated computation programs for short circuit currents and equivalents in electrical networks with a large number of branch points (up to 1000) on a computer with a limited on line memory capacity (M equals 4030 for the computer).
Mowbray, Orion
2014-01-01
Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223
Le Roux, Jay
2016-04-01
Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.
Defending and attacking a network of two arcs subject to traffic congestion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bier, Vicki M.; Hausken, Kjell
2013-01-01
To study the effects of intentional attacks on transportation systems, we consider drivers who choose the more time-efficient of two arcs (possibly of different lengths). Both arcs are subjected to traffic congestion, and also to interdiction or blockage (e.g., by a terrorist attack). The model has three types of strategic actors: the government; the terrorist; and potential drivers. The government protects travel, while the terrorist interdicts travel, along the two arcs. Drivers choose the arc that gives the shortest travel time, and cannot choose an interdicted arc. The drivers have reservation travel times, such that if the actual travel time will exceed an individual driver's reservation travel time, that driver would prefer not to travel; the reservation travel times are allowed to vary among drivers. The objective function of the master problem, which the government minimizes and the terrorist maximizes, is the sum of the total travel time plus the reservation travel times of the non-travelers. Each potential driver decides endogenously whether to travel, according to whether the actual travel time is greater or lesser than that driver's reservation travel time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A novel hybrid method based on decomposition of SCUC into QP and BP problems is proposed. • An adapted binary programming and an enhanced dual neural network model are applied. • The proposed EDNN is exactly convergent to the global optimal solution of QP. • An AC power flow procedure is developed for including contingency/security issues. • It is suited for large-scale systems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel hybrid method for solving the security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem. The proposed formulation requires much less computation time in comparison with other methods while assuring the accuracy of the results. Furthermore, the framework provided here allows including an accurate description of warmth-dependent startup costs, valve point effects, multiple fuel costs, forbidden zones of operation, and AC load flow bounds. To solve the nonconvex problem, an adapted binary programming method and enhanced dual neural network model are utilized as optimization tools, and a procedure for AC power flow modeling is developed for including contingency/security issues, as new contributions to earlier studies. Unlike classical SCUC methods, the proposed method allows to simultaneously solve the unit commitment problem and comply with the network limits. In addition to conventional test systems, a real-world large-scale power system with 493 units has been used to fully validate the effectiveness of the novel hybrid method proposed
Behrens, J
2000-03-01
The key reason for physicians networking in managed care is to get a better coping with uncertainty on action (treatment) decisions. The second reason for networking in managed care are financial benefits grounds. But this reason is very ambivalent. Three different action problems (role conflicts) in managed care network are to solved, which was also in single practices. In the lecture the decision strategies and decision resources has been compared. Observations are done using expert interviews, patient interviews and analysis of documents in USA, Germany and Switzerland. The first problem is the choosing of a cost reduction strategy which is not reducing the effectiveness. Such "ugly" solution strategies like exclusion of "expensive" patients and a rationing of necessary medical services in a kind of McDonalds network of physicians will fail the target. The optimost way is a saving of all unnecessary medical even injourious performances. The chosen cost reduction strategy is not real visible from outside but in fact limited cognizable and controllable. Evidence based health care can be a resource of treatment decisions and could train such decisions but it will not substitute these decisions. The second problem is the making of real family practitioners as gatekeepers. Knowledge about the care system is still not making a real family practitioner, even if this is the minimum condition of their work. Also contractual relationships between insurance and doctor as a gatekeeper or financial incentives for patients are still making not a real family practitioner as a gatekpeeper. Only throughout the trust of patients supported by second opinions is making the real family practitioner as a gatekeeper. "Doctor hopping" could be the reaction by scarcity of trustworthy family practitioners as gatekeepers. The third problem is the choosing of the optimal scale of a network due to the very different optimal size of networks regarding the requirement of risk spreeds, of the
Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.
2017-12-01
Probabilistically formulated inverse problems can be solved using Monte Carlo-based sampling methods. In principle, both advanced prior information, based on for example, complex geostatistical models and non-linear forward models can be considered using such methods. However, Monte Carlo methods may be associated with huge computational costs that, in practice, limit their application. This is not least due to the computational requirements related to solving the forward problem, where the physical forward response of some earth model has to be evaluated. Here, it is suggested to replace a numerical complex evaluation of the forward problem, with a trained neural network that can be evaluated very fast. This will introduce a modeling error that is quantified probabilistically such that it can be accounted for during inversion. This allows a very fast and efficient Monte Carlo sampling of the solution to an inverse problem. We demonstrate the methodology for first arrival traveltime inversion of crosshole ground penetrating radar data. An accurate forward model, based on 2-D full-waveform modeling followed by automatic traveltime picking, is replaced by a fast neural network. This provides a sampling algorithm three orders of magnitude faster than using the accurate and computationally expensive forward model, and also considerably faster and more accurate (i.e. with better resolution), than commonly used approximate forward models. The methodology has the potential to dramatically change the complexity of non-linear and non-Gaussian inverse problems that have to be solved using Monte Carlo sampling techniques.
Bagchi, Prosenjit
2016-11-01
In this talk, two problems in multiphase biological flows will be discussed. The first is the direct numerical simulation of whole blood and drug particulates in microvascular networks. Blood in microcirculation behaves as a dense suspension of heterogeneous cells. The erythrocytes are extremely deformable, while inactivated platelets and leukocytes are nearly rigid. A significant progress has been made in recent years in modeling blood as a dense cellular suspension. However, many of these studies considered the blood flow in simple geometry, e.g., straight tubes of uniform cross-section. In contrast, the architecture of a microvascular network is very complex with bifurcating, merging and winding vessels, posing a further challenge to numerical modeling. We have developed an immersed-boundary-based method that can consider blood cell flow in physiologically realistic and complex microvascular network. In addition to addressing many physiological issues related to network hemodynamics, this tool can be used to optimize the transport properties of drug particulates for effective organ-specific delivery. Our second problem is pseudopod-driven motility as often observed in metastatic cancer cells and other amoeboid cells. We have developed a multiscale hydrodynamic model to simulate such motility. We study the effect of cell stiffness on motility as the former has been considered as a biomarker for metastatic potential. Funded by the National Science Foundation.
Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A
2016-04-01
Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Ooe, Yosuke; Anamizu, Hiromitsu; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi
2008-07-01
The financial condition of the Japanese health insurance system is said to be compounded with the aging of the population. The government argues that the application of IT and networking is required in order to streamline health care services while avoiding its collapse. The Internet environment has been furnished with broadband connection and multimedia in the span of one year or shorter, and is becoming more and more convenient. It is true that the Internet is now a part of Tokyo's infrastructure along with electricity and water supply, as it is the center of politics. However, in local cities, development of the Internet environment is still insufficient. In order to use the network as a common infrastructure at health care facilities, we need to be aware of this digital divide. This study investigated the development status of network infrastructure in regional cities.
