WorldWideScience

Sample records for network input terminal

  1. TERMINATION OF THE DRUM MILLS’ ENGINE CAPACITY BY USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH SUBORDINATE INPUT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora HRISTOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful experiment has been done to train the neural network to determine the drum mills’ engine capacity by using the program „QwikNet 2.23”. As a result we get a trained neural network with a maximum error of 1.00619.10-5 which can be used for assessing the capacity of the electric motors of drum mills and can be considered an accurate mathematical model

  2. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  3. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  4. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...... exists between the emission time of corresponding transmissions from different nodes. The method comprises receiving reports from a plurality of wireless terminals of transmissions received from the network nodes (110, 210), selecting a subset of network nodes (120, 220) and identifying a plurality...

  5. Terminal-oriented computer-communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M.; Boorstyn, R. R.; Pickholtz, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four examples of currently operating computer-communication networks are described in this tutorial paper. They include the TYMNET network, the GE Information Services network, the NASDAQ over-the-counter stock-quotation system, and the Computer Sciences Infonet. These networks all use programmable concentrators for combining a multiplicity of terminals. Included in the discussion for each network is a description of the overall network structure, the handling and transmission of messages, communication requirements, routing and reliability consideration where applicable, operating data and design specifications where available, and unique design features in the area of computer communications.

  6. Input graph: the hidden geometry in controlling complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xizhe; Lv, Tianyang; Pu, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    The ability to control a complex network towards a desired behavior relies on our understanding of the complex nature of these social and technological networks. The existence of numerous control schemes in a network promotes us to wonder: what is the underlying relationship of all possible input nodes? Here we introduce input graph, a simple geometry that reveals the complex relationship between all control schemes and input nodes. We prove that the node adjacent to an input node in the input graph will appear in another control scheme, and the connected nodes in input graph have the same type in control, which they are either all possible input nodes or not. Furthermore, we find that the giant components emerge in the input graphs of many real networks, which provides a clear topological explanation of bifurcation phenomenon emerging in dense networks and promotes us to design an efficient method to alter the node type in control. The findings provide an insight into control principles of complex networks and offer a general mechanism to design a suitable control scheme for different purposes.

  7. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  8. Interpenetrating polymer networks from acetylene terminated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high temperature/high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of a novel class of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were investigated. These IPNs consist of a simple diacetylenic compound (aspartimide) blended with an acetylene terminated arylene ether oligomer. Various compositional blends were prepared and thermally cured to evaluate the effect of crosslink density on resin properties. The cured IPNs exhibited glass transition temperatures ranging from 197 to 254 C depending upon the composition and cure temperature. The solvent resistance, fracture toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the cured blends were related to the crosslink density. Isothermal aging of neat resin moldings, adhesive and composite specimens showed a postcure effect which resulted in improved elevated temperature properties. The chemistry, physical and mechanical properties of these materials will be discussed.

  9. Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Flower Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.

  10. On a multi-channel stochastic network with controlled input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livinska, Hanna; Lebedev, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    In this paper stationary properties of queueing network of the type [M|M|∞]r are investigated provided that the input flow is controlled by a Markov chain. We consider two cases. In the one-dimensional case a generating function of the stationary distribution is obtained. The form of the generating function is a matrix version of the well-known Takasc formula. For a multivariate service process the condition of a stationary regime existence and a correlation matrix are found.

  11. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Vahid; Isacchini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  12. VSAT networks - An overview. [Very Small Aperture Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggenti, Mark; Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the technology and constraints of very small aperture terminals (VSAT) networks, a special type of wide-area thin-route satellite network that represents a recent innovation in the field of satellite communications. VSAT network architectures suitable for both data and voice communications are studied in this paper. Several issues concerning the frequency of operations, that is, C-band versus Ku-band are examined, and trade-offs between nonspread spectrum and spread spectrum techniques, as well as modulation and multiple access schemes, are considered in detail. Link design examples are given to illustrate the performance of various types of VSAT networks.

  13. Intermodel freight terminals: marketing channels and telecommunication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Masurel, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the importance of modern telecommunications networks in combined transport marketing channels deployed for intermodal terminals. To develop a customer-based and broadly applicable framework for studying combined freight transport in Europe, the use of the marketing

  14. Multi-input Multi-output Beta Wavelet Network: Modeling of Acoustic Units for Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chokri Ben Amar; Mourad Zaied; Ridha Ejbali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel architecture of wavelet network called Multi-input Multi-output Wavelet Network MIMOWN as a generalization of the old architecture of wavelet network. This newel prototype was applied to speech recognition application especially to model acoustic unit of speech. The originality of our work is the proposal of MIMOWN to model acoustic unit of speech. This approach was proposed to overcome limitation of old wavelet network model. The use of the multi-input multi...

  15. Constrained adaptive neural network control of an MIMO aeroelastic system with input nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Gou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A constrained adaptive neural network control scheme is proposed for a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO aeroelastic system in the presence of wind gust, system uncertainties, and input nonlinearities consisting of input saturation and dead-zone. In regard to the input nonlinearities, the right inverse function block of the dead-zone is added before the input nonlinearities, which simplifies the input nonlinearities into an equivalent input saturation. To deal with the equivalent input saturation, an auxiliary error system is designed to compensate for the impact of the input saturation. Meanwhile, uncertainties in pitch stiffness, plunge stiffness, and pitch damping are all considered, and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs are applied to approximate the system uncertainties. In combination with the designed auxiliary error system and the backstepping control technique, a constrained adaptive neural network controller is designed, and it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly bounded via the Lyapunov stability analysis method. Finally, extensive digital simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme towards flutter suppression in spite of the integrated effects of wind gust, system uncertainties, and input nonlinearities.

  16. Analysis of Terminal Server Architectures for Thin Clients in a High Assurance Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmer, Steven R; Irvine, Cynthia E

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the architectural and security impact of using commercially available, popular terminal servers to support thin clients within the context of a high assurance multilevel network...

  17. Differential influence of sinusoidal and noisy inputs on synaptic connections in a network with STDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J.; Schuster, H. G.; Ngo, H.-V. V.; Mölle, M.; Born, J.

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesize that the type of cortical network activation influences synaptic connectivity in the network, eventually expressed in an altered responsiveness to external stimuli. Our predictions are based on a time discrete canonical model of spike-time-dependent plasticity. The results show that, at a given synaptic connection strength in the network, sinusoidal input to the network can decrease synaptic potentiation whereas uncorrelated noise increases synaptic potentiation, implying that these opposing effects manifest themselves in respective decreases and increases of the network response to an external stimulus. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with visually evoked responses obtained in humans after 9 hour periods of visual deprivation (used to increase sinusoidal EEG alpha-activity in cortical networks) or normal daytime vision (as an approximate of noise input).

  18. Evolutionary Neural Gas (ENG): A Model of Self Organizing Network from Input Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio

    2010-01-01

    Despite their claimed biological plausibility, most self organizing networks have strict topological constraints and consequently they cannot take into account a wide range of external stimuli. Furthermore their evolution is conditioned by deterministic laws which often are not correlated with the structural parameters and the global status of the network, as it should happen in a real biological system. In nature the environmental inputs are noise affected and fuzzy. Which thing sets the problem to investigate the possibility of emergent behaviour in a not strictly constrained net and subjected to different inputs. It is here presented a new model of Evolutionary Neural Gas (ENG) with any topological constraints, trained by probabilistic laws depending on the local distortion errors and the network dimension. The network is considered as a population of nodes that coexist in an ecosystem sharing local and global resources. Those particular features allow the network to quickly adapt to the environment, accor...

  19. Dynamics of networks of excitatory and inhibitory neuronsin response to time-dependent inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan eLedoux

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamics of recurrent networks of excitatory (E and inhibitory(I neurons in the presence of time-dependent inputs. The dynamics is characterizedby the network dynamical transfer function, i.e. how the population firing rate ismodulated by sinusoidal inputs at arbitrary frequencies. Two types of networks arestudied and compared: (i a Wilson-Cowan type firing rate model; and (ii a fullyconnected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, in a strong noise regime. Wefirst characterize the region of stability of the ‘asynchronous state’ (a state in whichpopulation activity is constant in time when external inputs are constant in the spaceof parameters characterizing the connectivity of the network. We then systematicallycharacterize the qualitative behaviors of the dynamical transfer function, as a functionof the connectivity. We find that the transfer function can be either low-pass, or witha single or double resonance, depending on the connection strengths and synaptic timeconstants. Resonances appear when the system is close to Hopf bifurcations, that canbe induced by two separate mechanisms: the I-I connectivity and the E-I connectivity.Double resonances can appear when excitatory delays are larger than inhibitory delays,due to the fact that two distinct instabilities exist with a finite gap between thecorresponding frequencies. In networks of LIF neurons, changes in external inputs andexternal noise are shown to be able to change qualitatively the network transfer function.Firing rate models are shown to exhibit the same diversity of transfer functions asthe LIF network, provided delays are present. They can also exhibit input-dependentchanges of the transfer function, provided a suitable static nonlinearity is incorporated.

  20. On the properties of input-to-output transformations in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olypher, Andrey; Vaillant, Jean

    2016-06-01

    Information processing in neuronal networks in certain important cases can be considered as maps of binary vectors, where ones (spikes) and zeros (no spikes) of input neurons are transformed into spikes and no spikes of output neurons. A simple but fundamental characteristic of such a map is how it transforms distances between input vectors into distances between output vectors. We advanced earlier known results by finding an exact solution to this problem for McCulloch-Pitts neurons. The obtained explicit formulas allow for detailed analysis of how the network connectivity and neuronal excitability affect the transformation of distances in neurons. As an application, we explored a simple model of information processing in the hippocampus, a brain area critically implicated in learning and memory. We found network connectivity and neuronal excitability parameter values that optimize discrimination between similar and distinct inputs. A decrease of neuronal excitability, which in biological neurons may be associated with decreased inhibition, impaired the optimality of discrimination.

  1. Controllability of Boolean networks via input controls under Harvey's update scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Shao, Rui; Zheng, YuanJie

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the controllability of Boolean networks via input controls under Harvey's update scheme is investigated. First, the model of Boolean control networks under Harvey's stochastic update is proposed, by means of semi-tensor product approach, which is converted into discrete-time linear representation. And, a general formula of control-depending network transition matrix is provided. Second, based on discrete-time dynamics, controllability of the proposed model is analytically discussed by revealing the necessary and sufficient conditions of the reachable sets, respectively, for three kinds of controls, i.e., free Boolean control sequence, input control networks, and close-loop control. Examples are showed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  2. Ship Attitude Prediction Based on Input Delay Neural Network and Measurements of Gyroscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty and random nature of ocean waves, the accurate prediction of ship attitude is hard to be achieved, especially in high sea states. A ship attitude prediction method using Input Delay Neural Network (IDNN) is proposed in this paper. One of the advantages of this method is tha...

  3. Multilaminar networks of cortical neurons integrate common inputs from sensory thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Bourg, Jacques; Petreanu, Leopoldo

    2016-08-01

    Neurons in the thalamorecipient layers of sensory cortices integrate thalamic and recurrent cortical input. Cortical neurons form fine-scale, functionally cotuned networks, but whether interconnected cortical neurons within a column process common thalamocortical inputs is unknown. We tested how local and thalamocortical connectivity relate to each other by analyzing cofluctuations of evoked responses in cortical neurons after photostimulation of thalamocortical axons. We found that connected pairs of pyramidal neurons in layer (L) 4 of mouse visual cortex share more inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus than nonconnected pairs. Vertically aligned connected pairs of L4 and L2/3 neurons were also preferentially contacted by the same thalamocortical axons. Our results provide a circuit mechanism for the observed amplification of sensory responses by L4 circuits. They also show that sensory information is concurrently processed in L4 and L2/3 by columnar networks of interconnected neurons contacted by the same thalamocortical axons.

  4. Nonlinear neural network for hemodynamic model state and input estimation using fMRI data

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2014-11-01

    Originally inspired by biological neural networks, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful mathematical tools that can solve complex nonlinear problems such as filtering, classification, prediction and more. This paper demonstrates the first successful implementation of ANN, specifically nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) networks, to estimate the hemodynamic states and neural activity from simulated and measured real blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals. Blocked and event-related BOLD data are used to test the algorithm on real experiments. The proposed method is accurate and robust even in the presence of signal noise and it does not depend on sampling interval. Moreover, the structure of the NARX networks is optimized to yield the best estimate with minimal network architecture. The results of the estimated neural activity are also discussed in terms of their potential use.

  5. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita María Del Río-Chanona

    Full Text Available The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  6. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Chanona, Rita María; Grujić, Jelena; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree) and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  7. On Couple-Group Consensus of Multiagent Networks with Communication and Input Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-hao Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the couple-group consensus problems of the multiagent networks with the influence of communication and input time delays. Based on the frequency-domain theory, some algebraic criteria are addressed analytically. From the results, it is found that the input time delays and the coupling strengths between agents of the systems play a crucial role in reaching group consensus. The convergence of the system is independent of the communication delays, but it will affect the convergence rate of the system. Finally, several simulated examples are provided to verify the validity and correctness of our theoretical results.

  8. Local area network terminal management in support of stock point logistics integrated communications environment (SPLICE)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jerry D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the questions of user requirements, design considerations, and network environment for a local area network Terminal Management function in support of the Naval Supply Systems Command's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE). Criteria are developed from this examination. They include process-process communication, virtual terminal, and user defined screen capabilities as well as a ne...

  9. In-Network Performance of Handheld Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    are compared with the equivalent performance obtained in a live GSM network using data from the Abis network interface. This method does not require altering of the handsets and the testing uses normal calls in the network. The investigation is based on measurements with four different commercially available...

  10. Single server queueing networks with varying service times and renewal input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Gall

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using recent results in tandem queues and queueing networks with renewal input, when successive service times of the same customer are varying (and when the busy periods are frequently not broken up in large networks, the local queueing delay of a single server queueing network is evaluated utilizing new concepts of virtual and actual delays (respectively. It appears that because of an important property, due to the underlying tandem queue effect, the usual queueing standards (related to long queues cannot protect against significant overloads in the buffers due to some possible “agglutination phenomenon” (related to short queues. Usual network management methods and traffic simulation methods should be revised, and should monitor the partial traffic streams loads (and not only the server load.

  11. Chorda tympani nerve terminal field maturation and maintenance is severely altered following changes to gustatory nerve input to the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Sara L; Hill, David L

    2011-05-25

    Neural competition among multiple inputs can affect the refinement and maintenance of terminal fields in sensory systems. In the rat gustatory system, the chorda tympani, greater superficial petrosal, and glossopharyngeal nerves have distinct but overlapping terminal fields in the first central relay, the nucleus of the solitary tract. This overlap is largest at early postnatal ages followed by a significant refinement and pruning of the fields over a 3 week period, suggesting that competitive mechanisms underlie the pruning. Here, we manipulated the putative competitive interactions among the three nerves by sectioning the greater superficial petrosal and glossopharyngeal nerves at postnatal day 15 (P15), P25, or at adulthood, while leaving the chorda tympani nerve intact. The terminal field of the chorda tympani nerve was assessed 35 d following nerve sections, a period before the sectioned nerves functionally regenerated. Regardless of the age when the nerves were cut, the chorda tympani nerve terminal field expanded to a volume four times larger than sham controls. Terminal field density measurements revealed that the expanded terminal field was similar to P15 control rats. Thus, it appears that the chorda tympani nerve terminal field defaults to its early postnatal field size and shape when the nerves with overlapping fields are cut, and this anatomical plasticity is retained into adulthood. These findings not only demonstrate the dramatic and lifelong plasticity in the central gustatory system, but also suggest that corresponding changes in functional and taste-related behaviors will accompany injury-induced changes in brainstem circuits.

  12. Distributed Input and State Estimation Using Local Information in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distributed input and state estimation architecture is introduced and analyzed for heterogeneous sensor networks. Specifically, nodes of a given sensor network are allowed to have heterogeneous information roles in the sense that a subset of nodes can be active (that is, subject to observations of a process of interest and the rest can be passive (that is, subject to no observation. Both fixed and varying active and passive roles of sensor nodes in the network are investigated. In addition, these nodes are allowed to have non-identical sensor modalities under the common underlying assumption that they have complimentary properties distributed over the sensor network to achieve collective observability. The key feature of our framework is that it utilizes local information not only during the execution of the proposed distributed input and state estimation architecture but also in its design in that global uniform ultimate boundedness of error dynamics is guaranteed once each node satisfies given local stability conditions independent from the graph topology and neighboring information of these nodes. As a special case (e.g., when all nodes are active and a positive real condition is satisfied, the asymptotic stability can be achieved with our algorithm. Several illustrative numerical examples are further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  13. Explicitly integrating parameter, input, and structure uncertainties into Bayesian Neural Networks for probabilistic hydrologic forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuesong

    2011-11-01

    Estimating uncertainty of hydrologic forecasting is valuable to water resources and other relevant decision making processes. Recently, Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs) have been proved powerful tools for quantifying uncertainty of streamflow forecasting. In this study, we propose a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework (BNN-PIS) to incorporate the uncertainties associated with parameters, inputs, and structures into BNNs. This framework allows the structure of the neural networks to change by removing or adding connections between neurons and enables scaling of input data by using rainfall multipliers. The results show that the new BNNs outperform BNNs that only consider uncertainties associated with parameters and model structures. Critical evaluation of posterior distribution of neural network weights, number of effective connections, rainfall multipliers, and hyper-parameters shows that the assumptions held in our BNNs are not well supported. Further understanding of characteristics of and interactions among different uncertainty sources is expected to enhance the application of neural networks for uncertainty analysis of hydrologic forecasting. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Using Bayesian Belief Networks to Explore the Effects of Nitrogen Inputs on Wetland Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, P. L.; Jordan, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to freshwater wetlands resulting from infrastructure development due to population growth along with intensive agricultural practices associated with food production can threaten regulating (i.e. climate change, water purification, and waste treatment) and supporting (i.e. nutrient cycling) ecosystem services. Wetlands generally respond both by sequestering Nr (i.e. soil accumulation and biomass assimilation) and converting Nr into inert gaseous forms via biogeochemical processes. It is important for wetlands to be efficient in removing excessive Nr inputs from polluted waters to reduce eutrophication in downstream receiving water bodies while producing negligible amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, which results from incomplete denitrification. Wetlands receiving excessive Nr lose their ability to provide a constant balance between regulating water quality and mitigating climate change. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of Nr inputs on ecosystem services provided by wetlands using a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). The network was developed from established relationships between a variety of wetland function indicators and biogeochemical process associated with Nr removal. Empirical data for 34 freshwater wetlands were gathered from a comprehensive review of published peer-reviewed and gray literature. The BBN was trained using 30 wetlands (88% of the freshwater wetland case file) and tested using 4 wetlands (12% of the freshwater wetland case file). Sensitivity analysis suggested that Nr removal, water quality, soil Nr accumulation and N2O emissions had the greatest influence on ecosystem service tradeoffs. The magnitude of Nr inputs did not affect ecosystem services. The network implies that Nr removal efficiency has a greater influence on final ecosystem services associated with water quality impairment and atmospheric pollution. A very low error rate, which was based on 4 wetland

  15. Effectiveness of Context-Aware Character Input Method for Mobile Phone Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsuhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunities and needs are increasing to input Japanese sentences on mobile phones since performance of mobile phones is improving. Applications like E-mail, Web search, and so on are widely used on mobile phones now. We need to input Japanese sentences using only 12 keys on mobile phones. We have proposed a method to input Japanese sentences on mobile phones quickly and easily. We call this method number-Kanji translation method. The number string inputted by a user is translated into Kanji-Kana mixed sentence in our proposed method. Number string to Kana string is a one-to-many mapping. Therefore, it is difficult to translate a number string into the correct sentence intended by the user. The proposed context-aware mapping method is able to disambiguate a number string by artificial neural network (ANN. The system is able to translate number segments into the intended words because the system becomes aware of the correspondence of number segments with Japanese words through learning by ANN. The system does not need a dictionary. We also show the effectiveness of our proposed method for practical use by the result of the evaluation experiment in Twitter data.

  16. Optimizing the Number of Cooperating Terminals for Energy Aware Task Computing in Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that energy consumption is a significant design constraint for mobile handheld systems, therefore motivations for methods optimizing the energy consumption making better use of the restricted battery resources are evident. A novel concept of distributed task computing...... is previously proposed (D2VS), where the overall idea of selective distribution of tasks among terminals is made. In this paper the optimal number of terminals for cooperative task computing in a wireless network will be investigated. The paper presents an energy model for the proposed scheme. Energy...... consumption of the terminals with respect to their workload and the overhead of distributing tasks among terminals are taken into account. The paper shows, that the number of cooperating terminals is in general limited to a few, though alternating with respect to the various system parameters....

  17. The ventral-hypothalamic input route: a common neural network for abstract cognition and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2014-02-01

    Classically, external receptors of the body transmit information from the environment to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus. This review explains and argues that only concrete external information is transmitted from peripheral receptors to the cortex via a thalamic route, while abstract and sexual external information are actually transmitted from peripheral receptors to the cortex through a cognitive hypothalamic route. Sexual function typically implies participation of two distinct partners, ensuring reproduction in many species including humans. Human sexual response involves participation of multiple (environmental, biological, psychological) kinds of stimuli and processing, so the understanding of sexual control and response supposes integration between the classical physiological mechanisms with the more complex processes of our 'mind'. Cognition and sexuality are two relational functions, which are dependent on concrete (colours, sounds, etc.) and/or abstract (gestures, facial expression, how you move, the way you say something seemingly trivial, etc.) environmental cues. Abstract cues are encoded independent of the specific object features of the stimuli, suggesting that such cues should be transmitted and interpreted within the brain through a system different than the classical thalamo-cortical network that operates on concrete (material) information. Indeed, data show that the cerebral cortex is capable of interpreting two distinct (concrete and abstract) formats of information via distinct and non-compatible brain areas. We expand upon this abstract-concrete dichotomy of the brain, positing that the two distinct cortical networks should be uploaded with distinct information from the environment via two distinct informational input routes. These two routes would be represented by the two distinct routes of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), namely the classical/dorsal thalamic input route for concrete information and the ventral

  18. Analysis of input variables of an artificial neural network using bivariate correlation and canonical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Valter Magalhaes; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: valter.costa@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The monitoring of variables and diagnosis of sensor fault in nuclear power plants or processes industries is very important because a previous diagnosis allows the correction of the fault and, like this, to prevent the production stopped, improving operator's security and it's not provoking economics losses. The objective of this work is to build a set, using bivariate correlation and canonical correlation, which will be the set of input variables of an artificial neural network to monitor the greater number of variables. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 Research Reactor at IPEN. Initially, for the input set of neural network we selected the variables: nuclear power, primary circuit flow rate, control/safety rod position and difference in pressure in the core of the reactor, because almost whole of monitoring variables have relation with the variables early described or its effect can be result of the interaction of two or more. The nuclear power is related to the increasing and decreasing of temperatures as well as the amount radiation due fission of the uranium; the rods are controls of power and influence in the amount of radiation and increasing and decreasing of temperatures; the primary circuit flow rate has the function of energy transport by removing the nucleus heat. An artificial neural network was trained and the results were satisfactory since the IEA-R1 Data Acquisition System reactor monitors 64 variables and, with a set of 9 input variables resulting from the correlation analysis, it was possible to monitor 51 variables. (author)

  19. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  20. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Watanabe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  1. Signaling network of dendritic cells in response to pathogens: a community-input supported knowledgebase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudelman Irina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Much research has focused on the signaling pathways triggered upon infection of dendritic cells by various pathogens. The high level of activity in the field makes it desirable to have a pathway-based resource to access the information in the literature. Current pathway diagrams lack either comprehensiveness, or an open-access editorial interface. Hence, there is a need for a dependable, expertly curated knowledgebase that integrates this information into a map of signaling networks. Description We have built a detailed diagram of the dendritic cell signaling network, with the goal of providing researchers with a valuable resource and a facile method for community input. Network construction has relied on comprehensive review of the literature and regular updates. The diagram includes detailed depictions of pathways activated downstream of different pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Initially assembled using CellDesigner software, it provides an annotated graphical representation of interactions stored in Systems Biology Mark-up Language. The network, which comprises 249 nodes and 213 edges, has been web-published through the Biological Pathway Publisher software suite. Nodes are annotated with PubMed references and gene-related information, and linked to a public wiki, providing a discussion forum for updates and corrections. To gain more insight into regulatory patterns of dendritic cell signaling, we analyzed the network using graph-theory methods: bifan, feedforward and multi-input convergence motifs were enriched. This emphasis on activating control mechanisms is consonant with a network that subserves persistent and coordinated responses to

  2. Signaling network of dendritic cells in response to pathogens: a community-input supported knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sonali; Pincas, Hanna; Seto, Jeremy; Nudelman, German; Nudelman, Irina; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2010-10-07

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Much research has focused on the signaling pathways triggered upon infection of dendritic cells by various pathogens. The high level of activity in the field makes it desirable to have a pathway-based resource to access the information in the literature. Current pathway diagrams lack either comprehensiveness, or an open-access editorial interface. Hence, there is a need for a dependable, expertly curated knowledgebase that integrates this information into a map of signaling networks. We have built a detailed diagram of the dendritic cell signaling network, with the goal of providing researchers with a valuable resource and a facile method for community input. Network construction has relied on comprehensive review of the literature and regular updates. The diagram includes detailed depictions of pathways activated downstream of different pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Initially assembled using CellDesigner software, it provides an annotated graphical representation of interactions stored in Systems Biology Mark-up Language. The network, which comprises 249 nodes and 213 edges, has been web-published through the Biological Pathway Publisher software suite. Nodes are annotated with PubMed references and gene-related information, and linked to a public wiki, providing a discussion forum for updates and corrections. To gain more insight into regulatory patterns of dendritic cell signaling, we analyzed the network using graph-theory methods: bifan, feedforward and multi-input convergence motifs were enriched. This emphasis on activating control mechanisms is consonant with a network that subserves persistent and coordinated responses to pathogen detection. This map represents a navigable

  3. Adhoc Wireless Network Control: Energy Efficiency and Hidden Terminal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    transmitters can replenish their batteries. Two common examples are solar - paneled satellites (where the recharge process depends on the satellite’s exposure...to sunlight during its orbit and can be determined a priori with high confidence) and sensor networks [5] (which harvest solar or wind energy so that...of B(t), which implies E [B(t)|X(t)] = B̄, subtracting 2V E [ ∑L l=1 fl (γl(t)) ∣ ∣ ∣ X(t) ] from both sides and rearranging terms yields ∆(X(t))− 2V E

  4. PM(10) emission forecasting using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm input variable optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanasijević, Davor Z; Pocajt, Viktor V; Povrenović, Dragan S; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A

    2013-01-15

    This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model for the forecasting of annual PM(10) emissions at the national level, using widely available sustainability and economical/industrial parameters as inputs. The inputs for the model were selected and optimized using a genetic algorithm and the ANN was trained using the following variables: gross domestic product, gross inland energy consumption, incineration of wood, motorization rate, production of paper and paperboard, sawn wood production, production of refined copper, production of aluminum, production of pig iron and production of crude steel. The wide availability of the input parameters used in this model can overcome a lack of data and basic environmental indicators in many countries, which can prevent or seriously impede PM emission forecasting. The model was trained and validated with the data for 26 EU countries for the period from 1999 to 2006. PM(10) emission data, collected through the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution - CLRTAP and the EMEP Programme or as emission estimations by the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model, were obtained from Eurostat. The ANN model has shown very good performance and demonstrated that the forecast of PM(10) emission up to two years can be made successfully and accurately. The mean absolute error for two-year PM(10) emission prediction was only 10%, which is more than three times better than the predictions obtained from the conventional multi-linear regression and principal component regression models that were trained and tested using the same datasets and input variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Context-Aware Adaptive Streaming Media Distribution System in a Heterogeneous Network with Multiple Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of streaming media transmission in a heterogeneous network from a multisource server to home multiple terminals. In wired network, the transmission performance is limited by network state (e.g., the bandwidth variation, jitter, and packet loss. In wireless network, the multiple user terminals can cause bandwidth competition. Thus, the streaming media distribution in a heterogeneous network becomes a severe challenge which is critical for QoS guarantee. In this paper, we propose a context-aware adaptive streaming media distribution system (CAASS, which implements the context-aware module to perceive the environment parameters and use the strategy analysis (SA module to deduce the most suitable service level. This approach is able to improve the video quality for guarantying streaming QoS. We formulate the optimization problem of QoS relationship with the environment parameters based on the QoS testing algorithm for IPTV in ITU-T G.1070. We evaluate the performance of the proposed CAASS through 12 types of experimental environments using a prototype system. Experimental results show that CAASS can dynamically adjust the service level according to the environment variation (e.g., network state and terminal performances and outperforms the existing streaming approaches in adaptive streaming media distribution according to peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  6. Predicting musically induced emotions from physiological inputs: linear and neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A; Vempala, Naresh N; Sandstrom, Gillian M

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music often leads to physiological responses. Do these physiological responses contain sufficient information to infer emotion induced in the listener? The current study explores this question by attempting to predict judgments of "felt" emotion from physiological responses alone using linear and neural network models. We measured five channels of peripheral physiology from 20 participants-heart rate (HR), respiration, galvanic skin response, and activity in corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. Using valence and arousal (VA) dimensions, participants rated their felt emotion after listening to each of 12 classical music excerpts. After extracting features from the five channels, we examined their correlation with VA ratings, and then performed multiple linear regression to see if a linear relationship between the physiological responses could account for the ratings. Although linear models predicted a significant amount of variance in arousal ratings, they were unable to do so with valence ratings. We then used a neural network to provide a non-linear account of the ratings. The network was trained on the mean ratings of eight of the 12 excerpts and tested on the remainder. Performance of the neural network confirms that physiological responses alone can be used to predict musically induced emotion. The non-linear model derived from the neural network was more accurate than linear models derived from multiple linear regression, particularly along the valence dimension. A secondary analysis allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of inputs to the non-linear model. The study represents a novel approach to understanding the complex relationship between physiological responses and musically induced emotion.