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2017-07-01
The variational tensor network renormalization approach to two-dimensional (2D) quantum systems at finite temperature is applied to a model suffering the notorious quantum Monte Carlo sign problem—the orbital eg model with spatially highly anisotropic orbital interactions. Coarse graining of the tensor network along the inverse temperature β yields a numerically tractable 2D tensor network representing the Gibbs state. Its bond dimension D —limiting the amount of entanglement—is a natural refinement parameter. Increasing D we obtain a converged order parameter and its linear susceptibility close to the critical point. They confirm the existence of finite order parameter below the critical temperature Tc, provide a numerically exact estimate of Tc, and give the critical exponents within 1 % of the 2D Ising universality class.
Kishi, Reiko; Horikawa, Naoko
2004-02-01
Concerning associations between the social support network and physical health of the elderly, longitudinal studies have been conducted using various measurement indexes. The studies indicated that the support network influences on physical function and life expectancy. In this study we compared research papers from Japan and elsewhere that appeared after 1980, from the viewpoint of 1) social support effects, and 2) social network effects, to examine potential problems in the future. The main knowledge obtained was that the receipt of emotional support, wide network size, and participation in social activities reduced the risk of early death and decrease in physical function of elderly people. Sex differences were indicated, and in many cases, the effects were more remarkable in men than women. In addition the positive influence of receiving help from a support network, a major subject of conventional research, the effects of offering help to others and negative findings were also examined. It has been indicated that participation in volunteer groups and offer of support to other people can prevent decrease in physical function or early death. As negative effects, improper instrumental support rather disturbs the mental and physical independence of elderly people. As future issues, it is necessary to focus on both positive/negative and receipt/offer effects of support network, and to clarify how to provide example which best match the life of elderly people by comparing sexes and regions. It is also important to actually apply the knowledge gained from observational studies to prevent the elderly from becoming a condition requiring care, and to develop intervention studies which can increase the social contacts of elderly people at the same time as conducting health education and medical treatment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Lars Birch; Lerche Nielsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on how learner engagement can be facilitated through use of social media and communication technologies. The discussions are based on the Danish Master’s Programme of ICT and Learning (MIL), where students study in groups within a networked learning structure. The paper reflect...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an ad hoc Floyd-A∗ algorithm to determine the a priori least-time itinerary from an origin to a destination given an initial time in an urban scheduled public transport (USPT network. The network is bimodal (i.e., USPT lines and walking and time dependent. The modified USPT network model results in more reasonable itinerary results. An itinerary is connected through a sequence of time-label arcs. The proposed Floyd-A∗ algorithm is composed of two procedures designated as Itinerary Finder and Cost Estimator. The A∗-based Itinerary Finder determines the time-dependent, least-time itinerary in real time, aided by the heuristic information precomputed by the Floyd-based Cost Estimator, where a strategy is formed to preestimate the time-dependent arc travel time as an associated static lower bound. The Floyd-A∗ algorithm is proven to guarantee optimality in theory and, demonstrated through a real-world example in Shenyang City USPT network to be more efficient than previous procedures. The computational experiments also reveal the time-dependent nature of the least-time itinerary. In the premise that lines run punctually, “just boarding” and “just missing” cases are identified.
Leemann, Regula Julia; Imdorf, Christian
2015-01-01
In training networks, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises pool their resources to train apprentices within the framework of the dual VET system, while an intermediary organisation is tasked with managing operations. Over the course of their apprenticeship, the apprentices switch from one training company to another on a (half-) yearly…
Papatheocharous , Efi; Andreou , Andreas S.
2010-01-01
International audience; Many parameters affect the cost evolution of software projects. In the area of software cost estimation and project management the main challenge is to understand and quantify the effect of these parameters, or 'cost drivers', on the effort expended to develop software systems. This paper aims at investigating the effect of cost attributes on software development effort using empirical databases of completed projects and building Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models ...
Problems of spatial-functional organization of Južno Pomoravlje region’s network of settlements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krunić Nikola
2009-01-01
Full Text Available During the elaboration of the Regional spatial plan of the municipalities of Južno Pomoravlje (Region Južno Pomoravlje a special attention was paid to its network of settlements. Demographical and functional determinants of this network were analyzed based on the relevant theoretical-methodological concepts and qualitative-quantitative indicators. Settlement network of Južno Pomoravlje was considered as a subsystem of the Republic of Serbia’s settlements’ system. Correlation and causality between processes of spatial and socio-economic migration of population and functional transformation of settlements have been highlighted, which caused differentiation of the Region’s municipalities to: urban cores - peri-urban rings - suburban more or less urbanized villages and rural surroundings. Models of decentralized concentration and micro-developing nuclei are proposed as instruments for decentralization of the Region or its municipalities. Based on the level of spatial-functional integration of settlements, regional as well as municipal and micro-functional - micro-regional structures have been identified. This paper gives conceptual and strategic proposals of spatial-functional organization of Južno Pomoravlje, which are based on settlements’ determinants. Authors suggest that functional premises define determinants for the Regional spatial plan and steer the sectoral and strategic decisions.
Olssøn, Ingrid; Dahl, Alv A
2012-08-01
The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the presence of avoidant personality problems (APPs) and 5 areas of impairment: demography, somatic issues, mental health, lifestyle, and social issues. Avoidant personality problem was defined by confirmation of the 2 avoidant personality disorder items of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen and and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) short version (MINI-SPIN) screening assessment for generalized social anxiety disorder sum score of 6 or more. The questionnaires were administered in a Norwegian population survey (the Oslo Health Study-HUBRO). Cases consisted of 280 individuals with APP and 5 randomly selected controls without APP (n = 1400). The APP group more frequently reported living alone, lower level of education, and lower income than controls. Poor self-rated health, presence of somatic disease, muscular pain, frequent use of analgesics, and visits at a general practitioner were significantly more common in the APP group than among controls. The APP group had significantly higher proportion of caseness of mental distress, low general self-efficacy, and insomnia, and this result held up in multivariate analyses. The APP group showed statistically significant higher proportions of physical inactivity, obesity, daily smoking, and alcohol problems compared with controls. As for social impairment, a significantly higher proportion of the APP group reported "not having enough good friends," "high powerlessness," and low community activism, and the 2 former variables held up in multivariate analyses. In this population-based study, we found that high levels of APP, defined closely to avoidant personality disorder, were significantly associated with demographic, somatic, and mental impairment; low general self-efficacy; and insomnia affecting work ability. In addition, APP showed associations with negative lifestyle, alcohol problems, and social impairment reporting lack of good friends and lack of
Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián
2012-01-01
Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.