  7. Predicting musically induced emotions from physiological inputs: Linear and neural network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Russo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music often leads to physiological responses. Do these physiological responses contain sufficient information to infer emotion induced in the listener? The current study explores this question by attempting to predict judgments of 'felt' emotion from physiological responses alone using linear and neural network models. We measured five channels of peripheral physiology from 20 participants – heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response, and activity in corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. Using valence and arousal (VA dimensions, participants rated their felt emotion after listening to each of 12 classical music excerpts. After extracting features from the five channels, we examined their correlation with VA ratings, and then performed multiple linear regression to see if a linear relationship between the physiological responses could account for the ratings. Although linear models predicted a significant amount of variance in arousal ratings, they were unable to do so with valence ratings. We then used a neural network to provide a nonlinear account of the ratings. The network was trained on the mean ratings of eight of the 12 excerpts and tested on the remainder. Performance of the neural network confirms that physiological responses alone can be used to predict musically induced emotion. The nonlinear model derived from the neural network was more accurate than linear models derived from multiple linear regression, particularly along the valence dimension. A secondary analysis allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of inputs to the nonlinear model. The study represents a novel approach to understanding the complex relationship between physiological responses and musically induced emotion.

  8. 47 CFR 68.110 - Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and terminal equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility of the public switched telephone... Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.110 Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and... maintain uninterrupted service. (c) Availability of inside wiring information. Any available technical...

  9. A Network Model to Describe the Terminal Differentiation of B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of B cells is an essential process for the humoral immune response in vertebrates and is achieved by the concerted action of several transcription factors in response to antigen recognition and extracellular signals provided by T-helper cells. While there is a wealth of experimental data regarding the molecular and cellular signals involved in this process, there is no general consensus regarding the structure and dynamical properties of the underlying regulatory network controlling this process. We developed a dynamical model of the regulatory network controlling terminal differentiation of B cells. The structure of the network was inferred from experimental data available in the literature, and its dynamical behavior was analyzed by modeling the network both as a discrete and a continuous dynamical systems. The steady states of these models are consistent with the patterns of activation reported for the Naive, GC, Mem, and PC cell types. Moreover, the models are able to describe the patterns of differentiation from the precursor Naive to any of the GC, Mem, or PC cell types in response to a specific set of extracellular signals. We simulated all possible single loss- and gain-of-function mutants, corroborating the importance of Pax5, Bcl6, Bach2, Irf4, and Blimp1 as key regulators of B cell differentiation process. The model is able to represent the directional nature of terminal B cell differentiation and qualitatively describes key differentiation events from a precursor cell to terminally differentiated B cells.

  10. The auxin signalling network translates dynamic input into robust patterning at the shoot apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoux, Teva; Brunoud, Géraldine; Farcot, Etienne; Morin, Valérie; Van den Daele, Hilde; Legrand, Jonathan; Oliva, Marina; Das, Pradeep; Larrieu, Antoine; Wells, Darren; Guédon, Yann; Armitage, Lynne; Picard, Franck; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Cellier, Coralie; Parry, Geraint; Koumproglou, Rachil; Doonan, John H; Estelle, Mark; Godin, Christophe; Kepinski, Stefan; Bennett, Malcolm; De Veylder, Lieven; Traas, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is thought to provide positional information for patterning during development. It is still unclear, however, precisely how auxin is distributed across tissues and how the hormone is sensed in space and time. The control of gene expression in response to auxin involves a complex network of over 50 potentially interacting transcriptional activators and repressors, the auxin response factors (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. Here, we perform a large-scale analysis of the Aux/IAA-ARF pathway in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis, where dynamic auxin-based patterning controls organogenesis. A comprehensive expression map and full interactome uncovered an unexpectedly simple distribution and structure of this pathway in the shoot apex. A mathematical model of the Aux/IAA-ARF network predicted a strong buffering capacity along with spatial differences in auxin sensitivity. We then tested and confirmed these predictions using a novel auxin signalling sensor that reports input into the signalling pathway, in conjunction with the published DR5 transcriptional output reporter. Our results provide evidence that the auxin signalling network is essential to create robust patterns at the shoot apex. PMID:21734647

  11. Logical optical line terminal technologies towards flexible and highly reliable metro- and access-integrated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Sato, Takehiro; Yamanaka, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, flexible and highly reliable metro and access integrated networks with network virtualization and software defined networking technologies will be presented. Logical optical line terminal (L-OLT) technologies and active optical distribution networks (ODNs) are the key to introduce flexibility and high reliability into the metro and access integrated networks. In the Elastic Lambda Aggregation Network (EλAN) project which was started in 2012, a concept of the programmable optical line terminal (P-OLT) has been proposed. A role of the P-OLT is providing multiple network services that have different protocols and quality of service requirements by single OLT box. Accommodated services will be Internet access, mobile front-haul/back-haul, data-center access, and leased line. L-OLTs are configured within the P-OLT box to support the functions required for each network service. Multiple P-OLTs and programmable optical network units (P-ONUs) are connected by the active ODN. Optical access paths which have flexible capacity are set on the ODN to provide network services from L-OLT to logical ONUs (L-ONUs). The L-OLT to L-ONU path on the active ODN provides a logical connection. Therefore, introducing virtualization technologies becomes possible. One example is moving an L-OLT from one P-OLT to another P-OLT like a virtual machine. This movement is called L-OLT migration. The L-OLT migration provides flexible and reliable network functions such as energy saving by aggregating L-OLTs to a limited number of P-OLTs, and network wide optical access path restoration. Other L-OLT virtualization technologies and experimental results will be also discussed in the paper.

  12. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  13. Palynofacies reveal fresh terrestrial organic matter inputs in the terminal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Johann; Stetten, Elsa; Baudin, François; Pruski, Audrey M.; Martinez, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The Congo deep-sea fan is directly connected to the Congo River by a unique submarine canyon. The Congo River delivers up to 2×1012gPOC/yr, a part of which is funnelled by the submarine canyon and feeds the deep-sea environments. The more distal part of the Congo deep-sea fan, the terminal lobe area, has a surface of 2500 km2 and is situated up to 800 km offshore at depths of 4750-5000 m. It is a remarkable place to study the fate and distribution of the organic matter transferred from the continent to the deep ocean via turbidity currents. Forty-two samples were analyzed from the terminal lobes, including sites from the active channel, one of its levees and an abandoned distal channel. Samples were collected using multitube cores and push-cores using a Victor 6000 ROV, which surveyed the dense chemosynthetic habitats that locally characterize the terminal lobes. Palynofacies reveal a remarkably well-preserved, dominantly terrestrial particulate organic matter assemblage, that has been transferred from the continent into the deep-sea by turbidity currents. Delicate plant structures, cuticle fragments and plant cellular material is often preserved, highlighting the efficiency of turbidity currents to transfer terrestrial organic matter to the sea-floor, where it is preserved. Moreover, the palynofacies data reveal a general sorting by density or buoyancy of the organic particles, as the turbulent currents escaped the active channel, feeding the levees and the more distal, abandoned channel area. Finally, in addition to aforementioned hydrodynamic factors controlling the organic matter accumulation, a secondary influence of chemosynthetic habitats on organic matter preservation is also apparent. Palynofacies is therefore a useful tool to record the distribution of organic matter in recent and ancient deep-sea fan environments, an important topic for both academic and petroleum studies.

  14. Delay decomposition at a single server queue with constant service time and multiple inputs. [Waiting time on computer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C.; Schilling, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two networks consisting of single server queues, each with a constant service time, are considered. The external inputs to each network are assumed to follow some general probability distribution. Several interesting equivalencies that exist between the two networks considered are derived. This leads to the introduction of an important concept in delay decomposition. It is shown that the waiting time experienced by a customer can be decomposed into two basic components called self delay and interference delay.

  15. Model Predictive Control of Linear Systems over Networks with State and Input Quantizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a lot of works about the synthesis and analysis of networked control systems (NCSs with data quantization, most of the results are developed for the case of considering the quantizer only existing in one of the transmission links (either from the sensor to the controller link or from the controller to the actuator link. This paper investigates the synthesis approaches of model predictive control (MPC for NCS subject to data quantizations in both links. Firstly, a novel model to describe the state and input quantizations of the NCS is addressed by extending the sector bound approach. Further, from the new model, two synthesis approaches of MPC are developed: one parameterizes the infinite horizon control moves into a single state feedback law and the other into a free control move followed by the single state feedback law. Finally, the stability results that explicitly consider the satisfaction of input and state constraints are presented. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MPC.

  16. Dynamic Network Drivers of Seizure Generation, Propagation and Termination in Human Neocortical Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhati, Ankit N.; Davis, Kathryn A.; Oommen, Brian S.; Chen, Stephanie H.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Litt, Brian; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The epileptic network is characterized by pathologic, seizure-generating ‘foci’ embedded in a web of structural and functional connections. Clinically, seizure foci are considered optimal targets for surgery. However, poor surgical outcome suggests a complex relationship between foci and the surrounding network that drives seizure dynamics. We developed a novel technique to objectively track seizure states from dynamic functional networks constructed from intracranial recordings. Each dynamical state captures unique patterns of network connections that indicate synchronized and desynchronized hubs of neural populations. Our approach suggests that seizures are generated when synchronous relationships near foci work in tandem with rapidly changing desynchronous relationships from the surrounding epileptic network. As seizures progress, topographical and geometrical changes in network connectivity strengthen and tighten synchronous connectivity near foci—a mechanism that may aid seizure termination. Collectively, our observations implicate distributed cortical structures in seizure generation, propagation and termination, and may have practical significance in determining which circuits to modulate with implantable devices. PMID:26680762

  17. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  18. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  19. Preventing Out-of-Sequence for Multicast Input-Queued Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an out-of-sequence (OOS) preventative cell dispatching algorithm, the multicast flow-based round robin (MFRR), for multicast input-queued space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Clos-network architecture. Independently treating each incoming cell, such as the desynchronized static round...

  20. A fluid model for a relay node in an ad-hoc network: the case of heavy-tailed input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bekker (Rene); M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRelay nodes in an ad-hoc network can be modelled as fluid queues, in which the available service capacity is shared by the input and output. In this paper such a relay node is considered; jobs arrive according to a Poisson process and bring along a random amount of work. The total

  1. Delay selection by spike-timing-dependent plasticity in recurrent networks of spiking neurons receiving oscillatory inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Kerr

    Full Text Available Learning rules, such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP, change the structure of networks of neurons based on the firing activity. A network level understanding of these mechanisms can help infer how the brain learns patterns and processes information. Previous studies have shown that STDP selectively potentiates feed-forward connections that have specific axonal delays, and that this underlies behavioral functions such as sound localization in the auditory brainstem of the barn owl. In this study, we investigate how STDP leads to the selective potentiation of recurrent connections with different axonal and dendritic delays during oscillatory activity. We develop analytical models of learning with additive STDP in recurrent networks driven by oscillatory inputs, and support the results using simulations with leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. Our results show selective potentiation of connections with specific axonal delays, which depended on the input frequency. In addition, we demonstrate how this can lead to a network becoming selective in the amplitude of its oscillatory response to this frequency. We extend this model of axonal delay selection within a single recurrent network in two ways. First, we show the selective potentiation of connections with a range of both axonal and dendritic delays. Second, we show axonal delay selection between multiple groups receiving out-of-phase, oscillatory inputs. We discuss the application of these models to the formation and activation of neuronal ensembles or cell assemblies in the cortex, and also to missing fundamental pitch perception in the auditory brainstem.

  2. Dopamine modulation of GABAergic function enables network stability and input selectivity for sustaining working memory in a computational model of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Sergio E; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine modulation of GABAergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to be critical for sustaining cognitive processes such as working memory and decision-making. Here, we developed a neurocomputational model of the PFC that includes physiological features of the facilitatory action of dopamine on fast-spiking interneurons to assess how a GABAergic dysregulation impacts on the prefrontal network stability and working memory. We found that a particular non-linear relationship between dopamine transmission and GABA function is required to enable input selectivity in the PFC for the formation and retention of working memory. Either degradation of the dopamine signal or the GABAergic function is sufficient to elicit hyperexcitability in pyramidal neurons and working memory impairments. The simulations also revealed an inverted U-shape relationship between working memory and dopamine, a function that is maintained even at high levels of GABA degradation. In fact, the working memory deficits resulting from reduced GABAergic transmission can be rescued by increasing dopamine tone and vice versa. We also examined the role of this dopamine-GABA interaction for the termination of working memory and found that the extent of GABAergic excitation needed to reset the PFC network begins to occur when the activity of fast-spiking interneurons surpasses 40 Hz. Together, these results indicate that the capability of the PFC to sustain working memory and network stability depends on a robust interplay of compensatory mechanisms between dopamine tone and the activity of local GABAergic interneurons.

  3. Out-of-Sequence Preventative Cell Dispatching for Multicast Input-Queued Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two out-of-sequence (OOS) preventative cell dispatching algorithms for the multicast input-queued space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Clos-network switch architecture, i.e. the multicast flow-based DSRR (MF-DSRR) and the multicast flow-based round-robin (MFRR). Treating each cell...... independently, the desynchronized static round-robin (DSRR) cell dispatching scheme can evenly distribute cells to the central switching modules, however, its frequent change of the input switching module connection pattern causes a serious OOS problem to the IQ-SMM architecture. Therefore large reassembly...

  4. Short-Term Forecasting of Electric Loads Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Artificial Neural Networks with Exogenous Vector Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Buitrago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecasting is crucial for the operations planning of an electrical grid. Forecasting the next 24 h of electrical load in a grid allows operators to plan and optimize their resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a more accurate short-term load forecasting method utilizing non-linear autoregressive artificial neural networks (ANN with exogenous multi-variable input (NARX. The proposed implementation of the network is new: the neural network is trained in open-loop using actual load and weather data, and then, the network is placed in closed-loop to generate a forecast using the predicted load as the feedback input. Unlike the existing short-term load forecasting methods using ANNs, the proposed method uses its own output as the input in order to improve the accuracy, thus effectively implementing a feedback loop for the load, making it less dependent on external data. Using the proposed framework, mean absolute percent errors in the forecast in the order of 1% have been achieved, which is a 30% improvement on the average error using feedforward ANNs, ARMAX and state space methods, which can result in large savings by avoiding commissioning of unnecessary power plants. The New England electrical load data are used to train and validate the forecast prediction.

  5. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  6. Two neural network algorithms for designing optimal terminal controllers with open final time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Edward S.

    1992-01-01

    Multilayer neural networks, trained by the backpropagation through time algorithm (BPTT), have been used successfully as state-feedback controllers for nonlinear terminal control problems. Current BPTT techniques, however, are not able to deal systematically with open final-time situations such as minimum-time problems. Two approaches which extend BPTT to open final-time problems are presented. In the first, a neural network learns a mapping from initial-state to time-to-go. In the second, the optimal number of steps for each trial run is found using a line-search. Both methods are derived using Lagrange multiplier techniques. This theoretical framework is used to demonstrate that the derived algorithms are direct extensions of forward/backward sweep methods used in N-stage optimal control. The two algorithms are tested on a Zermelo problem and the resulting trajectories compare favorably to optimal control results.

  7. Quantitative system drift compensates for altered maternal inputs to the gap gene network of the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, Karl R; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Crombach, Anton; Janssens, Hilde; Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs; Jaeger, Johannes

    2015-01-05

    The segmentation gene network in insects can produce equivalent phenotypic outputs despite differences in upstream regulatory inputs between species. We investigate the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon through a systems-level analysis of the gap gene network in the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita (Phoridae). It combines quantification of gene expression at high spatio-temporal resolution with systematic knock-downs by RNA interference (RNAi). Initiation and dynamics of gap gene expression differ markedly between M. abdita and Drosophila melanogaster, while the output of the system converges to equivalent patterns at the end of the blastoderm stage. Although the qualitative structure of the gap gene network is conserved, there are differences in the strength of regulatory interactions between species. We term such network rewiring 'quantitative system drift'. It provides a mechanistic explanation for the developmental hourglass model in the dipteran lineage. Quantitative system drift is likely to be a widespread mechanism for developmental evolution.

  8. Intramural Purkinje cell network of sheep ventricles as the terminal pathway of conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shonosuke; Yamamoto, Shoji; Andersen, Clark R; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyake, Fumihiko; James, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    To identify the anatomical basis for cardiac electrical signal conduction, particularly seeking the intramural terminals of conduction pathway within the ventricles, sheep hearts were examined compared with human hearts utilizing the characteristic morphology of Purkinje cells as a histological marker. In 15 sheep and five human autopsies of noncardiac death, prevalence of Purkinje or Purkinje-type cells were histologically examined in the atrioventricular node, its distal conduction pathway, the interventricular septum, and the right- and left-ventricular free walls. Myocardial tissue cleavages were examined in the transmural sections (along cardiac base-to-apex axis) obtained from the septum and ventricular free walls. Serial histological sections through virtually the entirety of the septum in selected sheep were used as the basis of a three-dimensional reconstruction of the conduction pathway, particularly of the intramural Purkinje cell network. Purkinje cells were found within the mural myocardium of sheep ventricles whereas no intramural Purkinje-type cell was detected within the human ventricles. In the sheep septum, every intramural Purkinje cell composed a three-dimensional network throughout the mural myocardium, which proximally connected to the subendocardial extension of the bundle branches and distally formed an occasional junction with ordinary working myocytes. The Purkinje-cell network may participate in the ventricular excitation as the terminal conduction pathway. Individual connections among the Purkinje cells contain the links of through-wall orientation which would benefit the signal conduction crossing the architectural barriers by cleavages in sheep hearts. The myocardial architectural changes found in diseased hearts could disrupt the network links including those with transmural orientation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Using Bayesian Belief Networks to Explore the Effects of Nitrogen Inputs on Wetland Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to freshwater wetlands resulting from infrastructure development due to population growth along with intensive agricultural practices associated with food production can threaten regulating (i.e. climate change, water purification, and wast...

  10. Study on New Smart Transformer Terminal Unit Based on ARM and GPRS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution transformer is one of the most important power equipments in distribution network, whose running state exercises a great influence on the stability of the network. Transformer Terminal Unit (TTU is an effective device to monitor the running state of transformers in the distribution automation system. In this paper, we study a new smart TTU which uses ARM7 series chip as processor, equipped with ATT7022B based electric meter module and GPRS module for remote data transmission control. We focus on the corresponding hardware, software design and the measurement principle of harmonics of TTU. The new TTU can measure the electric parameters of the distribution transformer precisely. Taking advantage of the powerful ARM processor, it can analyze harmonic of the power line effectively. Due to the always-on-line feature of GPRS, TTU can achieve reliable communication with the remote terminal and the master station. Compared with other similar units, the new unit outperforms in terms of real-time, precision and reliability, which can fully meet with the high-speed development of distribution automation system.

  11. A New Local Bipolar Autoassociative Memory Based on External Inputs of Discrete Recurrent Neural Networks With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Caigen; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Luo, Chaomin; Zhang, Huaguang

    In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.

  12. The Design of Data Transmission Terminal in Remote Warning Control System Based on CDMA 1X Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework of data transmission terminal in remote warning control system based on CDMA 1X network. According to the functional requirements of wireless broadband communication system, the hardware interfaces and software of the CDMA 1X data transmission terminal are designed detailedly and the system is implemented using wireless access and embedded development technologies. It has good applicability and portability so that various wireless data transmissions can be achieved by replacing the data source module.

  13. Influence of input data on airflow network accuracy in residential buildings with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Krzaczek, Marek; Tejchman, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The airflow network (AFN) modeling approach provides an attractive balance between the accuracy and computational demand for naturally ventilated buildings. Its accuracy depends on input parameters such as wind pressure and opening discharge coefficients. In most cases, these parameters...... is still poor. In this paper, the influence of wind pressure data on the accuracy of a coupled AFN-BES model for a real building with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation was analyzed. The results of 8 computation cases with different wind pressure data from secondary sources were compared...... are obtained from secondary sources which are solely representative for very simplified buildings, i.e. for buildings without facade details. Although studies comparing wind pressure coefficients or discharge coefficients from different sources exist, the knowledge regarding the effect of input data on AFN...

  14. Beamspace Multiple Input Multiple Output. Part II: Steerable Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    increases do not necessarily come from higher gain but rather from a good front -to- back ratio. The front -to- back ratio was the dominant factor because...registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Released by D. E . Hurdsman, Head Applied Electromagnetics Branch Under authority of J. McGee, Head...input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems use multiple anten- nas and transceivers at both ends of a wireless link to utilize spatial

  15. Toward the training of feed-forward neural networks with the D-optimum input sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Marcin

    2006-03-01

    The problem under consideration is to obtain a measurement schedule for training neural networks. This task is perceived as an experimental design in a given design space that is obtained in such a way as to minimize the difference between the neural network and the system being considered. This difference can be expressed in many different ways and one of them, namely, the D-optimality criterion is used in this paper. In particular, the paper presents a unified and comprehensive treatment of this problem by discussing the existing and previously unpublished properties of the optimum experimental design (OED) for neural networks. The consequences of the above properties are discussed as well. A hybrid algorithm that can be used for both the training and data development of neural networks is another important contribution of this paper. A careful analysis of the algorithm is presented and its comprehensive convergence analysis with the help of the Lyapunov method are given. The paper contains a number of numerical examples that justify the application of the OED theory for neural networks. Moreover, an industrial application example is given that deals with the valve actuator.

  16. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Jens; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær; Berg, Rune W

    2012-01-01

    Neurons often receive massive concurrent bombardment of synaptic inhibition and excitation during functional network activity. This increases membrane conductance and causes fluctuations in membrane potential (V(m)) and spike timing. The conductance increase is commonly attributed to synaptic......(m) -fluctuations and conductance observed experimentally during functional network activity leave little room for intrinsic conductance to contribute. Even without intrinsic conductances the variance in V(m) -fluctuations can only be explained by a high degree of correlated firing among presynaptic neurons....... conductance, but also includes the intrinsic conductances recruited during network activity. These two sources of conductance have contrasting dynamic properties at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Synaptic transmitter gated conductance changes abruptly and briefly with each presynaptic action potential...

  17. Multi-input and binary reproducible, high bandwidth floating point adder in a collective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-03-10

    To add floating point numbers in a parallel computing system, a collective logic device receives the floating point numbers from computing nodes. The collective logic devices converts the floating point numbers to integer numbers. The collective logic device adds the integer numbers and generating a summation of the integer numbers. The collective logic device converts the summation to a floating point number. The collective logic device performs the receiving, the converting the floating point numbers, the adding, the generating and the converting the summation in one pass. One pass indicates that the computing nodes send inputs only once to the collective logic device and receive outputs only once from the collective logic device.

  18. Influence of the Antenna Impedance Variation and Input Matching Network Q on LNA Key Figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Gülstorff, Steen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the behaviour of a 2:4 GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications facing antennadetuning issue. An amplifier with ultra-low power, low voltage, and with reduced component count is prototyped to validate simulation resul...

  19. Forcast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X-rays as input signal in a neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.

    1998-03-03

    A feed-forward neural network with two hidden layers is used in this work to forecast major and minor disruptive instabilities in TEXT discharges. Using soft X-ray signals as input data, the neural net is trained with one disruptive plasma pulse, and a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After being properly trained the networks, with the same set of weights. is then used to forecast disruptions in two others different plasma pulses. It is observed that the neural net is able to predict the incoming of a disruption more than 3 ms in advance. This time interval is almost three times longer than the one already obtained previously when magnetic signal from a Mirnov coil was used to feed the neural networks with. To our own eye we fail to see any indication of an upcoming disruption from the experimental data this far back from the time of disruption. Finally, from what we observe in the predictive behavior of our network, speculations are made whether the disruption triggering mechanism would be associated to an increase of the m = 2 magnetic island, that disturbs the central part of the plasma column afterwards or, in face of the results from this work, the initial perturbation would have occurred first in the central part of the plasma column, within the q = 1 magnetic surface, and then the m = 2 MHD mode would be destabilized afterwards.

  20. Three-terminal ferroelectric synapse device with concurrent learning function for artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; Ueda, M.; Fujii, E. [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, Seika, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Morie, T. [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is demonstrated in a synapse device based on a ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor (FeFET). STDP is a key of the learning functions observed in human brains, where the synaptic weight changes only depending on the spike timing of the pre- and post-neurons. The FeFET is composed of the stacked oxide materials with ZnO/Pr(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT)/SrRuO{sub 3}. In the FeFET, the channel conductance can be altered depending on the density of electrons induced by the polarization of PZT film, which can be controlled by applying the gate voltage in a non-volatile manner. Applying a pulse gate voltage enables the multi-valued modulation of the conductance, which is expected to be caused by a change in PZT polarization. This variation depends on the height and the duration of the pulse gate voltage. Utilizing these characteristics, symmetric and asymmetric STDP learning functions are successfully implemented in the FeFET-based synapse device by applying the non-linear pulse gate voltage generated from a set of two pulses in a sampling circuit, in which the two pulses correspond to the spikes from the pre- and post-neurons. The three-terminal structure of the synapse device enables the concurrent learning, in which the weight update can be performed without canceling signal transmission among neurons, while the neural networks using the previously reported two-terminal synapse devices need to stop signal transmission for learning.

  1. Embedding global barrier and collective in torus network with each node combining input from receivers according to class map for output to senders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Senger, Robert M; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E

    2013-08-27

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a global barrier and global interrupt network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. The computer system includes a multitude of nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises taking inputs from a set of receivers of the nodes, dividing the inputs from the receivers into a plurality of classes, combining the inputs of each of the classes to obtain a result, and sending said result to a set of senders of the nodes. Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a collective network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. In one embodiment, the method comprises adding to a torus network a central collective logic to route messages among at least a group of nodes in a tree structure.

  2. How pattern formation in ring networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons depends on the input current regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, Birgit; Helias, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern formation, i.e., the generation of an inhomogeneous spatial activity distribution in a dynamical system with translation invariant structure, is a well-studied phenomenon in neuronal network dynamics, specifically in neural field models. These are population models to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of large groups of neurons in terms of macroscopic variables such as population firing rates. Though neural field models are often deduced from and equipped with biophysically meaningful properties, a direct mapping to simulations of individual spiking neuron populations is rarely considered. Neurons have a distinct identity defined by their action on their postsynaptic targets. In its simplest form they act either excitatorily or inhibitorily. When the distribution of neuron identities is assumed to be periodic, pattern formation can be observed, given the coupling strength is supracritical, i.e., larger than a critical weight. We find that this critical weight is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the neuronal input, i.e., depends on whether neurons are mean- or fluctuation driven, and different limits in linearizing the full non-linear system apply in order to assess stability. In particular, if neurons are mean-driven, the linearization has a very simple form and becomes independent of both the fixed point firing rate and the variance of the input current, while in the very strongly fluctuation-driven regime the fixed point rate, as well as the input mean and variance are important parameters in the determination of the critical weight. We demonstrate that interestingly even in “intermediate” regimes, when the system is technically fluctuation-driven, the simple linearization neglecting the variance of the input can yield the better prediction of the critical coupling strength. We moreover analyze the effects of structural randomness by rewiring individual synapses or redistributing weights, as well as coarse-graining on the formation of

  3. How pattern formation in ring networks of excitatory and inhibitoryspiking neurons depends on the input current regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eKriener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern formation, i.e., the generation of an inhomogeneous spatial activity distribution in a dynamical system with translation invariant structure, is a well-studied phenomenon in neuronal network dynamics,specifically in neural field models. These are population models to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of large groups of neurons in terms of macroscopic variables such as population firing rates. Though neural field models are often deduced from and equipped with biophysically meaningfulproperties, a direct mapping to simulations of individual spiking neuron populations is rarely considered. Neurons have a distinct identity defined by their action on their postsynaptic targets. In its simplest form they act either excitatorily or inhibitorily.When the distribution of neuron identities is assumed to be periodic, pattern formation can be observed, given the coupling strength is supercritical, i.e., larger than a critical weight. We find that this critical weight is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the neuronal input, i.e., depends on whether neurons are mean- orfluctuation driven, and different limits in linearizing the full non-linear system apply in order to assess stability.In particular, if neurons are mean-driven, the linearization has a very simple form and becomesindependent of both the fixed point firing rate and the variance of the input current, while in the very strongly fluctuation-driven regime the fixed point rate, as well as the input mean and variance areimportant parameters in the determination of the critical weight.We demonstrate that interestingly even in ``intermediate'' regimes, when the system is technically fluctuation-driven, the simple linearization neglecting the variance of the input can yield the better prediction of the critical couplingstrength. We moreover analyze the effects of structural randomness by rewiring individualsynapses or redistributing weights, as well as coarse-graining on pattern

  4. Sliding Mode Control for NSVs with Input Constraint Using Neural Network and Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-long Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sliding mode control (SMC scheme is proposed for near space vehicles (NSVs with strong nonlinearity, high coupling, parameter uncertainty, and unknown time-varying disturbance based on radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs and the nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO. Considering saturation characteristic of rudders, RBFNNs are constructed as a compensator to overcome the saturation nonlinearity. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved, and the tracking error as well as the disturbance observer error can converge to the origin through the Lyapunov analysis. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed flight control scheme.

  5. Forecasting Volatility in Indian Stock Market using Artificial Neural Network with Multiple Inputs and Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DattaChaudhuri, Tamal; Ghosh, Indranil

    2015-06-01

    Volatility in stock markets has been extensively studied in the applied finance literature. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network models based on various back propagation algorithms have been constructed to predict volatility in the Indian stock market through volatility of NIFTY returns and volatility of gold returns. This model considers India VIX, CBOE VIX, volatility of crude oil returns (CRUDESDR), volatility of DJIA returns (DJIASDR), volatility of DAX returns (DAXSDR), volatility of Hang Seng returns (HANGSDR) and volatility of Nikkei returns (NIKKEISDR) as predictor variables. Three sets of experiments have been performed over three time periods to judge the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Experimental Analysis of the Input Variables’ Relevance to Forecast Next Day’s Aggregated Electric Demand Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the built in intelligence (deployment of new intelligent devices and sensors in places where historically they were not present, the Smart Grid and Microgrid paradigms are able to take advantage from aggregated load forecasting, which opens the door for the implementation of new algorithms to seize this information for optimization and advanced planning. Therefore, accuracy in load forecasts will potentially have a big impact on key operation factors for the future Smart Grid/Microgrid-based energy network like user satisfaction and resource saving, and new methods to achieve an efficient prediction in future energy landscapes (very different from the centralized, big area networks studied so far. This paper proposes different improved models to forecast next day’s aggregated load using artificial neural networks, taking into account the variables that are most relevant for the aggregated. In particular, seven models based on the multilayer perceptron will be proposed, progressively adding input variables after analyzing the influence of climate factors on aggregated load. The results section presents the forecast from the proposed models, obtained from real data.

  7. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-terminated polyurethane/polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C J; Hsieh, K H; Ho, K S; Hsieh, T T

    1997-02-01

    The interpenetrating polymer networks (INPs) of polyurethane (PU) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MEHA)-terminated polyurethane (HPU) were prepared by solution polymerization. PU prepolymer was synthesized from 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) and poly(propylene oxide) glycol (PPG). HPU prepolymer was synthesized from MDI, poly(tetramethylene oxide) glycol and HEMA. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the resultant IPN membranes have good compatibility between their constituents. As the HPU content increased, the tensile strength of the IPNs first increased and then decreased. For the highest tensile strength, the optimum HPU content was about 25 wt %. The value of surface tension of IPNs varied from 44.4 to 50.5 dyne/cm, and polarity ranged from 0.59 to 0.91. The relative index of platelet adhesion (RIPA) of the IPN membranes was measured by the dynamic thrombosis test at constant shaking speed and temperature. By the criteria of this test, the IPN membranes with HPU content of about 25 wt% to the minimum platelet adhesion. When measured by the angular dependent ESCA technique on the surface of IPN samples, the variation in the RIPA correlated to the change in the surface soft segment to hard segment ratio. Higher HPU content resulted in more migration of soft segments toward the surface. The platelet adhesion was observed to be minimized when the surface O/N ratio was around 12.

  8. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on cyanate ester and fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly soluble fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide (FETI oligomers were prepared via a conventional one-step method in m-cresol, using 4, 4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride and 2, 2′-bis(trifluoromethyl benzidine as the monomers, and ethynylphthalic anhydride as the end-capper; then interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN were formulated from FETI oligomers and bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy through a solvent-free procedure, and their thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties were fully characterized. The curing mechanism was studied by model reactions using nitrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. As evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and rheological measurements, the FETI/BADCy blends exhibited lower curing temperature and shorter gelation time in comparison with pure BADCy due to the catalytic effects of ethynyl and residue amic acid groups. The properties of IPNs were fully compared with those of polycyanurate, and the results revealed that the incorporation of FETI into cyanate ester resins could significantly improve the toughness, glass transition temperatures, mechanical and dielectric properties of the resultant IPNs.

  9. Global network of embodied water flow by systems input-output simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanming; Chen, Guoqian; Xia, Xiaohua; Xu, Shiyun

    2012-09-01

    The global water resources network is simulated in the present work for the latest target year with statistical data available and with the most detailed data disaggregation. A top-down approach of systems inputoutput simulation is employed to track the embodied water flows associated with economic flows for the globalized economy in 2004. The numerical simulation provides a database of embodied water intensities for all economic commodities from 4928 producers, based on which the differences between direct and indirect water using efficiencies at the global scale are discussed. The direct and embodied water uses are analyzed at continental level. Besides, the commodity demand in terms of monetary expenditure and the water demand in terms of embodied water use are compared for the world as well as for three major water using regions, i.e., India, China, and the United States. Results show that food product contributes to a significant fraction for water demand, despite the value varies significantly with respect to the economic status of region.

  10. Adaptive multi-node multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission for mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-10-02

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase.

  11. Adaptive Multi-Node Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) Transmission for Mobile Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-01-01

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase. PMID:24152920

  12. Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta eSemework

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step towards the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. As the aim of SSNP engineering is artificially creating neural responses that resemble those observed during natural inputs, a central goal is describing the influence of MiSt on activity structure among groups of neurons, and how this structure may be altered to affect perception or behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Granger causality, combined with maximum likelihood methods, applied to neural signals recorded before, during, and after natural and electrical stimulation. We show how these analyses can be used to evaluate the changing interactions in the thalamocortical somatosensory system in response to repeated perturbation. Using LFPs recorded from the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL and somatosensory cortex (S1 in anesthetized rats, we estimated pair-wise functional interactions between functional microdomains. The preliminary results demonstrate input-dependent modulations in the direction and strength of information flow during and after application of MiSt. Cortico-cortical interactions during cortical MiSt and baseline conditions showed the largest causal influence differences, while there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-stimulation baseline causal activities. These functional connectivity changes agree with physiologically accepted communication patterns through the network, and their particular parameters have implications for both

  13. Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semework, Mulugeta; DiStasio, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step toward the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP) research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt) to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. As the aim of SSNP engineering is artificially creating neural responses that resemble those observed during natural inputs, a central goal is describing the influence of MiSt on activity structure among groups of neurons, and how this structure may be altered to affect perception or behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Granger causality, combined with maximum likelihood methods, applied to neural signals recorded before, during, and after natural and electrical stimulation. We show how these analyses can be used to evaluate the changing interactions in the thalamocortical somatosensory system in response to repeated perturbation. Using LFPs recorded from the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL) and somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized rats, we estimated pair-wise functional interactions between functional microdomains. The preliminary results demonstrate input-dependent modulations in the direction and strength of information flow during and after application of MiSt. Cortico-cortical interactions during cortical MiSt and baseline conditions showed the largest causal influence differences, while there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-stimulation baseline causal activities. These functional connectivity changes agree with physiologically accepted communication patterns through the network, and their particular parameters have implications for both rehabilitation and brain

  14. Shaped by the Past: The Default Mode Network Supports Cognition that Is Independent of Immediate Perceptual Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiko Konishi

    Full Text Available Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore the hypothesis that the role of the DMN in higher order cognition is to allow cognition to be shaped by information from stored representations rather than information in the immediate environment. Using a novel task paradigm, we observed increased BOLD activity in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes from the prior trial and decreased BOLD activity when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes on the current trial. These data are inconsistent with views of the DMN as a task-negative system or one that is sensitive only to stimuli with strong personal or emotional ties. Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input. We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

  15. BINARY CLASSIFICATION OF DAY-AHEAD DEREGULATED ELECTRICITY MARKET PRICES USING NEURAL NETWORK INPUT FEATURED BY DCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that the movement of electricity price is crucial for electricity market. The binary electricity price classification method is as an alternative to numerical electricity price forecasting due to high forecasting errors in various approaches. This paper proposes a binary classification of day-ahead electricity prices that could be realized using discrete cosine transforms (DCT based neural network (NN approach (DCT-NN. These electricity price classifications are important because all market participants do not to know the exact value of future prices in their decision-making process. In this paper, classifications of electricity market prices with respect to pre-specified electricity price threshold are used. In this proposed approach, all time series (historical price series are transformed from time domain to frequency domain using DCT. These discriminative spectral co-efficient forms the set of input features and are classified using NN. The binary classification NN and the proposed DCT-NN were developed and compared to check the performance. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides a better and efficient method for day-ahead deregulated electricity market of mainland Spain.

  16. A neural network Dst index model driven by input time histories of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revallo, M.; Valach, F.; Hejda, P.; Bochníček, J.

    2014-04-01

    A model to forecast 1-hour lead Dst index is proposed. Our approach is based on artificial neural networks (ANN) combined with an analytical model of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Previously, the hourly solar wind parameters have been considered in the analytical model, all of them provided by registration of the ACE satellite. They were the solar wind magnetic field component Bz, velocity V, particle density n and temperature T. The solar wind parameters have been used to compute analytically the discontinuity in magnetic field across the magnetopause, denoted as [Bt]. This quantity has been shown to be important in connection with ground magnetic field variations. The method was published, in which the weighted sum of a sequence of [Bt] was proposed to produce the value of Dst index. The maximum term in the sum, possessing the maximum weight, is the one denoting the contribution of the current state of the near-Earth solar wind. The role of the older states is less important - the weights exponentially decay. Moreover, the terms turn to zero if Bz⪯0. In this study, we set up a more comprehensive model on the basis of the ANNs. The model is driven by input time histories of the discontinuity in magnetic field [Bt], which are provided by the analytical model. At the output of such revised model, the Dst index is obtained and compared with the real data records. In this way we replaced those exponential weights in the published method with another set of weights determined by the neural networks. We retrospectively tested our models with real data from solar cycle 23. The ANN approach provided better results than a simple method based on exponentially decaying weights. Moreover, we have shown that our ANN model could be used to predict Dst 1 h ahead. We assessed the predictive capability of the model with a set of independent events and found correlation coefficient CC=0.74±0.13 and prediction efficiency PE=0.44±0.15. We also compared our model with

  17. Simulation of a Classically Conditioned Response: Components of the Input Trace and a Cerebellar Neural Network Implementation of the Sutton-Barto-Desmond Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-14

    the Input Trace and a Cerebellar Neural Network Implementation of the Sutton-Barto-Desmond Model Diana E. J. Blazis and John W. Moore COINS Technical...efferent pathway of the CR. li order for (ClHs to lie generated by on- ){(s inst ead of off-I)(,Cs, there would h ave o le ;i <,gral inversion .orniewher

  18. A Flexible Terminal Approach to Sampled-Data Exponentially Synchronization of Markovian Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delayed Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Park, Ju H; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Shen, Hao

    2017-08-02

    This paper investigates the problem of sampled-data (SD) exponentially synchronization for a class of Markovian neural networks with time-varying delayed signals. Based on the tunable parameter and convex combination computational method, a new approach named flexible terminal approach is proposed to reduce the conservatism of delay-dependent synchronization criteria. The SD subject to stochastic sampling period is introduced to exhibit the general phenomena of reality. Novel exponential synchronization criterion are derived by utilizing uniform Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and suitable integral inequality. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the usefulness and advantages of the proposed design procedure.

  19. An evaluation of Bayesian techniques for controlling model complexity and selecting inputs in a neural network for short-term load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippert, Henrique S; Taylor, James W

    2010-04-01

    Artificial neural networks have frequently been proposed for electricity load forecasting because of their capabilities for the nonlinear modelling of large multivariate data sets. Modelling with neural networks is not an easy task though; two of the main challenges are defining the appropriate level of model complexity, and choosing the input variables. This paper evaluates techniques for automatic neural network modelling within a Bayesian framework, as applied to six samples containing daily load and weather data for four different countries. We analyse input selection as carried out by the Bayesian 'automatic relevance determination', and the usefulness of the Bayesian 'evidence' for the selection of the best structure (in terms of number of neurones), as compared to methods based on cross-validation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing the Reconfiguration Method to Increase Life Expectancy of Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control and management logistics solutions that are used in terminals apply sensor based technologies to identify and localize containers in the yard. Nevertheless, because of the limits in the existing sensor technical specification, the position of nodes is still affected by some errors or sometimes it cannot be determined in real-time systems due to battery fall.

  1. Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: model development and case study for Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Fath, Brian D; Liu, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong

    2014-01-15

    If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases". © 2013.

  2. Accuracy assessment of the scalar network analyzer using sliding termination techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bent; Engen, Glenn F.; Guldbrandsen, Birthe

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of phase response the major, if not the primary, sources of error in the scalar network analyzer are the imperfect directivity, etc., associated with its internal and frequently inaccessible test set or measurement network. An explicit expression is obtained for this error in terms...

  3. Communication method for high density wireless networks, terminal, cluster master device, central node, and system therefor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Bijwaard, D.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale wireless sensor and actuator networks(LWSANs) are networks that consist of many sensor and/or actuator devices (i.e. >1,000 devices). These sensor and/or actuator devices (also called nodes) communicate wirelessly to deliver their sensor readings to one or more gateway devices in the

  4. Artificial neural network modelling of biological oxygen demand in rivers at the national level with input selection based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić, Aleksandra; Antanasijević, Davor; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana; Pocajt, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the most significant water quality parameter and indicates water pollution with respect to the present biodegradable organic matter content. European countries are therefore obliged to report annual BOD values to Eurostat; however, BOD data at the national level is only available for 28 of 35 listed European countries for the period prior to 2008, among which 46% of data is missing. This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network model for the forecasting of annual BOD values at the national level, using widely available sustainability and economical/industrial parameters as inputs. The initial general regression neural network (GRNN) model was trained, validated and tested utilizing 20 inputs. The number of inputs was reduced to 15 using the Monte Carlo simulation technique as the input selection method. The best results were achieved with the GRNN model utilizing 25% less inputs than the initial model and a comparison with a multiple linear regression model trained and tested using the same input variables using multiple statistical performance indicators confirmed the advantage of the GRNN model. Sensitivity analysis has shown that inputs with the greatest effect on the GRNN model were (in descending order) precipitation, rural population with access to improved water sources, treatment capacity of wastewater treatment plants (urban) and treatment of municipal waste, with the last two having an equal effect. Finally, it was concluded that the developed GRNN model can be useful as a tool to support the decision-making process on sustainable development at a regional, national and international level.

  5. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  6. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  7. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  8. Bidirectional multi-optical line terminals incorporated converged WSN-PON network using M/M/1 queuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Love; Sharma, Vishal; Singh, Amarpal

    2017-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have an assortment of application areas, for instance, civil, military, and video surveillance with restricted power resources and transmission link. To accommodate the massive traffic load in hefty sensor networks is another key issue. Subsequently, there is a necessity to backhaul the sensed information of such networks and prolong the transmission link to access the distinct receivers. Passive Optical Network (PON), a next-generation access technology, comes out as a suitable candidate for the convergence of the sensed data to the core system. The earlier demonstrated work with single-OLT-PON introduces an overloaded buffer akin to video surveillance scenarios. In this paper, to combine the bandwidth potential of PONs with the mobility capability of WSNs, the viability for the convergence of PONs and WSNs incorporating multi-optical line terminals is demonstrated to handle the overloaded OLTs. The existing M/M/1 queue theory with interleaving polling with adaptive cycle time as dynamic bandwidth algorithm is used to shun the probability of packets clash. Further, the proposed multi-sink WSN and multi-OLT PON converged structure is investigated in bidirectional mode analytically and through computer simulations. The observations establish the proposed structure competent to accommodate the colossal data traffic through less time consumption.

  9. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  10. Local Area Network Terminal Management in Support of Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    academically justifiable, there remained the co.cern that to stray t3o far fros the realities of the Naval Supply System woula -esult i an academic...lesire to produce a recommendation for the near future, and there- fore embraces the reality of the SPLICE environment mor - than the generic TM model...modlal presented in Chapter iV. F. REINHART MID ARANA rN In Reference I (p. 55), th- iathors proposed a TI approach based upon a " Vitual terminal" manag

  11. Lateralized odor preference training in rat pups reveals an enhanced network response in anterior piriform cortex to olfactory input that parallels extended memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-09-18

    The present study examines synaptic plasticity in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) using ex vivo slices from rat pups given lateralized odor preference training. In the early odor preference learning model, a brief 10 min training session yields 24 h memory, while four daily sessions yield 48 h memory. Odor preference memory can be lateralized through naris occlusion as the anterior commissure is not yet functional. AMPA receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses in the aPC to lateral olfactory tract input, shown to be enhanced at 24 h, are no longer enhanced 48 h after a single training session. Following four spaced lateralized trials, the AMPA receptor-mediated fEPSP is enhanced in the trained aPC at 48 h. Calcium imaging of aPC pyramidal cells within 48 h revealed decreased firing thresholds in the pyramidal cell network. Thus multiday odor preference training induced increased odor input responsiveness in previously weakly activated aPC cells. These results support the hypothesis that increased synaptic strength in olfactory input networks mediates odor preference memory. The increase in aPC network activation parallels behavioral memory.

  12. A linear and non-linear polynomial neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen content in surface water: Inter- and extrapolation performance with inputs' significance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić Tomić, Aleksandra; Antanasijević, Davor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Pocajt, Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of water quality parameters (WQPs) is an important task in the management of water resources. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are frequently applied for dissolved oxygen (DO) prediction, but often only their interpolation performance is checked. The aims of this research, beside interpolation, were the determination of extrapolation performance of ANN model, which was developed for the prediction of DO content in the Danube River, and the assessment of relationship between the significance of inputs and prediction error in the presence of values which were of out of the range of training. The applied ANN is a polynomial neural network (PNN) which performs embedded selection of most important inputs during learning, and provides a model in the form of linear and non-linear polynomial functions, which can then be used for a detailed analysis of the significance of inputs. Available dataset that contained 1912 monitoring records for 17 water quality parameters was split into a "regular" subset that contains normally distributed and low variability data, and an "extreme" subset that contains monitoring records with outlier values. The results revealed that the non-linear PNN model has good interpolation performance (R 2 =0.82), but it was not robust in extrapolation (R 2 =0.63). The analysis of extrapolation results has shown that the prediction errors are correlated with the significance of inputs. Namely, the out-of-training range values of the inputs with low importance do not affect significantly the PNN model performance, but their influence can be biased by the presence of multi-outlier monitoring records. Subsequently, linear PNN models were successfully applied to study the effect of water quality parameters on DO content. It was observed that DO level is mostly affected by temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorus concentration, while in extreme conditions the importance of alkalinity and bicarbonates rises over p

  13. Large File Transfers from Space Using Multiple Ground Terminals and Delay-Tolerant Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip; Stewart, Dave; Eddy, Wesley; McKim, James; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; hide

    2010-01-01

    We use Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to break control loops between space-ground communication links and ground-ground communication links to increase overall file delivery efficiency, as well as to enable large files to be proactively fragmented and received across multiple ground stations. DTN proactive fragmentation and reactive fragmentation were demonstrated from the UK-DMC satellite using two independent ground stations. The files were reassembled at a bundle agent, located at Glenn Research Center in Cleveland Ohio. The first space-based demonstration of this occurred on September 30 and October 1, 2009. This paper details those experiments. Communication, delay-tolerant networking, DTN, satellite, Internet, protocols, bundle, IP, TCP.

  14. Improvement of Information Transmission of Suprathreshold Input Signal with Stochastic Resonance in Hippocampal CA1 Neuron Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Minato; Mino, Hiroyuki; Momose, Keiko; Durand, Dominique M.

    We investigate if and how SR (stochastic resonance) can be shown in the presence of supra-threshold signals (SSR) in physiologically realistic neural networks. The mutual information was maximized at a specific amplitude of noise in larger neural networks, implying SSR.

  15. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  16. Out-of-Sequence Prevention for Multicast Input-Queuing Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two cell dispatching algorithms for the input-queuing space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Closnetwork to reduce out-of-sequence (OOS) for multicast traffic. The frequent connection pattern change of DSRR results in a severe OOS problem. Based on the principle of DSRR, MFDSRR is able...