Patkin, M. L.; Rogachev, G. N.
2018-02-01
A method for constructing a multi-agent control system for mobile robots based on training with reinforcement using deep neural networks is considered. Synthesis of the management system is proposed to be carried out with reinforcement training and the modified Actor-Critic method, in which the Actor module is divided into Action Actor and Communication Actor in order to simultaneously manage mobile robots and communicate with partners. Communication is carried out by sending partners at each step a vector of real numbers that are added to the observation vector and affect the behaviour. Functions of Actors and Critic are approximated by deep neural networks. The Critics value function is trained by using the TD-error method and the Actor’s function by using DDPG. The Communication Actor’s neural network is trained through gradients received from partner agents. An environment in which a cooperative multi-agent interaction is present was developed, computer simulation of the application of this method in the control problem of two robots pursuing two goals was carried out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bisheng He
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A time-space network based optimization method is designed for high-speed rail train timetabling problem to improve the service level of the high-speed rail. The general time-space path cost is presented which considers both the train travel time and the high-speed rail operation requirements: (1 service frequency requirement; (2 stopping plan adjustment; and (3 priority of train types. Train timetabling problem based on time-space path aims to minimize the total general time-space path cost of all trains. An improved branch-and-price algorithm is applied to solve the large scale integer programming problem. When dealing with the algorithm, a rapid branching and node selection for branch-and-price tree and a heuristic train time-space path generation for column generation are adopted to speed up the algorithm computation time. The computational results of a set of experiments on China’s high-speed rail system are presented with the discussions about the model validation, the effectiveness of the general time-space path cost, and the improved branch-and-price algorithm.
Fairbank, Michael; Li, Shuhui; Fu, Xingang; Alonso, Eduardo; Wunsch, Donald
2014-01-01
We present a recurrent neural-network (RNN) controller designed to solve the tracking problem for control systems. We demonstrate that a major difficulty in training any RNN is the problem of exploding gradients, and we propose a solution to this in the case of tracking problems, by introducing a stabilization matrix and by using carefully constrained context units. This solution allows us to achieve consistently lower training errors, and hence allows us to more easily introduce adaptive capabilities. The resulting RNN is one that has been trained off-line to be rapidly adaptive to changing plant conditions and changing tracking targets. The case study we use is a renewable-energy generator application; that of producing an efficient controller for a three-phase grid-connected converter. The controller we produce can cope with the random variation of system parameters and fluctuating grid voltages. It produces tracking control with almost instantaneous response to changing reference states, and virtually zero oscillation. This compares very favorably to the classical proportional integrator (PI) controllers, which we show produce a much slower response and settling time. In addition, the RNN we propose exhibits better learning stability and convergence properties, and can exhibit faster adaptation, than has been achieved with adaptive critic designs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr
2015-09-15
Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke; Erol Genevois, Mujde
2015-01-01
Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LUZ STELLA LÓPEZ
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This article shares the design, implementation, and evaluation of theLesson Study process used for the professional development of teachers of mathematics, through the Red de Comprensión Lectora y Matemáticas – CCyM Network, in ways to teach mathematics through problem solving. The program began with a course on the implementation of the Thinking Classroom, followed by the semi-presencial Lesson Study process. An analysis of teacher interactions during the Lesson Study process yielded these categories of study: Group Collective Thinking, Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Subject Matter Knowledge, Knowledge about Technology, and Expert Support. The analysis reflected variations in group interactions, in the command of concepts, in reflective practice, in the ability to make arguments and to propose changes in practice, and in the ability to self-regulate.
[Practical problems in criminal laws of prevention of cruelty to animals].
Iburg, U
2000-03-01
1. To ascertain serious pains and sufferings in the meaning of section 17 no. 2 b law of prevention of cruelty to animals you cannot do without the help of an expert witness for taking possession of evidence--apart from simple cases. Except the clarifying of fundamental questions concerning prevention of cruelty to animals a professional statement of the administrative veterinary surgeon will be as a rule sufficient. 2. For the actual seizure of animals for the purpose of confiscation and compulsory disposal the criminal justice is extremely dependent on the support of the authorities of administration. Therefore a trouble-free cooperation of criminal justice, veterinary authorities, animal homes and--concerning the protection of species--authorities for protection of endangered nature is imperative. 3. The main problems with the application of the regulation concerning the interdiction of keeping animals according to sections 20 and 20 a law of prevention of cruelty to animals are justified in the legal prerequisites. It is unsatisfactory that an interdiction of keeping animals cannot be imposed by summary punishment order and that a confiscation of animals is not possible by criminal proceedings in case of offence against sections 20 subsection 3, 20 a subsection 3 law of prevention of cruelty to animals. Therefore an admission of the sections as mentioned above to section 19 law of prevention of cruelty to animals seems to be convenient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-11-01
Network plan 1995 concerns several strategic problems, among others environmental policy of power transmission lines. Possibilities of restructuring aerial cable network are described. The state of the existing systems and plans for new network systems are presented. (EG)
Enhancing Air Interdiction of WMD
2014-04-01
The Convention on International Civil Aviation, 9th ed., 9 and 10 and Jennifer K. Elsa , Weapons of Mass Destruction Counterproliferation: Legal...Issues for Ships and Aircraft, CRS Report RL32097, (Washington D.C: CRS, 1 October 2003), 24. 15 Elsa , Weapons of Mass Destruction Counterproliferation...Legal Issues for Ships and Aircraft, 20. 16 The Convention on International Civil Aviation, 9th ed., 4. 17 Elsa , Weapons of Mass Destruction
Roving UAV IED Interdiction System
2011-03-01
UAVs (Raven, Wasp, and Puma) do not advertise any payload capability, the Tier I operators that Team Bravo contacted claimed small payload...www.ncca.navy.mil/services/inflation.cfm (accessed February 2011). Net Resources International. "Javelin Anti- Armour Missile." Army-Technology.com. 2011. http
Unity of Command and Interdiction
1994-07-01
CSR ) program. Col Bob Johnston brought tremendous energy and intellect to the Airpower Research Institute, much to the benefit of the CSR fellows. His...Targets," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 February 1991, 17. " John D. Morocco , "U.S. Tactics Exploit Advances In Avionics, Air-to-Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillaume Le Floch
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Le principe de l’interdiction du recours à la force est une pièce maîtresse dans l’édifice du système de sécurité collective mis en place après la seconde guerre mondiale. Transgressé à différentes reprises, la question de sa valeur se pose aujourd’hui. En effet, d’aucuns estiment que les multiples atteintes à ce principe ont eu pour effet d’en altérer sa valeur, de le faire tomber en désuétude. Cette affirmation doit être écartée car si la violation d’une règle de droit a évidemment des conséquences sur son effectivité, cela ne saurait remettre automatiquement en cause son existence. Même s’il y est porté atteinte, le principe de l’interdiction du recours à la force demeure une règle de droit positif.Prohibition of the use of force as a principle is a fundamental element in the structure of the collective security system established after World War II. Since it has been violated on various occasions, the question of its legal effect arises today. Indeed, some argue that multiple violations of this principle have resulted in its falling into disuse. This assertion must be dismissed because, if the breach of a legal rule obviously has an impact on its effectiveness, it does not automatically question its existence. Even when infringed, the principle of the prohibition of the use of force remains a positive law rule.
Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane
2016-01-01
Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932
Transnational cocaine and heroin flow networks in western Europe: A comparison.
Chandra, Siddharth; Joba, Johnathan
2015-08-01
A comparison of the properties of drug flow networks for cocaine and heroin in a group of 17 western European countries is provided with the aim of understanding the implications of their similarities and differences for drug policy. Drug flow data for the cocaine and heroin networks were analyzed using the UCINET software package. Country-level characteristics including hub and authority scores, core and periphery membership, and centrality, and network-level characteristics including network density, the results of a triad census, and the final fitness of the core-periphery structure of the network, were computed and compared between the two networks. The cocaine network contains fewer path redundancies and a smaller, more tightly knit core than the heroin network. Authorities, hubs and countries central to the cocaine network tend to have higher hub, authority, and centrality scores than those in the heroin network. The core-periphery and hub-authority structures of the cocaine and heroin networks reflect the west-to-east and east-to-west patterns of flow of cocaine and heroin respectively across Europe. The key nodes in the cocaine and heroin networks are generally distinct from one another. The analysis of drug flow networks can reveal important structural features of trafficking networks that can be useful for the allocation of scarce drug control resources. The identification of authorities, hubs, network cores, and network-central nodes can suggest foci for the allocation of these resources. In the case of Europe, while some countries are important to both cocaine and heroin networks, different sets of countries occupy positions of prominence in the two networks. The distinct nature of the cocaine and heroin networks also suggests that a one-size-fits-all supply- and interdiction-focused policy may not work as well as an approach that takes into account the particular characteristics of each network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
2003-01-01
This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...
Overlay networks toward information networking
Tarkoma, Sasu
2010-01-01
With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffel, D.; Bergeal, J.; Berthet, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)
1995-07-01
Various neutral grounding techniques are applied in distribution networks throughout the world. On MV networks, there is plenty of choice. This is due to the fact that implementation of a particular grounding solution is the result of compromise between several objectives which are sometimes contradictory such as: the physical characteristics of the networks, the type and density of loads and the importance awarded to safety and power supply quality. We summarize the major possible alternatives together with their pros and cons. (authors).
Improving network management with Software Defined Networking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhunev, Pavel
2013-01-01
Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management
Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorsteinsson, Uffe
1998-01-01
Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....
Green mobile networks a networking perspective
Ansari, Nirwan
2016-01-01
Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rious, V
2007-10-15
This thesis analyses how the long term coordination between generation and transmission is organised in a liberalized power system. It relies on a modular analysis framework that allows us to separate the coordination mechanisms into distinct modules. The governance structure of the power network completes this analysis framework. In a rationale of institutional complementarity, this governance structure impacts the way the TSOs effectively implement the power flow management. The proactive behaviour of the TSO for the coordination of generation and transmission can be explained in two ways. Firstly, the network investment can be the only effective process of long term coordination between generation and transmission. Secondly, when forecasting network investment, the TSO can prepare the accommodation of the fast-built generation units and detect the potential failures of locational incentive signals. (author)
Integrating Networking into ATLAS
Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Networking is foundational to the ATLAS distributed infrastructure and there are many ongoing activities related to networking both within and outside of ATLAS. We will report on the progress in a number of areas exploring ATLAS's use of networking and our ability to monitor the network, analyze metrics from the network, and tune and optimize application and end-host parameters to make the most effective use of the network. Specific topics will include work on Open vSwitch for production systems, network analytics, FTS testing and tuning, and network problem alerting and alarming.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Segal
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors Ã¢Â€Â” in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.
Kanowith-Klein, Susan; Stave, Mel; Stevens, Ron; Casillas, Adrian M.
2001-01-01
Investigates methods for classifying problem solving strategies of high school students who studied infectious and non-infectious diseases by using a software system that can generate a picture of students' strategies in solving problems. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)
A hybrid nested partitions algorithm for banking facility location problems
Xia, Li; Yin, Wenjun; Dong, Jin; Wu, Teresa; Xie, Ming; Zhao, Yanjia
2010-01-01
The facility location problem has been studied in many industries including banking network, chain stores, and wireless network. Maximal covering location problem (MCLP) is a general model for this type of problems. Motivated by a real-world banking
Lynch, Clifford
1997-01-01
Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paula, Wesley R. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Informatica; Sousa, Andre G. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Gomes, Herman M.; Galvao, Carlos de O. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)
2004-07-01
The objective of this paper is to present an initial study on the application of an Elman Neural Network to the problem of predicting the throughput of a petroleum collecting station. This study is part of a wider project, which aims at producing an automatic real-time system to remotely control a petroleum distribution pipeline, in such a way that optimum efficiency can be assured in terms of: (I) maximizing the volume of oil transported; and (II) minimizing energy consumption, risks of failures and damages to the environment. Experiments were carried out to determine the neural network parameters and to examine its performance under varying prediction times in the future. Promising results (with low MSE) have been obtained for predictions obtained up to 10 minutes in the future. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴娜娟
2012-01-01
In China, more and more small and medium-sized enterprises take the network marketing mode to do marketing activities,to enhance their market competitive advantage,but it also remains a lot of problems. This article conducts the research to these questions. Finally, it proposes some countermeasures to be helpful for the small and medium-sized enterprises'network marketing development.%我国越来越多的中小企业采取网络营销的方式进行营销活动，增强自己的市场竞争优势，但也存在诸多问题。本文对这些问题进行研究，提出有利于中小企业网络营销发展的一些对策。
... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. I. Balandin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes implementation of dataflow networks based on Smart-M3 platform for use cases related to the Internet of Things. The mechanism for automatic substitution of computational agents created on top of Smart-M3 platform is described. The paper reviews concurrency issues of the developed solution regarding Smart-M3 platform, as well as in the broader context of the Internet of Things.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duran, Ana Cecilia
1990-03-01
This thesis aims to find a better way to solve large scale nonlinear sparse system problems giving special emphasis to load flow in electric power networks. The suggested algorithms are presented 63 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.