  17. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We

  18. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  19. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Pamučar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM, negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  20. A self-healing evaluation model for dedicated protection optical fiber sensor networks using All-terminal reliability function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dagong; Chen, Jing; Yan, Yingzhan; Zhang, Hongxia; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2017-12-01

    With the increase of the number of sensors and nodes, the existing self-healing evaluation models for large-scale optical fiber sensor networks (OFSNs) have become insufficient to evaluate their self-healing capability. Here, we propose a self-healing evaluation model using the All-terminal reliability function for OFSNs. On the basis of this model, we establish equations for loop topology using the state enumeration method, and for more complicated star-ring and double-loop topologies, using both state enumeration method and Monte-Carlo method. In our self-healing evaluation model, the self-healing capability is a function of the number of the sensors (N) and the working probability of link fibers (p). We have conducted a comparative study on the effects of these two factors on the self-healing capability among these network topologies. The results show that with the increase of N or the decrease of p, the self-healing capability of the all topologies declines, and the star-ring topology displays the best self-healing capability.

  1. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone. PMID:27195005

  2. Exploring Institutional Mechanisms for Scientific Input into the Management Cycle of the National Protected Area Network of Peru: Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, M. D.; Castro, H.; Arenas, M.; Requena-Mullor, J. M.; Cano, A.; Valenzuela, E.; Cabello, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how to improve decision makers' use of scientific information across their different scales of management is a core challenge for narrowing the gap between science and conservation practice. Here, we present a study conducted in collaboration with decision makers that aims to explore the functionality of the mechanisms for scientific input within the institutional setting of the National Protected Area Network of Peru. First, we analyzed institutional mechanisms to assess the scientific information recorded by decision makers. Second, we developed two workshops involving scientists, decision makers and social actors to identify barriers to evidence-based conservation practice. Third, we administered 482 questionnaires to stakeholders to explore social perceptions of the role of science and the willingness to collaborate in the governance of protected areas. The results revealed that (1) the institutional mechanisms did not effectively promote the compilation and application of scientific knowledge for conservation practice; (2) six important barriers hindered scientific input in management decisions; and (3) stakeholders showed positive perceptions about the involvement of scientists in protected areas and expressed their willingness to collaborate in conservation practice. This collaborative research helped to (1) identify gaps and opportunities that should be addressed for increasing the effectiveness of the institutional mechanisms and (2) support institutional changes integrating science-based strategies for strengthening scientific input in decision-making. These insights provide a useful contextual orientation for scholars and decision makers interested in conducting empirical research to connect scientific inputs with operational aspects of the management cycle in other institutional settings around the world.

  3. Lipid carbonyl groups terminate the hydrogen bond network of membrane-bound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Backus, Ellen H G; Hsieh, Cho-Shuen; Sulpizi, Marialore; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki

    2015-11-19

    We present a combined experimental sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations study to clarify the structure and orientation of water at zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid and amine N-oxide (AO) surfactant monolayers. Simulated O-H stretch SFG spectra of water show good agreement with the experimental data. The SFG response at the PC interface exhibits positive peaks, whereas both negative and positive bands are present for the similar zwitterionic AO interface. The positive peaks at the water/PC interface are attributed to water interacting with the lipid carbonyl groups, which act as efficient hydrogen bond acceptors. This allows the water hydrogen bond network to reach, with its (up-oriented) O-H groups, into the headgroup of the lipid, a mechanism not available for water underneath the AO surfactant. This highlights the role of the lipid carbonyl group in the interfacial water structure at the membrane interface, namely, stabilizing the water hydrogen bond network.

  4. Convolutional neural network architecture and input volume matrix design for ERP classifications in a tactile P300-based Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takumi; Makino, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    In the presented study we conduct the off-line ERP classification using the convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for somatosensory ERP intervals acquired in the full- body tactile P300-based Brain-Computer Interface paradigm (fbBCI). The main objective of the study is to enhance fbBCI stimulus pattern classification accuracies by applying the CNN classifier. A 60 × 60 squared input volume transformed by one-dimensional somatosensory ERP intervals in each electrode channel is input to the convolutional architecture for a filter training. The flattened activation maps are evaluated by a multilayer perceptron with one-hidden-layer in order to calculate classification accuracy results. The proposed method reveals that the CNN classifier model can achieve a non-personal- training ERP classification with the fbBCI paradigm, scoring 100 % classification accuracy results for all the participated ten users.

  5. A Regulated Double-Negative Feedback Decodes the Temporal Gradient of Input Stimulation in a Cell Signaling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Shin, Sung-Young; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Revealing the hidden mechanism of how cells sense and react to environmental signals has been a central question in cell biology. We focused on the rate of increase of stimulation, or temporal gradient, known to cause different responses of cells. We have investigated all possible three-node enzymatic networks and identified a network motif that robustly generates a transient or sustained response by acute or gradual stimulation, respectively. We also found that a regulated double-negative feedback within the motif is essential for the temporal gradient-sensitive switching. Our analysis highlights the essential structure and mechanism enabling cells to properly respond to dynamic environmental changes. PMID:27584002

  6. A spiking neural network model of model-free reinforcement learning with high-dimensional sensory input and perceptual ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takashi; Otsuka, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Doya, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework of reinforcement learning plays an important role in understanding action selection in animals. Spiking neural networks provide a theoretically grounded means to test computational hypotheses on neurally plausible algorithms of reinforcement learning through numerical simulation. However, most of these models cannot handle observations which are noisy, or occurred in the past, even though these are inevitable and constraining features of learning in real environments. This class of problem is formally known as partially observable reinforcement learning (PORL) problems. It provides a generalization of reinforcement learning to partially observable domains. In addition, observations in the real world tend to be rich and high-dimensional. In this work, we use a spiking neural network model to approximate the free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine and apply it to the solution of PORL problems with high-dimensional observations. Our spiking network model solves maze tasks with perceptually ambiguous high-dimensional observations without knowledge of the true environment. An extended model with working memory also solves history-dependent tasks. The way spiking neural networks handle PORL problems may provide a glimpse into the underlying laws of neural information processing which can only be discovered through such a top-down approach.

  7. A Dynamic Fuzzy Controller to Meet Thermal Comfort by Using Neural Network Forecasted Parameters as the Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Collotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC systems are typical non-linear time-variable multivariate systems with disturbances and uncertainties. In this paper, an approach based on a combined neuro-fuzzy model for dynamic and automatic regulation of indoor temperature is proposed. The proposed artificial neural network performs indoor temperatures forecasts that are used to feed a fuzzy logic control unit in order to manage the on/off switching of the HVAC system and the regulation of the inlet air speed. Moreover, the used neural network is optimized by the analytical calculation of the embedding parameters, and the goodness of this approach is tested through MATLAB. The fuzzy controller is driven by the indoor temperature forecasted by the neural network module and is able to adjust the membership functions dynamically, since thermal comfort is a very subjective factor and may vary even in the same subject. The paper shows some experimental results, through a real implementation in an embedded prototyping board, of the proposed approach in terms of the evolution of the inlet air speed injected by the fan coils, the indoor air temperature forecasted by the neural network model and the adjusting of the membership functions after receiving user feedback.

  8. An enhanced SOCP-based method for feeder load balancing using the multi-terminal soft open point in active distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Haoran; Wang, Chengshan; Li, Peng; Zhao, Jinli; Song, Guanyu; Ding, Fei; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    The integration of distributed generators (DGs) exacerbates the feeder power flow fluctuation and load unbalanced condition in active distribution networks (ADNs). The unbalanced feeder load causes inefficient use of network assets and network congestion during system operation. The flexible interconnection based on the multi-terminal soft open point (SOP) significantly benefits the operation of ADNs. The multi-terminal SOP, which is a controllable power electronic device installed to replace the normally open point, provides accurate active and reactive power flow control to enable the flexible connection of feeders. An enhanced SOCP-based method for feeder load balancing using the multi-terminal SOP is proposed in this paper. By regulating the operation of the multi-terminal SOP, the proposed method can mitigate the unbalanced condition of feeder load and simultaneously reduce the power losses of ADNs. Then, the original non-convex model is converted into a second-order cone programming (SOCP) model using convex relaxation. To tighten the SOCP relaxation and improve the computation efficiency, an enhanced SOCP-based approach is developed to solve the proposed model. Finally, case studies are performed on the modified IEEE 33-node system to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Simulation Study on the Effect of Reduced Inputs of Artificial Neural Networks on the Predictive Performance of the Solar Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahiba Yaïci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong growth in solar power generation industries. The need for highly efficient and optimised solar thermal energy systems, stand-alone or grid connected photovoltaic systems, has substantially increased. This requires the development of efficient and reliable performance prediction capabilities of solar heat and power production over the day. This contribution investigates the effect of the number of input variables on both the accuracy and the reliability of the artificial neural network (ANN method for predicting the performance parameters of a solar energy system. This paper describes the ANN models and the optimisation process in detail for predicting performance. Comparison with experimental data from a solar energy system tested in Ottawa, Canada during two years under different weather conditions demonstrates the good prediction accuracy attainable with each of the models using reduced input variables. However, it is likely true that the degree of model accuracy would gradually decrease with reduced inputs. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the ANN technique is an effective approach for predicting the performance of highly non-linear energy systems. The suitability of the modelling approach using ANNs as a practical engineering tool in renewable energy system performance analysis and prediction is clearly demonstrated.

  10. Bearings Fault Diagnosis Based on Convolutional Neural Networks with 2-D Representation of Vibration Signals as Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic vibration signals captured by the accelerometers carry rich information for bearing fault diagnosis. Existing methods mostly rely on hand-crafted time-consuming preprocessing of data to acquire suitable features. In this paper, we use an easy and effective method to transform the 1-D temporal vibration signal into a 2-D image. With the signal image, convolutional Neural Network (CNN is used to train the raw vibration data. As powerful feature extractor and classifier for image recognition, CNN can learn to acquire features most suitable for the classification task by being trained. With the image format of vibration signals, the neuron in fully-connected layer of CNN can see farther and capture the periodic feature of signals. According to the results of the experiments, when fed in enough training samples, the proposed method outperforms other common methods. The proposed method can also be applied to solve intelligent diagnosis problems of other machine systems.

  11. Transmedulla Neurons in the Sky Compass Network of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Are a Possible Site of Circadian Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Maximilian; Held, Martina; Bender, Julia; Berz, Annuska; Heinloth, Tanja; Hellfritz, Timm; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees are known for their ability to use the sun's azimuth and the sky's polarization pattern for spatial orientation. Sky compass orientation in bees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level but our knowledge about the underlying neuronal systems and mechanisms is very limited. Electrophysiological studies in other insect species suggest that neurons of the sky compass system integrate information about the polarization pattern of the sky, its chromatic gradient, and the azimuth of the sun. In order to obtain a stable directional signal throughout the day, circadian changes between the sky polarization pattern and the solar azimuth must be compensated. Likewise, the system must be modulated in a context specific way to compensate for changes in intensity, polarization and chromatic properties of light caused by clouds, vegetation and landscape. The goal of this study was to identify neurons of the sky compass pathway in the honeybee brain and to find potential sites of circadian and neuromodulatory input into this pathway. To this end we first traced the sky compass pathway from the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area of the compound eye via the medulla and the anterior optic tubercle to the lateral complex using dye injections. Neurons forming this pathway strongly resembled neurons of the sky compass pathway in other insect species. Next we combined tracer injections with immunocytochemistry against the circadian neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor and the neuromodulators serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. We identified neurons, connecting the dorsal rim area of the medulla to the anterior optic tubercle, as a possible site of neuromodulation and interaction with the circadian system. These neurons have conspicuous spines in close proximity to pigment dispersing factor-, serotonin-, and GABA-immunoreactive neurons. Our data therefore show for the first time a potential interaction site between the sky compass pathway and the circadian

  12. Transmedulla Neurons in the Sky Compass Network of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera Are a Possible Site of Circadian Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Zeller

    Full Text Available Honeybees are known for their ability to use the sun's azimuth and the sky's polarization pattern for spatial orientation. Sky compass orientation in bees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level but our knowledge about the underlying neuronal systems and mechanisms is very limited. Electrophysiological studies in other insect species suggest that neurons of the sky compass system integrate information about the polarization pattern of the sky, its chromatic gradient, and the azimuth of the sun. In order to obtain a stable directional signal throughout the day, circadian changes between the sky polarization pattern and the solar azimuth must be compensated. Likewise, the system must be modulated in a context specific way to compensate for changes in intensity, polarization and chromatic properties of light caused by clouds, vegetation and landscape. The goal of this study was to identify neurons of the sky compass pathway in the honeybee brain and to find potential sites of circadian and neuromodulatory input into this pathway. To this end we first traced the sky compass pathway from the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area of the compound eye via the medulla and the anterior optic tubercle to the lateral complex using dye injections. Neurons forming this pathway strongly resembled neurons of the sky compass pathway in other insect species. Next we combined tracer injections with immunocytochemistry against the circadian neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor and the neuromodulators serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. We identified neurons, connecting the dorsal rim area of the medulla to the anterior optic tubercle, as a possible site of neuromodulation and interaction with the circadian system. These neurons have conspicuous spines in close proximity to pigment dispersing factor-, serotonin-, and GABA-immunoreactive neurons. Our data therefore show for the first time a potential interaction site between the sky compass pathway

  13. Transmedulla Neurons in the Sky Compass Network of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Are a Possible Site of Circadian Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Maximilian; Held, Martina; Bender, Julia; Berz, Annuska; Heinloth, Tanja; Hellfritz, Timm; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees are known for their ability to use the sun’s azimuth and the sky’s polarization pattern for spatial orientation. Sky compass orientation in bees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level but our knowledge about the underlying neuronal systems and mechanisms is very limited. Electrophysiological studies in other insect species suggest that neurons of the sky compass system integrate information about the polarization pattern of the sky, its chromatic gradient, and the azimuth of the sun. In order to obtain a stable directional signal throughout the day, circadian changes between the sky polarization pattern and the solar azimuth must be compensated. Likewise, the system must be modulated in a context specific way to compensate for changes in intensity, polarization and chromatic properties of light caused by clouds, vegetation and landscape. The goal of this study was to identify neurons of the sky compass pathway in the honeybee brain and to find potential sites of circadian and neuromodulatory input into this pathway. To this end we first traced the sky compass pathway from the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area of the compound eye via the medulla and the anterior optic tubercle to the lateral complex using dye injections. Neurons forming this pathway strongly resembled neurons of the sky compass pathway in other insect species. Next we combined tracer injections with immunocytochemistry against the circadian neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor and the neuromodulators serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. We identified neurons, connecting the dorsal rim area of the medulla to the anterior optic tubercle, as a possible site of neuromodulation and interaction with the circadian system. These neurons have conspicuous spines in close proximity to pigment dispersing factor-, serotonin-, and GABA-immunoreactive neurons. Our data therefore show for the first time a potential interaction site between the sky compass pathway and the circadian

  14. Distributed Adaptive Neural Network Output Tracking of Leader-Following High-Order Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed output tracking consensus control for a class of high-order stochastic nonlinear multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone under a directed graph topology. The adaptive neural networks are used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and a new inequality is used to deal with the completely unknown dead-zone input. Then, we design the controllers based on backstepping method and the dynamic surface control technique. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of semiglobally uniform ultimate boundedness and the tracking errors between the leader and the followers approach to a small residual set based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed techniques.

  15. Fouling resistance prediction using artificial neural network nonlinear auto-regressive with exogenous input model based on operating conditions and fluid properties correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyanto, Totok R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Institute Technology of Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    Fouling in a heat exchanger in Crude Preheat Train (CPT) refinery is an unsolved problem that reduces the plant efficiency, increases fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emission. The fouling resistance behavior is very complex. It is difficult to develop a model using first principle equation to predict the fouling resistance due to different operating conditions and different crude blends. In this paper, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) with input structure using Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXogenous (NARX) is utilized to build the fouling resistance model in shell and tube heat exchanger (STHX). The input data of the model are flow rates and temperatures of the streams of the heat exchanger, physical properties of product and crude blend data. This model serves as a predicting tool to optimize operating conditions and preventive maintenance of STHX. The results show that the model can capture the complexity of fouling characteristics in heat exchanger due to thermodynamic conditions and variations in crude oil properties (blends). It was found that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are suitable to capture the nonlinearity and complexity of the STHX fouling resistance during phases of training and validation.

  16. Don't blame it on the precipitation input: A hydrological modeling case study with a very dense and redundant rain gauge network in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, Christian; Schlenk, Ulla; Fersch, Benjamin; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Accurate rainfall input is the key component in hydrological modeling, in particular for model development. However, accurately capturing precipitation is a challenging, not to say impossible task, due to its high variability in time and space. Typical rain gauge networks are too coarse to deliver spatially representative measurements, while remote sensing techniques suffer from uncertainties of their indirect measurement principle. To rule out the uncertainty from rainfall input as good as possible, we have carried out two intensive measurements campaigns in 2015 and 2016, using 66 rain gauges, installed at 22 sites within a catchment of 70 km2 in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The rain gauge observations were part of the ScaleX campaign (http://scalex.imk-ifu.kit.edu), aiming at concertedly investigating atmospheric, hydrological and biogeochemical processes over a large range of scales. The average distance between the 22 observation sites was 2.5 km. We further improved the spatial representativeness of our data set using C-band weather radar data from the German Weather Service research radar, only 10 km away from our catchment. To account for the uncertainties of the radar observations, we adjusted the radar rainfall with data from our dense rain gauge network, providing the best possible estimation of ground rainfall for our catchment. We will present results from hydrological modeling in our catchment, using the stand-alone WRF-Hydro model, driven by different derived rainfall fields from rain gauge, radar and a combination of the two. We will highlight the advantage of having reliable ground rainfall to identify model inherent uncertainties and potential improvements.

  17. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  18. Flexible and re-configurable optical three-input XOR logic gate of phase-modulated signals with multicast functionality for potential application in optical physical-layer network coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Qin, Jun; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, XuYuefeng; Sharif, Gazi Mohammad; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2016-02-08

    Optical logic gate, especially exclusive-or (XOR) gate, plays important role in accomplishing photonic computing and various network functionalities in future optical networks. On the other hand, optical multicast is another indispensable functionality to efficiently deliver information in optical networks. In this paper, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a flexible optical three-input XOR gate scheme for multiple input phase-modulated signals with a 1-to-2 multicast functionality for each XOR operation using four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in single piece of highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Through FWM in HNLF, all of the possible XOR operations among input signals could be simultaneously realized by sharing a single piece of HNLF. By selecting the obtained XOR components using a followed wavelength selective component, the number of XOR gates and the participant light in XOR operations could be flexibly configured. The re-configurability of the proposed XOR gate and the function integration of the optical logic gate and multicast in single device offer the flexibility in network design and improve the network efficiency. We experimentally demonstrate flexible 3-input XOR gate for four 10-Gbaud binary phase-shift keying signals with a multicast scale of 2. Error-free operations for the obtained XOR results are achieved. Potential application of the integrated XOR and multicast function in network coding is also discussed.

  19. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eMiceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for normal topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  20. Input Impedance of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinion, Darin; Clarke, John

    2008-03-01

    We present measurements of the complex scattering parameters of microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSA) cooled to 4.2 K. The input of the MSA is a microstrip transmission line in the shape of a square spiral coil surrounding the hole in the SQUID washer that serves as the ground plane. The input impedance is found by measuring the reverse scattering parameter (S11) and is described well by a low-loss transmission line model. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit in which a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C are calculated from the resonant frequency, characteristic impedance and attenuation factor. Using this equivalent RLC circuit, we model the MSA and input network with a lumped circuit model that accurately predicts the observed gain given by the forward scattering parameter (S21). We will summarize results for different coil geometries and terminations as well as SQUID bias conditions. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. An Adaptive B-Spline Neural Network and Its Application in Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Mobile Satcom Antenna Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Kai; Li, Gaoliang; Deng, Nianmao

    2017-01-01

    The mobile satcom antenna (MSA) enables a moving vehicle to communicate with a geostationary Earth orbit satellite. To realize continuous communication, the MSA should be aligned with the satellite in both sight and polarization all the time. Because of coupling effects, unknown disturbances, sensor noises and unmodeled dynamics existing in the system, the control system should have a strong adaptability. The significant features of terminal sliding mode control method are robustness and finite time convergence, but the robustness is related to the large switching control gain which is determined by uncertain issues and can lead to chattering phenomena. Neural networks can reduce the chattering and approximate nonlinear issues. In this work, a novel B-spline curve-based B-spline neural network (BSNN) is developed. The improved BSNN has the capability of shape changing and self-adaption. In addition, the output of the proposed BSNN is applied to approximate the nonlinear function in the system. The results of simulations and experiments are also compared with those of PID method, non-singularity fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) control and radial basis function (RBF) neural network-based NFTSM. It is shown that the proposed method has the best performance, with reliable control precision. PMID:28452931

  2. Down-sizing of neuronal network activity and density of presynaptic terminals by pathological acidosis are efficiently prevented by Diminazene Aceturate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Roberta; Chaabane, Linda; Biffi, Emilia; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Amadio, Stefano; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Mazzocchi, Nausicaa; Comi, Giancarlo; Bianchi, Veronica; Taverna, Stefano; Forti, Lia; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Martino, Gianvito; Menegon, Andrea; Muzio, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Local acidosis is associated with neuro-inflammation and can have significant effects in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, brain ischemia, spinal cord injury and epilepsy. Despite local acidosis has been implicated in numerous pathological functions, very little is known about the modulatory effects of pathological acidosis on the activity of neuronal networks and on synaptic structural properties. Using non-invasive MRI spectroscopy we revealed protracted extracellular acidosis in the CNS of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) affected mice. By multi-unit recording in cortical neurons, we established that acidosis affects network activity, down-sizing firing and bursting behaviors as well as amplitudes. Furthermore, a protracted acidosis reduced the number of presynaptic terminals, while it did not affect the postsynaptic compartment. Application of the diarylamidine Diminazene Aceturate (DA) during acidosis significantly reverted both the loss of neuronal firing and bursting and the reduction of presynaptic terminals. Finally, in vivo DA delivery ameliorated the clinical disease course of EAE mice, reducing demyelination and axonal damage. DA is known to block acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are proton-gated, voltage-insensitive, Na(+) permeable channels principally expressed by peripheral and central nervous system neurons. Our data suggest that ASICs activation during acidosis modulates network electrical activity and exacerbates neuro-degeneration in EAE mice. Therefore pharmacological modulation of ASICs in neuroinflammatory diseases could represent a new promising strategy for future therapies aimed at neuro-protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Adaptive B-Spline Neural Network and Its Application in Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Mobile Satcom Antenna Inertially Stabilized Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Kai; Li, Gaoliang; Deng, Nianmao

    2017-04-28

    The mobile satcom antenna (MSA) enables a moving vehicle to communicate with a geostationary Earth orbit satellite. To realize continuous communication, the MSA should be aligned with the satellite in both sight and polarization all the time. Because of coupling effects, unknown disturbances, sensor noises and unmodeled dynamics existing in the system, the control system should have a strong adaptability. The significant features of terminal sliding mode control method are robustness and finite time convergence, but the robustness is related to the large switching control gain which is determined by uncertain issues and can lead to chattering phenomena. Neural networks can reduce the chattering and approximate nonlinear issues. In this work, a novel B-spline curve-based B-spline neural network (BSNN) is developed. The improved BSNN has the capability of shape changing and self-adaption. In addition, the output of the proposed BSNN is applied to approximate the nonlinear function in the system. The results of simulations and experiments are also compared with those of PID method, non-singularity fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) control and radial basis function (RBF) neural network-based NFTSM. It is shown that the proposed method has the best performance, with reliable control precision.

  4. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R. Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR, the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR, and the self-orienting receiver (SOR, which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  5. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Beatriz R; Rodríguez, Silvestre; Pérez-Jiménez, Rafael; Ayala, Alejandro; González, Oswaldo

    2016-07-14

    In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR) wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR), the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR), and the self-orienting receiver (SOR), which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  6. The C-terminal domains of NF-H and NF-M subunits maintain axonal neurofilament content by blocking turnover of the stationary neurofilament network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala V Rao

    Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.

  7. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  8. SDR input power estimation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, J. C.; Nappier, J. M.

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  9. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  10. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  11. 47 CFR 25.134 - Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. 25.134 Section 25.134 Telecommunication... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.134 Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. (a)(1) VSAT networks operating in the 12/14 GHz...

  12. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Teixeira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving the European renewable electricity targets, a significant contribution is foreseen to come from offshore wind energy. Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is desirable for several reasons. This article investigates a nine-node DC grid connecting three northern European countries — namely UK, The Netherlands and Germany. The power-flow control inside the multi-terminal DC grid based on voltage-source converters is achieved through a novel method, called distributed voltage control (DVC. In this method, an optimal power flow (OPF is solved in order to minimize the transmission losses in the network. The main contribution of the paper is the utilization of a genetic algorithm (GA to solve the OPF problem while maintaining an N-1 security constraint. After describing main DC network component models, several case studies illustrate the dynamic behavior of the proposed control method.

  13. Terminal Antennas in ACE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez-Vazquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ACE Network of Excellence was a European Commission funded Network of Excellence, which lasted from 2004 to 2007. One of the activities performed by this Network was in the frame of terminal antennas. In this activity, three aspects were covered in three projects: Small antenna technologies, small terminal antenna technologies and benchmarking of small terminal antennas measurement facilities. The overall aim was to identify the newest trends in antenna design and measurement for personal communications devices, and suggest novel solutions and design methodologies for various applications. The results of this work are presented in this paper.

  14. Identification of Hadronically-Decaying W Boson Top Quarks Using High-Level Features as Input to Boosted Decision Trees and Deep Neural Networks in ATLAS at #sqrt{s} = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Tatsumi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The application of boosted decision trees and deep neural networks to the identification of hadronically-decaying W bosons and top quarks using high-level jet observables as inputs is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of both boosted decision trees and deep neural networks, the use of machine learning techniques is found to improve the background rejection with respect to simple reference single jet substructure and mass taggers. Linear correlations between the resulting classifiers and the substructure variables are also presented.

  15. Identification of Hadronically-Decaying W Bosons and Top Quarks Using High-Level Features as Input to Boosted Decision Trees and Deep Neural Networks in ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The application of boosted decision trees and deep neural networks to the identification of hadronically-decaying W bosons and top quarks using high-level jet observables as inputs is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of both boosted decision trees and deep neural networks, the use of machine learning techniques is found to improve the background rejection with respect to simple reference single jet substructure and mass taggers. Linear correlations between the resulting classifiers and the substructure variables are also presented.