Scheduling Maintenance Jobs in Networks
Abed, Fidaa; Chen, Lin; Disser, Yann; Groß, Martin; Megow, Nicole; Meißner, Julie; Richter, Alexander T.; Rischke, Roman
2017-01-01
We investigate the problem of scheduling the maintenance of edges in a network, motivated by the goal of minimizing outages in transportation or telecommunication networks. We focus on maintaining connectivity between two nodes over time; for the special case of path networks, this is related to the problem of minimizing the busy time of machines. We show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time in arbitrary networks if preemption is allowed. If preemption is restricted to integral t...
Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)
1989-09-01
accident. Washington's new computer model is consistent with informal guidance received in 1988 from FDA. An important change of philosophy made in this process was to establish CGs which define foods that may be marketed, whereas current CGs define food which must be interdicted. The concept of food (contaminated with radioactivity) being consumed by the public creates a totally different mindset from the concept of contaminated food being embargoed. This experience has led us to identify a number of problems with existing federal ingestion guidance, as well as some recommendations for resolving these problems.
Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.
1989-01-01
accident. Washington's new computer model is consistent with informal guidance received in 1988 from FDA. An important change of philosophy made in this process was to establish CGs which define foods that may be marketed, whereas current CGs define food which must be interdicted. The concept of food (contaminated with radioactivity) being consumed by the public creates a totally different mindset from the concept of contaminated food being embargoed. This experience has led us to identify a number of problems with existing federal ingestion guidance, as well as some recommendations for resolving these problems
[Population problem, comprehension problem].
Tallon, F
1993-08-01
Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur
Hwang, FK; Winter, P
1992-01-01
The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...
Shahriari, Mohammadreza
2016-06-01
The time-cost tradeoff problem is one of the most important and applicable problems in project scheduling area. There are many factors that force the mangers to crash the time. This factor could be early utilization, early commissioning and operation, improving the project cash flow, avoiding unfavorable weather conditions, compensating the delays, and so on. Since there is a need to allocate extra resources to short the finishing time of project and the project managers are intended to spend the lowest possible amount of money and achieve the maximum crashing time, as a result, both direct and indirect costs will be influenced in the project, and here, we are facing into the time value of money. It means that when we crash the starting activities in a project, the extra investment will be tied in until the end date of the project; however, when we crash the final activities, the extra investment will be tied in for a much shorter period. This study is presenting a two-objective mathematical model for balancing compressing the project time with activities delay to prepare a suitable tool for decision makers caught in available facilities and due to the time of projects. Also drawing the scheduling problem to real world conditions by considering nonlinear objective function and the time value of money are considered. The presented problem was solved using NSGA-II, and the effect of time compressing reports on the non-dominant set.
Stabilizing weighted complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi
2007-01-01
Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification
Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David
2011-01-01
Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, Carla Regina; Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos
2015-01-01
Highlights: • It is presented a new method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) developed to deal with accident identification in PWR nuclear power plants. • Obtained results have shown the efficiency of the referred technique. • Results obtained with this method are as good as or even better to similar optimization tools available in the literature. - Abstract: The task of monitoring a nuclear power plant consists on determining, continuously and in real time, the state of the plant’s systems in such a way to give indications of abnormalities to the operators and enable them to recognize anomalies in system behavior. The monitoring is based on readings of a large number of meters and alarm indicators which are located in the main control room of the facility. On the occurrence of a transient or of an accident on the nuclear power plant, even the most experienced operators can be confronted with conflicting indications due to the interactions between the various components of the plant systems; since a disturbance of a system can cause disturbances on another plant system, thus the operator may not be able to distinguish what is cause and what is the effect. This cognitive overload, to which operators are submitted, causes a difficulty in understanding clearly the indication of an abnormality in its initial phase of development and in taking the appropriate and immediate corrective actions to face the system failure. With this in mind, computerized monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence that could help the operators to detect and diagnose these failures have been devised and have been the subject of research. Among the techniques that can be used in such development, radial basis functions (RBFs) neural networks play an important role due to the fact that they are able to provide good approximations to functions of a finite number of real variables. This paper aims to present an application of a neural network of Gaussian radial basis
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aslam Noor
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.
Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne
2017-04-21
In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
1996-12-31
The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.
Deconvolution using a neural network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehman, S.K.
1990-11-15
Viewing one dimensional deconvolution as a matrix inversion problem, we compare a neural network backpropagation matrix inverse with LMS, and pseudo-inverse. This is a largely an exercise in understanding how our neural network code works. 1 ref.
Quantized hopfield networks for reliability optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil
2003-01-01
The use of neural networks in the reliability optimization field is rare. This paper presents an application of a recent kind of neural networks in a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice constraints incorporated at each subsystem, to maximize the system reliability subject to the system budget. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear binary integer programming problem and characterized as an NP-hard problem. Our design of neural network to solve efficiently this problem is based on a quantized Hopfield network. This network allows us to obtain optimal design solutions very frequently and much more quickly than others Hopfield networks
Application of neural networks in coastal engineering
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
the neural network attractive. A neural network is an information processing system modeled on the structure of the dynamic process. It can solve the complex/nonlinear problems quickly once trained by operating on problems using an interconnected number...
Scalable and practical multi-objective distribution network expansion planning
Luong, N.H.; Grond, M.O.W.; Poutré, La J.A.; Bosman, P.A.N.
2015-01-01
We formulate the distribution network expansion planning (DNEP) problem as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem with different objectives that distribution network operators (DNOs) would typically like to consider during decision making processes for expanding their networks. Objectives are
Mechler, G. E.
2002-05-01
Some television networks have displayed a propensity for producing specials of a pseudoscientific nature. The Fox Network has especially demonstrated this propensity. Its most notorious cases were ``Alien Autopsy" in the mid-90s and last Winter's ``Conspiracy Theory: Did we land on the moon?" Both have had effective critical responses from scientists and those responses are readily accessible on the Internet. But their existence is emblematic of the larger societal problem of large numbers of citizens not being able to discriminate between science and pseudoscience. Many educators hesitate to include critical examinations of pseudosciences because 1) They themselves are not well versed in these areas, and 2) they prefer to avoid possible controversy and upset with their credulous students. Fox Network's ``Conspiracy Theory: Did we land on the moon?" offers educators a rich example of televised pseudoscience that 1) can be rebutted in ways readily understandable by nonscience students and 2) will not result in throngs of offended students as this is not a particularly popular pseudoscience and few students will have an emotional investment in it. This oral presentation will cover the benefits of using this particular television program to demonstrate scientific critical examination of claims, raise their general level of informed skepticism, and make clear how susceptible people --they, themselves-- can be to pseudoscientific claims when one is not familiar with the relevant science. A computer-slide presentation of this critique is available to those interested. In addition, informal surveys were taken of two lab classes in which the program and critique were shown. Students' opinions of the moon-landings-were-a-hoax claim were taken before and after seeing the program and after the critique.
Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems
Harnad, Stevan
2001-01-01
The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dalija Kemeklienė
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays advertising is of significant importance. Radio and television programmes, newspapers and magazines, various texts, even streets and shops are hardly imaginable without advertising. Advertising forms individuals’ as well as public attitude to many things in life. Besides it influences the person’s behavior and way of thinking. Advertising is inseparable part of the market; it helps create new working places, increases income and discloses positive qualities of manufactured products.However to create the correct, attractive and emotional body of the advert is not easy at all. Every person involved in advertising should be aware of that. In advertising texts vocabulary rules change, loanwords pushed, their standardisation and codification are noticed. In the period of integrating into the European Union, more new technological terms are used in the Lithuanian language. The language is being operated in virtual environment. New varieties of the language are being discovered - advertisement language and -communicative language. The problems of the usage of borrowed words also appear in the language.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setsu, N.; Murakami, K.; Ohori, T.; Watanabe, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan)
1996-01-20
For solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP) by using a continuous value outputting neural net (NN), an investigation was given on the accuracy of solution and the possibility on traveling routes by using the penalty coefficient and temperature as the parameters for energy functions. The parameter range to obtain high-quality traveling routes was shown by a numerical experiment. The experimental result revealed that, when the penalty coefficient `r` is large, the traveling route possibility tends to become higher, but the route length increases, and when the `r` is small, the traveling route possibility becomes lower, but the route length decreases, also in the continuous value outputting NN as in the two-value outputting NN. Noticing this fact, and in order to improve the traveling route possibility as well as the solution quality, a method was proposed to expand the penalty control method which was proposed previously by the authors on the two-value outputting NN, into the continuous value outputting NN. In addition, a proposal was also made on a method to derive an optimal temperature efficiently by using the golden section method. It was found that the relative error has been reduced by 48% on the average as compared with that in the conventional method in which the temperature is fixed. 6 refs., 5 figs.
Computer-communication networks
Meditch, James S
1983-01-01
Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint
Coded Network Function Virtualization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.
2016-01-01
Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...
Extracting information from multiplex networks
Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra
2016-06-01
Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.
... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...
Learning Networks, Networked Learning
Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana
2010-01-01
Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05
Troubleshooting of Software Defined Networks
Sistek, Haris
2015-01-01
Network troubleshooting is a field where automation is sorely needed. While the network has grown in many other ways since 1960s, the tools we use to troubleshoot and manage it have stayed very much the same. Could we use the programmability of SDN to automate this problem? In this thesis work, we developed a prototype that would systematically troubleshoot the network with automation. The prototype automatically captures network behaviour, matches it against a network policy and creates its ...
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Câmara, Daniel
2015-01-01
Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...
Problems attract problems: a network perspective on mental disorders
Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.
2015-01-01
What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this
Handbook of networking & connectivity
McClain, Gary R
1994-01-01
Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto
Lent, John
1984-01-01
This article describes a computer network system that connects several microcomputers to a single disk drive and one copy of software. Many schools are switching to networks as a cheaper and more efficient means of computer instruction. Teachers may be faced with copywriting problems when reproducing programs. (DF)
Information Networks in Biomedicine
Millard, William L.
1975-01-01
Describes current biomedical information networks, focusing on those with an educational function, and elaborates on the problems encountered in planning, implementing, utilizing and evaluating such networks. Journal of Biocommunication, T. Banks, Educ. TV-431N, U. of Calif., San Francisco 94143. Subscription Rates: individuals and libraries,…
Minimum cost connection networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...
Behavioral Indicators During a Police Interdiction
2015-05-01
should be noted that all of our subject matter experts are male and that while the research should be gender neutral, some bias may be present in our...these elements do not necessarily require deliberation and conscious effort. The elements may be conducted subconsciously and be part of an officer’s...is moving from a sitting to a standing position, when the offender may hold the weapon against his body as he stands up. This can be a subconscious
Maritime Interdiction Operations in Logistically Barren Environments
2008-06-01
risk will be considered here. The risk to the personnel charged with operating the system of systems and the risk that a given system will not be...ionized using Ni63 or Am241.11 The ions are then gated into a drift tube. An electric field in the drift tube causes the ions to drift towards a...5% to 95% non-condensing.15 Other limitations include the need for a clean swab for every sample. There is also the limitation of the battery
Modelling Human Performance in Maritime Interdiction Operations
2010-10-01
Fixed: limited height but dimensions and rigidity provide for good biomechanics • Flexible: light weight and easy roll-up storage, but the...required to repeatedly climb and descend flights of stairs /ladders to access different areas of the ship. • Exercise intensity: In addition to load being...manoeuvre equipment at height and accuracy of placement • Ladder design – improved biomechanics and speed of climb • On-board Search + Fire & Manoeuvre
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Pognant
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Hors la sexualité à but procréatif, tout comportement sexuel a été considéré par les médecins comme pathologie et par les moralistes comme des crimes contre la morale. Bien que la masturbation et l’homosexualité ne fussent pas considérés comme un délit et un crime par le Code pénal français, elles furent cependant envisagées comme des interdits moraux et, notamment entre 1850 et 1930, elles furent réprimées par tous les acteurs de la société (clercs, liqueurs, religieux, policiers, juges, enseignants, parents… et par le corps médical (au premier rang desquels les psychiatres. Ce phénomène répressif a touché tous les pays occidentaux, y compris les Etats-Unis, à des degrés divers (le Code pénal allemand, par exemple, était beaucoup plus répressif que le Code pénal français sur ce sujet.De nombreux psychiatres se sont mués en auxiliaires de justice en favorisant la comparution d’homosexuels et de masturbateurs devant les tribunaux. La psychiatrie occidentale de cette époque se caractérise sur le plan de la sexualité comme une psychiatrie de l’erreur qui va muer en une psychiatrie de l’horreur en mettant au point un arsenal monstrueux à la fois technologique (corsets, camisoles et cages de contention… et thérapeutique (infibulation, cautérisation, circoncision à vif, castration…. Nos sociétés contemporaines portent encore les stigmates de cette période noire durant laquelle médecine et justice ont agi de concert pour médicaliser et punir les comportements sexuels s’écartant de la norme.Apart from sexuality with a procreative aim, sexual behaviour as such was considered, by physicians, as pathological and, by the moralists, as crimes against morality. Although masturbation and homosexuality were not regarded as a criminal offence or even as a crime by the French criminal code, however they were considered as the object of a moral interdiction and, particularly between 1850 and 1930
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bro, Peter
more formal types of social networks, but also complement or even substitute social networking elsewhere, and as such this particular type of social network offers people both inside and outside the news room new potentials - and problems. This article describe the basic vision of networks in the news......When news reporters connect people in a single news story or in a series of coherent news stories they essentially construct networks in the news media. Networks through which social actors are aligned symbolically in written, visible or audible form. These socio-symbolic networks not only copy...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner
Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sindbæk, Søren Michael
2015-01-01
preserve patterns of thisinteraction. Formal network analysis and modelling holds the potential to identify anddemonstrate such patterns, where traditional methods often prove inadequate. Thearchaeological study of communication networks in the past, however, calls for radically different analytical...... this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: theclassic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits. It is proposedthat archaeological approaches to network synthesis must involve a contextualreading of network data: observations arising from individual contexts, morphologies...