  16. An application of neural networks in microeconomics: input-output mapping in a power generation subsector of the US electricity industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbas, B.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the artificial neural networks in economics and business goes back to 1950s, while the major bulk of the applications have been developed in more recent years. Reviewing this literature indicates that the field of business benefits from the neural networks in a wide spectrum from

  17. The Continuous Generation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during the Passage of the Solar Terminator, Observed with a Densely-Clustered Network of GPS Receivers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, S. M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Abdullah, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are three-dimensional structures of depleted plasma density that are often observed in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. They are initiated near the magnetic dip equator, in the bottomside of the F layer, and develop with time, upward in altitude and poleward in latitude (into both hemispheres), taking the form of longitudinally-narrow, vertically-extended wedges that penetrate deep into the topside of the F layer. Moreover, these structures drift zonally as they evolve in time. Much of what is not yet known about EPBs stems from our inability (1) to capture spatial descriptions of these structures, and (2) to monitor their evolution as a function of time. An objective of this presentation is to report the existence and availability of total electron content (TEC) data from densely-clustered networks of GPS receivers that are capable of providing time-continuous descriptions of EPBs with both high spatial resolution and broad geographical coverage. The networks include the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematics GNSS Network (MyRTKnet), Sumatera GPS Array (SUGAR) network and International GNSS Service (IGS) located in Southeast Asia (SEA). These networks contain 127 GPS receivers with average spacing of about 50 to 100 km. With the ability to resolve space-time ambiguities, we are able to follow the temporal evolution of EPB structures over an extended longitude sector (90 to 120 degrees, East longitude). We will present results from a case study (April 5, 2011) in which 16 EPBs were detected in longitude and tracked in time. We show, for the first time, that the births of 10 out of 16 observed EPBs coincided with the time of passage of the solar terminator across the longitude of birth. The distance between birth locations varied between 100 and 550 km with 10-minute interval. These EPBs were found to persist for 50 minutes to 7 hours, while drifting eastward at a speed of 92 to 150 ms-1. The finding that as many as 16 EPBs can be

  18. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  19. Terminating supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Alytia A; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this paper is on the termination of clinical supervision. Although clinical supervision is considered the backbone of most mental health training programs, it gets relatively little theoretical or empirical attention. The termination of supervision has received even less attention. In this paper, we describe an approach to terminating supervision in our treatment team, which integrates intensive assessment with a relational perspective in a clinical science training program (Levendosky & Hopwood, 2016). We describe our established conceptual framework, review empirical evidence, and provide verbatim examples from final supervision meetings on our team to elaborate the importance of conceptualizing individual differences across trainees and parallels between supervision and psychotherapy dynamics. We conclude by emphasizing the need for research on supervision in general and supervision termination in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. EVA reactive blending with Si-H terminated polysiloxane by carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction: From compatibilised blends to crosslinking networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, J.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P. [Universite de Lyon, 69003 Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5223, Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, 15 Boulevard Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cassagnau, P., E-mail: philippe.cassagnau@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, 69003 Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5223, Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, 15 Boulevard Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new and original method based on carbonyl hydrosilylation was developed to prepare ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/polysiloxane polymer blends. This focused on the addition of hydrogenosilane groups (SiH) from polysiloxane to the carbonyl groups of EVA. The influence of the nature of the polysiloxane on blend properties was investigated by rheology and scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of a low viscosity polysiloxane with a high viscosity EVA matrix produced a two-phase morphology. The occurrence of the hydrosilylation reaction at the EVA/polysiloxane interface promoted a homogenisation of the blend depending on the molar ratio SiH/vinyl acetate groups, [SiH]/[VA], and the viscosity ratio of the blend. Two distinct behaviours were observed. The formation of a crosslinked network under shear was obtained for a low viscosity ratio between polysiloxane and EVA ({lambda}{sub polysiloxane/EVA} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}) with a high concentration of SiH groups ([SiH]/[VA] = 0.5), while the formation of a compatibilised blend was observed for high molar mass polysiloxanes (Mn > 15,000 g mol{sup -1}) with a low concentration of SiH ([SiH]/[VA] < 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction was found to enhance EVA/polysiloxane immiscible blends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EVA crosslinking was obtained with a low molar mass polysiloxane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EVA compatibilisation was obtained with a high molar mass polysiloxane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shear rate was found to improve the hydrosilylation reaction at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-phase morphology of the blends was observed after reaction with fine polysiloxane nodules.

  1. Termination Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce McCarl; Dhazn Gillig

    2004-01-07

    agricultural sequestration estimates were developed in conjunction with personnel at Colorado State University using CENTURY and analyses can operate under the use of agricultural soil carbon data from either the EPIC or CENTURY models. (4) A major effort was devoted to understanding the possible role and applicable actions from agriculture. Papers have been drafted from this as follows and are in the process of being finalized for publication. Lee, H.C., and B.A. McCarl, ''U.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration Over Time: An Economic Exploration,'' 2004. Lee, H.C., B.A. McCarl, and D. Gillig, ''The Dynamic Competitiveness of U.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration,'' 2004. (5) Results have been presented in front of a number of scientific and policy bodies. These include the CASMGS, Non CO2 Network, Energy Modeling Forum on the science side and the Government of Japan, the Council of Economic Advisors , DOE, USDA and EPA on the policy side. Input has also been provided to the IPCC design of the fourth assessment report. (6) Work was done with EPA and EIA to update the biofuel data and assumptions resulting in some now emerging results showing the criticality of biofuel assumptions.

  2. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  3. The content of visual working memory alters processing of visual input prior to conscious access: Evidence from pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Guggenmos, M.; Sterzer, P.; Stigchel, S. van der

    2017-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) allows for keeping relevant visual information available after termination of its sensory input. Storing information in VWM, however, affects concurrent conscious perception of visual input: initially suppressed visual input gains prioritized access to consciousness when

  4. Input parameters and scenarios, including economic inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    to day 8 after the herd was infected, and increased to 1 after day 8. The outputs from the epidemiological models were used as inputs in an economic model to calculate costs and losses for each epidemic. The costs of an epidemic were divided into direct and indirect costs. The direct costs consisted...

  5. Receding Horizon H (infinity) Control for Input-Delayed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoo, H.W.; Han, S.; Lee, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the receding horizon H (infinity) control (RHHC) for input-delayed systems. A new cost function for a finite horizon dynamic game problem is first introduced, which includes two terminal weighting terms parameterized by a positive definite matrix, called a terminal weighing matrix.

  6. An adaptive recurrent neural-network controller using a stabilization matrix and predictive inputs to solve a tracking problem under disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Michael; Li, Shuhui; Fu, Xingang; Alonso, Eduardo; Wunsch, Donald

    2014-01-01

    We present a recurrent neural-network (RNN) controller designed to solve the tracking problem for control systems. We demonstrate that a major difficulty in training any RNN is the problem of exploding gradients, and we propose a solution to this in the case of tracking problems, by introducing a stabilization matrix and by using carefully constrained context units. This solution allows us to achieve consistently lower training errors, and hence allows us to more easily introduce adaptive capabilities. The resulting RNN is one that has been trained off-line to be rapidly adaptive to changing plant conditions and changing tracking targets. The case study we use is a renewable-energy generator application; that of producing an efficient controller for a three-phase grid-connected converter. The controller we produce can cope with the random variation of system parameters and fluctuating grid voltages. It produces tracking control with almost instantaneous response to changing reference states, and virtually zero oscillation. This compares very favorably to the classical proportional integrator (PI) controllers, which we show produce a much slower response and settling time. In addition, the RNN we propose exhibits better learning stability and convergence properties, and can exhibit faster adaptation, than has been achieved with adaptive critic designs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  8. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  9. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  10. Significance of Input Correlations in Striatal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Man Yi; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is strongly associated with motor and cognitive functions. Anatomical evidence suggests that individual striatal neurons are unlikely to share their inputs from the cortex. Using a biologically realistic large-scale network model of striatum and cortico-striatal projections, we provide a functional interpretation of the special anatomical structure of these projections. Specifically, we show that weak pairwise correlation within the pool of inputs to individual striatal neurons enhances the saliency of signal representation in the striatum. By contrast, correlations among the input pools of different striatal neurons render the signal representation less distinct from background activity. We suggest that for the network architecture of the striatum, there is a preferred cortico-striatal input configuration for optimal signal representation. It is further enhanced by the low-rate asynchronous background activity in striatum, supported by the balance between feedforward and feedback inhibitions in the striatal network. Thus, an appropriate combination of rates and correlations in the striatal input sets the stage for action selection presumably implemented in the basal ganglia. PMID:22125480

  11. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  12. Moment of the Legal Termination of the Organization and/or Carrying out Gambling Which is Carried Out in the Information Communication Network Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris R. Avetisyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both for the legal doctrine, and for law enforcement the category "moment of the termination of a crime" is determined by the general concept of the moment of legal completion of criminal encroachment. In article the content of this category for the organization and carrying out the gamblings which are carried out on the Internet is specified. In the conclusion author concluds that the moment of the termination of the organization and carrying out gamblings out of a gambling zone should be regarded as an independent objective sign.

  13. Determination of the optimal training principle and input variables in artificial neural network model for the biweekly chlorophyll-a prediction: a case study of the Yuqiao Reservoir, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Predicting the levels of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a is a vital component of water quality management, which ensures that urban drinking water is safe from harmful algal blooms. This study developed a model to predict Chl-a levels in the Yuqiao Reservoir (Tianjin, China biweekly using water quality and meteorological data from 1999-2012. First, six artificial neural networks (ANNs and two non-ANN methods (principal component analysis and the support vector regression model were compared to determine the appropriate training principle. Subsequently, three predictors with different input variables were developed to examine the feasibility of incorporating meteorological factors into Chl-a prediction, which usually only uses water quality data. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to examine how the Chl-a predictor reacts to changes in input variables. The results were as follows: first, ANN is a powerful predictive alternative to the traditional modeling techniques used for Chl-a prediction. The back program (BP model yields slightly better results than all other ANNs, with the normalized mean square error (NMSE, the correlation coefficient (Corr, and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE at 0.003 mg/l, 0.880 and 0.754, respectively, in the testing period. Second, the incorporation of meteorological data greatly improved Chl-a prediction compared to models solely using water quality factors or meteorological data; the correlation coefficient increased from 0.574-0.686 to 0.880 when meteorological data were included. Finally, the Chl-a predictor is more sensitive to air pressure and pH compared to other water quality and meteorological variables.

  14. Determination of the Optimal Training Principle and Input Variables in Artificial Neural Network Model for the Biweekly Chlorophyll-a Prediction: A Case Study of the Yuqiao Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the levels of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a vital component of water quality management, which ensures that urban drinking water is safe from harmful algal blooms. This study developed a model to predict Chl-a levels in the Yuqiao Reservoir (Tianjin, China) biweekly using water quality and meteorological data from 1999-2012. First, six artificial neural networks (ANNs) and two non-ANN methods (principal component analysis and the support vector regression model) were compared to determine the appropriate training principle. Subsequently, three predictors with different input variables were developed to examine the feasibility of incorporating meteorological factors into Chl-a prediction, which usually only uses water quality data. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to examine how the Chl-a predictor reacts to changes in input variables. The results were as follows: first, ANN is a powerful predictive alternative to the traditional modeling techniques used for Chl-a prediction. The back program (BP) model yields slightly better results than all other ANNs, with the normalized mean square error (NMSE), the correlation coefficient (Corr), and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE) at 0.003 mg/l, 0.880 and 0.754, respectively, in the testing period. Second, the incorporation of meteorological data greatly improved Chl-a prediction compared to models solely using water quality factors or meteorological data; the correlation coefficient increased from 0.574-0.686 to 0.880 when meteorological data were included. Finally, the Chl-a predictor is more sensitive to air pressure and pH compared to other water quality and meteorological variables. PMID:25768650

  15. Determination of the optimal training principle and input variables in artificial neural network model for the biweekly chlorophyll-a prediction: a case study of the Yuqiao Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the levels of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a vital component of water quality management, which ensures that urban drinking water is safe from harmful algal blooms. This study developed a model to predict Chl-a levels in the Yuqiao Reservoir (Tianjin, China) biweekly using water quality and meteorological data from 1999-2012. First, six artificial neural networks (ANNs) and two non-ANN methods (principal component analysis and the support vector regression model) were compared to determine the appropriate training principle. Subsequently, three predictors with different input variables were developed to examine the feasibility of incorporating meteorological factors into Chl-a prediction, which usually only uses water quality data. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to examine how the Chl-a predictor reacts to changes in input variables. The results were as follows: first, ANN is a powerful predictive alternative to the traditional modeling techniques used for Chl-a prediction. The back program (BP) model yields slightly better results than all other ANNs, with the normalized mean square error (NMSE), the correlation coefficient (Corr), and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE) at 0.003 mg/l, 0.880 and 0.754, respectively, in the testing period. Second, the incorporation of meteorological data greatly improved Chl-a prediction compared to models solely using water quality factors or meteorological data; the correlation coefficient increased from 0.574-0.686 to 0.880 when meteorological data were included. Finally, the Chl-a predictor is more sensitive to air pressure and pH compared to other water quality and meteorological variables.

  16. A Review of Communications Protocol for Intelligent Remote Terminal Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ruddin Ab. Ghani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed all the possible interfacing communication protocols for remote terminal unit (RTU. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system is a central station that can communicate with other network using the protocol. Fundamentally, the architectures of all networks are based on the seven layers of open system interconnection (OSI and International Standard Organization (ISO. The objective of designing the protocols is to check the status of all the input and output field devices and send the report according to that status. The corresponding protocol and communication parameters between the connecting devices will be included in designing a complex SCADA system. The available protocols to develop the communication of RTU are Modbus/ASCII, distributed network protocol (DNP3, controller area network (CAN, International Electro-technical Commission (IEC 60870, transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP.

  17. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 16. SATNET Development and Operation, Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance, Internet Development, Mobile Access Terminal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    interfering with Etam and Goonhilly Satellite IMPs. After the speech demonstration, the Goonhilly transmitter had settled down, and we uncrosspatched...described below. 4 V Report No. 4342 Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. With the installation of the PSP terminals at Etam and Goonhilly and with the...at Clarksburg agrees with data measured simultaneously by Comsat personnel. We also enabled the function at Etam to examine its data, but until the

  18. Rich input i engelskundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente; Guttesen, Maria Josephine; Jacobsen, Susanne Karen

    2017-01-01

    Der er mange gode grunde til at bruge autentiske tekster i engelskundervisningen på alle niveauer. Eleverne skal i engelskundervisningen stifte bekendtskab med et varieret input på fremmedsproget, og det at læse autentiske tekster er et møde med sprog som målrettet målsprogsbrugere, og giver...

  19. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  20. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  1. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requir...

  2. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teixeira Pinto, R; Fragoso Roigues, S; Wiggelinkhuizen, E; Scherrer, R; Bauer, P; Pierik, P

    .... Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is desirable for several reasons...

  3. A notion of sufficient input

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand Crettez; Philippe Michel

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study a notion of sufficient input, i.e. input that allows to produce at least one unit of output when the other inputs are fixed at any positive level. We show that such an input allows to produce any positive amount of production. The main property of sufficient inputs is as follows. A input is sufficient if and only if the unit cost goes to zero when its price goes to zero.

  4. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira Pinto, R.; Fragoso Rodrigues, S.; Wiggelinkhuizen, E.; Scherrer, R.; Bauer, P.; Pierik, P.

    2012-01-01

    For achieving the European renewable electricity targets, a significant contribution is foreseen to come from offshore wind energy. Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is

  5. Comprehensible input and learning outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Campillo, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Segones Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 1996-1997) In Krashen’s terms, optimal input has to be comprehensible to the learner if we want acquisition to take place. An overview of the literature on input indicates two ways of making input comprehensible: the first one is to premodify input before it is offered to the learner, (premodified input), and the second one is to negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input). The aim of the...

  6. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  7. Intermodal freight terminals : terminal business planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart W.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for existing- and newly proposedinter-modal freight terminals in their business planning process. This framework is importantfor constructing- and improving the central terminal service portfolio of handling (loading,discharging, and

  8. VIC (Vector-In-Commander) Input Preprocessor (VIP) Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    ene in this block. 00 Form 1473 Istructions Reverse JUN U6 WA 60M~ OmN .... 1.04.-0."$ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The primary authors of the VIC Input...the data may be recorded. LOGISTC MENU Transfers from network menu for logistics data. Data input in logistic menu goes to the same file as the

  9. pawg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kgfk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. klax Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. phog Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  11. pail Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. paom Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

  3. kpub Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. klgu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kpae Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kmli Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kokc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kjst Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kgup Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. padl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. klit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kalb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kact Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kshv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. pajn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kpna Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. ktph Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ksux Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kcon Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kpnc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kgsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kgpt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. keri Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kcid Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. ksaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kcvg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ptya Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. katl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kmth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. Relative numbers of cortical and brainstem inputs to the lateral geniculate nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erişir, Alev; Van Horn, Susan C.; Sherman, S. Murray

    1997-01-01

    Terminals of a morphological type known as RD (for round vesicles and dense mitochondria, which we define here as the aggregate of types formerly known as RSD and RLD, where “S” is small and “L” is large) constitute at least half of the synaptic inputs to the feline lateral geniculate nucleus, which represents the thalamic relay of retinal input to cortex. It had been thought that the vast majority of these RD terminals were of cortical origin, making the corticogeniculate pathway by far the largest source of input to geniculate relay cells. However, another source of RD terminals recently identified derives from cholinergic cells of the brainstem parabrachial region. (These cells also contain NO.) We used techniques of electron microscopy to determine quantitatively the relative contribution of cortex and brainstem to the population of RD terminals. We identified corticogeniculate terminals by orthograde transport of biocytin injected into the visual cortex and identified brainstem terminals by immunocytochemical labeling for choline acetyltransferase or brain NO synthase (the synthesizing enzymes for acetylcholine and NO, respectively). We estimated the relative numbers of corticogeniculate and brainstem terminals with a two-step algorithm: First, we determined the relative probability of sampling each terminal type in our material, and then we calculated what mixture of identified corticogeniculate and brainstem terminals was needed to recreate the size distribution of the parent RD terminal population. We conclude that brainstem terminals comprise roughly one-half of the RD population. Thus, the cortical input is perhaps half as large and the brainstem input is an order of magnitude larger than had been thought. This further suggests that the brainstem inputs might play a surprisingly complex and subtle role in the control of the geniculocortical relay. PMID:9037085

  8. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  9. Programmers manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1981-06-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains more of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  10. Intermodal freight terminals : terminal business planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Bart W Wiegmans

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for existing- and newly proposedinter-modal freight terminals in their business planning process. This framework is importantfor constructing- and improving the central terminal service portfolio of handling (loading,discharging, and transhipping) and storage of containerised cargo. Supportive activities (e.g. administration, customs) are taken into account as well.In particular, its aim is to investigate whether business planning offer...

  11. 29 CFR 4043.24 - Termination or partial termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination or partial termination. 4043.24 Section 4043.24....24 Termination or partial termination. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs when the Secretary of the Treasury determines that there has been a termination or partial termination of a plan...

  12. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  13. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  14. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  15. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associa...

  16. Pareto evolution of gene networks: an algorithm to optimize multiple fitness objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, Aryeh; Francois, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2012-10-01

    The computational evolution of gene networks functions like a forward genetic screen to generate, without preconceptions, all networks that can be assembled from a defined list of parts to implement a given function. Frequently networks are subject to multiple design criteria that cannot all be optimized simultaneously. To explore how these tradeoffs interact with evolution, we implement Pareto optimization in the context of gene network evolution. In response to a temporal pulse of a signal, we evolve networks whose output turns on slowly after the pulse begins, and shuts down rapidly when the pulse terminates. The best performing networks under our conditions do not fall into categories such as feed forward and negative feedback that also encode the input-output relation we used for selection. Pareto evolution can more efficiently search the space of networks than optimization based on a single ad hoc combination of the design criteria.

  17. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  18. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...

  19. Multiresolution Time-Domain Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines Terminated in Linear Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Zongliang Tong; Lei Sun; Ying Li; Luis Diaz Angulo; Salvador Gonzalez Garcia; Jianshu Luo

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives a multiresolution time-domain (MRTD) scheme for the multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations based on Daubechies’ scaling functions. The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general description of the termination networks. For the linear load terminations, a method incorporating the terminal constraints is proposed to work out the scheme at and close to the terminations. The MRTD scheme is implemented with different basis fun...

  20. Design of matching networks for low noise preamplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reykowski, A; Wright, S M; Porter, J R

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses matching networks that minimize inductive coupling between the antennas within an array while simultaneously insuring minimum noise contributions from preamplifiers. Typical low noise preamplifier designs require a strong mismatch between the source impedance and the amplifier input impedance (reflection coefficient close to one) to achieve optimal noise performance. This is in contrast to the familiar impedance match known from communication theory where input and source impedances have complex conjugate values for maximizing the power transfer from source to amplifier. The high input reflection coefficient of low noise amplifiers can be exploited to reduce antenna currents by using lossless impedance transformations to create a high impedance at the coil terminals while simultaneously maintaining a low noise figure for the amplifier. The networks presented here constitute an improvement over previous work because they give additional freedoms regarding the values of the network components and the amplifier input impedance. The technique has been formalized and coded in MathCad, making the design of realizable networks a simple process.

  1. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  2. Input coding for neuro-electronic hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jude Baby; Abraham, Grace Mathew; Singh, Katyayani; Ankolekar, Shreya M; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Liquid State Machines have been proposed as a framework to explore the computational properties of neuro-electronic hybrid systems (Maass et al., 2002). Here the neuronal culture implements a recurrent network and is followed by an array of linear discriminants implemented using perceptrons in electronics/software. Thus in this framework, it is desired that the outputs of the neuronal network, corresponding to different inputs, be linearly separable. Previous studies have demonstrated this by either using only a small set of input stimulus patterns to the culture (Hafizovic et al., 2007), large number of input electrodes (Dockendorf et al., 2009) or by using complex schemes to post-process the outputs of the neuronal culture prior to linear discriminance (Ortman et al., 2011). In this study we explore ways to temporally encode inputs into stimulus patterns using a small set of electrodes such that the neuronal culture's output can be directly decoded by simple linear discriminants based on perceptrons. We demonstrate that network can detect the timing and order of firing of inputs on multiple electrodes. Based on this, we demonstrate that the neuronal culture can be used as a kernel to transform inputs which are not linearly separable in a low dimensional space, into outputs in a high dimension where they are linearly separable. Thus simple linear discriminants can now be directly connected to outputs of the neuronal culture and allow for implementation of any function for such a hybrid system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. 76 FR 56165 - Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for Desirable Features of a Nationwide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for.... Department of Commerce's (DoC) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is seeking input on various possible features of a new nationwide interoperable public safety broadband network. This input...

  4. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  5. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines...

  6. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    through roaming agreements o Clearinghouse IP eXchange o Satellite hub station o VSAT terminals o Transport network (backhaul) o Lawful intercept...Mobile Network VPN Virtual Private Network VQiPS Video Quality in Public Safety VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal WAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi

  7. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-12-01

    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Number-Crunching Software and the Input Problem: Guidelines and a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gerber

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the number-crunching software running on supercomputers lack a concept for an error-free input processing. The programs often terminate after several hours due to user input errors. We present an analysis of this input problem. First, we separate the input parsing system from the number-crunching code. Second, we define a general grammar suitable for an automatic generation of a parsing system using the LEX/YACC tools. This concept leads to an input system that is easy to use and the generated input data for the number-crunching software is as error free as possible. We discuss the implementation of such an input system for an ab initio quantum chemical package.

  9. Tabu Search Algorithm to Solve the Intermodal Terminal Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karimi∗

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of appropriate terminals is effective as the main gate entrance to international, national and local transportation network for economic performance, traffic safety and reduction of environmental pollution. This paper focuses on intermodal terminal location problem. The main objective of this problem is to determine which of the terminals of a set of candidate terminals should be opened such that the total cost be minimized. In this problem, demands of customers will ship directly (without the use of terminals between the origin and destination of customers, or intermodaly (by using two terminals or even by combination of both methods. Since this problem is NP-hard, metaheuristics algorithms such as tabu search (TS is used to solve it. The algorithm is compared with greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP on instance of this problem. Results show the efficiency of TS in comparision with GRASP.

  10. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 27. SATNET Development and Operation, Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance, Internet Operations and Maintenance, Mobile Access Terminal Network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP for VAX-UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    ARPANET was created at DCEC, and the circuit between the DCEC gateway and the Etam Satellite IMP was made operational. As part of the upgrading of all...Packet Satellite Project (PSP) terminals in SATNET, we supported COMSAT in replacing the PSP terminals at Etam , Goonhilly, and Tanum with 2nd...include a 50 Kb/s terrestrial circuit between the Etam Satellite IMP and the SDAC ARPANET IMP, a 9.6 Kb/s terrestrial circuit between the Goonhilly

  11. Functionalities and input methods for recording food intake: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Miroslav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Increasing healthcare costs related to lifestyle-related chronic diseases require new solutions. Research on self-management tools is expanding and many new tools are emerging. Recording food intake is a key functionality in many of these tools. Nutrition monitoring is a relevant method to gain an overview of factors influencing health. However, keeping a food diary often constitutes a challenge for a patient, and developing a user-friendly and useful electronic food diary is not straightforward. To gain insight into the existing approaches to recording food intake, and to analyze current functionalities and input methods. We searched digital libraries, vendor markets and social networks focusing on nutrition. Selection criteria were publications written in English, and patient-oriented tools that offered recording of food intake or nutrition. The system properties that we searched for were types of data, types of terminal, target population, and types of reports and sharing functionalities. We summarized the properties based on their frequency in the reviewed sample. 31 publications met the selection criteria. The majority of the identified food recording systems (67%) facilitated entry of food type and the consumed quantity of food; 16% of the systems were able to record more than one type of data. The three most frequent target populations were people with obesity, diabetes and overweight. Mobile phones were used as terminals in 35% of the cases, personal computers (PCs) in 29%, and personal digital assistants in 23%. Only 10% supported both PCs and mobile phones. Data sharing was provided by 71% and reports by 51% of the systems. We searched for apps in Google Play and the Apple Store and tested 45 mobile applications that stored food intake data, of which 62% supported recording of types of food, 24% recording of carbohydrate intake and 15% recording of calorie intake. The majority of the mobile applications offered some kind of reports and data sharing

  12. Coal terminal guide 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    IBJ`s third edition of its annual guide to the world`s multi-user coal terminals includes comprehensive details of terminals in 44 countries. The guide sets out information for rapid and easy reference comprising contact, full address and communication details as well as berth dimensions and constraints, loading equipment and daily loading rate, annual loading capacity, daily discharge rate, annual discharge capacity, annual throughput capacity, storage facilities, stockyard capacity and equipment, processing facilities and so on. All information has been compiled from specific questionnaires and is presented alphabetically in country order.