ATM Tactical Network - a challenge for the military networks
Waveren, C.J. van; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Burakowski, W.; Kopertowski, Z.
1997-01-01
The next generation of tactical networks will be based on the ATM technology. The POST-2000 tactical network is just in the designing phase. The objective of this paper is to point out the main problems which should be solved to adopt ATM technology into the tactical network environment. The
Reliable Communication in Wireless Meshed Networks using Network Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pahlevani, Peyman; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Hundebøll, Martin
2012-01-01
The advantages of network coding have been extensively studied in the field of wireless networks. Integrating network coding with existing IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is a challenging problem. The IEEE 802.11 MAC does not provide any reliability mechanisms for overheard packets. This paper addresses...... this problem and suggests different mechanisms to support reliability as part of the MAC protocol. Analytical expressions to this problem are given to qualify the performance of the modified network coding. These expressions are confirmed by numerical result. While the suggested reliability mechanisms...
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...
Locating a tree in a phylogenetic network
van Iersel, Leo; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic trees and networks are leaf-labelled graphs that are used to describe evolutionary histories of species. The Tree Containment problem asks whether a given phylogenetic tree is embedded in a given phylogenetic network. Given a phylogenetic network and a cluster of species, the Cluster Containment problem asks whether the given cluster is a cluster of some phylogenetic tree embedded in the network. Both problems are known to be NP-complete in general. In this article, we consider t...
Organizational Culture and Network Embeddedness
Noorderhaven, N.G.; Koen, C.I.; Beugelsdijk, S.
2002-01-01
A question that has been neglected in network research is where differences in network embeddedness come from.The network literature reveals that there are three key characteristics of embedded relationships: trust, open communication, and joint problem solving.On the basis of the sparse empirical
Neural networks and particle physics
Peterson, Carsten
1993-01-01
1. Introduction : Structure of the Central Nervous System Generics2. Feed-forward networks, Perceptions, Function approximators3. Self-organisation, Feature Maps4. Feed-back Networks, The Hopfield model, Optimization problems, Feed-back, Networks, Deformable templates, Graph bisection
Global Optimization for Transport Network Expansion and Signal Setting
Liu, Haoxiang; Wang, David Z. W.; Yue, Hao
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a model to address an urban transport planning problem involving combined network design and signal setting in a saturated network. Conventional transport planning models usually deal with the network design problem and signal setting problem separately. However, the fact that network capacity design and capacity allocation determined by network signal setting combine to govern the transport network performance requires the optimal transport planning to consider the two pr...
Combinatorial optimization networks and matroids
Lawler, Eugene
2011-01-01
Perceptively written text examines optimization problems that can be formulated in terms of networks and algebraic structures called matroids. Chapters cover shortest paths, network flows, bipartite matching, nonbipartite matching, matroids and the greedy algorithm, matroid intersections, and the matroid parity problems. A suitable text or reference for courses in combinatorial computing and concrete computational complexity in departments of computer science and mathematics.
The Military Theater Distribution Network Design Problem
2015-03-26
64 Appendix B. VBA Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Appendix C. Story Board...had equal access to coverage?” The critical consideration was the maximum time or distance a house- hold was from an emergency care facility. For...application that allows calculation, graphing, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ). CPLEX is a commercial
Parekh, Abhay
2014-01-01
Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun
Šilhavá, Marie
2009-01-01
This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...
Logistical networking: a global storage network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry
2005-01-01
The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie
2017-01-01
This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...
... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...
Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David
2004-01-01
Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...
Network Restoration for Next-Generation Communication and Computing Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. S. Awoyemi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Network failures are undesirable but inevitable occurrences for most modern communication and computing networks. A good network design must be robust enough to handle sudden failures, maintain traffic flow, and restore failed parts of the network within a permissible time frame, at the lowest cost achievable and with as little extra complexity in the network as possible. Emerging next-generation (xG communication and computing networks such as fifth-generation networks, software-defined networks, and internet-of-things networks have promises of fast speeds, impressive data rates, and remarkable reliability. To achieve these promises, these complex and dynamic xG networks must be built with low failure possibilities, high network restoration capacity, and quick failure recovery capabilities. Hence, improved network restoration models have to be developed and incorporated in their design. In this paper, a comprehensive study on network restoration mechanisms that are being developed for addressing network failures in current and emerging xG networks is carried out. Open-ended problems are identified, while invaluable ideas for better adaptation of network restoration to evolving xG communication and computing paradigms are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-03-01
For the purpose of developing and popularizing environment conservation technologies in the Asia/Pacific region, activities were conducted for Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia/Pacific Area (ETERNET-APR). In this fiscal year, under the motto of Expansion of International Collaborative Researches on Environmental Technology, a 7th international workshop was held in Yokkaichi City, Mie Prefecture, with the attendance of approximately 60 people in Japan and from abroad. Researchers from overseas, in addition, attended a 10-day training program at the National Institute for Resources and Development and others in preparation for the embodiment of international collaborative research. A survey was conducted overseas for the promotion of database utilization and registration and for grasping the problems intrinsic to the respective research institutes and problems to occur at every stage of development. People's Republic of China was visited, where a miniscale workshop was held, study tours were made, and opinions were exchanged. It was actually felt, at the places that were visited, that ETERNET-APR was certainly in function in various fields. (NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-03-01
Described herein are the results of the FY 1999 activities for the project of information exchange by researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region. In 1999, the 6th International Workshop was held in City of Yokkaichi, Mie Pref., with the theme (Implementation of international collaborative researches on environmental technology) at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, with a total of more than 50 domestic and foreign attendees actively participating in the discussion. The keynote addresses were (Use of coal and environmental improvements) presented by Mr. Yoshisada Nitta, Director at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and (Potential of clean fuel from biomass) presented by Dr. Kyu-Wan Lee of Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology. The overseas surveys were conducted to promote the use and registration of the databases, and to identify problems by the on-the-spot investigations in Vietnam, the Philippines and Republic of Korea. At the same time, the mini-workshops were held for information exchange with the research institutes. It is keenly felt that Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region (ENTERNET-APR) works certainly in various areas, with the attendees in the last workshops serving as the key persons. (NEDO)
Green heterogeneous wireless networks
Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin
2016-01-01
This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...