  13. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  14. EXTREME AND TERMINAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Author brings modern conception of extreme and terminal states, their types, likenesses and differences, etiology, key common chains of pathogenesis, principles and methods of their treatment. Pathophysiological data on one of extreme states — collapse — is described in details. Next publications will present the data on shock and coma.Key words: extreme and terminal states, vicious circle of pathogenesis, extreme regulation, principles of treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:74-80

  15. Electrical termination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  16. Terminal oxidases of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S E; Schlarb-Ridley, B G; Bendall, D S; Howe, C J

    2005-08-01

    The respiratory chain of cyanobacteria appears to be branched rather than linear; furthermore, respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transfer chains co-exist in the thylakoid membrane and even share components. This review will focus on the three types of terminal respiratory oxidases identified so far on a genetic level in cyanobacteria: aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome bd-quinol oxidase and the alternative respiratory terminal oxidase. We summarize here their genetic, biochemical and biophysical characterization to date and discuss their interactions with electron donors as well as their physiological roles.

  17. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  18. Lab Inputs for Common Micros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The game paddle inputs of Apple microcomputers provide a simple way to get laboratory measurements into the computer. Discusses these game paddles and the necessary interface software. Includes schematics for Apple built-in paddle electronics, TRS-80 game paddle I/O, Commodore circuit for user port, and bus interface for Sinclair/Timex, Commodore,…

  19. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  20. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated....... Previous research in this field is based on fixed assumptions about trustworthy components and is, thus, too rigid for this use case. We present Smart-Guard, a method to protect user input into a system even if the attacker controls – to us unknown – parts of the underlying system. Our approach ensures...... integrity of user input even when up to two of three devices are compromised; confidentiality holds for one malicious device. In this way, Smart-Guard has flexible trust assumptions, and does not require any particular part of the system to be trusted. To prove our claims, we formally verified our protocol...

  1. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  2. Settings for Terminal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corless, Inge B.

    1988-01-01

    Examines topics related to delivery of terminal care services: ability of various hospice programs to survive financially, contributions of various models of hospice care, impact of Medicare legislation on hospice movement, demonstration of unique hospice intervention, integration of spiritual care into hospice, and role of hospice in care of…

  3. Termination of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M F; Stansfield, I

    1994-05-01

    One of three mRNA codons--UAA, UAG and UGA--is used to signal to the elongating ribosome that translation should be terminated at this point. Upon the arrival of the stop codon at the ribosomal acceptor(A)-site, a protein release factor (RF) binds to the ribosome resulting in the peptidyl transferase centre of the ribosome switching to a hydrolytic function to remove the completed polypeptide chain from the peptidyl-tRNA bound at the adjacent ribosomal peptidyl(P)-site. In this review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli will be summarised, paying particular attention to the roles of 16S ribosomal RNA and the release factors RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3 in stop codon recognition. Our understanding of the translation termination process in eukaryotes is much more rudimentary with the identity of the single eukaryotic release factor (eRF) still remaining elusive. Finally, several examples of how the termination mechanism can be subverted either to expand the genetic code (e.g. selenocysteine insertion at UGA codons) or to regulate the expression of mammalian retroviral or plant viral genomes will be discussed.

  4. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to channel...

  5. Improved Two-Terminal Silicon Functional Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Aceves, M.

    The modelling of two-terminal silicon-based multi-layered functional photosensor that operates at low-voltage bias is presented. The devices developed do not require external active electronic components (transistors, microminiature circuits, etc) to execute their functions. Neither to transform analogue input optical signals to digital output form that is very important for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  6. MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation with a Novel Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...

  7. Identifying local and descending inputs for primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Shengli; Rodriguez, Erica; Takatoh, Jun; Han, Bao-Xia; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    Primary pain and touch sensory neurons not only detect internal and external sensory stimuli, but also receive inputs from other neurons. However, the neuronal derived inputs for primary neurons have not been systematically identified. Using a monosynaptic rabies viruses-based transneuronal tracing method combined with sensory-specific Cre-drivers, we found that sensory neurons receive intraganglion, intraspinal, and supraspinal inputs, the latter of which are mainly derived from the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The viral-traced central neurons were largely inhibitory but also consisted of some glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and serotonergic neurons in the RVM. The majority of RVM-derived descending inputs were dual GABAergic and enkephalinergic (opioidergic). These inputs projected through the dorsolateral funiculus and primarily innervated layers I, II, and V of the dorsal horn, where pain-sensory afferents terminate. Silencing or activation of the dual GABA/enkephalinergic RVM neurons in adult animals substantially increased or decreased behavioral sensitivity, respectively, to heat and mechanical stimuli. These results are consistent with the fact that both GABA and enkephalin can exert presynaptic inhibition of the sensory afferents. Taken together, this work provides a systematic view of and a set of tools for examining peri- and extrasynaptic regulations of pain-afferent transmission.

  8. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system.

  9. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Nevue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC, is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF. All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing.

  10. The Simulation and Study of the Operating System Efficiency Improvement of a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Di; Wu Shuang; Sun Gui Zhi

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of Chinese container terminal throughput, each container terminal increasingly pays attention to the operational efficiency of storage yard. In this paper, aim at the problem of excessive containers relocation assignments to establish the slotting optimization allocation model, and verify the validity of the model by using Matlab; Using tandem queuing network modeling to build model of the container terminal operating system,and simulate the container terminal logisti...

  11. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  12. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  13. Ice age terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  14. Equilibrium and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a reduction of the termination problem for a Turing machine (in the simplified form of the Post correspondence problem to the problem of determining whether a continuous-time Markov chain presented as a set of Kappa graph-rewriting rules has an equilibrium. It follows that the problem of whether a computable CTMC is dissipative (ie does not have an equilibrium is undecidable.

  15. Coal terminal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Malaysia is building the necessary infrastructure to cope with an increasing demand for electricity. Its restructured energy policy has led to construction of the 2,100 MW Manjung coal-fired power plant in the state of Perak, for which coal has to be imported via the new Lekiv Bulk Terminal (LBT) adjacent to the plant. Contracts for the LBC and the TNBJ coal stockyard were awarded to the Koch Consortium. The article describes equipment for handling and storing coal. 4 photos.

  16. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Xu; Guowu Yang; Zhengwei Chang; Desheng Zheng; Wensheng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE) is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE) and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC), Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC), Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC), and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC). SMC, NMC, and FMC have been...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of forums (e.g., public meetings, request for input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907... Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of forums (e.g., public meetings, requests for input and/or Web site), as well as through a notice in the...

  19. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  20. Inhibitory Gating of Input Comparison in the CA1 Microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Aaron D; Bloss, Erik B; Apostolides, Pierre F; Vaidya, Sachin P; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Zemelman, Boris V; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2015-09-23

    Spatial and temporal features of synaptic inputs engage integration mechanisms on multiple scales, including presynaptic release sites, postsynaptic dendrites, and networks of inhibitory interneurons. Here we investigate how these mechanisms cooperate to filter synaptic input in hippocampal area CA1. Dendritic recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons reveal that proximal inputs from CA3 as well as distal inputs from entorhinal cortex layer III (ECIII) sum sublinearly or linearly at low firing rates due to feedforward inhibition, but sum supralinearly at high firing rates due to synaptic facilitation, producing a high-pass filter. However, during ECIII and CA3 input comparison, supralinear dendritic integration is dynamically balanced by feedforward and feedback inhibition, resulting in suppression of dendritic complex spiking. We find that a particular subpopulation of CA1 interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes prominently to this dynamic filter by integrating both ECIII and CA3 input pathways and potently inhibiting CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Ethics of Terminal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Need for a critical and analytical approach to ethics of terminal care is suggested by considering a series of unexamined questions regarding justification of terminal care. If terminal care is a moral and ethical enterprise, such considerations must be given a more prominent place in discussions of the hospice movement. (Author)

  2. Regulation of neuronal input transformations by tunable dendritic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Turi, Gergely F; Kaifosh, Patrick; Lee, Peter H; Bolze, Frédéric; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Nicoud, Jean-François; Zemelman, Boris V; Sternson, Scott M; Losonczy, Attila

    2012-01-15

    Transforming synaptic input into action potential output is a fundamental function of neurons. The pattern of action potential output from principal cells of the mammalian hippocampus encodes spatial and nonspatial information, but the cellular and circuit mechanisms by which neurons transform their synaptic input into a given output are unknown. Using a combination of optical activation and cell type-specific pharmacogenetic silencing in vitro, we found that dendritic inhibition is the primary regulator of input-output transformations in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and acts by gating the dendritic electrogenesis driving burst spiking. Dendrite-targeting interneurons are themselves modulated by interneurons targeting pyramidal cell somata, providing a synaptic substrate for tuning pyramidal cell output through interactions in the local inhibitory network. These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons.

  3. Loss and terminal illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, J Q

    1985-06-01

    The experience of terminal illness can best be viewed as a situation of multiple losses involving the dying person, family members and friends, and the health care providers engaged in offering services to them. It is a major transition during which the central participants must cope with the personal meanings of the forthcoming death as well as other losses brought about by the disease process, medical treatments, and the need to provide care for the dying person. How families adapt to the stresses and changes imposed by the experience of living with dying depends on their previous experiences with death, their established patterns of communication about serious matters, and their decision-making practices. Some individuals and families are at greater risk than others for developing maladaptive responses and behaviors during and after the experience of terminal illness. Risk factors to be considered in making hypotheses about the potential for maladaptive reactions include the strength of the attachment to the dying person, uncontrollable and distressing symptoms, and coping limitations associated with age and other factors contributing to increased vulnerability to the demands of continuous change. Working effectively with different kinds of families during the transition of terminal illness can best be accomplished within a conceptual framework built upon knowledge about people undergoing change. The concept of safe conduct can serve as an overall guide for the creation of nursing services designed to offer personalized care and accessibility of professional help at times of maximum need by the family. Assisting dying patients and their families toward the achievement of their personal goals is fundamental to the idea of safe conduct. The delivery of nursing care in terminal illness requires an orientation to assessment as an ongoing process that makes use of knowledge about disease processes, medical treatments, individual and group adaptations to loss, risk

  4. NetAcet: prediction of N-terminal acetylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Blom, Nikolaj

    2005-01-01

    Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N-acetylation for ......Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N...

  5. The series product for gaussian quantum input processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John E.; James, Matthew R.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theory for connecting quantum Markov components into a network with quantum input processes in a Gaussian state (including thermal and squeezed). One would expect on physical grounds that the connection rules should be independent of the state of the input to the network. To compute statistical properties, we use a version of Wicks' theorem involving fictitious vacuum fields (Fock space based representation of the fields) and while this aids computation, and gives a rigorous formulation, the various representations need not be unitarily equivalent. In particular, a naive application of the connection rules would lead to the wrong answer. We establish the correct interconnection rules, and show that while the quantum stochastic differential equations of motion display explicitly the covariances (thermal and squeezing parameters) of the Gaussian input fields we introduce the Wick-Stratonovich form which leads to a way of writing these equations that does not depend on these covariances and so corresponds to the universal equations written in terms of formal quantum input processes. We show that a wholly consistent theory of quantum open systems in series can be developed in this way, and as required physically, is universal and in particular representation-free.

  6. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  7. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  8. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  9. Neuronal networks and energy bursts in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Liu, D; Song, Z

    2015-02-26

    Epilepsy can be defined as the abnormal activities of neurons. The occurrence, propagation and termination of epileptic seizures rely on the networks of neuronal cells that are connected through both synaptic- and non-synaptic interactions. These complicated interactions contain the modified functions of normal neurons and glias as well as the mediation of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms with feedback homeostasis. Numerous spread patterns are detected in disparate networks of ictal activities. The cortical-thalamic-cortical loop is present during a general spike wave seizure. The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) is the major inhibitory input traversing the region, and the dentate gyrus (DG) controls CA3 excitability. The imbalance between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is the main disorder in epilepsy. Adjustable negative feedback that mediates both inhibitory and excitatory components affects neuronal networks through neurotransmission fluctuation, receptor and transmitter signaling, and through concomitant influences on ion concentrations and field effects. Within a limited dynamic range, neurons slowly adapt to input levels and have a high sensitivity to synaptic changes. The stability of the adapting network depends on the ratio of the adaptation rates of both the excitatory and inhibitory populations. Thus, therapeutic strategies with multiple effects on seizures are required for the treatment of epilepsy, and the therapeutic functions on networks are reviewed here. Based on the high-energy burst theory of epileptic activity, we propose a potential antiepileptic therapeutic strategy to transfer the high energy and extra electricity out of the foci. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiresolution Time-Domain Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines Terminated in Linear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a multiresolution time-domain (MRTD scheme for the multiconductor transmission line (MTL equations based on Daubechies’ scaling functions. The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general description of the termination networks. For the linear load terminations, a method incorporating the terminal constraints is proposed to work out the scheme at and close to the terminations. The MRTD scheme is implemented with different basis functions for linear components including resistances, inductances, and capacitances. Numerical results show that the MRTD schemes obtain a more stable result than the conventional finite difference time-domain (FDTD method with a coarse space step.

  11. The Simulation and Study of the Operating System Efficiency Improvement of a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid expansion of Chinese container terminal throughput, each container terminal increasingly pays attention to the operational efficiency of storage yard. In this paper, aim at the problem of excessive containers relocation assignments to establish the slotting optimization allocation model, and verify the validity of the model by using Matlab; Using tandem queuing network modeling to build model of the container terminal operating system,and simulate the container terminal logistics system by Witness. It can provide a reference for efficiency improvement of the container terminal operating system.

  12. Spiking modular neural networks: A neural network modeling approach for hydrological processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamban Parasuraman; Amin Elshorbagy; Sean K. Carey

    2006-01-01

    .... In this study, a novel neural network model called the spiking modular neural networks (SMNNs) is proposed. An SMNN consists of an input layer, a spiking layer, and an associator neural network layer...

  13. 77 FR 38817 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (AREERA) (7 U.S.C. 7613(c)(2)) requires the Secretary to solicit and consider input on each program RFA...

  15. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  16. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  17. Physical layer metrics for vertical handover toward OFDM-based networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oularbi Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emerging trend to provide users with ubiquitous seamless wireless access leads to the development of multi-mode terminals able to smartly switch between heterogeneous wireless networks. This switching process known as vertical handover requires the terminal to first measure various network metrics relevant to decide whether to trigger a vertical handover (VHO or not. This paper focuses on current and next-generation networks that rely on an OFDM physical layer with either a CSMA/CA or an OFDMA multiple-access technique. Synthesis of several signal feature estimators is presented in a unified way in order to propose a set of complementary metrics (SNR, channel occupancy rate, collision rate relevant as inputs of vertical handover decision algorithms. All the proposed estimators are "non-data aided" and only rely on a physical layer processing so that they do not require multi-mode terminals to be first connected to the handover candidate networks. Results based on a detailed performance study are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. In addition, some experimental results have been performed on a RF platform to validate one of the proposed approaches on real signals.

  18. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  19. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The Generalization Complexity Measure for Continuous Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gómez

    2014-01-01

    defined in Boolean space, quantifies the complexity of data in relationship to the prediction accuracy that can be expected when using a supervised classifier like a neural network, SVM, and so forth. We first extend the original measure for its use with continuous functions to later on, using an approach based on the use of the set of Walsh functions, consider the case of having a finite number of data points (inputs/outputs pairs, that is, usually the practical case. Using a set of trigonometric functions a model that gives a relationship between the size of the hidden layer of a neural network and the complexity is constructed. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the introduced complexity measure, by using the generated model, to the problem of estimating an adequate neural network architecture for real-world data sets.

  1. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    ) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its condition—especially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  2. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  3. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC, Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC, Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC, and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC. SMC, NMC, and FMC have been proved and applied in industry, but TMC has not. This paper gives a six-tuple definition and presents a new algorithm for TMC. Based on these, we prove that our algorithm is sound and complete. It solves the SMC’s limitation (resulting in false negative without extending from finite specification to infinite specification. At last, a case of using TMC to verify a realistic hardware circuit round-robin arbiter is achieved. Avoiding verifying the undesired paths which are not related to the specifications, TMC makes it possible to reduce the computational complexity, and the experimental results suggest that the time cost by SMC is 3.14× with TMC in the case.

  4. Organization of binaural excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the inferior colliculus from the superior olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, William C; Bishop, Deborah C; Saint Marie, Richard L; Oliver, Douglas L

    2004-05-03

    The major excitatory, binaural inputs to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) are from two groups of neurons with different functions-the ipsilateral medial superior olive (MSO) and the contralateral lateral superior olive (LSO). A major inhibitory, binaural input emerges from glycinergic neurons in the ipsilateral LSO. To determine whether these inputs converge on the same postsynaptic targets in the ICC, two different anterograde tracers were injected in tonotopically matched areas of the MSO and the LSO on the opposite side in the same animal. The main findings were that the boutons from MSO axons terminated primarily in the central and caudal parts of the ICC laminae but that contralateral LSO terminals were concentrated more rostrally and on the ventral margins of the MSO inputs. In contrast, the ipsilateral LSO projection converged with the MSO inputs and was denser than the contralateral LSO projection. Consistent with this finding, retrograde transport experiments showed that the very low-frequency areas of the ICC with dense MSO inputs also received inputs from greater numbers of ipsilateral LSO neurons than from contralateral LSO neurons. The results suggest that different binaural pathways through the low-frequency ICC may be formed by the segregation of excitatory inputs to ICC from the MSO and the contralateral LSO. At the same time, the ipsilateral LSO is a major inhibitory influence in the target region of the MSO. These data support the concept that each frequency-band lamina in the ICC may comprise several functional modules with different combinations of inputs. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Acetylene-Terminated Polyimide Siloxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Maudgal, Shubba

    1987-01-01

    Siloxane-containing addition polyimides yield toughened high-temperature adhesives and matrix resins. Addition polyimide made by reaction of aromatic tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride with aromatic diamine in presence of ethynyl-substituted aromatic monoamine. Acetylene-terminated siloxane imide cured by heating to yield acetylene-terminated polyimide siloxane.

  6. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  7. Delay decomposition at a single server queue with constant service time and multiple inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C.; Schilling, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Two network consisting of single server queues, each with a constant service time, are considered. The external inputs to each network are assumed to follow some general probability distribution. Several interesting equivalencies that exist between the two networks considered are derived. This leads to the introduction of an important concept in delay decomposition. It is shown that the waiting time experienced by a customer can be decomposed into two basic components called self-delay and interference delay.

  8. 78 FR 16476 - Notice for Termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... chosen provider inside or outside the network, and would have access to disease specific educational... of the Secretary Notice for Termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE... Activity, DoD. ACTION: Notice for termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE...

  9. MOBILE MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL IN TRANSFUSION PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Meža

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the administrative errors in the transfusion chain between the blood donor and the patient, transfusion errors still occur. Usually, they are caused by the misidentifications of the patient, his blood samples and respective blood components. A reliable identification can only be reached by an appropriate informatization of the whole process by implementation of information networks and communication technologies.Methods. An information system covering all modern standards of safety and enabling integrity of patient records as well as faster and efficient transfusion was prepared. The system is enabling the rational use of the blood as well as assuring the obligatory haemoviligilance, as foreseen by the current law. The whole system is modular, consisting of terminals, supportive equipment, networking systems and servers. Additional hardware are the electronic code bar readers. Mobile terminals (Palm Pocket PCs are wirelessly connected to the data network using the IEEE 802.11b WLAN technology in a wireless connection. All elements are included into the communication network with the servers contain data bases of blood donors, blood components and the patients; they execute the algorithms of the blood transfusion process support and enable the authentication. At the same time they enable the corresponding interfaces adapted to the users and terminals. For the connection of elements, corresponding interfaces are used.Results. The application is supporting the whole system of ordering, issuing and transfusion of a blood component. Its main characteristics are the bar-coded wristband for patient identification, coding of the blood samples with the same bar code that is unmistakably connected with the patient, and electronic ordering of blood component via a handheld device at the patient’s side. By means of which identity of the patient and the blood component can be matched right before the intended transfusion. Similarly, the

  10. Identification of penile inputs to the rat gracile nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothron, Kyle J; Massey, James M; Onifer, Stephen M; Hubscher, Charles H

    2008-03-01

    Neurons in the medullary reticular formation (MRF) of the rat receive a vast array of urogenital inputs. Using select acute and chronic spinal cord lesions to identify the location of the ascending neural circuitries providing either direct or indirect inputs to MRF from the penis, our previous studies demonstrated that the dorsal columns and dorsal half of the lateral funiculus convey low- and high-threshold inputs, respectively. In the present study, the gracile nucleus was targeted as one of the likely sources of low-threshold information from the penis to MRF. Both electrophysiological recordings and neuroanatomical tracing [injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into a dorsal nerve of the penis] were used. After discrimination of a single neuron responding to penile stimulation, testing for somatovisceral convergence was done (mechanical stimulation of the distal colon and the skin over the entire hindquarters). In 12 rats, a limited number of neurons (43 in total) responded to penile stimulation. Many of these neurons also responded to scrotal stimulation (53.5%, dorsal and/or ventral scrotum) and/or prepuce stimulation (46.5%). Histological reconstruction of the electrode tracks showed that the majority of neurons responding to penile stimulation were located ventrally within the medial one-third of the gracile nucleus surrounding obex. This location corresponded to sparse innervation by CTB-immunoreactive primary afferent terminals. These results indicate that neurons in the gracile nucleus are likely part of the pathway that provides low-threshold penile inputs to MRF, a region known to play an important role in mating processes.

  11. Input Method "Five Strokes": Advantages and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja PETROVČIČ

    2014-03-01

    Since the Five Stroke input method is easily accessible, simple to master and is not pronunciation-based, we would expect that the students will use it to input unknown characters. The survey comprises students of Japanology and Sinology at Department of Asian and African Studies, takes in consideration the grade of the respondent and therefore his/her knowledge of characters. This paper also discusses the impact of typeface to the accuracy of the input.

  12. Input characterization of a shock test strructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylok, J. E. (Jeffrey E.); Groethe, M. A.; Maupin, R. D. (Ryan D.)

    2004-01-01

    Often in experimental work, measuring input forces and pressures is a difficult and sometimes impossible task. For one particular shock test article, its input sensitivity required a detailed measurement of the pressure input. This paper discusses the use of a surrogate mass mock test article to measure spatial and temporal variations of the shock input within and between experiments. Also discussed will be the challenges and solutions in making some of the high speed transient measurements. The current input characterization work appears as part of the second phase in an extensive model validation project. During the first phase, the system under analysis displayed sensitivities to the shock input's qualitative and quantitative (magnitude) characteristics. However, multiple shortcomings existed in the characterization of the input. First, the experimental measurements of the input were made on a significantly simplified structure only, and the spatial fidelity of the measurements was minimal. Second, the sensors used for the pressure measurement contained known errors that could not be fully quantified. Finally, the measurements examined only one input pressure path (from contact with the energetic material). Airblast levels from the energetic materials were unknown. The result was a large discrepancy between the energy content in the analysis and experiments.

  13. Input-dependent wave attenuation in a critically-balanced model of cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hu Yan

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that many properties of brain activity can be understood in terms of critical systems. However it is still not known how the long-range susceptibilities characteristic of criticality arise in the living brain from its local connectivity structures. Here we prove that a dynamically critically-poised model of cortex acquires an infinitely-long ranged susceptibility in the absence of input. When an input is presented, the susceptibility attenuates exponentially as a function of distance, with an increasing spatial attenuation constant (i.e., decreasing range the larger the input. This is in direct agreement with recent results that show that waves of local field potential activity evoked by single spikes in primary visual cortex of cat and macaque attenuate with a characteristic length that also increases with decreasing contrast of the visual stimulus. A susceptibility that changes spatial range with input strength can be thought to implement an input-dependent spatial integration: when the input is large, no additional evidence is needed in addition to the local input; when the input is weak, evidence needs to be integrated over a larger spatial domain to achieve a decision. Such input-strength-dependent strategies have been demonstrated in visual processing. Our results suggest that input-strength dependent spatial integration may be a natural feature of a critically-balanced cortical network.

  14. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  15. Geniculohypothalamic GABAergic projections gate suprachiasmatic nucleus responses to retinal input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Lydia; Walmsley, Lauren; Pienaar, Abigail; Howarth, Michael; Brown, Timothy M

    2017-06-01

    activation of GHT neurons selectively suppresses SCN responses to retinal input, and also that this effect exhibits a pronounced day/night variation and involves a GABAergic mechanism. This inhibitory action was not associated with overt circadian rhythmicity in GHT output, indicating modulation at the SCN level. Finally, we use in vivo electrophysiological recordings alongside pharmacological inactivation or optogenetic excitation to show that GHT signalling actively modulates specific features of the SCN light response, indicating that GHT cells are primarily activated by crossed retinal projections. Taken together, our data establish a new model for studying network communication in the extended circadian system and provide novel insight into the roles of GHT-signalling, revealing a mechanism by which thalamic activity can help gate retinal input to the SCN according to time of day. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  16. Bilinearity in spatiotemporal integration of synaptic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songting Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons process information via integration of synaptic inputs from dendrites. Many experimental results demonstrate dendritic integration could be highly nonlinear, yet few theoretical analyses have been performed to obtain a precise quantitative characterization analytically. Based on asymptotic analysis of a two-compartment passive cable model, given a pair of time-dependent synaptic conductance inputs, we derive a bilinear spatiotemporal dendritic integration rule. The summed somatic potential can be well approximated by the linear summation of the two postsynaptic potentials elicited separately, plus a third additional bilinear term proportional to their product with a proportionality coefficient [Formula: see text]. The rule is valid for a pair of synaptic inputs of all types, including excitation-inhibition, excitation-excitation, and inhibition-inhibition. In addition, the rule is valid during the whole dendritic integration process for a pair of synaptic inputs with arbitrary input time differences and input locations. The coefficient [Formula: see text] is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the input strengths but is dependent on input times and input locations. This rule is then verified through simulation of a realistic pyramidal neuron model and in electrophysiological experiments of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The rule is further generalized to describe the spatiotemporal dendritic integration of multiple excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The integration of multiple inputs can be decomposed into the sum of all possible pairwise integration, where each paired integration obeys the bilinear rule. This decomposition leads to a graph representation of dendritic integration, which can be viewed as functionally sparse.

  17. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  18. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support epid...... epidemic failure resolution is proposed. The results provide important input to service recovery mechanisms under epidemic failures.......This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  19. SATNET Development and Operation. Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance. Internet Development. Mobile Access Terminal Network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP-TAC, TCP for VAX-UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    0111 8.6.6 Timeouts.. ... c..ec. * e c c cc.c c. cc...0 . ... 111l 8.7 Transmission Control Protocolo .0*00*0. *0.. .. 0,,,. 112 8.7.1 Connection...for the development of a low-cost Wideband Packet Satellite Network Node. The underlying attraction of this approach is its use of existing familiar ...attempting to develop novel approaches to the solution of these problems. These staff members must, of course, be fully familiar with the current methods

  20. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  1. 39 CFR 3020.92 - Public input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public input. 3020.92 Section 3020.92 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.92 Public input. The Commission shall publish Postal...

  2. Farmers\\' Perceived Agricultural Input Factors Influencing Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated agricultural input factors influencing adoption and production of food crops in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data from 120 randomly selected farmers were used for the study. Findings show that the major inputs used by the respondents are improved seeds (89.2%), fertilizer (66.7%) and agrochemicals ...

  3. Farmer and input marketer's involvement in researchextension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the level of involvement of farmers and input marketers in the Research-Extension-Farmer-Input Linkage System (REFILS) continuum of activities in the Southeastern agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 80 randomly selected ...

  4. EDP Applications to Musical Bibliography: Input Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Donald C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) has been a boon in the analysis and bibliographic control of music. However, an extra step of encoding must be undertaken for input of music. The best hope to facilitate musical input is the development of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) music-reading machine. (29 references) (Author/NH)

  5. Income distributions in input-output models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Serrano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of income distribution (ID) has traditionally been of prime importance for economists and policy-makers. However, the standard input-output (I-O) model is not particularly well equipped for studying current issues such as the consequences of decreasing access to primary inputs or the

  6. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  7. 76 FR 38407 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  8. 77 FR 5262 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement (DE) mortgagees...

  9. 76 FR 53148 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  10. Atmospheric Nitrogen input to the Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asman, W.A.H.; Hertel, O.; Berkowicz, R.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the processes involved in the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. These processes are incorporated in an atmospheric transport model that is used to calculate the nitrogen input to the Kattegat, the sea area between Denmark and Sweden. The model results show...... that the total atmospheric nitrogen input to the Kattegat is approximately 960 kg N km(-2) yr(-1). The nitrogen input to the Kattegat is dominated by the wet depositions of NHx (42%) and NOy (30%). The contribution from the dry deposition of NHx is 17% and that of the dry deposition of NOy is 11......%. The contribution of the atmospheric input of nitrogen to the Kattegat is about 30% of the total input including the net transport from other sea areas, runoff etc....

  11. Statistical identification of effective input variables. [SCREEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications.

  12. Multiconsensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with Input Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiconsensus problem of double-integrator dynamic multiagent systems has been investigated. Firstly, the dynamic multiconsensus, the static multiconsensus, and the periodic multiconsensus are considered as three cases of multiconsensus, respectively, in which the final multiconsensus convergence states are established by using matrix analysis. Secondly, as for the multiagent system with input delays, the maximal allowable upper bound of the delays is obtained by employing Hopf bifurcation of delayed networks theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  13. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  14. Multi-input distributed classifiers for synthetic genetic circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kanakov

    Full Text Available For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of

  15. Flight Termination Systems Commonality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    EFI exploding foil initiator EFTR enhanced flight termination receiver EFTS enhanced flight termination system ELS equivalent level of safety EMC ...account shielding effectiveness of the vehicle. 3.3.13 Other Environments An FTS component shall satisfy all of its performance requirements and not...solid-state power transfer switches, and arm-and-enable circuits. 3.9.6 Circuit Isolation, Shielding , and Grounding The circuitry of an FTS

  16. Receding Horizon H∞ Control for Input-Delayed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Woong Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the receding horizon H∞ control (RHHC for input-delayed systems. A new cost function for a finite horizon dynamic game problem is first introduced, which includes two terminal weighting terms parameterized by a positive definite matrix, called a terminal weighing matrix. Secondly, the RHHC is obtained from the solution to the finite dynamic game problem. Thirdly, we propose an LMI condition under which the saddle point value satisfies the nonincreasing monotonicity. Finally, we show the asymptotic stability and H∞ boundedness of the closed-loop system controlled by the proposed RHHC. The proposed RHHC has a guaranteed H∞ performance bound for nonzero external disturbances and the quadratic cost can be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length for nonzero initial condition and zero disturbance, which is not the case for existing memoryless state-feedback controllers. It is shown through a numerical example that the proposed RHHC is stabilizing and satisfies the infinite horizon H∞ performance bound. Furthermore, the performance in terms of the quadratic cost is shown to be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length when there exists no external disturbance with nonzero initial condition.

  17. Hindcasting of storm waves using neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.; Mandal, S.

    of any exogenous input requirement makes the network attractive. A neural network is an information processing system modeled on the structure of the human brain. Its merit is the ability to deal with fuzzy information whose interrelation is ambiguous...

  18. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  19. The definition of input parameters for modelling of energetic subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review and a basic description of mathematical models of renewable energy sources which present individual investigated subsystems of a system created in Matlab/Simulink. It solves the physical and mathematical relationships of photovoltaic and wind energy sources that are often connected to the distribution networks. The fuel cell technology is much less connected to the distribution networks but it could be promising in the near future. Therefore, the paper informs about a new dynamic model of the low-temperature fuel cell subsystem, and the main input parameters are defined as well. Finally, the main evaluated and achieved graphic results for the suggested parameters and for all the individual subsystems mentioned above are shown.

  20. The definition of input parameters for modelling of energetic subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is a short review and a basic description of mathematical models of renewable energy sources which present individual investigated subsystems of a system created in Matlab/Simulink. It solves the physical and mathematical relationships of photovoltaic and wind energy sources that are often connected to the distribution networks. The fuel cell technology is much less connected to the distribution networks but it could be promising in the near future. Therefore, the paper informs about a new dynamic model of the low-temperature fuel cell subsystem, and the main input parameters are defined as well. Finally, the main evaluated and achieved graphic results for the suggested parameters and for all the individual subsystems mentioned above are shown.

  1. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Tuan V.; Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks...

  2. Robustness of network controllability in cascading failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Ming; Xu, Yun-Fei; Nie, Sen

    2017-04-01

    It is demonstrated that controlling complex networks in practice needs more inputs than that predicted by the structural controllability framework. Besides, considering the networks usually faces to the external or internal failure, we define parameters to evaluate the control cost and the variation of controllability after cascades, exploring the effect of number of control inputs on the controllability for random networks and scale-free networks in the process of cascading failure. For different topological networks, the results show that the robustness of controllability will be stronger through allocating different control inputs and edge capacity.

  3. Scalable Hierarchical Network Management System for Displaying Network Information in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jude (Inventor); Schlecht, Leslie (Inventor); McCabe, James D. (Inventor); LeKashman, John Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A network management system has SNMP agents distributed at one or more sites, an input output module at each site, and a server module located at a selected site for communicating with input output modules, each of which is configured for both SNMP and HNMP communications. The server module is configured exclusively for HNMP communications, and it communicates with each input output module according to the HNMP. Non-iconified, informationally complete views are provided of network elements to aid in network management.

  4. Integrating agronomic principles into production function estimation: A dichotomy of growth inputs and facilitating inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a general conceptual framework for integrating agronomic principles into economic production analysis. We categorize inputs in crop production into growth inputs and facilitating inputs. Based on this dichotomy we specify an asymmetric production function. The robustness of the

  5. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  6. A High Input Impedance Low Noise Integrated Front-End Amplifier for Neural Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun; Warr, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Within neural monitoring systems, the front-end amplifier forms the critical element for signal detection and pre-processing, which determines not only the fidelity of the biosignal, but also impacts power consumption and detector size. In this paper, a novel combined feedback loop-controlled approach is proposed to compensate for input leakage currents generated by low noise amplifiers when in integrated circuit form alongside signal leakage into the input bias network. This loop topology ensures the Front-End Amplifier (FEA) maintains a high input impedance across all manufacturing and operational variations. Measured results from a prototype manufactured on the AMS 0.35 [Formula: see text] CMOS technology is provided. This FEA consumes 3.1 [Formula: see text] in 0.042 [Formula: see text], achieves input impedance of 42 [Formula: see text], and 18.2 [Formula: see text] input-referred noise.

  7. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  8. APOE-Sensitive Cholinergic Sprouting Compensates for Hippocampal Dysfunctions Due to Reduced Entorhinal Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Jean-Bastien; Héraud, Céline; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Aubert, Julien; Sartori, Maxime; Goutagny, Romain; Mathis, Chantal

    2016-10-05

    Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input. However, in absence of direct experimental evidence, the compensatory nature of the cholinergic sprouting and its putative mechanisms remain elusive. Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE4 allele, the main genetic risk factor for sporadic MCI/AD, display impaired cholinergic sprouting after EC lesion. Using these mice as a tool to manipulate cholinergic sprouting in a disease-relevant way, we showed that this sprouting was necessary and sufficient for the acute compensation of EC lesion-induced spatial memory deficit before a slower glutamatergic reinnervation took place. We also found that partial EC lesion generates abnormal hyperactivity in EC/dentate networks. Dentate hyperactivity was abolished by optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic fibers. Therefore, control of dentate hyperactivity by cholinergic sprouting may be involved in functional compensation after entorhinal lesion. Our results also suggest that dentate hyperactivity in MCI patients may be directly related to EC neuronal loss. Impaired sprouting during the MCI stage may contribute to the faster cognitive decline reported in APOE4 carriers. Beyond the amyloid contribution, the potential role of both cholinergic sprouting and dentate hyperactivity in AD symptomatogenesis should be considered in designing new therapeutic approaches. Currently, curative treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed. The endogenous ability of the brain to cope with neuronal loss probably represents one of the

  9. Input data to run Landis-II

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location...

  10. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  11. Calibration of a Hydrological Model using Ensemble Satellite Rainfall Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher; Bellerby, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    A combination of satellite rainfall estimates (SRFE) and hydrological models can provide useful information for many remote areas of the planet. However, each component contains its own uncertainties and these uncertainties will interact when SRFE are used as inputs for hydrological models. For any assessment of a coupled system such as this there is a requirement for a comprehensive analysis of all sources of uncertainty, with full consideration of both facets. SRFE have been shown to be useful in many areas that lack the infrastructure to make timely and accurate estimations of rainfall from the ground. Sub-Saharan Africa is typical of this, where a paucity of rain recording radar and sparse gauging networks combine with a highly variable climate and a reliance on rain-fed agriculture. When operating at higher spatial and temporal resolutions, SRFE contain large uncertainties which will propagate through a hydrological model if used as a driving input. This study used a sequential method to produce ensemble SRFE based around the full conditional distribution of recorded rainfall from a sparse, historic raingauge network. The TAMSIM method (introduced by Teo, 2006) was used to produce 200 unique yet equiprobable SRFE, each used as a driver to a downstream hydrological model. Traditional hydrological modelling uses the adjustment of variable parameters within the model to reduce the error between a recorded record of discharge and the modelled one, and many automatic procedures have been produced to refine this calibration process. When SRFE have been used as a driver, little consideration has been paid to this process and often a calibration using the raingauge data has been used, without any consideration to the resulting uncertainty within the hydrological model and its calibration. A similar issue arises when ensemble inputs are used to a hydrological model that has been calibrated using a deterministic estimate of rainfall. This study has shown that such

  12. Improving the quality of palliative and terminal care in the hospital by a network of palliative care nurse champions: the study protocol of the PalTeC-H project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, Frederika E; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Maas, Paul J; van Dijk, Helma; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-03-25

    The quality of care of patients dying in the hospital is often judged as insufficient. This article describes the protocol of a study to assess the quality of care of the dying patient and the contribution of an intervention targeted on staff nurses of inpatient wards of a large university hospital in the Netherlands. We designed a controlled before and after study. The intervention is the establishment of a network for palliative care nurse champions, aiming to improve the quality of hospital end-of-life care. Assessments are performed among bereaved relatives, nurses and physicians on seven wards before and after introduction of the intervention and on 11 control wards where the intervention is not applied. We focus on care provided during the last three days of life, covered in global ratings of the quality of life in the last three days of life and the quality of dying, and various secondary endpoints of treatment and care affecting quality of life and dying. With this study we aim to improve the understanding of and attention for patients' needs, and the quality of care in the dying phase in the hospital and measure the impact of a quality improvement intervention targeted at nurses.

  13. Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.

    2009-01-01

    A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…

  14. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  15. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  16. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  17. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  18. Method for environmental risk analysis of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen-Lie, Torild R.; Aspholm, Ole O. [DNV Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a quantitative method for analyzing the environmental risk of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes. The method has been used both in Norway and elsewhere in the world; calculating the risk for environmental resources as fish, seabirds and waterfowls, marine mammals, otters, sea turtles and salt marches and other shoreline/sub tidal habitats. The environmental risk is the product of the probability of acute releases and the environmental consequences. Consequences for vulnerable species and habitats are calculated based on oil drift modelling results and a consequence matrix consisting of 5-7 consequence parameter and five consequence levels of increasing seriousness. An average consequence level is calculated on basis of defined weighting factors to provide an overall consequence value for each spill scenario for each species/habitat. An environmental risk analysis highlights the hazards that have to be managed in order to run an environmentally sustainable operation and can also provide input to establish cost-effective oil spill response measures. (author)

  19. Measuring input synchrony in the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck neuronal model through input parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsou, Achilleas; Kanev, Jacob; Christodoulou, Chris

    2013-11-06

    We present a method of estimating the input parameters and through them, the input synchrony, of a stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal model based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process when it is driven by time-dependent sinusoidal input signal and noise. By driving the neuron using sinusoidal inputs, we simulate the effects of periodic synchrony on the membrane voltage and the firing of the neuron, where the peaks of the sine wave represent volleys of synchronised input spikes. Our estimation methods allow us to measure the degree of synchrony driving the neuron in terms of the input sine wave parameters, using the output spikes of the model and the membrane potential. In particular, by estimating the frequency of the synchronous input volleys and averaging the estimates of the level of input activity at corresponding intervals of the input signal, we obtain fairly accurate estimates of the baseline and peak activity of the input, which in turn define the degrees of synchrony. The same procedure is also successfully applied in estimating the baseline and peak activity of the noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neural Coding 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning structure of sensory inputs with synaptic plasticity leads to interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrol-Cannon, Joseph; Jin, Yaochu

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is often explored as a form of unsupervised adaptation in cortical microcircuits to learn the structure of complex sensory inputs and thereby improve performance of classification and prediction. The question of whether the specific structure of the input patterns is encoded in the structure of neural networks has been largely neglected. Existing studies that have analyzed input-specific structural adaptation have used simplified, synthetic inputs in contrast to complex and noisy patterns found in real-world sensory data. In this work, input-specific structural changes are analyzed for three empirically derived models of plasticity applied to three temporal sensory classification tasks that include complex, real-world visual and auditory data. Two forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) plasticity rule are used to adapt the recurrent network structure during the training process before performance is tested on the pattern recognition tasks. It is shown that synaptic adaptation is highly sensitive to specific classes of input pattern. However, plasticity does not improve the performance on sensory pattern recognition tasks, partly due to synaptic interference between consecutively presented input samples. The changes in synaptic strength produced by one stimulus are reversed by the presentation of another, thus largely preventing input-specific synaptic changes from being retained in the structure of the network. To solve the problem of interference, we suggest that models of plasticity be extended to restrict neural activity and synaptic modification to a subset of the neural circuit, which is increasingly found to be the case in experimental neuroscience.

  1. Sistem Pengelolaan Terminal Mangkang Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sushernawan, Prasetya; Sulistyowati; Fitriyah

    2014-01-01

    This study, entitled "SYSTEM MANAGEMENT TERMINAL CITY MangkangSemarang". Terminal Mangkang a master terminal type A that is in the province of CentralJava is managed by Dishubkominfo. Terminal is a facility for public service units, as publicfacilities, the terminal should be able to provide services to the community as well as possible.So that they can be expected to contribute the maximum to PAD (the original income) withoutcompromising service to the community.Formulation of the problem in...

  2. Dendritic nonlinearities reduce network size requirements and mediate ON and OFF states of persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Papoutsi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON and termination (OFF and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC.

  3. Application of Ge Nanowire for Two-Input Bistable Nanoelectromechanical Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana ANDZANE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several research groups presented bistable two-terminal nanoelectromechanical switches based on individual single-clamped active element. All presented devices had one input electrode. Similar devices having two or more input electrodes have not been yet investigated. In this work we present the two-input bistable controlled nanoelectromechanical switch based on an individual single-clamped Ge nanowire. The switch is realised using in-situ SEM technique and operating due to balancing of electrostatic, adhesion and elastic forces. The operation conditions of the device are investigated and presented. The advantages and drawbacks of the device are discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.3086

  4. 5G Terminals with Multi-Streaming Features for Real-Time Mobile Broadband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shuminoski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel QoS framework on the network layer for 5G terminals with vertical multi-homing and multi-streaming capabilities by using radio networks aggregation. The proposed framework is leading to high performance utility networks with QoS provisioning for real-time multimedia services by achieving low packet delays, stochastic queuing network stability and highest mobile broadband capabilities i.e. bitrates. The proposed QoS algorithm is implemented within the mobile terminals on one side, and in dedicated proxy servers on mobile core network side. It is based on Lyapunov optimization techniques and it is targeted to handle simultaneously multiple multimedia service flows via multiple radio network interfaces in parallel.

  5. Getting a Suitable Terminal Cost and Maximizing the Terminal Region for MPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The model predictive control (MPC subject to control and state constraint is studied. Given a terminal cost, a terminal region is obtained through iterative estimation by using support vector machine (SVM. It is proved that the obtained terminal region is the largest terminal region when the terminal cost is given. The relationships between terminal cost and terminal region and between terminal cost and total cost are discussed, respectively. Based on these relationships, a simple method to get a suitable terminal cost is proposed and it can be adjusted according to our need. Finally, some experiment results are presented.

  6. Reading input flooding versus listening input flooding: Can they boost speaking skill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashtchi Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of reading input flooding and listening input flooding techniques on the accuracy and complexity of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking skill. Participants were 66 homogeneous intermediate EFL learners who were randomly divided into three groups of 22: Reading input flooding group, listening input flooding group, and control group. The reading flooded input group was exposed to the numerous examples of the target structures through reading. In the same phase, the listening group was given relatively the same task, through listening. The participants’ monologues in the posttest were separately recorded, and later transcribed and coded in terms of accuracy and complexity through Bygate’s (2001 standard coding system. The results of ANCOVA indicated the outperformance of reading input flooding group. The study also supported the trade-off effects (Skehan, 1998, 2009 between accuracy and complexity.

  7. New offshore terminal for Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-15

    W. Halcrow and Partners will design and supervise construction of the second phase of Corporacion Estatal Petrolera Ecuatoriana's offshore tanker terminal for the export of refined products from its 65,000 bbl/day Esmeraldas refinery, which will be expanded to 130,000 bbl/day. Ewbank and Partners Ltd. will handle mechanical and electrical engineering of the terminal. Halcrow also designed and built the first stage of the terminal, which comprised a four-hose seabed manifold 4 km offshore in water depths of 16 m and which became operational in Nov. 1977 with capacity to handle tankers up to 20,000 dwt and with pipeline connection to the Esmeradas refinery. The seabed manifold will be replaced by a two-berth sea island terminal to handle tankers up to 50,000 dwt; a contract for this has been signed. Future plans call for a two-berth central loading platform, separate berthing and mooring dolphins, an accommodation platform, and auxiliary services. The main structure will be a steel-piled jacket design interconnected by steel access bridges. The additional works should be completed by the end of 1981.

  8. The impact of 'terminator' technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Meer, van der I.J.M.; Louwaars, N.; Beekwilder, J.; Eaton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic use-restriction technologies enable the developers of transgenic plants or animals to protect their variety or breed from unauthorized use in a biological way. The use of 'terminator technology' can have different impacts on farmers and breeders. If the technology is effective, it impacts on

  9. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  10. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the problem...

  11. 26 CFR 1.411(d)-2 - Termination or partial termination; discontinuance of contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination or partial termination... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(d)-2 Termination or partial termination; discontinuance of contributions. (a... such plan is not a qualified trust) unless the plan provides that— (i) Upon the termination or partial...

  12. Terminal decline in motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Network Neutrality : A Survey of the Economic Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the small but growing economic literature on network neutrality. It considers a number of possible departures from network neutrality, in particular termination fees, second-degree price discrimination, and vertical foreclosure.

  14. Program Aids Simulation Of Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program NETS - Tool for Development and Evaluation of Neural Networks - provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus software environment for development of such algorithms. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network, and provides features for saving weight values of network, providing for more precise control over learning process. Consists of translating problem into format using input/output pairs, designing network configuration for problem, and finally training network with input/output pairs until acceptable error reached. Written in C.

  15. Tweaked residual convolutional network for face alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenchao; Li, Ke; Zhao, Qijun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hu

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach for face alignment with two-level convolutional networks architecture. Specifically, the first-level Tweaked Convolutional Network (TCN) module predicts the landmark quickly but accurately enough as a preliminary, by taking low-resolution version of the detected face holistically as the input. The following Residual Convolutional Networks (RCN) module progressively refines the landmark by taking as input the local patch extracted around the predicted landmark, particularly, which allows the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract local shape-indexed features to fine tune landmark position. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach outperforms existing methods.

  16. Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2017-01-01

    localization method is cast, which operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a theoretical model such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at the time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks...... to interrogate for). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage...... of two numerical examples, of which the first involves a chain-like system that is included to demonstrate some of the basic principles of the approach. The second example treats a truss structure model, which, besides the inputs to be shaped, is subjected to ambient excitation while the output...

  17. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...

  18. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  19. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Models of network reliability analysis, combinatorics, and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya B

    2009-01-01

    Unique in its approach, Models of Network Reliability: Analysis, Combinatorics, and Monte Carlo provides a brief introduction to Monte Carlo methods along with a concise exposition of reliability theory ideas. From there, the text investigates a collection of principal network reliability models, such as terminal connectivity for networks with unreliable edges and/or nodes, network lifetime distribution in the process of its destruction, network stationary behavior for renewable components, importance measures of network elements, reliability gradient, and network optimal reliability synthesis

  1. A tandem queue with Lévy input: a new representation of the downstream queue length.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dębicki, K.; Mandjes, M.; van Uitert, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a new representation for the steady-state distribution of the workload of the second queue in a two-node tandem network. It involves the difference of two suprema over two adjacent intervals. In the case of spectrally positive Lévy input, this enables us to derive the

  2. Using artificial neural network approach for modelling rainfall–runoff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven techniques, the artificial neural .... inputs from the environment), one or more inter- mediate layers and an output layer (producing the ... three-layer learning network consisting of an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer as illus-.

  3. Three-input majority logic gate and multiple input logic circuit based on DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2013-06-12

    In biomolecular programming, the properties of biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids are harnessed for computational purposes. The field has gained considerable attention due to the possibility of exploiting the massive parallelism that is inherent in natural systems to solve computational problems. DNA has already been used to build complex molecular circuits, where the basic building blocks are logic gates that produce single outputs from one or more logical inputs. We designed and experimentally realized a three-input majority gate based on DNA strand displacement. One of the key features of a three-input majority gate is that the three inputs have equal priority, and the output will be true if any of the two inputs are true. Our design consists of a central, circular DNA strand with three unique domains between which are identical joint sequences. Before inputs are introduced to the system, each domain and half of each joint is protected by one complementary ssDNA that displays a toehold for subsequent displacement by the corresponding input. With this design the relationship between any two domains is analogous to the relationship between inputs in a majority gate. Displacing two or more of the protection strands will expose at least one complete joint and return a true output; displacing none or only one of the protection strands will not expose a complete joint and will return a false output. Further, we designed and realized a complex five-input logic gate based on the majority gate described here. By controlling two of the five inputs the complex gate can realize every combination of OR and AND gates of the other three inputs.

  4. Networks dynamics in the case of emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotolo, D

    2016-07-01

    This research in progress aims at increasing our understanding of how collaborative networks form, evolve and are configured in the case of emerging technologies. The architecture of the relationships among the variety of organisational actors involved in the emergence process exerts a significant influence in shaping technological change in certain directions rather than others, especially in the early stage of emergence. As a result, socially optimal or desirable technological trajectories may be ‘opportunistically’ rejected. Our empirical analysis is based on a case-study of an emerging medical technology, namely ‘microneedles’. On the basis of co-authorship data reported in 1,943 publications on the topic from 1990 to 2014, longitudinal collaboration (co-authorship) networks were built at two levels: affiliation and author. We examined the dynamics of co-authorship networks by building on recent methodological advancements in network analysis, i.e. Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs). These models enable us to make statistical inferences about on the extent to which a network configuration occurs more than could be expected by chance and to identify which social mechanisms may be shaping the network in certain configurations. The findings of the statistical analyses (currently in progress) combined with the qualitative understanding of the case will increase our understanding of which mechanisms are more likely to drive the network dynamics in the case of emerging technologies. These include evidence of the extent to which the likelihood of forming, maintaining, or terminating ties among actors (authors or affiliations) is affected by actors’ covariates such as types of organisations, diversity/specialisation of the research undertaken, and status. These findings have potential to provide important inputs for policymaking process in the case of emerging technologies. (Author)

  5. Avi Sorting Network

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Bansal; Kamal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sor...

  6. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Safak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  7. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminsoy, Sertac; Dogan, Safak; Kondoz, Ahmet M.

    2007-12-01

    Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing) of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  8. Learning Structure of Sensory Inputs with Synaptic Plasticity Leads to Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eChrol-Cannon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is often explored as a form of unsupervised adaptationin cortical microcircuits to learn the structure of complex sensoryinputs and thereby improve performance of classification and prediction. The question of whether the specific structure of the input patterns is encoded in the structure of neural networks has been largely neglected. Existing studies that have analyzed input-specific structural adaptation have used simplified, synthetic inputs in contrast to complex and noisy patterns found in real-world sensory data.In this work, input-specific structural changes are analyzed forthree empirically derived models of plasticity applied to three temporal sensory classification tasks that include complex, real-world visual and auditory data. Two forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP and the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM plasticity rule are used to adapt the recurrent network structure during the training process before performance is tested on the pattern recognition tasks.It is shown that synaptic adaptation is highly sensitive to specific classes of input pattern. However, plasticity does not improve the performance on sensory pattern recognition tasks, partly due to synaptic interference between consecutively presented input samples. The changes in synaptic strength produced by one stimulus are reversed by thepresentation of another, thus largely preventing input-specific synaptic changes from being retained in the structure of the network.To solve the problem of interference, we suggest that models of plasticitybe extended to restrict neural activity and synaptic modification to a subset of the neural circuit, which is increasingly found to be the casein experimental neuroscience.

  9. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock...

  10. The Contrast Theory of negative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about whether or not children receive corrective input for grammatical errors depend crucially on how one defines the concept of correction. Arguably, previous conceptualizations do not provide a viable basis for empirical research (Gold, 1967; Brown & Hanlon, 1970; Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman, 1984). Within the Contrast Theory of negative input, an alternative definition of negative evidence is offered, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal to the child the contrast, or conflict, between the two forms, and hence provide a basis for rejecting the erroneous form. A within-subjects experimental design was implemented for 36 children (mean age 5;0), in order to compare the immediate effects of negative evidence with those of positive input, on the acquisition of six novel irregular past tense forms. Children reproduced the correct irregular model more often, and persisted with fewer errors, following negative evidence rather than positive input.

  11. Drawings as Input for Handheld Game Computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Zwiers, Jakob; Nijholt, Antinus; de Jong, R.; Krooman, E.; Maybury, Mark; Stock, Oliveiro; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The Nintendo DS (TM) is a hand held game computer that includes a small sketch pad as one of it input modalities. We discuss the possibilities for recognition of simple line drawing on this device, with focus of attention on robustness and real-time behavior. The results of our experiments show that

  12. Hydrogen Generation Rate Model Calculation Input Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUFAHL, M.A.

    2000-04-27

    This report documents the procedures and techniques utilized in the collection and analysis of analyte input data values in support of the flammable gas hazard safety analyses. This document represents the analyses of data current at the time of its writing and does not account for data available since then.

  13. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  14. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  15. Programmable Input for Nanomagnetic Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt-Landsiedel D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A programmable magnetic input, based on the magnetic interaction of a soft and hard magnetic layer is presented for the first time. Therefore, a single-domain Co/Pt nanomagnet is placed on top of one end of a permalloy bar, separated by a thin dielectric layer. The permalloy bar of the introduced input structure is magnetized by weak easy-axis in-plane fields. Acting like a ’magnetic amplifier’, the generated fringing fields of the permalloy pole are strong enough to control the magnetization of the superimposed Co/Pt nanomagnets, which have high crystalline perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This magnetostatic interaction results in a shift of the hysteresis curve of the Co/Pt nanomagnet, measured by magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The Co/Pt nanomagnet is fixed by the fringing field of the permalloy and thereby not affected by the magnetic power clock of the Nanomagnetic Logic system. MFM measurements verify the functionality of the programmable magnetic input structure. The fringing fields are extracted from micromagnetic simulations and are in good agreement with experimental results. The introduced input structure enables switching the logic functionality of the majority gate from NAND to NOR during runtime, offering programmable Nanomagnetic Logic.

  16. Facilitating agricultural input distribution in Uganda - Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    2004 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Facilitating agricultural input distribution in ... guarantee fund, a retail oriented business training, farmer training, promotion, and efforts to develop the rural markets. Such interventions help .... Working in solidarity groups benefits the rural retailers in that they have stronger ...

  17. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  18. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  19. Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...

  20. MBVCNN: Joint convolutional neural networks method for image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tong; Mu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Li; Yi, Zhaoxiang; Hu, Pei

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of objects in image recognition rectangle, but objects which are input into convolutional neural networks square, the object recognition model was put forward which was based on BING method to realize object estimate, used vectorization of convolutional neural networks to realize input square image in convolutional networks, therefore, built joint convolution neural networks, which achieve multiple size image input. Verified by experiments, the accuracy of multi-object image recognition was improved by 6.70% compared with single vectorization of convolutional neural networks. Therefore, image recognition method of joint convolutional neural networks can enhance the accuracy in image recognition, especially for target in rectangular shape.

  1. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  2. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxiaoping@hust.edu.cn; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-09-07

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  3. ATHENA code manual. Volume 2. Input and data requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, K.E.; Roth, P.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1986-09-01

    The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems which may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. A generic modeling approach is utilized which permits as much of a particular system to be modeled as necessary. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of a complete facility. Several working fluids are available to be used in one or more interacting loops. Different loops may have different fluids with thermal connections between loops. The modeling theory and associated numerical schemes are documented in Volume I in order to acquaint the user with the modeling base and thus aid effective use of the code. The second volume contains detailed instructions for input data preparation.

  4. Analysis of Input Currents in «Frequency Converter - Induction Motor» System under Asymmetry of Mains Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Firago

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modem firequency converters with uncontrolled rectifiers on the supply network is investigated in this paper. The developed mathematical model permits us to analyze rectifier input currents with symmetrical and asymmetrical supply networks and in discontinuous operational mode. Results of modeling in case of asymmetrical supply network are shown in the form of mains current curves and current spectrum of one phase.

  5. A troposphere tomography method considering the weighting of input information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingzhi; Yao, Yibin; Yao, Wanqiang

    2017-12-01

    Troposphere tomography measurement using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) generally consists of several types of input information including the observation equation, horizontal constraint equation, vertical constraint equation, and a priori constraint equation. The reasonable weightings of input information are a prerequisite for ensuring the reliability of the adjustment of the parameters. This forms the focus of this research, which tries to determine the weightings, including the observations, for the same type of equation and the optimal weightings for different types of equations. The optimal weightings of the proposed method are realized on the basis of the stable equilibrium relationship between different types of a posteriori unit weight variances, which are capable of adaptively adjusting the weightings for different types of equations and enables the ratio between the two arbitrary a posteriori unit weight variances to tend to unity. A troposphere tomography experiment, which was used to consider these weightings, was implemented using global positioning system (GPS) data from the Hong Kong Satellite Positioning Reference Station Network (SatRef). Numerical results show the applicability and stability of the proposed method for GPS troposphere tomography assessment under different weather conditions. In addition, the root mean square (RMS) error in the water vapor density differences between tomography-radiosonde and tomography-ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are 0.91 and 1.63 g m-3, respectively, over a 21-day test.

  6. Synthetic Biology Platform for Sensing and Integrating Endogenous Transcriptional Inputs in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Bartolomeo; Mailand, Erik; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2016-08-30

    One of the goals of synthetic biology is to develop programmable artificial gene networks that can transduce multiple endogenous molecular cues to precisely control cell behavior. Realizing this vision requires interfacing natural molecular inputs with synthetic components that generate functional molecular outputs. Interfacing synthetic circuits with endogenous mammalian transcription factors has been particularly difficult. Here, we describe a systematic approach that enables integration and transduction of multiple mammalian transcription factor inputs by a synthetic network. The approach is facilitated by a proportional amplifier sensor based on synergistic positive autoregulation. The circuits efficiently transduce endogenous transcription factor levels into RNAi, transcriptional transactivation, and site-specific recombination. They also enable AND logic between pairs of arbitrary transcription factors. The results establish a framework for developing synthetic gene networks that interface with cellular processes through transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  8. k36u Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. THE FORMALIZATION PROCESS OF CARGO TERMINAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Shramenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical formalization of operation process for a terminal complex is proposed and a model taking into account characteristics of a freight terminal and all the possible states of a system is developed.

  10. Student Preparation and the Power of Visual Input in Veterinary Surgical Education: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Koch, Bodil Cathrine; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, veterinary educational institutions have implemented alternative teaching methods, including video demonstrations of surgical procedures. However, the power of the dynamic visual input from videos in relation to recollection of a surgical procedure has never been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate how veterinary surgical students perceived the influence of different educational materials on recollection of a surgical procedure. Furthermore, we investigated if surgical technique was associated with a certain method of recollection or use of educational material. During a basic surgical skills course, 112 fourth-year veterinary students participated in the study by completing a questionnaire regarding method of recollection, influence of individual types of educational input, and homework preparation. Furthermore, we observed students performing an orchiectomy in a terminal pig lab. Preparation for the pig lab consisted of homework (textbook, online material, including videos), lecture, cadaver lab, and toy animal models in a skills lab. In the instructional video, a detail was used that was not described elsewhere. Results show that 60% of the students used a visual dynamic method as their main method of recollection and that video was considered the most influential educational input with respect to recollection of a specific procedure. Observation of students' performance during the orchiectomy showed no clear association with students' method of recollection but a significant association (p=.002) with educational input. Our results illustrate the power of a visual input and support prior findings that knowledge is constructed from multiple sources of information.

  11. Manually-stimulated recovery of motor function after facial nerve injury requires intact sensory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Stoyan P; Grosheva, Maria; Streppel, Michael; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Irintchev, Andrey; Skouras, Emmanouil; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Sinis, Nektarios; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown in rat that daily manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles promotes recovery of whisking and reduces polyinnervation of muscle fibers following repair of the facial nerve (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA). Here, we examined whether these positive effects were: (1) correlated with alterations of the afferent connections of regenerated facial motoneurons, and (2) whether they were achieved by enhanced sensory input through the intact trigeminal nerve. First, we quantified the extent of total synaptic input to motoneurons in the facial nucleus using synaptophysin immunocytochemistry following FFA with and without subsequent MS. We found that, without MS, this input was reduced compared to intact animals. The number of synaptophysin-positive terminals returned to normal values following MS. Thus, MS appears to counteract the deafferentation of regenerated facial motoneurons. Second, we performed FFA and, in addition, eliminated the trigeminal sensory input to facial motoneurons by extirpation of the ipsilateral infraorbital nerve (IONex). In this paradigm, without MS, vibrissal motor performance and pattern of end-plate reinnervation were as aberrant as after FFA without MS. MS did not influence the reinnervation pattern after IONex and functional recovery was even worse than after IONex without MS. Thus, when the sensory system is intact, MS restores normal vibrissal function and reduces the degree of polyinnervation. When afferent inputs are abolished, these effects are eliminated or even reversed. We conclude that rehabilitation strategies must be carefully designed to take into account the extent of motor and/or sensory damage.

  12. Cell type-specific bipolar cell input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, S; Hüser, L; Ondreka, K; Auler, N; Haverkamp, S

    2016-03-01

    Many distinct ganglion cell types, which are the output elements of the retina, were found to encode for specific features of a visual scene such as contrast, color information or movement. The detailed composition of retinal circuits leading to this tuning of retinal ganglion cells, however, is apart from some prominent examples, largely unknown. Here we aimed to investigate if ganglion cell types in the mouse retina receive selective input from specific bipolar cell types or if they sample their synaptic input non-selectively from all bipolar cell types stratifying within their dendritic tree. To address this question we took an anatomical approach and immunolabeled retinae of two transgenic mouse lines (GFP-O and JAM-B) with markers for ribbon synapses and type 2 bipolar cells. We morphologically identified all green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ganglion cell types, which co-stratified with type 2 bipolar cells and assessed the total number of bipolar input synapses and the proportion of synapses deriving from type 2 bipolar cells. Only JAM-B ganglion cells received synaptic input preferentially from bipolar cell types other than type 2 bipolar cells whereas the other analyzed ganglion cell types sampled their bipolar input most likely from all bipolar cell terminals within their dendritic arbor. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Domain-General Brain Regions Do Not Track Linguistic Input as Closely as Language-Selective Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Idan A; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2017-10-11

    Language comprehension engages a cortical network of left frontal and temporal regions. Activity in this network is language-selective, showing virtually no modulation by nonlinguistic tasks. In addition, language comprehension engages a second network consisting of bilateral frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular regions. Activity in this "multiple demand" (MD) network scales with comprehension difficulty, but also with cognitive effort across a wide range of nonlinguistic tasks in a domain-general fashion. Given the functional dissociation between the language and MD networks, their respective contributions to comprehension are likely distinct, yet such differences remain elusive. Prior neuroimaging studies have suggested that activity in each network covaries with some linguistic features that, behaviorally, influence on-line processing and comprehension. This sensitivity of the language and MD networks to local input characteristics has often been interpreted, implicitly or explicitly, as evidence that both networks track linguistic input closely, and in a manner consistent across individuals. Here, we used fMRI to directly test this assumption by comparing the BOLD signal time courses in each network across different people (n = 45, men and women) listening to the same story. Language network activity showed fewer individual differences, indicative of closer input tracking, whereas MD network activity was more idiosyncratic and, moreover, showed lower reliability within an individual across repetitions of a story. These findings constrain cognitive models of language comprehension by suggesting a novel distinction between the processes implemented in the language and MD networks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Language comprehension recruits both language-specific mechanisms and domain-general mechanisms that are engaged in many cognitive processes. In the human cortex, language-selective mechanisms are implemented in the left-lateralized "core language network

  14. Transforming Input Into Output : How Downward Networking Mediates the Effect of External Networking on Organizational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Petra; Schalk, Jelmer; Torenvlied, René

    2017-01-01

    One of the core assumptions of the open systems perspective is that management facilitates the technical flows that transform resources and demands into output, which ultimately affects the organization’s performance. This article sheds light on the managerial throughput hypothesis by testing the

  15. Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Zhuoxian; Tian, Xiaorui; Käll, Mikael; Xu, Hongxing

    2011-01-01

    ... integrated logic units and cascade devices have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that a plasmonic binary NOR gate, a 'universal logic gate', can be realized through cascaded OR and NOT gates in four-terminal plasmonic nanowire networks...

  16. Topological generalizations of network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, N.; Itzkovitz, S.; Milo, R.; Alon, U.

    2004-09-01

    Biological and technological networks contain patterns, termed network motifs, which occur far more often than in randomized networks. Network motifs were suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out key functions in the network. It is of interest to understand how network motifs combine to form larger structures. To address this, we present a systematic approach to define “motif generalizations”: families of motifs of different sizes that share a common architectural theme. To define motif generalizations, we first define “roles” in a subgraph according to structural equivalence. For example, the feedforward loop triad—a motif in transcription, neuronal, and some electronic networks—has three roles: an input node, an output node, and an internal node. The roles are used to define possible generalizations of the motif. The feedforward loop can have three simple generalizations, based on replicating each of the three roles and their connections. We present algorithms for efficiently detecting motif generalizations. We find that the transcription networks of bacteria and yeast display only one of the three generalizations, the multi-output feedforward generalization. In contrast, the neuronal network of C. elegans mainly displays the multi-input generalization. Forward-logic electronic circuits display a multi-input, multi-output hybrid. Thus, networks which share a common motif can have very different generalizations of that motif. Using mathematical modeling, we describe the information processing functions of the different motif generalizations in transcription, neuronal, and electronic networks.

  17. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization at the time of its termination or loss of reporting identity and, together with a copy thereof... such termination or loss of reporting identity, as the case may be. (b) Labor organizations which... other form of termination of its existence as a labor organization, or which loses its identity as a...

  18. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  19. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination procedures. 460.54 Section 460.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a) Except...

  20. Retinal input to efferent target amacrine cells in the avian retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sarah H.; Azizi, Nason; Weller, Cynthia; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The bird visual system includes a substantial projection, of unknown function, from a midbrain nucleus to the contralateral retina. Every centrifugal, or efferent, neuron originating in the midbrain nucleus makes synaptic contact with the soma of a single, unique amacrine cell, the target cell (TC). By labeling efferent neurons in the midbrain we have been able to identify their terminals in retinal slices and make patch clamp recordings from TCs. TCs generate Na+ based action potentials triggered by spontaneous EPSPs originating from multiple classes of presynaptic neurons. Exogenously applied glutamate elicited inward currents having the mixed pharmacology of NMDA, kainate and inward rectifying AMPA receptors. Exogenously applied GABA elicited currents entirely suppressed by GABAzine, and therefore mediated by GABAA receptors. Immunohistochemistry showed the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGluT2, to be present in the characteristic synaptic boutons of efferent terminals, whereas the GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD, was present in much smaller processes of intrinsic retinal neurons. Extracellular recording showed that exogenously applied GABA was directly excitatory to TCs and, consistent with this, NKCC, the Cl− transporter often associated with excitatory GABAergic synapses, was identified in TCs by antibody staining. The presence of excitatory retinal input to TCs implies that TCs are not merely slaves to their midbrain input; instead, their output reflects local retinal activity and descending input from the midbrain. PMID:20650017

  1. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  2. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load est...

  3. Research on optical access network remote management technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wayne; Zou, Chen; Luo, Wenyi

    2008-11-01

    This paper goal is to provide a framework for the remote configuration and management of services for PON (Passive Optical Network) access and fiber access. Also it defines how Auto-Configuration Servers (ACS) in the network can remotely configure, troubleshoot and manage a Passive Optical Network (PON) optical network termination (ONT) with layer 3 capabilities using the CPE WAN management protocol, TR-069.

  4. Molecular structure input on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A molecule editor, that is program for input and editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. This review focuses on a special type of molecule editors, namely those that are used for molecule structure input on the web. Scientific computing is now moving more and more in the direction of web services and cloud computing, with servers scattered all around the Internet. Thus a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, and a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. The review covers a history of web-based structure input, starting with simple text entry boxes and early molecule editors based on clickable maps, before moving to the current situation dominated by Java applets. One typical example - the popular JME Molecule Editor - will be described in more detail. Modern Ajax server-side molecule editors are also presented. And finally, the possible future direction of web-based molecule editing, based on technologies like JavaScript and Flash, is discussed.

  5. Emowars: Interactive Game Input Menggunakan Ekspresi Wajah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Chowanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the affective game has received attention from the research communities over this lustrum. As a crucial aspect of a game, emotions play an important role in user experience as well as to emphasize the user’s emotions state on game design. This will improve the user’s interactivity while they playing the game. This research aims to discuss and analyze whether emotions can replace traditional user game inputs (keyboard, mouse, and others. The methodology used in this research is divided into two main phases: game design and facial expression recognition. The results of this research indicate that users preferred to use a traditional input such as mouse. Moreover, user’s interactivities with game are still slightly low. However, this is a great opportunity for researchers in affective game with a more interactive game play as well as rich and complex story. Hopefully this will improve the user affective state and emotions in game. The results of this research imply that happy emotion obtains 78% of detection, meanwhile the anger emotion has the lowest detection of44.4%. Moreover, users prefer mouse and FER (face expression recognition as the best input for this game.

  6. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical

  7. Multi-Terminal DC Networks : System Integration, Dynamics and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira Pinto, R.

    2014-01-01

    When large amounts of electricity need to be transported for long distances, or when underground or submarine cables are involved, using direct current high-voltage transmission systems is more efficient and cost effective than using traditional high-voltage alternating current transmission.

  8. 76 FR 22119 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct Endorsement Approval: Approval of a DE mortgagee by HUD/FHA...

  9. Effect of electrical terminals made of copper to the ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakshatharan, S. Sunjai; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2017-04-01

    In order to diminish the effect of terminals to the aqueous ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators, the electrical input terminals should be made of a noble metal - platinum or gold. In any case, they should not be made of copper. As a matter of fact, copper is electrochemically not stable enough, even at very low voltages. As soon as a voltage is applied between the terminals, the ions of copper formed in the process of oxydation migrate very fast into the IEAP. The bending of IEAP actuators is caused by the movement of cations in the applied electric field. In the region of electrical terminals the infiltrated cations of copper will participate in this process and give additional effect. With the help of a showy experiment we compare the bending of a water-swollen ionic polymer membrane using terminals made of copper and made of gold. The experiment demonstrates impressively, that the copper ions originated from the copper contacts cause bending close to the terminals, and alter the composition of the membrane between the terminals.

  10. Application and design of inexpensive small earth terminals for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Sharifi, M.; Pourmand, B.

    Different applications of miniearth terminals (MET) for various satellite communication networks are discussed, and then the steps that must be taken to design a reliable satellite system using METs are specified. The main emphasis of the paper is on the various applications of the METs, selection of access method, modulation scheme, power requirement, and performance analysis. Depending on the application, the miniearth terminals may be designed to be used in the networks with any of the following access techniques: SCPC, MC-TDMA, TDM, satellite switch TDMA, random multiple access or some forms of hybrid demand assignment multiple access methods constituted of frequency time or spatial separation.

  11. Cpeb4-mediated translational regulatory circuitry controls terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-09-29

    While we have considerable understanding of the transcriptional networks controlling mammalian cell differentiation, our knowledge of posttranscriptional regulatory events is very limited. Using differentiation of primary erythroid cells as a model, we show that the sequence-specific mRNA-binding protein Cpeb4 is strongly induced by the erythroid-important transcription factors Gata1 and Tal1 and is essential for terminal erythropoiesis. By interacting with the translation initiation factor eIF3, Cpeb4 represses the translation of a large set of mRNAs, including its own mRNA. Thus, transcriptional induction and translational repression combine to form a negative feedback loop to control Cpeb4 protein levels within a specific range that is required for terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides an example of how translational control is integrated with transcriptional regulation to precisely control gene expression during mammalian cell differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Compact private hubs for corporate VSAT networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Tom M.; Subbarayan, Ravi

    Satellite communications has played a significant role in making information networks a strategic corporate asset. Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks, in particular, have special appeal for the corporate network user community because of unique advantages in cost, operations, and user control. The recent rapid proliferation of these networks in a multitude of market segments, as diverse as retail and financial services, is evidence of their wide acceptance for business communications.

  13. Distinct development of the glycinergic terminals in the ventral and dorsal horns of the mouse cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Masanobu; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Kim, Jeongtae; Kobayashi, Shiori; Kosaka, Yoshinori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Matsushita, Masayuki; Okabe, Akihito; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2017-02-20

    In the spinal cord, glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are inhibitory neurotransmitters. However, the ontogeny of the glycinergic network remains unclear. To address this point, we examined the developmental formation of glycinergic terminals by immunohistochemistry for glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), a marker of glycinergic terminals, in developing mouse cervical spinal cord. Furthermore, the developmental localization of GlyT2 was compared with that of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker of GABAergic terminals, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, by single and double immunolabeling. GlyT2-positive dots (glycinergic terminals) were first detected in the marginal zone on embryonic day 14 (E14). In the ventral horn, they were detected at E16 and increased in observed density during postnatal development. Until postnatal day 7 (P7), GAD-positive dots (GABAergic terminals) were dominant and GlyT2 immunolabeling was localized at GAD-positive dots. During the second postnatal week, GABAergic terminals markedly decreased and glycinergic terminals became dominant. In the dorsal horn, glycinergic terminals were detected at P0 in lamina IV and P7 in lamina III and developmentally increased. GlyT2 was also localized at GAD-positive dots, and colocalizing dots were dominant at P21. VGAT-positive dots (inhibitory terminals) continued to increase until P21. These results suggest that GABAergic terminals first appear during embryonic development and may often change to colocalizing terminals throughout the gray matter during development. The colocalizing terminals may remain in the dorsal horn, whereas in the ventral horn, colocalizing terminals may give rise to glycinergic terminals. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  15. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (r C , Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on r C were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on r C , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining r C . The direct correlation of r C with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Information-geometric measures as robust estimators of connection strengths and external inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Masami; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2009-08-01

    Information geometry has been suggested to provide a powerful tool for analyzing multineuronal spike trains. Among several advantages of this approach, a significant property is the close link between information-geometric measures and neural network architectures. Previous modeling studies established that the first- and second-order information-geometric measures corresponded to the number of external inputs and the connection strengths of the network, respectively. This relationship was, however, limited to a symmetrically connected network, and the number of neurons used in the parameter estimation of the log-linear model needed to be known. Recently, simulation studies of biophysical model neurons have suggested that information geometry can estimate the relative change of connection strengths and external inputs even with asymmetric connections. Inspired by these studies, we analytically investigated the link between the information-geometric measures and the neural network structure with asymmetrically connected networks of N neurons. We focused on the information-geometric measures of orders one and two, which can be derived from the two-neuron log-linear model, because unlike higher-order measures, they can be easily estimated experimentally. Considering the equilibrium state of a network of binary model neurons that obey stochastic dynamics, we analytically showed that the corrected first- and second-order information-geometric measures provided robust and consistent approximation of the external inputs and connection strengths, respectively. These results suggest that information-geometric measures provide useful insights into the neural network architecture and that they will contribute to the study of system-level neuroscience.

  17. 42 CFR 460.138 - Committees with community input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Committees with community input. 460.138 Section... community input. A PACE organization must establish one or more committees, with community input, to do the... implementation of, and results from, the quality assessment and performance improvement plan. (c) Provide input...

  18. 78 FR 70076 - Large Scale Networking (LSN)-Middleware and Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Large Scale Networking (LSN)--Middleware and Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team AGENCY: The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) National Coordination Office (NCO... Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group (CG). Public Comments: The government seeks individual input; attendees...

  19. Joint Design and Pricing of Intermodal Port - Hinterland Network Services: Considering Economies of Scale and Service Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ypsilantis (Panagiotis); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMaritime container terminal operating companies have extended their role from node operators to that of multimodal transport network operators. They have extended the gates of their seaport terminals to the gates of inland terminals in their network by means of frequent services of high

  20. Synchronization properties of coupled chaotic neurons: The role of random shared input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rupesh [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bilal, Shakir [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Ramaswamy, Ram [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Spike-time correlations of neighbouring neurons depend on their intrinsic firing properties as well as on the inputs they share. Studies have shown that periodically firing neurons, when subjected to random shared input, exhibit asynchronicity. Here, we study the effect of random shared input on the synchronization of weakly coupled chaotic neurons. The cases of so-called electrical and chemical coupling are both considered, and we observe a wide range of synchronization behaviour. When subjected to identical shared random input, there is a decrease in the threshold coupling strength needed for chaotic neurons to synchronize in-phase. The system also supports lag–synchronous states, and for these, we find that shared input can cause desynchronization. We carry out a master stability function analysis for a network of such neurons and show agreement with the numerical simulations. The contrasting role of shared random input for complete and lag synchronized neurons is useful in understanding spike-time correlations observed in many areas of the brain.