MPLS for metropolitan area networks
Tan, Nam-Kee
2004-01-01
METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl
Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene
2016-01-01
This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...
Ruf, Sebastian F.
2018-04-12
The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.
Solving the Extended Tree Knapsack Problem with xed cost ow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Parts of the Local Access Telecommunication Network planning problem may be modelled as an Extended Tree Knapsack Problem. The Local Access Telecommunication Network can contribute up to 60% of the total network costs. This paper presents partitioning algorithms that use standard o-the-shelf software coupled ...
Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta
2011-01-01
Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.
Loo, Boon Thau
2012-01-01
Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Max, G
2011-01-01
Traffic models in computer networks can be described as a complicated system. These systems show non-linear features and to simulate behaviours of these systems are also difficult. Before implementing network equipments users wants to know capability of their computer network. They do not want the servers to be overloaded during temporary traffic peaks when more requests arrive than the server is designed for. As a starting point for our study a non-linear system model of network traffic is established to exam behaviour of the network planned. The paper presents setting up a non-linear simulation model that helps us to observe dataflow problems of the networks. This simple model captures the relationship between the competing traffic and the input and output dataflow. In this paper, we also focus on measuring the bottleneck of the network, which was defined as the difference between the link capacity and the competing traffic volume on the link that limits end-to-end throughput. We validate the model using measurements on a working network. The results show that the initial model estimates well main behaviours and critical parameters of the network. Based on this study, we propose to develop a new algorithm, which experimentally determines and predict the available parameters of the network modelled.
Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.
2009-01-01
Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.
A research on the application of software defined networking in satellite network architecture
Song, Huan; Chen, Jinqiang; Cao, Suzhi; Cui, Dandan; Li, Tong; Su, Yuxing
2017-10-01
Software defined network is a new type of network architecture, which decouples control plane and data plane of traditional network, has the feature of flexible configurations and is a direction of the next generation terrestrial Internet development. Satellite network is an important part of the space-ground integrated information network, while the traditional satellite network has the disadvantages of difficult network topology maintenance and slow configuration. The application of SDN technology in satellite network can solve these problems that traditional satellite network faces. At present, the research on the application of SDN technology in satellite network is still in the stage of preliminary study. In this paper, we start with introducing the SDN technology and satellite network architecture. Then we mainly introduce software defined satellite network architecture, as well as the comparison of different software defined satellite network architecture and satellite network virtualization. Finally, the present research status and development trend of SDN technology in satellite network are analyzed.
... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...
... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...
Triangulation positioning system network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sfendourakis Marios
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.
Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karsten, Christian Vad
.The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...
Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization
S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)
2008-01-01
htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be
Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization
S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)
2009-01-01
htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be
Logistic control in automated transportation networks
Ebben, Mark
2001-01-01
Increasing congestion problems lead to a search for alternative transportation systems. Automated transportation networks, possibly underground, are an option. Logistic control systems are essential for future implementations of such automated transportation networks. This book contributes to the
Routing and scheduling problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander
couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud
2016-01-01
, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...
Heuristic approach to the passive optical network with fibre duct ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Integer programming, network flow optimisation, passive optical network, ... This paper uses concepts from network flow optimisation to incorporate fibre duct shar ... [4] studied the survivable constrained ConFL problem and solved a number of.
Isac, George
1992-01-01
The study of complementarity problems is now an interesting mathematical subject with many applications in optimization, game theory, stochastic optimal control, engineering, economics etc. This subject has deep relations with important domains of fundamental mathematics such as fixed point theory, ordered spaces, nonlinear analysis, topological degree, the study of variational inequalities and also with mathematical modeling and numerical analysis. Researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical modeling or nonlinear analysis will find here interesting and fascinating results.
Neural Network for Sparse Reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingfa Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a neural network based on smoothing approximation techniques and projected gradient method to solve a kind of sparse reconstruction problems. Neural network can be implemented by circuits and can be seen as an important method for solving optimization problems, especially large scale problems. Smoothing approximation is an efficient technique for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. We combine these two techniques to overcome the difficulties of the choices of the step size in discrete algorithms and the item in the set-valued map of differential inclusion. In theory, the proposed network can converge to the optimal solution set of the given problem. Furthermore, some numerical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed network in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bickerton, George E.
1997-01-01
Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned
Software defined access networks
Maricato, José Miguel Duarte
2016-01-01
With the increase of internet usage and the exponential growth of bandwidth consumption due to the increasing number of users of new generation equipments and the creation of new services that consume increasingly higher bandwidths, it's necessary to nd solutions to meet these new requirements. Passive optical networks (PONs) promise to solve these problems by providing a better service to users and providers. PON networks are very attractive since they don't depend on a...
Murphy, Niall Richard
2009-01-01
This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.
Parameter Identification by Bayes Decision and Neural Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik
1994-01-01
The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated.......The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated....
The distributed wireless gathering problem
Bonifaci, V.; Korteweg, P.; Marchetti Spaccamela, A.; Stougie, L.
2011-01-01
We address the problem of data gathering in a wireless network using multi-hop communication; our main goal is the analysis of simple algorithms suitable for implementation in realistic scenarios. We study the performance of distributed algorithms, which do not use any form of local coordination,
The model of social crypto-network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Марк Миколайович Орел
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical model of social network with the enhanced mechanism of privacy policy. It covers the problems arising in the process of implementing the mentioned type of network. There are presented the methods of solving problems arising in the process of building the social network with privacy policy. It was built a theoretical model of social networks with enhanced information protection methods based on information and communication blocks
Introduction to neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlopoulos, P.
1996-01-01
This lecture is a presentation of today's research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix
Optical network democratization.
Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra
2016-03-06
The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).
Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR
2017-01-01
We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.
The network researchers' network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter
2009-01-01
The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...
Categorical Tensor Network States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob D. Biamonte
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We examine the use of string diagrams and the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach lead to a unification of several ideas, as well as several results and methods that have not previously appeared in either side of the literature. Our approach enabled the development of a tensor network framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem which has several appealing features. Specifically, given an n-body quantum state |ψ〉, we present a new and general method to factor |ψ〉 into a tensor network of clearly defined building blocks. We use the solution to expose a previously unknown and large class of quantum states which we prove can be sampled efficiently and exactly. This general framework of categorical tensor network states, where a combination of generic and algebraically defined tensors appear, enhances the theory of tensor network states.
Minimum cost connection networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
2015-01-01
In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...
Wireless rechargeable sensor networks
Yang, Yuanyuan
2015-01-01
This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability