WorldWideScience

Sample records for network infrastructure program

  1. Evolving a Network of Networks: The Experience of Partnerships in the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Anderson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP was initiated in December 2000 when the U.S. Congress authorized the Library of Congress to work with a broad range of institutions to develop a national strategy for the preservation of at-risk digital content. Guided by a strategy of collaboration and iteration, the Library of Congress began the formation of a national network of partners dedicated to collecting and preserving important born-digital information. Over the last six years, the Library and its partners have been engaged in learning through action that has resulted in an evolving understanding of the most appropriate roles and functions for a national network of diverse stakeholders. The emerging network is complex and inclusive of a variety of stakeholders; content producers, content stewards and service providers from the public and private sectors. Lessons learned indicate that interoperability is a challenge in all aspects of collaborative work.

  2. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  3. Designing Networked Energy Infrastructures with Architectural Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melese, Y.G.; Heijnen, P.W.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of networked energy infrastructures (like gas pipe networks), generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under resources, market and institutional uncertainties. Several independent suppliers and consumers are to be connected into these networks. However, the actual

  4. Future Naval Use of COTS Networking Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    continuous process improvement in support of NGEN and CANES under the Information Technology Infrastructure Library ( ITIL ) model. In addition, the Navy...Shipboard Network System IT Information Technology IT-21 Information Technology for the 21st Century ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure

  5. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information; this incl......; this includes available statistical information and a short survey of emerging technologies. A scenario for Denmark is presented and consequences are discussed....

  6. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...... of the bandwidth requirements are analysed. For this analysis the assumptions and limitations are defined. The results obtained by the analysis show, that the amount of data collected and transferred by a smart meter is very low compared to the available bandwidth of most internet connections. The results show...

  7. Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Narisa N.

    1996-01-01

    The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

  8. Infrastructural Networks for Evolved Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Brizzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work starts from the redevelopment of a large abandoned architecture in a resort of the Cesena Apennines to handle a wider issue: that of the smaller towns in Italy. It is part of a Relevant National Interest Project that deals with the Detection of innovative instruments for the protection and development of settlement systems. Their crisis is mainly due to abandonment, however they still constitute a precious cultural and economic heritage. There are some indications about the fields of investigation (first of all that the tourist phenomena and the guidelines to give these systems a role in contemporary society, recognizing the importance of creating networks, both hard and soft, between various centers, to develop synergies and complementarities.

  9. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  10. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey AGENCY: National Protection... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program was created according to the Critical Infrastructure Information (CII) Act of 2002 for DHS to...

  11. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical infrastructure...

  12. Enabling software defined networking experiments in networked critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Genge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fact that Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCI, e.g., power plants, water plants, oil and gas distribution infrastructures, and electricity grids, are targeted by significant cyber threats is well known. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that specific characteristics of NCI can be exploited in the enabling of more efficient mitigation techniques, while novel techniques from the field of IP networks can bring significant advantages. In this paper we explore the interconnection of NCI communication infrastructures with Software Defined Networking (SDN-enabled network topologies. SDN provides the means to create virtual networking services and to implement global networking decisions. It relies on OpenFlow to enable communication with remote devices and has been recently categorized as the “Next Big Technology”, which will revolutionize the way decisions are implemented in switches and routers. Therefore, the paper documents the first steps towards enabling an SDN-NCI and presents the impact of a Denial of Service experiment over traffic resulting from an XBee sensor network which is routed across an emulated SDN network.

  13. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  14. Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 16th annual report highlights up-to-date information on the programs supported through the Chancellor's Office Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP). To summarize 2012-13, one would describe it as a year of planning and preparation. The system-wide budget cuts of the past few years, reports of impacted classes, staff…

  15. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  16. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  17. N2R vs. DR Network Infrastructure Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Roost, Lars Jessen; Toft, Per Nesager

    2007-01-01

    Recent development of Internet-based services has set higher requirements to network infrastructures in terms of more bandwidth, lower delays and more reliability. Theoretical research within the area of Structural Quality of Service (SQoS) has introduced a new type of infrastructure which meet...... these requirements: N2R infrastructures. This paper contributes to the ongoing research with a case study from North Jutland. An evaluation of three N2R infrastructures compared to a Double Ring (DR) infrastructure will provide valuable information of the practical applicability of N2R infrastructures. In order...... to study if N2R infrastructures perform better than the DR infrastructure, a distribution network was established based on geographical information system (GIS) data. Nodes were placed with respect to demographic and geographical factors. The established distribution network was investigated with respect...

  18. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  19. TruSDN: Bootstrapping Trust in Cloud Network Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Paladi, Nicolae; Gehrmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a novel architectural model for cloud network infrastructure, improving resource utilization, scalability and administration. SDN deployments increasingly rely on virtual switches executing on commodity operating systems with large code bases, which are prime targets for adversaries attacking the net- work infrastructure. We describe and implement TruSDN, a framework for bootstrapping trust in SDN infrastructure using Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX),...

  20. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  1. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  2. Converged Optical Network and Data Center Virtual Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakilas, Konstantinos; Tzanakaki, Anna; Anastasopoulos, Markos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of planning virtual infrastructures (VIs) over a physical infrastructure comprising integrated optical network and data center resources with the aim of enabling sharing of physical resources among several virtual operators and services. Through the planning p...

  3. Secure Infrastructure-Less Network (SINET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    infrastructure-less environment , we do not further explore this technology . Future versions of LTE promise a technology called LTE-Direct...military solutions for infrastructure-less environments , wireless technologies found in COTs devices, types of meshes, MANET routing protocols, methods for...operating in the environments of the modern battlefield and disaster sites. Both environments pose a significant challenge for command and control

  4. Structural and Infrastructural Underpinnings of International R&D Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process of globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on the effects of network maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...

  5. A Method for Automated Planning of FTTH Access Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a method for automated planning of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access networks is proposed. We introduced a systematic approach for planning access network infrastructure. The GIS data and a set of algorithms were employed to make the planning process more automatic. The method explains...

  6. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    Advancements in wireless communication and electronics improving form factor and hardware capabilities has expanded the applicability of wireless sensor networks. Despite these advancements, devices are still limited in terms of energy which creates the need for duty-cycling and low-power protocols...... environments and communication primitives in wireless sensor network and traditional network development are closing. However, fundamental differences in wireless technology and energy constraints are still to be considered at the lower levels of the software stack. To fulfill energy requirements hardware......, and network management which enables construction of low-power wireless sensor network applications. More specifically, these services are designed with the extreme low-power scenarios of the SensoByg project in mind and are implemented as follows. First, low-power communication is implemented with Auto...

  7. Network Basic Language Translation System: Security Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittrick, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    .... The Network Basic Language Translation System (NetBLTS) was proposed and accepted as part of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's offering of initiatives within the Horizontal Fusion portfolio in 2003...

  8. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindauer, Alicia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  10. Scalable infrastructure for distributed sensor networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Iyengar, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ... network application is inventory tracking in factory warehouses. A single sensor node can be attached to each item in the warehouse. These sensor nodes can then be used for tracking the location of the items as they are moved within the warehouse. They can also provide information on the location of nearby items as well as the history of movement...

  11. CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE OF GAS NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek URBANIK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology today is becoming increasingly important. Increasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions make the search for such fuels which will not have such a negative effect on the environment as the fuel use currently - mainly coal. At present it seems that the substitute fuel can be gaseous fuels (propane-butane, methane. Their combustion is less harmful to the environment and their transport is relatively not very complicated. As it turns out, the use of gas is increasing in industry, automotive, heating systems (power plants that operate in the so-called cogeneration. The increase in demand carries continuous development of gas infrastructure, which in turn may increase probability of failure. As a conclusion of this article, taking into account all the construction disasters induced by the gas, the number of such failures is relatively small. It should be remembered, that the disaster caused by gas explosion may cause very large material and human losses. Not without significance is the impact of gas leakage, eg. of the pipeline on the environment. An example is the methane which is a greenhouse gas, less persistent in the air, but much more active than CO2. The article presents selected disasters associated with natural gas or propane-butane and the impact of these gases on the environment because these fuels are most commonly used in most sectors of the economy.

  12. On infrastructure network design with agent-based modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Heijnen, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an agent-based model to optimize green-field network design in an industrial area. We aim to capture some of the deep uncertainties surrounding infrastructure design by modelling it developing specific ant colony optimizations. Hence, we propose a variety of extensions to our

  13. Robustness and Recovery of Lifeline Infrastructure and Ecosystem Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disruptive events, both natural and man-made, can have widespread impacts on both natural systems and lifeline infrastructure networks leading to the loss of biodiversity and essential functionality, respectively. Projected sea-level rise and climate change can further increase the frequency and severity of large-scale floods on urban-coastal megacities. Nevertheless, Failure in infrastructure systems can trigger cascading impacts on dependent ecosystems, and vice-versa. An important consideration in the behavior of the isolated networks and inter-connected networks following disruptive events is their resilience, or the ability of the network to "bounce back" to a pre-disaster state. Conventional risk analysis and subsequent risk management frameworks have focused on identifying the components' vulnerability and strengthening of the isolated components to withstand these disruptions. But high interconnectedness of these systems, and evolving nature of hazards, particularly in the context of climate extremes, make the component level analysis unrealistic. In this study, we discuss the complex network-based resilience framework to understand fragility and recovery strategies for infrastructure systems impacted by climate-related hazards. We extend the proposed framework to assess the response of ecological networks to multiple species loss and design the restoration management framework to identify the most efficient restoration sequence of species, which can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity.

  14. Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Navik; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2009-08-01

    Free space optical (FSO) links for indoor sensor networks can provide data rates that can range from bits/s to hundreds of Mb/s. In addition, they offer physical security, and in contrast with omnidirectional RF networks, they avoid interference with other electronic systems. These features are advantageous for communication over short distances in fixed infrastructure sensor networks. In this paper the system architecture for a fixed infrastructure FSO sensor network is presented. The system includes a network of small, low power (mW), sensor systems, or "motes," that transmit data optically to a central "cluster head," which controls the network traffic of all the motes and can aggregate the sensor information. The cluster head is designed with multiple vertical cavity surface emitting lasers oriented in different directions and controlled to diverge at 12º in order to provide signal coverage over a wide field of view. Both the cluster head and motes form a local area network. Our system design focuses on low-power wireless motes that can maintain successful communication over distances up to a few meters without having to use stringent optical alignment techniques, and our network design focuses on controlling mote sleep cycles for energy efficiency. This paper presents the design as well as the experimental link and optical communications performance of a prototype FSO-based sensor network.

  15. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance...

  16. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  17. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  18. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  19. A Survey on Infrastructure-Based Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infrastructure of vehicular networks plays a major role in realizing the full potential of vehicular communications. More and more vehicles are connected to the Internet and to each other, driving new technological transformations in a multidisciplinary way. Researchers in automotive/telecom industries and academia are joining their effort to provide their visions and solutions to increasingly complex transportation systems, also envisioning a myriad of applications to improve the driving experience and the mobility. These trends pose significant challenges to the communication systems: low latency, higher throughput, and increased reliability have to be granted by the wireless access technologies and by a suitable (possibly dedicated infrastructure. This paper presents an in-depth survey of more than ten years of research on infrastructures, wireless access technologies and techniques, and deployment that make vehicular connectivity available. In addition, we identify the limitations of present technologies and infrastructures and the challenges associated with such infrastructure-based vehicular communications, also highlighting potential solutions.

  20. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    This plan details the goals, objectives, technical targets, tasks and schedule for EERE's contribution to the DOE Hydrogen Program. Similar detailed plans exist for the other DOE offices that make up the Hydrogen Program.

  1. 77 FR 18767 - Boating Infrastructure Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... and Sport Fish Restoration Program, Division of Policy and Programs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... $30.8 billion in annual sales and services to the U.S. economy. Studies of recreational boaters have... the overall boating impact to the economy, over $5 billion annually. The activities of transient...

  2. Critical Infrastructure Surveillance Using SecureWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niedermeier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on the communication level, as well as mechanisms that ensure the functional safety during its operation. While there are many theoretical approaches in various subdomains of WSNs—like network structures, communication protocols and security concepts—the construction, implementation and real-life application of these devices is still rare. This work deals with these aforementioned aspects, including all phases from concept-generation to operation of a secure wireless sensor network. While the key focus of this paper lies on the security and safety features of the WSN, the detection, localization and classification capabilities resulting from the interaction of the nodes’ different sensor types are also described.

  3. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  4. Learning Python network programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sarker, M O Faruque

    2015-01-01

    If you're a Python developer or a system administrator with Python experience and you're looking to take your first steps in network programming, then this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Python is assumed.

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  9. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  10. Energy efficiency considerations in integrated IT and optical network resilient infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzanakaki, A.; Anastasopoulos, M.; Georgakilas, K.; Buysse, J.; de Leenheer, M.; Develder, C.; Peng, S.; Nejabati, R.; Escalona, E.; Simeonidou, D.; Ciulli, N.; Landi, G.; Brogle, M.; Manfredi, A.; Lopez, E.; Ferrer Riera, J.; García-Espín, J.A.; Donaldio, P.; Parladori, G.; Jimenez, J.; Tovar De Duenyas, A.; Vicat-Blanc, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Belter, B.; Binczewski, A.; Antoniak-Lewandowska, M.; Jaworski, M.; Marciniak, M.

    2011-01-01

    The European Integrated Project GEYSERS - Generalised Architecture for Dynamic Infrastructure Services - is concentrating on infrastructures incorporating integrated optical network and IT resources in support of the Future Internet with special emphasis on cloud computing. More specifically GEYSERS

  11. 76 FR 34286 - ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... between vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications devices to improve safety, mobility, and... ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report... Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report. The webinar will provide an opportunity for...

  12. 75 FR 9607 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... of owners and/or operators for each of the critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) sectors...; conducting operational activities related to critical infrastructure protection security measures, incident...

  13. Electricity Networks: Infrastructure and Operations. Too complex for a resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Electricity security remains a priority of energy policy and continuous electrification will further enhance the importance in the years to come. Market liberalisation has brought substantial benefits to societies, including competition, innovation, more client-oriented services and the reduced needs for public expenditure. Further, the path of decarbonisation is a must but experiences with many new technologies and policies show their many implications on power systems. Electricity networks form the backbone of reliable and affordable power systems and also significantly support the inception of renewable generation. The importance of distribution and transmission networks has to be well understood by policy makers and regulators to maintain the sensitive balance within the policy triangle of reliability, affordability and sustainability as power systems rapidly change. Failures in choosing the right institutions and regulatory frameworks to operate and build networks will put the sensitive balance within the policy triangle at risk. ''Too complex for a resource?'' identifies the key challenges the electricity distribution and transmission networks face today and in the future. It further provides for best practice examples on institutional design choices and regulatory frameworks for sound network service provision but also highlights the importance of additional responses required. More market-based and dynamic frameworks for various system services, the growing need for active service participation of renewable generators and highly independent and transparent central operators seem to be at the heart of these responses. ''Too complex for a resource?'' finds that the answer to the challenges ahead is not always more infrastructure and that networks and the services they provide have to be regarded as equal part of the total power system. Thus, accurate and dynamic cost allocation can significantly support to transform

  14. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    atmospheric phenomena using current and future planned frequencies of cellular network infrastructure will be introduced.

  15. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market.

  16. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  17. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  18. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  19. Co-location and Self-Similar Topologies of Urban Infrastructure Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhamer, Christopher; Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish; Elisabeth, Krueger; Paik, Kyungrock; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The co-location of urban infrastructure is too obvious to be easily ignored. For reasons of practicality, reliability, and eminent domain, the spatial locations of many urban infrastructure networks, including drainage, sanitary sewers, and road networks, are well correlated. However, important questions dealing with correlations in the network topologies of differing infrastructure types remain unanswered. Here, we have extracted randomly distributed, nested subnets from the urban drainage, sanitary sewer, and road networks in two distinctly different cities: Amman, Jordan; and Indianapolis, USA. Network analyses were performed for each randomly chosen subnet (location and size), using a dual-mapping approach (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation). Topological metrics for each infrastructure type were calculated and compared for all subnets in a given city. Despite large differences in the climate, governance, and populace of the two cities, and functional properties of the different infrastructure types, these infrastructure networks are shown to be highly spatially homogenous. Furthermore, strong correlations are found between topological metrics of differing types of surface and subsurface infrastructure networks. Also, the network topologies of each infrastructure type for both cities are shown to exhibit self-similar characteristics (i.e., power law node-degree distributions, [p(k) = ak-γ]. These findings can be used to assist city planners and engineers either expanding or retrofitting existing infrastructure, or in the case of developing countries, building new cities from the ground up. In addition, the self-similar nature of these infrastructure networks holds significant implications for the vulnerability of these critical infrastructure networks to external hazards and ways in which network resilience can be improved.

  20. MmWave Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication :Analysis of Urban Microcellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication may provide high data rates to vehicles via millimeterwave (mmWave) microcellular networks. This report uses stochastic geometry to analyze the coverage of urban mmWave microcellular networks. Prior work ...

  1. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  2. Optimal Workflow Scheduling in Critical Infrastructure Systems with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukmirović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructure systems (CISs, such as power grids, transportation systems, communication networks and water systems are the backbone of a country’s national security and industrial prosperity. These CISs execute large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements that can span through different systems and last for a long time. The proper functioning and synchronization of these workflows is essential since humanity’s well-being is connected to it. Because of this, the challenge of ensuring availability and reliability of these services in the face of a broad range of operating conditions is very complicated. This paper proposes an architecture which dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status of CIS nodes. Different artificial neural networks (ANNs were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. Their performances were compared and as the main result of this paper, an optimal ANN architecture for workflow scheduling in CISs is proposed. A case study is shown for a meter data management system with measurements from a power distribution management system in Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of the overall execution time can be achieved by ANNs.

  3. Network Interdependency Modeling for Risk Assessment on Built Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    INCOSE). Hokkanen, J., & Salminen, P. (1997). Choosing a solid waste management system using multicriteria decision analysis . European Journal of...inoperability model (IIM) in the analysis of built infrastructure systems. Previous applications of the IIM characterized infrastructure at the national...infrastructure risk, as a result of interdependency effects and component decay, changes over time. Such an analysis provides insight to

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  7. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall...

  8. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN: infrastructure development and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breland-Noble Alfiee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of

  9. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

    Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

  10. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  11. Sensor Network Infrastructure for a Home Care Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Palumbo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage. The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  15. Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, John; Dill, Jennifer; Handy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    To assess existing research on the effects of various interventions on levels of bicycling. Interventions include infrastructure (e.g., bike lanes and parking), integration with public transport, education and marketing programs, bicycle access programs, and legal issues. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and non-reviewed research identified 139 studies. Study methodologies varied considerably in type and quality, with few meeting rigorous standards. Secondary data were gathered for 14 case study cities that adopted multiple interventions. Many studies show positive associations between specific interventions and levels of bicycling. The 14 case studies show that almost all cities adopting comprehensive packages of interventions experienced large increases in the number of bicycle trips and share of people bicycling. Most of the evidence examined in this review supports the crucial role of public policy in encouraging bicycling. Substantial increases in bicycling require an integrated package of many different, complementary interventions, including infrastructure provision and pro-bicycle programs, supportive land use planning, and restrictions on car use.

  16. 78 FR 59666 - Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... principle investment, all operating costs including overhead, and accrued interest by the end of the project... Programs Office into the process. The FRN also identifies the principles Western will continue using to... Contents I. Definitions II. Principles III. Project Evaluation Criteria IV. Project Life-Cycle Overview V...

  17. Modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure: the role of network dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Chmielewski, Hana; Unnikrishnan, Vipin; Gardoni, Paolo; McAllister, Therese; van de Lindt, John

    2016-01-01

    Water and wastewater network, electric power network, transportation network, communication network, and information technology network are among the critical infrastructure in our communities; their disruption during and after hazard events greatly affects communities' well-being, economic security, social welfare, and public health. In addition, a disruption in one network may cause disruption to other networks and lead to their reduced functionality. This paper presents a unified theoretical methodology for the modeling of dependent/interdependent infrastructure networks and incorporates it in a six-step probabilistic procedure to assess their resilience. Both the methodology and the procedure are general, can be applied to any infrastructure network and hazard, and can model different types of dependencies between networks. As an illustration, the paper models the direct effects of seismic events on the functionality of a potable water distribution network and the cascading effects of the damage of the electric power network (EPN) on the potable water distribution network (WN). The results quantify the loss of functionality and delay in the recovery process due to dependency of the WN on the EPN. The results show the importance of capturing the dependency between networks in modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure.

  18. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic

  19. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  2. Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Markos P; Tzanakaki, Anna; Georgakilas, Konstantinos; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2011-12-12

    This paper studies energy efficient planning of multiple concurrent virtual infrastructures over a converged physical infrastructure incorporating integrated optical network and IT resources. An MILP model for virtualization of the underlying physical resources is proposed and validated achieving significant energy savings. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The annual maintenance of detector services took place from mid November to mid January as planned. This involved a full stoppage of water-cooling circuits on November 24th with a gradual restarting from mid-January 09. The annual maintenance service included the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers and the service of the chiller plants on surface. The cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet was shut-down as well to perform the annual maintenance. In addition to that, the overall site power has been reduced from 8 to 2 MW, in order to cope with the switching to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power was reinstated at the end of January. The cooling network has seen the installation of a bypass for the endcap circuit, in order to limit pressure surges when one endcap is shut-off. In addition, filters have been added on most of the cooling loops in UXC55 to better protect the muon chambers. At the same time a global cleaning campaign of all the filters (more than 500 pieces) has been completed. As expe...

  5. Approximating actual flows in physical infrastructure networks: the case of the Yangtze River Delta high-speed railway network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weiyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical research on urban networks has used data on infrastructure networks to guesstimate actual inter-city flows. However, with the exception of recent research on airline networks in the context of the world city literature, relatively limited attention has been paid to the degree to which the outline of these infrastructure networks reflects the actual flows they undergird. This study presents a method to improve our estimation of urban interaction in and through infrastructure networks by focusing on the example of passenger railways, which is arguably a key potential data source in research on urban networks in metropolitan regions. We first review common biases when using infrastructure networks to approximate actual inter-city flows, after which we present an alternative approach that draws on research on operational train scheduling. This research has shown that ‘dwell time’ at train stations reflects the length of the alighting and boarding process, and we use this insight to estimate actual interaction through the application of a bimodal network projection function. We apply our method to the high-speed railway (HSR network within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, discuss the difference between our modelled network and the original network, and evaluate its validity through a systemic comparison with a benchmark dataset of actual passenger flows.

  6. Research infrastructure, networks of science and regional development - the case of Oskarshamn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folke Valfrid Snickars

    2017-10-01

    Our results indicate that research infrastructures as the ones in Oskarshamn are powerful creators of international research networks. It is possible although somewhat difficult in view of scattered systems for data provision to assess their academic and societal impacts. Engineering research has its own networks of university-industry and industry-university interaction where value is cogenerated dynamically. In the study we have come some way towards empirically analyzing the networks of research cooperation between industry and university using methods of infrastructure theory and network analysis.

  7. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions in a Dynamic Human-Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    for Disaster Preparedness.” Critical Care Medicine 33 (1): S96–S101. Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. August 2006. “Incident...to disasters (e.g., seeking alternatives) may further transfer and ag- gravate the burden on surviving infrastructures, which may facilitate...evaluate a city’s vulnerability to disruptions and to assess the impact of a disaster . U.S. Army doctrine requires that commanders under- stand

  8. A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eleutério

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

  9. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  10. Strategic design of multi-actor nascent energy and industrial infrastructure networks under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melese, Y.G.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design of nascent energy and industrial infrastructure networks: networks that still needed to be built and for which neither scope, size, nor participants were certain. It develops systematic design analysis approaches to help improve design under uncertainty by means of

  11. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., improvement, design, and engineering of space transportation infrastructure (including facilities and... applicable, 3. Consent from the head of the appropriate agency, should the project use Government property...

  12. Practice-based research networks: building the infrastructure of primary care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutting, P A

    1996-02-01

    Family practice and primary care are rapidly achieving prominence as the foundation of a rapidly changing health care system, driven not by systematic reform but by the rapid advance of managed care. The knowledge base to support primary care practice, however, lags far behind after decades of neglect in the headlong rush toward overspecialization. The success of biomedical research in the United States in the last 50 years is due in large part to the network of tertiary care hospitals, where the specialized care of highly selected patients supports broad programs of teaching and research. There are no comparable laboratories, however, for research on the important content areas of primary care. The emergence and success of practice-based research networks over the past decade provide an important infrastructure for careful study of the health and health care phenomena that comprise primary care. Practice-based research networks have made a great deal of progress in methods development and have begun to contribute important information to the primary care knowledge base. They continue, however, to be underfunded and underdeveloped, existing on large infusions of volunteerism by the participating physicians. The study recently completed by the Institute of Medicine's Committee on the Future of Primary Care will play a critical role in promoting widespread appreciation of the gap in the scientific base necessary to support primary care practice, the need for research in primary care, and the complementary relationship of this body of research and the more traditional biomedical research that has been so well funded.

  13. Wireless Sensor Networks of Infrastructure Health Monitoring for High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed railways (HSRs have been widely deployed all over the world in recent years and China has entered an era with both high investments and rapid expansion of HSR transport infrastructure. One of the most challenging issues is how to keep the security and safety of millions of HSR infrastructures. Meanwhile, the emerging sensing and wireless sensor network (WSN technologies for infrastructure health monitoring (IHM are being substituted for traditional tethered monitoring systems. This paper presents a two-layer architecture of WSN which will be appropriate for infrastructure health monitoring of HSR. The upper layer is named as tree access network and the lower layer is called star detection network. By adapting to the special characteristics of IHM network, we design a short network address and an optimized communication frame structure, which can satisfy the actual requirements and special characteristics of the IHM network. In order to implement a better transmission performance, we propose a novel transmission power based method which adopts the knowledge update mechanism to detect the optimization result. In the end, the details of address assignment and network construction are discussed, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a practical instance.

  14. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  15. An evaluation of the National Public Health Leadership Institute--1991-2006: part II. Strengthening public health leadership networks, systems, and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umble, Karl; Baker, Edward L; Diehl, Sandra J; Haws, Susan; Steffen, David; Frederick, Steve; Woltring, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The year-long National Public Health Leadership Institute's (PHLI) goals are to develop the capacity of individual leaders and networks of leaders so that both can lead improvements in public health systems, infrastructure, and population health. To evaluate PHLI's impact on networks, systems, and infrastructure. Senior leaders from government, health care, associations, and other organizations who graduated from PHLI between 1992 and 2006. Retreats; readings, conference calls, and webinars; personal assessments, feedback, and coaching; and action learning projects. A cross-sectional survey sent in 2007 to all leaders from the program's first 15 cohorts. Between 1992 and 2006, PHLI graduated 806 leaders. Of the 646 graduates located, 393 (61%) responded, for an overall response rate of 49% (393/806). Telephone interviews of 35 key informants were also conducted. Graduates fostered changes in systems, policies, organizations, and programs and frequently described these changes as resulting from their work as or with networks. Many graduates formed an informal national network of "thought leaders" and volunteered with professional associations to help in creating methods for improving systems and infrastructure. At the state level, graduates worked as informal networks and with associations to restructure services, reorganize agencies, catalyze new laws, and develop programs. Locally, graduates developed coalitions, fostered new laws, and improved programs, among other changes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's multiyear sponsorship of a national program fostered national networks among "thought leaders" who helped to lead the development and diffusion of numerous innovations. Public health leadership development program sponsors should foster collaborative leadership by engaging leaders in systems thinking, team leadership, dialogue, conflict resolution, and negotiation, recommend using networks for sustained personal and system development, and link

  16. Spectrum and Infrastructure Sharing in Wireless Mobile Networks: Advantages and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdim Bublin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent time the spectrum and infrastructure sharing hasbeen gaining more and more on importance due to high spectrumlicense costs and expensive infrastructure needed formodem high-bandwidth wireless communications. In this paperthe advantages and disadvantages of spectrum and infrastructuresharing by analytical models and simulations are analyzed.Results show that operators could significantly reducetheir costs, increase capacity and improve network quality bysharing their infrastructure and spectrum. Using Game Theoryit is shown how operators could "protect themselves" againstnon-cooperative behaviour of other operators.

  17. Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.; Read, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration into the analysis of public transport networks using space syntax approaches combined with concepts of sustainable accessibility. Present urban development policy aims to achieve sustainable mobility patterns, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes such as

  18. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) Fellow Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    LSU was one of the universities chosen to participate in the project of training new researchers to work on the Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) areas. Three Ph.D...

  19. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  20. Design of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Shepelev, Aleksey; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-09-04

    With an increased number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on the roads, charging infrastructure is gaining an ever-more important role in simultaneously meeting the needs of the local distribution grid and of EV users. This paper proposes a mesh network RFID system for user identification and charging authorization as part of a smart charging infrastructure providing charge monitoring and control. The Zigbee-based mesh network RFID provides a cost-efficient solution to identify and authorize vehicles for charging and would allow EV charging to be conducted effectively while observing grid constraints and meeting the needs of EV drivers

  1. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Shimamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG, which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks.

  2. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kiyoshi; Shrestha, Aadit; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Chinnachodteeranun, Rassarin; Shimamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG), which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks.

  3. Network Computing Infrastructure to Share Tools and Data in Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer-Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP.

  4. Effect of mobility models on infrastructure based wireless networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tremendous demand is pushing the development of wireless mobile communications faster than ever before. Handoff management has widely been recognized as one of the most important and challenging problems for a seamless access to wireless network and mobile services. Mobility Models plays an important ...

  5. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    We will present our motivations for deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States and describe our experience in using it. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. USATLAS has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  6. OptoVisor: an infrastructure-as-a-service framework based on virtualization of optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaosheng; Feng, Yifei; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    In the field of cloud computing over optical networks, virtualization is an important issue. Typically this can be implemented on hardware or software. In this paper, we propose an infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) framework-OptoVisor, with optical network virtualization implemented on management plane. This framework provides flexible resource scheduling and monitoring. Then we show the viability of our proposal with experimental demonstration and performance test.

  7. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...

  8. XACML policy profile for multidomain network resource provisioning and supporting authorisation infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Cristea, M.; de Laat, C.

    2009-01-01

    Policy definition is an important component of the consistent authorisation service infrastructure that could be effectively integrated with the general resource provisioning workflow and network control and management plane. The paper describes the proposed XACML-NRP policy and attributes profile

  9. Evolutionary optimization for energy efficient service provisioning in IT and optical network infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Markos P; Tzanakaki, Anna; Georgakilas, Konstantinos

    2011-12-12

    This paper focuses on energy efficient service provisioning in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures. A novel evolutionary distributed approach is proposed and compared with ILP based centralized approaches and modeling results quantify similar performance. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kurtz, Nolan Scot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  11. Path dependence and the geography of infrastructure networks: the case of the European fibre-optic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciguerra, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836893; Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the path dependent dynamics in the formation of new infrastructure using an augmented gravity model. We observe that the formation of the pan-European telecommunication backbone has been dependent on pre-existent European transportation networks, particularly, the maritime and railway

  12. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  13. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  14. Latest generation interconnect technologies in APEnet+ networking infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Cretaro, Paolo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Vicini, Piero

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the status of the 3rd generation design of the APEnet board (V5) built upon the 28nm Altera Stratix V FPGA; it features a PCIe Gen3 x8 interface and enhanced embedded transceivers with a maximum capability of 12.5Gbps each. The network architecture is designed in accordance to the Remote DMA paradigm. The APEnet+ V5 prototype is built upon the Stratix V DevKit with the addition of a proprietary, third party IP core implementing multi-DMA engines. Support for zero-copy communication is assured by the possibility of DMA-accessing either host and GPU memory, offloading the CPU from the chore of data copying. The current implementation plateaus to a bandwidth for memory read of 4.8GB/s. Here we describe the hardware optimization to the memory write process which relies on the use of two independent DMA engines and an improved TLB.

  15. ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA FROM NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE MONITORING TO DETECT ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEM LOCAL SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Bazhayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method of information security monitoring for a wireless network segments of low-power devices, "smart house", "Internet of Things". We have carried out the analysis of characteristics of systems based on wireless technologies, resulting from passive surveillance and active polling of devices that make up the network infrastructure. We have considered a number of external signs of unauthorized access to a wireless network by the potential information security malefactor. The model for analysis of information security conditions is based on the identity, quantity, frequency, and time characteristics. Due to the main features of devices providing network infrastructure, estimation of information security state is directed to the analysis of the system normal operation, rather than the search for signatures and anomalies during performance of various kinds of information attacks. An experiment is disclosed that provides obtaining statistical information on the remote wireless devices, where the accumulation of data for decision-making is done by comparing the statistical information service messages from end nodes in passive and active modes. We present experiment results of the information influence on a typical system. The proposed approach to the analysis of network infrastructure statistical data based on naive Bayesian classifier can be used to determine the state of information security.

  16. Advanced European Network of E-Infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardi, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    Here, I present the AENEAS (Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA) project has been funded in the Horizon 2020 Work Programme call "Research and Innovation Actions for International Co-operation on high-end e-infrastructure requirements" supporting the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). INAF is contributing to all the AENEAS working packages and leading the WP5 - Access and Knowledge Creation (WP leader M. Massardi IRA-ARC), participants from IRA (Brand, Nanni, Venturi) ,OACT(Becciani, Costa, Umana), OATS (Smareglia, Knapic, Taffoni)

  17. Borrowed Channel Relaying: A Novel Method to Improve Infrastructure Network Throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jow Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From a networking perspective, the chief impediment to throughput enhancement in infrastructure networks such as IEEE802.11 is the access point bottleneck: all traffic to, through, and from the network has to pass through this access point. When some clients experience poor channel conditions and therefore communicate at a lower data rate, this severely impacts the throughput of all clients in the network. Recently, multihop relaying in combination with leveraging multiple data rates was proposed to alleviate this problem. However, our experiments indicate that gains from these techniques are very small with realistic positioning of clients. Instead, we propose a novel scheme that combines relaying and multiple data rate capabilities with the concept of channel borrowing. Our protocol, BCR (Borrowed Channel Relaying, utilizes unused capacity from neighboring access points and is able to achieve network throughput gains of 20% to 60% depending on the scenario. Although we use 802.11 style networks to illustrate this concept, this general principle can be applied to any infrastructure network with receivers capable of tuning to more than one channel.

  18. Deployment of a WLCG network monitoring infrastructure based on the perfSONAR-PS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Brown, A.; Bonacorsi, D.; Capone, V.; De Girolamo, D.; Casani, A. F.; Flix, J.; Forti, A.; Gable, I.; Gutsche, O.; Hesnaux, A.; Liu, S.; Lopez Munoz, F.; Magini, N.; McKee, S.; Mohammed, K.; Rand, D.; Reale, M.; Roiser, S.; Zielinski, M.; Zurawski, J.

    2014-06-01

    The WLCG infrastructure moved from a very rigid network topology, based on the MONARC model, to a more relaxed system, where data movement between regions or countries does not necessarily need to involve T1 centres. While this evolution brought obvious advantages, especially in terms of flexibility for the LHC experiment's data management systems, it also opened the question of how to monitor the increasing number of possible network paths, in order to provide a global reliable network service. The perfSONAR network monitoring system has been evaluated and agreed as a proper solution to cover the WLCG network monitoring use cases: it allows WLCG to plan and execute latency and bandwidth tests between any instrumented endpoint through a central scheduling configuration, it allows archiving of the metrics in a local database, it provides a programmatic and a web based interface exposing the tests results; it also provides a graphical interface for remote management operations. In this contribution we will present our activity to deploy a perfSONAR based network monitoring infrastructure, in the scope of the WLCG Operations Coordination initiative: we will motivate the main choices we agreed in terms of configuration and management, describe the additional tools we developed to complement the standard packages and present the status of the deployment, together with the possible future evolution.

  19. FY 1999 annual work plan for infrastructure program WBS 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-08-27

    The Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 DynCorp Annual Work Plan (AWP) relates DOE-RL work breakdown structure (WBS) to Cost Accounts and to Organizational Structure. Each Cost Account includes a workscope narrative and justification performance and service standards, goals, and deliverables. Basis of estimates are included within each Cost Account to demonstrate the relationship of budget to defined workscope. The FY 1999 AWP reflects the planning assumptions and initiatives that are included in the PHMC Strategic Plan for Infrastructure Optimization which was established in FY 1998. Development of the FY 1999 AWP was in accordance with a sequential series of events and efforts described in the Infrastructure Annual Work Planning and Budget Cycle which was developed and established in conjunction with the Strategic Plan. The Strategic Plan covers a rolling five year span of time and is updated at the start of each fiscal year as the beginning of the annual work planning and budget cycle for the following fiscal year. Accordingly the planning for the FY 1999 AWP began in January 1998. Also included in the annual work planning and budget cycle, and the basis for the budget in this AWP, is the development of a requirements-based budget.

  20. Building hierarchical public key infrastructures in mobile ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Satizábal Echavarría, Isabel Cristina; Forné Muñoz, Jorge; Hernández Serrano, Juan; Pegueroles Vallés, Josep R.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamism of mobile ad-hoc networks implies changing trust relationships among their nodes that can be established using peer-to-peer PKIs. Here, certification paths can be built although part of the infrastructure is temporarily unreachable because there can be multiple paths between two entities but certification path discovery is difficult since all the options do not lead to the target entity. On the contrary, in hierarchical PKIs, there is only one path between two entities and certificat...

  1. A survey of impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the main lessons from impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies relevant to policymakers. In the process, however, it also reveals some major research gaps of relevance to academics. After a brief discussion of the motivation for the explosion of the demand for impact evaluations, it starts with some sometimes underestimated lessons for infrastructure specialists from theoretical experiment. The main focus of the paper is, however, the impact eval...

  2. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  3. Where to Find Water Pipes and Sewers?—On the Correlation of Infrastructure Networks in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban water infrastructure, i.e., water supply and sewer networks, are underground structures, implying that detailed information on their location and features is not directly accessible, frequently erroneous, or missing. For public use, data is also not made available due to security concerns. This lack of quality data, especially for research purposes, requires substantial effort when such data is sought for both statistical and model‐based analyses. An alternative to gathering data from archives and observations is to extract the information from surrogate data sources (e.g., the street network. The key for such an undertaking is to identify the common characteristics of all urban infrastructure network types and to quantify them. In this work, the network correlations of the street, water supply, and sewer networks are systematically analyzed. The results showed a strong correlation between the street networks and urban water infrastructure networks, in general. For the investigated cases, on average, 50% of the street network length correlates with 80%-85% of the total water supply/sewer network. A correlation between street types and water infrastructure properties (e.g., pipe diameter cannot be found. All analyses are quantified in the form of different geometric‐ and graph‐based indicators. The obtained results improve the understanding of urban network infrastructure from an integrated point of view. Moreover, the method can be fundamental for different research purposes, such as data verification, data completion, or even the entire generation of feasible datasets.

  4. Tourism infrastructure development prioritization in Sabang Island using analytic network process methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Hafnidar A.; Afifuddin, Moch.; Akbar, Herry

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as an archipelago country, with its geographical location is at the equator, which make this country as a tropical country. It has the topography of diverse islands which consist of lakes, mountains, and one of countries which have the longest coastline. This condition cause Indonesia has various beautiful tourism objects and become the attraction to the international tourists to come. Indonesia still has the other islands which are as beautiful as Bali Island offering different beauties. One of them is an island located in the most western island of Indonesia, which becomes the zero point of the country. It is Sabang Island in Aceh Province. Sabang Island is the small volcanic island located in the most western island of Sumatra. Infrastructure becomes the basic device in supporting this tourism aspect, which the buildings and service institutions play the important role in appropriate managing of economic and community needs. The problem in this study is how to determine the priority of tourism infrastructure development in Sabang Island. The objective of this study is to determine the priority rank of tourism infrastructure development and the priority rank of the potential investment in Sabang Island to be developed. The ranking results of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) calculations of tourism locations/zones and tourism supporting infrastructure found that Teupin Layeu and Gapang, and Rubiah Island have the highest priority to be developed in the hotel/accommodation infrastructure which scores are 0.02589 and 0.02120. Then followed by parking infrastructure in Teupin Layeu and access road to Km 0 which became as the main priority determined by Sabang government which scores are 0.01750 and 0.01618.

  5. Common solutions for power, communication and robustness in operations of large measurement networks within Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Beranzoli, Laura; Fiebig, Markus; Gilbert, Olivier; Laj, Paolo; Mazzola, Mauro; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pedersen, Helle; Stocker, Markus; Vitale, Vito; Waldmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    European Environmental Research Infrastructures (RI) frequently comprise in situ observatories from large-scale networks of platforms or sites to local networks of various sensors. Network operation is usually a cumbersome aspect of these RIs facing specific technological problems related to operations in remote areas, maintenance of the network, transmission of observation values, etc.. Robust inter-connection within and across these networks is still at infancy level and the burden increases with remoteness of the station, harshness of environmental conditions, and unavailability of classic communication systems, which is a common feature here. Despite existing RIs having developed ad-hoc solutions to overcome specific problems and innovative technologies becoming available, no common approach yet exists. Within the European project ENVRIplus, a dedicated work package aims to stimulate common network operation technologies and approaches in terms of power supply and storage, robustness, and data transmission. Major objectives of this task are to review existing technologies and RI requirements, propose innovative solutions and evaluate the standardization potential prior to wider deployment across networks. Focus areas within these efforts are: improving energy production and storage units, testing robustness of RI equipment towards extreme conditions as well as methodologies for robust data transmission. We will introduce current project activities which are coordinated at various levels including the engineering as well as the data management perspective, and explain how environmental RIs can benefit from the developments.

  6. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: Major upgrade of the ATLAS Test Beam network infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B; Pasqualucci, E

    Based on the positive experience gained last year by the Muon group with the adoption of a completely isolated private network for the data acquisition, already last year for the 2002 Combined Pixel-Tilecal-Muon Test Beam, we adopted the private network solution. The main advantage of the isolation from the common CERN network infrastructure is the complete independence from possible problems that could affect the network in the area, intended to serve many other users, and the possibility to have a completely independent management of the IP addresses assignment. Moreover the presence of a firewall in the private network allows a better protection against possible external hackers, allowing users to transparently access the external word. A Fast Ethernet network has been set up as a control network. It relies on a backbone 24-port Fast Ethernet switch on which, in a tree structure, are connected several smaller switches dedicated to each sub-detector. In this way each sub-detector produces its own traffic...

  7. A novel critical infrastructure resilience assessment approach using dynamic Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Xie, Min; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Yiliu; Ji, Renjie; Feng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    The word resilience originally originates from the Latin word "resiliere", which means to "bounce back". The concept has been used in various fields, such as ecology, economics, psychology, and society, with different definitions. In the field of critical infrastructure, although some resilience metrics are proposed, they are totally different from each other, which are determined by the performances of the objects of evaluation. Here we bridge the gap by developing a universal critical infrastructure resilience metric from the perspective of reliability engineering. A dynamic Bayesian networks-based assessment approach is proposed to calculate the resilience value. A series, parallel and voting system is used to demonstrate the application of the developed resilience metric and assessment approach.

  8. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multidomain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit[8] at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software cr...

  9. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  10. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  11. Developing Your Evaluation Plans: A Critical Component of Public Health Program Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, S Rene; Snyder, Kimberly

    A program's infrastructure is often cited as critical to public health success. The Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) identifies evaluation as essential under the core component of engaged data. An evaluation plan is a written document that describes how to monitor and evaluate a program, as well as how to use evaluation results for program improvement and decision making. The evaluation plan clarifies how to describe what the program did, how it worked, and why outcomes matter. We use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) "Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health" as a guide for developing an evaluation plan. Just as using a roadmap facilitates progress on a long journey, a well-written evaluation plan can clarify the direction your evaluation takes and facilitate achievement of the evaluation's objectives.

  12. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    system which integrates the procedures for a complete risk analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) toolbox, in order to be applied to our testbed, the Alps-crossing corridor of St. Gotthard. The simulation environment is developed within ArcObjects, the development platform for ArcGIS. The topic of ArcObjects usually emerges when users realize that programming ArcObjects can actually reduce the amount of repetitive work, streamline the workflow, and even produce functionalities that are not easily available in ArcGIS. We have adopted Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for programming ArcObjects. Because VBA is already embedded within ArcMap and ArcCatalog, it is convenient for ArcGIS users to program ArcObjects in VBA. Our tool visualises the obtained data by an analysis of historical data (aerial photo imagery, field surveys, documentation of past events) or an environmental modeling (estimations of the area affected by a given event), and event such as route number and route position and thematic maps. As a result of this step the record appears in WebGIS. The user can select a specific area to overview previous hazards in the region. After performing the analysis, a double click on the visualised infrastructures opens the corresponding results. The constantly updated risk maps show all sites that require more protection against natural hazards. The final goal of our work is to offer a versatile tool for risk analysis which can be applied to different situations. Today our GIS application mainly centralises the documentation of natural hazards. Additionally the system offers information about natural hazard at the Gotthard line. It is very flexible and can be used as a simple program to model the expansion of natural hazards, as a program of quantitatively estimate risks or as a detailed analysis at a municipality level. The tool is extensible and can be expanded with additional modules. The initial results of the experimental case study show how useful a

  13. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  14. Infrastructures Required for the Expansion of Family Physician Program to Urban Settings in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Bazyar, Mohammad; Doshmangir, Parinaz; Mostafavi, Hakimeh; Takian, Amirhossein

    2017-09-01

    Following the implementation of Family Physician (FP) Program in rural areas and cities with populations under 20000 in 2005, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2012 decided to implement urban FP in large cities with populations more than 20000. Along with the development and implementation of urban FP in Iran, local websites and newspapers reflected the viewpoints of experts in various levels of health system regarding the various stages of Family Medicine (FM) development (from agenda setting to initial stages of implementation). This study aimed to explore the major infrastructures perceived to be required to achieve desirable implementation of urban FP through analyzing experts' viewpoints reflected in the media and interviews. In a qualitative study, we analyzed the contents of health related national websites as well as transcribed interviews with key informants. Documents were collected from December 2011 to January 2014 and interviews were conducted from February 2014 to June 2015. We used mixed thematic approach (inductive and deductive) for analysis that was assisted by MAXQDA 12 software. Infrastructures needed for the implementation of FP were categorized in five main themes and 23 subthemes. The themes are: 'Stewardship/governance', 'Actors and stakeholders', 'structural infrastructure', 'technical infrastructure and needed resources', and 'information and communication infrastructure'. Expansion of FP program to urban settings needs appropriate attention to the principles of policy implementation as well as provision of robust infrastructures. Well-defined stewardship, revised approach to financial regulation and payment system, stakeholder's commitment to collaboration, policy for conflict resolution, and universal insurance coverage are pivotal for the expansion of family physician program to the urban settings in Iran.

  15. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  16. Resilience of Networked Infrastructure with Evolving Component Conditions: Pavement Network Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Miller-Hooks, Elise; Asadabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with quantifying the resilience of a network of pavements. Calculations were carried out by modeling network performance under a set of possible damage-meteorological scenarios with known probability of occurrence. Resilience evaluation was performed a priori while accounting...

  17. On the Impact of using Public Network Communication Infrastructure for Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The high penetration of renewable generation (ReGen) plants in the electric supply necessitates online voltage control support and coordination of ReGen plants in the distribution grid. This imposes a high responsibility on the communication network infrastructure in order to ensure a resilient...... voltage controlled distribution system. A cost effective way to connect the ReGen plants to the control center is to consider the existing public network infrastructure. This paper, therefore, illustrates the impact of using the existing public network communication infrastructure for online voltage...... control support and coordination of ReGen plants in medium voltage distribution systems. Further, by using an exemplary benchmark grid area in Denmark as a base case that includes flexible ReGen plants, we introduce several test cases and evaluate network performance in terms of latencies in the signals...

  18. APPLICATION OF UKRAINIAN GRID INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INVESTIGATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN LARGE NEURONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. О. Sudakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present work the Ukrainian National Grid (UNG infrastructure was applied for investigation of synchronization in large networks of interacting neurons. This application is important for solving of modern neuroscience problems related to mechanisms of nervous system activities (memory, cognition etc. and nervous pathologies (epilepsy, Parkinsonism, etc.. Modern non-linear dynamics theories and applications provides powerful basis for computer simulations of biological neuronal networks and investigation of phenomena which mechanisms hardly could be clarified by other approaches. Cubic millimeter of brain tissue contains about 105 neurons, so realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley model and phenomenological (Kuramoto-Sakaguchi, FitzHugh-Nagumo, etc. models simulations require consideration of large neurons numbers.

  19. One4All Cooperative Media Access Strategy in Infrastructure Based Distributed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    a cooperative cluster using their short-range air interface and one device contends the channel for all the devices within the cluster. This strategy reduces the number of mobile devices involved in the collision process for the wireless medium resulting in larger throughput, smaller access delay, and less......In this paper we propose the one4all cooperative access strategy to introduce a more efficient media access strategy for wireless networks. The one4all scheme is designed for the infrastructure based distributed wireless network architecture. The basic idea is that mobile devices can form...... energy consumption. Based on an analytical model, the proposed strategy is compared with the two existing strategies RTS/CTS (request to send/ clear to send) and packet aggregation. The results show that the proposed cooperative scheme has similar throughput performance as packet aggregation and it has...

  20. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  1. Test Program of the "Combined Data and Power Management Infrastructure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Jens; Fritz, Michael; Witt, Rouven; Bucher, Nico; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2013-08-01

    As already published in previous DASIA papers, the University of Stuttgart, Germany, is developing an advanced 3-axis stabilized small satellite applying industry standards for command/control techniques and Onboard Software design. This satellite furthermore features an innovative hybrid architecture of Onboard Computer and Power Control and Distribution Unit. One of the main challenges was the development of an ultra-compact and performing Onboard Computer (OBC), which was intended to support an RTEMS operating system, a PUS standard based Onboard Software (OBSW) and CCSDS standard based ground/space communication. The developed architecture (see [1, 2, 3]) is called a “Combined Onboard Data and Power Management Infrastructure” - CDPI. It features: The OBC processor boards based on a LEON3FT architecture - from Aeroflex Inc., USA The I/O Boards for all OBC digital interfaces to S/C equipment (digital RIU) - from 4Links Ltd. UK CCSDS TC/TM decoder/encoder boards - with same HW design as I/O boards - just with limited number of interfaces. HW from 4Links Ltd, UK, driver SW and IP-Core from Aeroflex Gaisler, SE Analog RIU functions via enhanced PCDU from Vectronic Aerospace, D OBC reconfiguration unit functions via Common Controller - here in PCDU [4] The CDPI overall assembly is meanwhile complete and a exhaustive description can be found in [5]. The EM test campaign including the HW/SW compatibility testing is finalized. This comprises all OBC EM units, OBC EM assembly and the EM PCDU. The unit test program for the FM Processor-Boards and Power-Boards of the OBC are completed and the unit tests of FM I/O-Boards and CCSDS-Boards have been completed by 4Links at the assembly house. The subsystem tests of the assembled OBC also are completed and the overall System tests of the CDPI with system reconfiguration in diverse possible FDIR cases also reach the last steps. Still ongoing is the subsequent integration of the CDPI with the satellite's avionics components

  2. Ice-tethered measurement platforms in the Arctic Ocean: a contribution by the FRAM infrastructure program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Katlein, Christian; Scholz, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been in the focus of many studies during recent years, investigating the state, the causes and the implications of the observed rapid transition towards a thinner and younger sea-ice cover. However, consistent observational datasets of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere are still sparse due to the limited accessibility and harsh environmental conditions. One important tool to fill this gap has become more and more feasible during recent years: autonomous, ice-tethered measurement platforms (buoys). These drifting instruments independently transmit their data via satellites, and enable observations over larger areas and over longer time periods than manned expeditions, even throughout the winter. One aim of the newly established FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) infrastructure program at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute is to realize and maintain an interdisciplinary network of buoys in the Arctic Ocean, contributing to an integrated, Arctic-wide observatory. The additional buoy infrastructure, ship-time, and developments provided by FRAM are critical elements in the ongoing international effort to fill the large data gaps in a rapidly changing Arctic Ocean. Our focus is the particularly underrepresented Eurasian Basin. Types of instruments range from snow depth beacons and ice mass balance buoys for monitoring ice growth and snow accumulation, over radiation and weather stations for energy budget estimates, to ice-tethered profiling systems for upper ocean monitoring. Further, development of new bio-optical and biogeochemical buoys is expected to enhance our understanding of bio-physical processes associated with Arctic sea ice. The first set of FRAM buoys was deployed in September 2015 from RV Polarstern. All datasets are publicly available on dedicated web portals. Near real time data are reported into international initiatives, such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). The

  3. Regional Disparities in Romania. Contribution of the Regional Operational Program to Health Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR PLATON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health infrastructure is one of the weaknesses of socio-economic development in Romania and in other European states. In order to get a better picture of the Romanian health system issues, this paper analyzes a number of statistical indicators considered representative for the national and European health infrastructure for a 20 years period, between 1990 and 2010. Our paper has three main objectives: (a to identify the main trends for health infrastructure in some of the European Union countries; (b to describe the evolution of the health system in Romania, the comparative situation at the European level as well as regional level indicators dynamics; (c to overview the Regional Operational Program in Romania, how much does it help the regional health infrastructure in our country. At the European level, there is a constant decrease in the number of hospital beds. For this indicator, Romania has slightly higher values than the European average. We must mention that the hospital beds indicator offers limited information on health infrastructure which also includes medical equipment and specific devices and practices. The number of hospitals in Romania increased with 18.9% during the last 20 years (1990-2010. During the observed timeline, the number of hospitals in Romania had a constant positive evolution at regional level. The number of doctors in hospitals has an increasing trend at the local as well as at the international level. Romania has a number of doctors twice lower than the European average (3.6 doctors for one thousand inhabitants. The Regional Operational Program (ROP has a limited influence in achieving the objectives stated in Applicants Guide for Priority Axis 3. Major Intervention Area 3.1. This happens because supporting infrastructure improvements will not create institutional modernization. The financial contribution through ROP will result in the modernization of 11% of the existing hospitals in Romania.

  4. The DOE infrastructure support program at the University of Texas at El Paso. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is located on 300 acres, only a few hundred years from the US/Mexico border. The DOE Infrastructure Support Program was initiated at UTEP in 1987. The purpose of the program was to assist the University in building the infrastructure required for its emerging role as a regional center for energy-related research. Equally important was the need to strength the University`s ability to complete for sponsored energy-related programs at the state and national levels and to provide opportunities for faculty, staff and students to participate in energy-related research and outreach activities. The program had four major objectives, as follows: (1) implement energy research, outreach and demonstration projects already funded, and prepare new proposals to fund university research interests; (2) establish an Energy Center as a separate operational entity to provide continuing infrastructure support for energy-related programs; (3) strengthen university/private sector energy research linkages; and (4) involve minority graduate and undergraduate students in energy research and outreach activities. Each of the above objectives has been exceeded substantially, and, as a consequence, the University has become a regional leader in energy and environmental research and outreach efforts.

  5. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Kuehler; Jon Hathaway; Andrew Tirpak

    2017-01-01

    The use of green infrastructure for reducing stormwater runoff is increasingly common. One under‐studied component of the green infrastructure network is the urban forest system. Trees can play an important role as the “first line of defense” for restoring more natural hydrologic regimes in urban watersheds by intercepting rainfall, delaying runoff, infiltrating, and...

  6. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  7. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  8. Management and Fragmentation of a Network Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    This paper contains an analysis of the role of identity in interorganizational collaboration. The case is a network program that involved three parties: eight companies, one consulting institution and a research institution. The purpose of the network program was to develop and test concepts...

  9. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. M.; Cottrell, R. L.; Kalim, U.; Ali, A.

    2008-07-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  10. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; /SLAC /NUST, Rawalpindi; Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2007-10-30

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  11. Program Aids Simulation Of Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program NETS - Tool for Development and Evaluation of Neural Networks - provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus software environment for development of such algorithms. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network, and provides features for saving weight values of network, providing for more precise control over learning process. Consists of translating problem into format using input/output pairs, designing network configuration for problem, and finally training network with input/output pairs until acceptable error reached. Written in C.

  12. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-06-26

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency.

  13. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cañete

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency.

  14. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  15. Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures: Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-08-01

    Resiliency and cyber security of modern critical infrastructures is becoming increasingly important with the growing number of threats in the cyber-environment. This paper proposes an extension to a previously developed fuzzy logic based anomaly detection network security cyber sensor via incorporating Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (T2 FL). In general, fuzzy logic provides a framework for system modeling in linguistic form capable of coping with imprecise and vague meanings of words. T2 FL is an extension of Type-1 FL which proved to be successful in modeling and minimizing the effects of various kinds of dynamic uncertainties. In this paper, T2 FL provides a basis for robust anomaly detection and cyber security state awareness. In addition, the proposed algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental cyber-security test-bed.

  16. Rehabilitation of a secondary network of forest traffic infrastructure (skid roads - skid trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest transport infrastructure is the key segment of rational forest resource management. One of its constituent and inseparable segments are skid roads and skid trails whose network density significantly exceeds the primary network, i.e. truck roads. Skid road -skid trail network density in high economic forests of FB&H is most often between 40 and 100 m/ha. Simplified way of construction, non-existence of road construction, objects for surface water drainage as well as significant longitudinal inclination (up to 50% in which they are constructed, makes them subject to erosion processes. The lack of rehabilitation measures on skid roads - skid trails causes significant damages in post-exploitation period, and very often to the extent that the ones in the following exploitation round are unusable for skidding. Utilization of skid roads - skid trails damaged by erosion processes for forest operations often represents a significant expense. This paper considers rehabilitation measures efficient from the point of remedying erosion processes, and at the same time, acceptable from the point of financial expenditure for forest operations.

  17. Leading by Success: Impact of a Clinical and Translational Research Infrastructure Program to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Bruce; Shambaugh, Vicki; Petrovich, Helen; Seto, Todd B; Ho, Tammy; Mokuau, Noreen; Hedges, Jerris R

    2016-10-28

    Building research infrastructure capacity to address clinical and translational gaps has been a focus of funding agencies and foundations. Clinical and Translational Sciences Awards, Research Centers in Minority Institutions Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research (RCTR), and the Institutional Development Award Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research funded by the US government to fund clinical translational research programs have existed for over a decade to address racial and ethnic health disparities across the USA. While the impact on the nation's health cannot be made in a short period, assessment of a program's impact could be a litmus test to gauge its effectiveness at the institution and communities. We report the success of a Pilot Project Program in the University of Hawaii RCTR Award in advancing careers of emerging investigators and community collaborators. Our findings demonstrated that the investment has a far-reaching impact on engagement with community-based research collaborators, career advancement of health disparity investigators, and favorable impacts on health policy.

  18. Structures and Infrastructures of International R&D Networks: A Capability Maturity Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    to dispersed development. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is a qualitative study of the process of distributing R&D. By comparing selected firms, the researchers identify a pattern of dispersion of R&D activities in three Danish firms. Findings and Discussion: Drawing from the case studies, the researchers...... present a capability maturity model. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks is viewed as a key requirement for developing organizational capabilities and formulating adequate strategies that leverage dispersed R&D. Organizational...... and strategic implications of the model emphasize increased interrelations and a need for coordination resulting in rising coordination costs. Decentralized control is viewed a mean to combine the advantages of centralization and decentralization. Originality/Value: While the offshoring of production has widely...

  19. IS-ENES: The Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    IS-ENES is the distributed e-infrastructure of models, model data and metadata of the European Network for Earth System Modelling (ENES). This network gathers together the European climate modelling community working on understanding and predicting climate variability and change. It organizes and supports European contributions to international experiments used in assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, such as the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and the Coordinated regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX). IS-ENES is supported by FP7 and is entering its second 4-year phase (http://is.enes.org). IS-ENES integrates the European climate modelling community, stimulates common developments of software for models and their environments, fosters the execution and exploitation of high-end simulations, in particular using the European PRACE facilities, and supports the dissemination of model results to the climate research and climate impact communities. The central point of entry to IS-ENES services, the ENES Portal (http://enes.org), integrates information on the European climate models and provides access to models and software environments needed to run and exploit model simulations, such as the climate data operators, as well as to simulation data, metadata and processing utilities. IS-ENES supports the European contribution to the international Earth System Grid Federation data distribution for CMIP5 and CORDEX. In order to help the use of climate model results for impact studies, e.g. in water management, a prototype portal climate4impact (http://www.climate4impact.eu) has been developed providing access to guidance on how to use global climate model results through documentation of use cases, and will be further developed in IS-ENES2. Adaptation to climate change requires strengthening the integration between the climate and hydro-meteorological communities and the e-infrastructure IS-ENES2 might contribute to this

  20. 76 FR 21789 - ITS Joint Program Office; Vehicle to Infrastructure Core System Concept of Operations; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Vehicle to Infrastructure Core System Concept of Operations; Notice of... host a free public meeting to discuss the Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Core System Concept of... support applications for safety, mobility, and sustainability for various modes of transportation...

  1. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...... period, detect injury...). Our goal is to explore the design of a sensor network that supports such functionalities and meets the constraints of this industry in terms of price, energy consumption and availability....

  2. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  3. Virtualization in network and servers infrastructure to support dynamic system reconfiguration in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Ovando, Nicolás.; Bartsch, Marcelo; Simmond, Max; Vélez, Gastón; Robles, Manuel; Soto, Rubén.; Ibsen, Jorge; Saldias, Christian

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is the first astronomical project being constructed and operated under industrial approach due to the huge amount of elements involved. In order to achieve the maximum through put during the engineering and scientific commissioning phase, several production lines have been established to work in parallel. This decision required modification in the original system architecture in which all the elements are controlled and operated within a unique Standard Test Environment (STE). The advance in the network industry and together with the maturity of virtualization paradigm allows us to provide a solution which can replicate the STE infrastructure without changing their network address definition. This is only possible with Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) and Virtual LAN (VLAN) concepts. The solution allows dynamic reconfiguration of antennas and other hardware across the production lines with minimum time and zero human intervention in the cabling. We also push the virtualization even further, classical rack mount servers are being replaced and consolidated by blade servers. On top of them virtualized server are centrally administrated with VMWare ESX. Hardware costs and system administration effort will be reduced considerably. This mechanism has been established and operated successfully during the last two years. This experience gave us confident to propose a solution to divide the main operation array into subarrays using the same concept which will introduce huge flexibility and efficiency for ALMA operation and eventually may simplify the complexity of ALMA core observing software since there will be no need to deal with subarrays complexity at software level.

  4. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  5. Social network analysis for program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach.

  6. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  7. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    To date, much of the accounting literature focuses on control and coordination within and from the perspective of organizations, reflecting what Hopwood described as accounting’s “hierarchical consciousness”. Inspired by the growing phenomenon of network organizational forms such as eBay, AirBnB ...... worlds); and new forms of control (evaluative infrastructures are not centers of calculation; rather, control is radically distributed, whilst power remains centralized).......BnB or Uber, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructures for a heterarchical modus of accounting. Evaluative infrastructures are decentralized accounting practices that underpin distributed production processes. They are evaluative because they deploy a plethora of interacting devices......, including rankings, ratings, reviews, audits etc. to establish orders of worth. They are infrastructures because they provide the invisible yet essential mechanisms for distributed production processes to occur. Put metaphorically, if cost accounting provided the numerical infrastructure...

  8. 77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset..., Office of Infrastructure Protection, Infrastructure Information Collection Division. Title: Critical...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15014] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0002] Critical...

  9. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program, the infrastructure of Primary Health Units and the Municipal Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joaquim José; Machado, Maria Helena; Alves, Cecília Brito

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this article was to examine the context in which professionals working within the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program operate. This study used the infrastructure scale of primary health units (PHUs), which was recently developed by Soares Neto and colleagues to provide more information regarding the relationship between the infrastructure of PHUs and the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) of municipalities that received Mais Médicos Program doctors. Using exploratory and inferential statistics, the article shows that 65.2% of the PHUs that received Mais Médicos Program doctors had medium-quality infrastructure and only 5.8% of them had low-quality infrastructure. The correlation of 0.50 between the infrastructure indicator and the MHDI points to a moderate tendency for municipalities with low MHDIs to have more precarious PHUs. Using multiple linear regression analysis it can be inferred that the main factor that contributed to the increase in the infrastructure indicator of the PHUs was the average municipal income. On the other hand, the factor that negatively affected the infrastructure of the PHUs was being located in the north or northeast regions.

  10. Indonesian Maritime Logistics Network Optimization Using Mixed Integer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arry Rahmawan Komarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some causes of the high logistic costs and significant disparity in Indonesia’s commodity price is the imbalanced distribution of the flow of goods between west and east regional of Indonesia and the slow development infrastructure. This issue can be happened because maritime transport infrastructure in Indonesia have not served effectively yet,. Therefore, the provider of shipping services should be able to design the Indonesian maritime logistics network that best suits with the current maritime conditions and provide the greatest benefits. This study aims to obtain a model of decision-making at all levels (strategic, tactical, operational to determine the type of vessel, the shipping routes, and cargo allocation that gives the maximum profit. Main purpose from this study is to develop decision-making model for maritime logistics network design at all levels (strategic, tactical, operational by using Mixed Integer Programming which can solve the combination of fleet-design, ship-scheduling, and cargo routing problems simultaneously.

  11. Hydrologic, Social, and Economic Efficacy of Green Infrastructure Credit Programs: Toward Citizen Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, O. O.; Kertesz, R.; Rossman, L.; Shuster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Fostering 'citizen stormwater management', whereby citizens make stormwater management a part of their everyday lives, aims to improve the resilience of the urban water social-ecological system by reducing the load on the stormwater collection system through investment in natural and social capitals. A popular method of incentivizing citizen stormwater management is offering stormwater fee discounts as credits for the installation of green infrastructure onsite. Such installations, in effect, reduce the amount of impervious area by disconnecting them from the sewer system. We analyze 4 such programs (Portland OR, Cleveland OH, Fort Myers FL, and Lynchburg VA) which offer discounts to single family residences for installing rain gardens or bioinfiltration features. Findings indicate large variability in the hydrological, social, and economic efficacy of these programs. We assessed hydrologic efficacy using the Environmental Protection Agency's recently released Stormwater Calculator, a user-friendly model based on SWMM. Hydrologic efficacy was most sensitive to level of detail in administrative rules (i.e., specifics pertaining to soil drainage, slope), regional conditions (e.g., precipitation) and local conditions (e.g., soil, percent of impervious area treated). Social efficacy was measured by the accessibility of the programs to average citizens and varied from highly accessible programs, whereby municipalities had sufficient outreach efforts such that average residents could install their own green infrastructure, to programs with no outreach and contradictory rules which would require a professional engineer to navigate the process and install an eligible rain garden. Economic efficiency was largely dependent on the base stormwater fee (i.e., higher baseline bill results in higher discount and thus higher incentive to participate). From the perspective of a homeowner, they may receive a windfall (i.e., % runoff reduced tax' controversies and related litigation

  12. Advanced network programming principles and techniques : network application programming with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Ciubotaru, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Answering the need for an accessible overview of the field, this text/reference presents a manageable introduction to both the theoretical and practical aspects of computer networks and network programming. Clearly structured and easy to follow, the book describes cutting-edge developments in network architectures, communication protocols, and programming techniques and models, supported by code examples for hands-on practice with creating network-based applications. Features: presents detailed coverage of network architectures; gently introduces the reader to the basic ideas underpinning comp

  13. Making Network Markets in Education: The Development of Data Infrastructure in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of data infrastructure in Australian schooling with a specific focus on interoperability standards that help to make new markets for education data. The conceptual framework combines insights from studies of infrastructure, economic markets and digital data. The case of the Australian National Schools…

  14. An integrated GIS-MARKAL toolbox for designing a CO2 infrastructure network in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.; Brederode, E.; Ramirez, C.A.; Kramers, K.; van der Kuip, M.; Wildenborg, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale implementation of carbon capture and storage needs a whole new infrastructure to transport and store CO2. Tools that can support planning and designing of such infrastructure require incorporation of both temporal and spatial aspects. Therefore, a toolbox that integrates ArcGIS, a

  15. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. (Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Beschen, D.A. Jr. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs)

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Report on Networking and Programming Languages 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Bjorner, Nikolaj

    2017-10-26

    The third workshop on Networking and Programming Lan-guages, NetPL 2017, was held in conjunction with SIG-COMM 2017. The workshop series attracts invited speakers from academia and industry and a selection of contributed abstracts for short presentations. NetPL brings together re-searchers from the networking community and researchers from the programming languages and verification communities. The workshop series is a timely forum for exciting trends, technological and scientific advances in the intersection of these communities. We describe some of the high-lights from the invited talks through the lens of three trends: Advances in network machine architectures, network programming abstractions, and network verification. NetPL included five invited speakers, four from academia, and one from industry. The program contained six contributed talks out of eight submitted for presentation. The workshop organizers reviewed the abstracts for quality and scope. A total of 42 registrations were received and the attendance occupied the lecture room to the brink. Slides and abstracts from all talks are available from the workshop home page.1 Videos of the presentations are available in the NetPL YouTube channel.2.

  18. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  19. An open, component-based information infrastructure for integrated health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2002-12-18

    A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is the seamless sharing of multimedia clinical information. Different technological approaches can be adopted for enabling the communication and sharing of health record segments. In the context of the emerging global information society, the creation of and access to the integrated electronic health record (I-EHR) of a citizen has been assigned high priority in many countries. This requirement is complementary to an overall requirement for the creation of a health information infrastructure (HII) to support the provision of a variety of health telematics and e-health services. In developing a regional or national HII, the components or building blocks that make up the overall information system ought to be defined and an appropriate component architecture specified. This paper discusses current international priorities and trends in developing the HII. It presents technological challenges and alternative approaches towards the creation of an I-EHR, being the aggregation of health data created during all interactions of an individual with the healthcare system. It also presents results from an ongoing Research and Development (R&D) effort towards the implementation of the HII in HYGEIAnet, the regional health information network of Crete, Greece, using a component-based software engineering approach. Critical design decisions and related trade-offs, involved in the process of component specification and development, are also discussed and the current state of development of an I-EHR service is presented. Finally, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and security issues, which are important for the deployment and use of any I-EHR service, are considered.

  20. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beschen, D.A. Jr. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  1. Information Retrieval or Information Morass? Implications of Library Automation and Computing Networks in Central and Eastern Europe for the Creation of a Global Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Christine L.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) focuses on a longitudinal study conducted in Central and Eastern Europe that investigated two issues: (1) the relationship between computing networks and library automation in establishing a national information infrastructure, and (2) requirements for library automation for exchanging…

  2. Combining Wired and Wireless Networks for a QoS-Aware Broadband Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2004-01-01

    We show how integrated planning of wired and wireless infrastructures can be used to build a QoS-aware broadband infrastructure. The outset is a case study of the municipality of Hals, a rural community in Denmark, where the objective is to establish a broadband infrastructure reaching all...... To The Home for primary connections and Fixed Wireless Access for backup. This is implemented over 15 years, during which temporary solutions ensure sufficient QoS and reliability for all users. These temporary solutions form parts of the final solutions....

  3. 77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...-competitive replacement award under the Rural Health Network Development Program to the Siloam Springs... through the Rural Health Network Development Grant Program are to improve the capacity of network members...

  4. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  5. Constructing a resilience index for the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J P

    2010-10-14

    Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a

  6. Recent advances in operational seasonal forecasting in South Africa: Models, infrastructure and networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The various institutions involved with seasonal forecast development and production are discussed. New modelling approaches and the establishment of infrastructures to improve forecast dissemination are discussed....

  7. InSAR remote sensing for performance monitoring of transportation infrastructure at the network level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    The goal of the project was the implementation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar : (InSAR) monitoring techniques to allow for early detection of geohazard, potentially : affecting the transportation infrastructure, as well as the monitoring...

  8. Learning Method, Facilities And Infrastructure, And Learning Resources In Basic Networking For Vocational School

    OpenAIRE

    Pamungkas, Bian Dwi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the contribution of learning methods on learning output, the contribution of facilities and infrastructure on output learning, the contribution of learning resources on learning output, and the contribution of learning methods, the facilities and infrastructure, and learning resources on learning output. The research design is descriptive causative, using a goal-oriented assessment approach in which the assessment focuses on assessing the achievement of a goal. The ...

  9. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  10. Information infrastructure for inter-organizational mental health services: an actor network theory analysis of psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Bång, Magnus; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Janet

    2007-08-01

    In the supply of mental health services to communities, data and information are managed not only by clinical organizations, but also by welfare state agencies and charities. The aim of this study is to use methods of analysis from actor network theory to identify organizational interventions necessary for the development of an information infrastructure for inter-organizational mental health services. Data was collected in a project aimed at developing an information system that supports inter-organizational psychiatric rehabilitation in a Swedish municipality. Three organizational interventions were identified: an integrated service policy defined by the national government, a common legal framework allowing sharing of high-level client data, and commissioned support for local inter-agency workspaces. It is concluded that organizational interventions must be regarded when configuring an information infrastructure for mental health services. Organizational interventions should also routinely be addressed in systems design methods to be used in inter-organizational settings.

  11. Boost.Asio C++ network programming

    CERN Document Server

    Torjo, John

    2013-01-01

    What you want is an easy level of abstraction, which is just what this book provides in conjunction with Boost.Asio. Switching to Boost.Asio is just a few extra #include directives away, with the help of this practical and engaging guide.This book is great for developers that need to do network programming, who don't want to delve into the complicated issues of a raw networking API. You should be familiar with core Boost concepts, such as smart pointers and shared_from_this, resource classes (noncopyable), functors and boost::bind, boost mutexes, and the boost date/time library. Readers should

  12. Effects of spatial configuration of imperviousness and green infrastructure networks on hydrologic response in a residential sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theodore C.; Welty, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is an approach to stormwater management that promotes natural processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration, reducing surface runoff to conventional stormwater drainage infrastructure. As more urban areas incorporate GI into their stormwater management plans, greater understanding is needed on the effects of spatial configuration of GI networks on hydrological performance, especially in the context of potential subsurface and lateral interactions between distributed facilities. In this research, we apply a three-dimensional, coupled surface-subsurface, land-atmosphere model, ParFlow.CLM, to a residential urban sewershed in Washington DC that was retrofitted with a network of GI installations between 2009 and 2015. The model was used to test nine additional GI and imperviousness spatial network configurations for the site and was compared with monitored pipe-flow data. Results from the simulations show that GI located in higher flow-accumulation areas of the site intercepted more surface runoff, even during wetter and multiday events. However, a comparison of the differences between scenarios and levels of variation and noise in monitored data suggests that the differences would only be detectable between the most and least optimal GI/imperviousness configurations.

  13. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  14. Software-Programmed Optical Networking with Integrated NFV Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Wang, Xi; Basu, Shrutarshi

    2017-01-01

    We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS).......We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS)....

  15. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  16. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  17. Evaluating infrastructure resilience to extreme weather - the case of the Dutch electricity transmission network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollinger, L. Andrew; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development and results of a model exploring the resilience of the Dutch electricity transmission infrastructure to extreme weather events. Climate change is anticipated to result in an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events over the coming decades.

  18. Evaluating infrastructure resilience to extreme weather – the case of the Dutch electricity transmission network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollinger, L.A.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development and results of a model exploring the resilience of the Dutch electricity transmission infrastructure to extreme weather events. Climate change is anticipated to result in an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events over the coming decades.

  19. Urban infrastructure influences dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial metabolism in an urban stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are degraded by a suite of factors, including burial beneath urban infrastructure (i.e., roads, parking lots) that eliminates light and reduces direct organic matter inputs to streams, with likely consequences for organic matter metabolism by microbes and carbon lim...

  20. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The

  1. On Line Segment Length and Mapping 4-regular Grid Structures in Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on mapping the road network into 4-regular grid structures. A mapping algorithm is proposed. To model the road network GIS data have been used. The Geographic Information System (GIS) data for the road network are composed with different size of line segment lengths...

  2. Infrastructure and Resources of Private Schools in Cali and the Implementation of the Bilingual Colombia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Norbella; Echeverry, Ángela Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Institutional factors affect the implementation of educational policies. Physical school infrastructure and the availability of resources determine to a certain extent whether a policy may be successfully transformed into practice. This article provides a description and analysis of school infrastructure and resources of private institutions of…

  3. Secure metropolitan network and the management of branches in the technological infrastructure:Case study GADM Babahoyo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre Vicente León Acurio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the nonexistent network to the general system of data communication that currently has the GADM (Autonomous Government Decentralized Municipal of Babahoyo located in the province of Los Rios in order to develop a logical design of a metropolitan network that can support new technologies and protocols ensuring the information conveyed between branches of GADM of Babahoyo, besides providing the institution of a compatible platform with the requirements of the e-Government (eGovernment. This research allowed to collect information through instruments such as interviews, meetings and literature review also visits took place at the premises of GADM Babahoyo, reviewing aspects of securities in telecommunications under the ISO / IEC 27002: 2013 citing reference the control objective Management network security. Identification, analysis and design of a proposed network infrastructure is made, allowing communication of the various units that are in distant places. It is concluded that the implementation of a system of networks throughout the municipal entity is considered a solution to the problem and generate many benefits.

  4. Challenges in network science: Applications to infrastructures, climate, social systems and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Bunde, A.; Cohen, R.; Hermann, H.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Kertész, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Kurths, J.; Portugali, J.; Solomon, S.

    2012-11-01

    Network theory has become one of the most visible theoretical frameworks that can be applied to the description, analysis, understanding, design and repair of multi-level complex systems. Complex networks occur everywhere, in man-made and human social systems, in organic and inorganic matter, from nano to macro scales, and in natural and anthropogenic structures. New applications are developed at an ever-increasing rate and the promise for future growth is high, since increasingly we interact with one another within these vital and complex environments. Despite all the great successes of this field, crucial aspects of multi-level complex systems have been largely ignored. Important challenges of network science are to take into account many of these missing realistic features such as strong coupling between networks (networks are not isolated), the dynamics of networks (networks are not static), interrelationships between structure, dynamics and function of networks, interdependencies in given networks (and other classes of links, including different signs of interactions), and spatial properties (including geographical aspects) of networks. This aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss the challenges that future network science needs to address, and how different disciplines will be accordingly affected.

  5. Network Management System for (FUTON-like) Radio-over-Fiber Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santiago, Carlos; Gangopadhyay, Bodhisattwa; Ramkumar, Venkata

    2010-01-01

    operational costs. The RoF Network Manager manages the network equipment on the optical front haul between the Central Unit (CU) and all Remote Antenna Units (RAU)s connected by it, as well as the communication links, while enabling end-to-end service problem resolution and service quality management...... by the FUTON Middleware. Although a significant amount of prior research work can be found in the literature related to RoF, there is still significant lack of technologies concerning RoF networks management. RoF Manager and its sub-systems target to fill such gap, proposing a novel concept in the form...... of Channel Forwarding Table (CFT). RoF Manager follows an autonomous and generic network management framework, designed to be scalable in terms of adding new network elements (NEs). It targets multi-technology, multi-service and multi-vendor NEs in the network using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP...

  6. User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wagenknecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs.

  7. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Chen, Liangzhe [ORNL; Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Prakash, B. Aditya [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  8. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  9. Neural Network Program Package for Prosody Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santarius

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the programme for one part of theautomatic Text-to-Speech (TTS synthesis. Some experiments (for example[14] documented the considerable improvement of the naturalness ofsynthetic speech, but this approach requires completing the inputfeature values by hand. This completing takes a lot of time for bigfiles. We need to improve the prosody by other approaches which useonly automatically classified features (input parameters. Theartificial neural network (ANN approach is used for the modeling ofprosody parameters. The program package contains all modules necessaryfor the text and speech signal pre-processing, neural network training,sensitivity analysis, result processing and a module for the creationof the input data protocol for Czech speech synthesizer ARTIC [1].

  10. Network interdiction and stochastic integer programming

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On March 15, 2002 we held a workshop on network interdiction and the more general problem of stochastic mixed integer programming at the University of California, Davis. Jesús De Loera and I co-chaired the event, which included presentations of on-going research and discussion. At the workshop, we decided to produce a volume of timely work on the topics. This volume is the result. Each chapter represents state-of-the-art research and all of them were refereed by leading investigators in the respective fields. Problems - sociated with protecting and attacking computer, transportation, and social networks gain importance as the world becomes more dep- dent on interconnected systems. Optimization models that address the stochastic nature of these problems are an important part of the research agenda. This work relies on recent efforts to provide methods for - dressing stochastic mixed integer programs. The book is organized with interdiction papers first and the stochastic programming papers in the second part....

  11. Network Virtualization strategy based on Paths Algebra to implement the concept of Infrastructure as a Service

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Anato, Alejandro Antonio

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges of network virtualization is the virtual network embedding problem(VNE). The objective of the VNE is to map a set of Virtual Network Request (VNR) to a physical node and link. VNR is composed by a set of virtual nodes and links with several demands (Processing power, Bandwidth.), which they need to be assigned into a set of paths in the substrate network with sufficient resources to accomplish their demands. Furthermore, these embedding can be optimized with regard ...

  12. Domotics – A Cost Effective Smart Home Automation System Using Wifi as Network Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhinav Talgeri; Abheesh Kumar B A

    2014-01-01

    ... (also called as Domotics) systems. It considers problems with their implementation, discusses possible solutions through various network technologies and indicates how to optimize the use of such systems...

  13. Tribal Set-Aside Program of the Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA), as amended in 1996, established the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) to make funds available to drinking water systems to finance infrastructure improvements.

  14. Using Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure to Get Benefits From FEMA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LID and Green Infrastructure is a cost-effective, resilient approach to stormwater management. Projects that reduce flood losses may be eligible for grant funding through FEMA and may allow communities to claim points through FEMA's rating system -CRS

  15. Financial Stability and Interacting Networks of Financial Institutions and Market Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon, C.; Berndsen, R.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    An interacting network coupling financial institutions’ multiplex (i.e. multi-layer) and financial market infrastructures’ single-layer networks gives an accurate picture of a financial system’s true connective architecture. We examine and compare the main properties of Colombian multiplex and

  16. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  17. An Open Virtual Neighbourhood Network to Connect IoT Infrastructures and Smart Objects – VICINITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of interoperability is considered as the most important barrier to achieve the global integration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystems across borders of different disciplines, vendors and standards. Indeed, the current IoT landscape consists of a large set of isolated islands that do...... ecosystems providing “interoperability as a service” for infrastructures in the IoT. The approach is bottom-up, decentralized, user-centric and standards-based without relying on a single standard....

  18. The broadband networks, basic infrastructure of the knowledge society; Las redes de banda ancha, infraestructuras basicas de la sociedad del conocimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Vega, R.

    2010-07-01

    Telecommunication networks will conform the basic infrastructure of the future knowledge society. The growing demand in network usage will require the total renewal of current networks and accordingly large investment resources, presenting big difficulties (in a tough economic environment) and that can only be overcome from a global perspective with full understanding of networks role in the value chain and with contributions of all stake holders. This paper analyzes the relevant challenges to new generation network development and makes some proposals to cope with them. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Integration in primary community care networks (PCCNs): examination of governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information infrastructures in a national demonstration project in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju

    2007-06-19

    Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN) demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals) within individual PCCNs. The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures--governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003-2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at the early stage of network forming in this study, the detailed surveyed

  20. Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Program Network, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CALM network includes 168 active sites in both hemispheres with 15 participating countries. This network represents the only coordinated and standardized program...

  1. Update on the CERN Computing and Network Infrastructure for Controls (CNIC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lueders, S

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years modern accelerator and experiment control systems have increasingly been based on commercial-off-the-shelf products (VME crates, PLCs, SCADA systems, etc.), on Windows or Linux PCs, and on communication infrastructures using Ethernet and TCP/IP. Despite the benefits coming with this (r)evolution, new vulnerabilities are inherited too: Worms and viruses spread within seconds via the Ethernet cable, and attackers are becoming interested in control systems. Unfortunately, control PCs cannot be patched as fast as office PCs. Even worse, vulnerability scans at CERN using standard IT tools have shown that commercial automation systems lack fundamental security precautions: Some systems crashed during the scan, others could easily be stopped or their process data be altered. During the two years following the presentation of the CNIC Security Policy at ICALEPCS2005, a "Defense-in-Depth" approach has been applied to protect CERN's control systems. This presentation will give a review of its th...

  2. LEA: An Algorithm to Estimate the Level of Location Exposure in Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy in wireless networks is nowadays a major concern. This is due to the fact that the mere fact of transmitting may allow a network to pinpoint a mobile node. We consider that a first step to protect a mobile node in this situation is to provide it with the means to quantify how accurately a network establishes its position. To achieve this end, we introduce the location-exposure algorithm (LEA, which runs on the mobile terminal only and whose operation consists of two steps. In the first step, LEA discovers the positions of nearby network nodes and uses this information to emulate how they estimate the position of the mobile node. In the second step, it quantifies the level of exposure by computing the distance between the position estimated in the first step and its true position. We refer to these steps as a location-exposure problem. We tested our proposal with simulations and testbed experiments. These results show the ability of LEA to reproduce the location of the mobile node, as seen by the network, and to quantify the level of exposure. This knowledge can help the mobile user decide which actions should be performed before transmitting.

  3. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  4. Evaluating transceiver power savings produced by connectivity strategies for infrastructure wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudali, P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available may be battery-powered in the absence of reliable power supplies. A key requirement for the proper functioning of the I-WMN backbone is that network connectivity be maintained. Two main types of connectivity strategies exist in the literature...

  5. Support to the development of an ecological network and spatial data infrastructure for the Sava River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van S.A.M.; Sluis, van der T.; Schmidt, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the project ¿Integrated transboundary River Basin Management Plan for the Sava¿. The process and (intermediate) results are presented that are obtained on the work packages of geographical and ecological information and ecological network development. The overall

  6. Sellers on the street : the human infrastructure of the mobile phone network in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.E.; Nzayisenga, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks in detail at the social and economic background of mobile airtime sellers on the streets of Kigali. While informal networks have proved to be an invaluable resource for large multinational telecommunication companies seeking to penetrate African markets, changing technological

  7. Evaluation of Opportunistic Routing Algorithms on Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks with Infrastructure Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Viet Duc, L Duc; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of sensors integrated in smartphones, especially the iPhone and Android phones, has motivated the development of routing algorithms for Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks (OppMSNs). Although there are many existing opportunistic routing algorithms, researchers still

  8. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  9. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal...... access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...... in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper...

  10. The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal

  11. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  12. Cooperating Mobile GIS and Wireless Sensor Networks for Managing Transportation Infrastructures in Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, R.; Abazari, N.; Alizadeh, A.; Choghooni, M.

    2013-10-01

    Time management is a major subject which, in order to optimize trip conditions, emphasizes on interpreting processes and classifying individual's information. In this paper, with the aim of providing an optimal system for urban commuting in proper time in Mashhad, each user using SMS and introducing some of his/her mental priorities to the system, will be able to select the best option depending on the timing of movement of the available public transport system. The present study adopts a newly developed method of time management which is evaluated for urban transportation considering dynamic conditions of a spatial database. For this purpose, regarding time management, processed data such as bus lines, taxi networks, and the subway system are combined in a spatial framework of a designed Mobile GIS based on a wireless network. So, multiple potential paths which end to a desirable destination.

  13. Network Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Crude Pipeline Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Prevención de Incendio, Protección Ambiental y Seguridad Industrial SEGUR-Fire 2001, Caracas, Venezuela, July 2001. 3 Figure 1. Pipeline Safety...become the weapon of choice for international terrorists, irrespective of the political and social -financial conditions of the society under attack.64...on networks in which the link or nodes are tangible or intangible; thus, its applications range from the analysis of aqueduct systems to social

  14. Safe Cycling Network : developing a system for assessing the safety of cycling infrastructure. Report on behalf of the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Dijkstra, A. & Petegem, J.W.H. van

    2015-01-01

    ANWB has initiated a project to improve the safety of the cycling infrastructure in the Netherlands — and, in the longer term, also in other countries: the Safe Cycling Network project. This project was inspired in part by the international European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP/iRAP). The

  15. The introduction of dengue follows transportation infrastructure changes in the state of Acre, Brazil: A network-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Raquel Martins; Gomes, Marcelo Ferreira da Costa; Lima, Tiago França Melo de; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Codeço, Cláudia Torres

    2017-11-01

    Human mobility, presence and passive transportation of Aedes aegypti mosquito, and environmental characteristics are a group of factors which contribute to the success of dengue spread and establishment. To understand this process, we assess data from dengue national and municipal basins regarding population and demographics, transportation network, human mobility, and Ae. aegypti monitoring for the Brazilian state of Acre since the first recorded dengue case in the year 2000 to the year 2015. During this period, several changes in Acre's transport infrastructure and urbanization have been started. To reconstruct the process of dengue introduction in Acre, we propose an analytic framework based on concepts used in malaria literature, namely vulnerability and receptivity, to inform risk assessments in dengue-free regions as well as network theory concepts for disease invasion and propagation. We calculate the probability of dengue importation to Acre from other Brazilian states, the evolution of dengue spread between Acrean municipalities and dengue establishment in the state. Our findings suggest that the landscape changes associated with human mobility have created favorable conditions for the establishment of dengue virus transmission in Acre. The revitalization of its major roads, as well as the increased accessibility by air to and within the state, have increased dengue vulnerability. Unplanned urbanization and population growth, as observed in Acre during the period of study, contribute to ideal conditions for Ae. aegypti mosquito establishment, increase the difficulty in mosquito control and consequently its local receptivity.

  16. The introduction of dengue follows transportation infrastructure changes in the state of Acre, Brazil: A network-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martins Lana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mobility, presence and passive transportation of Aedes aegypti mosquito, and environmental characteristics are a group of factors which contribute to the success of dengue spread and establishment. To understand this process, we assess data from dengue national and municipal basins regarding population and demographics, transportation network, human mobility, and Ae. aegypti monitoring for the Brazilian state of Acre since the first recorded dengue case in the year 2000 to the year 2015. During this period, several changes in Acre's transport infrastructure and urbanization have been started. To reconstruct the process of dengue introduction in Acre, we propose an analytic framework based on concepts used in malaria literature, namely vulnerability and receptivity, to inform risk assessments in dengue-free regions as well as network theory concepts for disease invasion and propagation. We calculate the probability of dengue importation to Acre from other Brazilian states, the evolution of dengue spread between Acrean municipalities and dengue establishment in the state. Our findings suggest that the landscape changes associated with human mobility have created favorable conditions for the establishment of dengue virus transmission in Acre. The revitalization of its major roads, as well as the increased accessibility by air to and within the state, have increased dengue vulnerability. Unplanned urbanization and population growth, as observed in Acre during the period of study, contribute to ideal conditions for Ae. aegypti mosquito establishment, increase the difficulty in mosquito control and consequently its local receptivity.

  17. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  18. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  19. Moving Toward an Optimal and Automated Geospatial Network for CCUS Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Brendan Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Modifications in the global climate are being driven by the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide (CO2) (Middleton et al. 2014). CO2 emissions have, for example, been directly linked to an increase in total global temperature (Seneviratne et al. 2016). Strategies that limit CO2 emissions—like CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology—can greatly reduce emissions by capturing CO2 before it is released to the atmosphere. However, to date CCUS technology has not been developed at a large commercial scale despite several promising high profile demonstration projects (Middleton et al. 2015). Current CCUS research has often focused on capturing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, but recent research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) suggests focusing CCUS CO2 capture research upon industrial sources might better encourage CCUS deployment. To further promote industrial CCUS deployment, this project builds off current LANL research by continuing the development of a software tool called SimCCS, which estimates a regional system of transport to inject CO2 into sedimentary basins. The goal of SimCCS, which was first developed by Middleton and Bielicki (2009), is to output an automated and optimal geospatial industrial CCUS pipeline that accounts for industrial source and sink locations by estimating a Delaunay triangle network which also minimizes topographic and social costs (Middleton and Bielicki 2009). Current development of SimCCS is focused on creating a new version that accounts for spatial arrangements that were not available in the previous version. This project specifically addresses the issue of non-unique Delaunay triangles by adding additional triangles to the network, which can affect how the CCUS network is calculated.

  20. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  1. Substance abuse prevention infrastructure: a survey-based study of the organizational structure and function of the D.A.R.E. program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jeffrey C; Pinsky, Ilana; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Sloboda, Zili; Dilascio, Tracey

    2006-09-06

    The only national drug abuse prevention delivery system that supports the rapid diffusion of new prevention strategies and includes uniform training and credentialing of instructors who are monitored for quality implementation of prevention programming is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education network (D.A.R.E.) linking community law enforcement to schools. Analysis of the organizational structure and function of D.A.R.E. provides an understanding of the essential parameters of this successful delivery system that can be used in the development of other types of national infrastructures for community-based prevention services. Information regarding organizational structure and function around funding issues, training, quality control and community relationships was gathered through telephone surveys with 50 state D.A.R.E. coordinators (including two major cities), focus groups with local D.A.R.E. officers and mentors, and interviews with national D.A.R.E. office staff. The surveys helped identify several strengths inherent in the D.A.R.E. program necessary for building a prevention infrastructure, including a well-defined organizational focus (D.A.R.E. America), uniform training and means for rapid dissemination (through its organized training structure), continuing education mechanisms (through the state and national conference and website), mechanisms for program monitoring and fidelity of implementation (formal and informal), branding and, for several states, predictable and consistent financing. Weaknesses of the program as currently structured include unstable funding and the failure to incorporate components for the continual upgrading of curricula reflecting research evidence and "principles of prevention". The D.A.R.E. organization and service delivery network provides a framework for the rapid dissemination of evidence-based prevention strategies. The major strength of D.A.R.E. is its natural affiliation to local law enforcement agencies through state

  2. Substance abuse prevention infrastructure: a survey-based study of the organizational structure and function of the D.A.R.E. program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Jeffrey C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The only national drug abuse prevention delivery system that supports the rapid diffusion of new prevention strategies and includes uniform training and credentialing of instructors who are monitored for quality implementation of prevention programming is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education network (D.A.R.E. linking community law enforcement to schools. Analysis of the organizational structure and function of D.A.R.E. provides an understanding of the essential parameters of this successful delivery system that can be used in the development of other types of national infrastructures for community-based prevention services. Information regarding organizational structure and function around funding issues, training, quality control and community relationships was gathered through telephone surveys with 50 state D.A.R.E. coordinators (including two major cities, focus groups with local D.A.R.E. officers and mentors, and interviews with national D.A.R.E. office staff. Results The surveys helped identify several strengths inherent in the D.A.R.E. program necessary for building a prevention infrastructure, including a well-defined organizational focus (D.A.R.E. America, uniform training and means for rapid dissemination (through its organized training structure, continuing education mechanisms (through the state and national conference and website, mechanisms for program monitoring and fidelity of implementation (formal and informal, branding and, for several states, predictable and consistent financing. Weaknesses of the program as currently structured include unstable funding and the failure to incorporate components for the continual upgrading of curricula reflecting research evidence and "principles of prevention". Conclusion The D.A.R.E. organization and service delivery network provides a framework for the rapid dissemination of evidence-based prevention strategies. The major strength of D.A.R.E. is its natural affiliation to

  3. PAN network analysis program: its development and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, M.H.; Rogers, K.; Turnbull, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    British Gas Corp.'s London Research Station describes a comprehensive, efficient, and flexible computer simulation of pressure and flows in gas networks known as PAN - Program to Analyze Networks. The program is used extensively throughout the BGC system for both design and control of gas transmission grids. Its powerful method of analysis solves network problems quickly and handles complex configurations of compressors and regulators easily.

  4. Designing the new Backhaul for 5G Heterogeneous Network Based on Converged Optical Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras MAKSYMYUK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new flexible backhaul design is proposed based on the time-frequency resource grid. The advantage of proposed approach is in the fine granularity bandwidth allocation. Proposed approach allows tunneling of Cloud-RAN modulated radio signals between baseband processing unit and remote radio head within the same resource blocks. In addition, new handover machanism has been introduced to reduce the handover overhead in the backhaul network. The main idea of the proposed handover mechanism is in multicast data transmission to both involved eNodeBs by joint assignment of the resource elements for multiple cells during handover that allows to decrease the amount of backhaul traffic over X2 interface by 20\\%.

  5. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  6. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  7. Social network analysis of public health programs to measure partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2014-12-01

    In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN): Infrastructure upgrade to support Earthquake Early Warning (EEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, aftershock probabilities and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalOES, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and implementation of the demonstration EEW system called CISN ShakeAlert. Initially, the ShakeAlert project was funded through the US Geological Survey (USGS) and in early 2012, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided three years of new funding for EEW research and development for the US west coast. Recently, we have also received some Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) funding to enhance the EEW capabilities for the local UASI region by making our system overall faster, more reliable and redundant than the existing system. The additional and upgraded stations will be capable of decreasing latency and ensuring data delivery by using more reliable and redundant telemetry pathways. Overall, this will enhance the reliability of the earthquake early warnings by providing denser station coverage and more resilient data centers than before. * Seismic Datalogger upgrade: replaces existing dataloggers with modern equipment capable of sending one-second uncompressed packets and utilizing redundant Ethernet telemetry. * GPS upgrade: replaces the existing GPS receivers and antennas, especially at "zipper array" sites near the major faults, with receivers that perform on-board precise point positioning to calculate position and velocity in real time and stream continuous data for use in EEW calculations. * New co-located seismic/GPS stations: increases station density and reduces early warning delays that are incurred by travel

  9. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  10. Telematics in medicine: a network infrastructure to optimize processes in cardiology and heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsken, G; Rothenburger, M; Etz, C; Löher, A; Schmid, C; Scheld, H H

    2007-06-01

    During the past 2 decades, cardiac surgery has developed into a high-tech field. Increasing numbers of urgent surgical procedures mean that the time interval from diagnosis to surgical treatment must become ever shorter. Optimizing inconvenient and slow processes such as postal correspondence by using internet services is therefore mandatory in current cardiosurgical practice, and this includes the electronic transfer of patient data and diagnostic imaging material [12]. This study focuses on the internet connection of several cardiac referral centers to a cardiosurgical institution. Eleven cath lab centers were connected to a cardiosurgical center by internet. Auser program was especially developed to optimize connecting processes with the department. Data conversion was based on HL7 codes and angiograms were based on CD-ROM mediums and the DICOM standard. An online registration based on the HL7 communications standard was provided. All cath lab centers were successfully connected to the cardiosurgical institution. Angiography data were transmitted within 30 +/- 15minutes. The time interval from diagnosis to decision for surgery decreased from 36 +/- 13 hours to 1 +/- 0.5 hours (p = 0.01). Urgent or emergent surgery could be provided after 18 +/- 19 hours, compared to 56 +/- 35 hours before (p = 0.02). Special programs transmitting data via the internet significantly reduces the time interval from diagnosis to surgical treatment. Standardizing data transmitting processes from referral centers markedly optimizes cardiological and cardiosurgical treatments and could thereby improve survival rates and reduce costs.

  11. Determination of landslide susceptibility in linear infrastructure. Case: aqueduct network in Palacé, Popayan (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Alexander Correa Muñoz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to predict the occurrence of mass movements in the aqueduct network of Palacé, in the municipality of Popayan (Colombia. We evaluated the quality of SRTM and ASTER digital terrain models by comparing them with contour lines using a map scale of 1: 25000. The landscape parameters derived from the SRTM-DEM were analyzed with a multivariate procedure using algorithms implemented in free software, along with thematic information of the study area (coverage, distance to faults, rivers and precipitation. We selected non-redundant variables with the non-parametric ACP technique, and obtained a susceptibility prediction model using logistic regression, with two types of variables: dependent (landslides inventory from field observation and independent (slope, slope length factor, topographic wetness index, flow path length, soil units and rate of convergence resulting in a susceptibility map, reclassified into categories according to the values of probability. The prediction model could not be quantitatively assessed because of the absence of studies with a semi-detailed scale, but the estimation of the mean square error of elevation, from which the terrain parameters were derived, the level of detail and the performance of the classifier with ROC curve, yielded a zoning consistent with the findings of the field visits.

  12. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  13. Integration in primary community care networks (PCCNs: examination of governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information infrastructures in a national demonstration project in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Blossom Yen-Ju

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at

  14. Integration in primary community care networks (PCCNs): examination of governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information infrastructures in a national demonstration project in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN) demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals) within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at the early stage of network

  15. Development of a Resilience Assessment Methodology for Networked Infrastructure Systems using Stochastic Simulation, with application to Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gay Alanis, Leon F.

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution systems are critical infrastructure systems enabling the social and economic welfare of a community. While normal failures are expected and repaired quickly, low-probability and high consequence disruptive events have potential to cause severe damage to the infrastructure and significantly reduce their performance or even stop their function altogether. Resilient infrastructure is a necessary component towards achieving resilient and sustainable communities. Resilience conc...

  16. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  17. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    networked systems, and (4) design, situational awareness and control of complex networks. The program elements consist of a group of Complex Networked Systems Research Institutes (CNSRI), tightly coupled to an associated individual-investigator-based Complex Networked Systems Basic Research (CNSBR) program. The CNSRI's will be principally located at the DOE National Laboratories and are responsible for identifying research priorities, developing and maintaining a networked systems modeling and simulation software infrastructure, operating summer schools, workshops and conferences and coordinating with the CNSBR individual investigators. The CNSBR individual investigator projects will focus on specific challenges for networked systems. Relevancy of CNSBR research to DOE needs will be assured through the strong coupling provided between the CNSBR grants and the CNSRI's.

  18. Building Local Infrastructure for Coordinated School Health Programs: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Ann D.; Coburn, Sheri; Knickelbein, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) provide an organizational framework for school health practice by combining health education, health promotion, disease prevention, and access to health services in an integrated, systemic manner. This project examined the effects of a regional 2-year training program to increase local school districts'…

  19. The commercial vehicle information systems and networks program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) grant program supports the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrations (FMCSAs) safety mission by providing grant funds to States to: : Improve safety and productivity of moto...

  20. The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network program, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and : Networks (CVISN) program supports that safety : mission by providing grant funds to States for: : Improving safety and productivity of motor : carriers, commercial motor vehicles : (CMVs), and thei...

  1. GreenCommute : the Nortel Networks Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Program on how employers can reduce travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinson, S. [Nortel Networks, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the GreenCommute, world class commuter option program offered at Nortel Networks in Ottawa, Ontario. Nortel's Ottawa Carling Campus has incorporated popular commuter options in its' site design. These include walking, cycling, transit, car-pooling and teleworking. The Transportation Demand Management (TDM) program was launched to mitigate traffic congestion, minimize infrastructure requirements, and minimize parking areas. The program also acted as a pilot for the region and demonstrated the benefits of public/private sector partnership. The benefits of TDM programs to the employer, employee and community were also highlighted in this presentation. Nortel Networks has launched a comprehensive Internet site which offers commuting information, a self-serve ride matching system, critical links and promotions. It was noted that ongoing government support is critical for modal shifts to occur. Transit service improvements are necessary for transit to be competitive with driving. figs.

  2. Typical investigational medicinal products follow relatively uniform regulations in 10 European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to facilitate multinational clinical research, regulatory requirements need to become international and harmonised. The EU introduced the Directive 2001/20/EC in 2004, regulating investigational medicinal products in Europe. Methods We conducted a survey in order to identify the national regulatory requirements for major categories of clinical research in ten European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries-Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom-covering approximately 70% of the EU population. Here we describe the results for regulatory requirements for typical investigational medicinal products, in the ten countries. Results Our results show that the ten countries have fairly harmonised definitions of typical investigational medicinal products. Clinical trials assessing typical investigational medicinal products require authorisation from a national competent authority in each of the countries surveyed. The opinion of the competent authorities is communicated to the trial sponsor within the same timelines, i.e., no more than 60 days, in all ten countries. The authority to which the application has to be sent to in the different countries is not fully harmonised. Conclusion The Directive 2001/20/EC defined the term 'investigational medicinal product' and all regulatory requirements described therein are applicable to investigational medicinal products. Our survey showed, however, that those requirements had been adopted in ten European countries, not for investigational medicinal products overall, but rather a narrower category which we term 'typical' investigational medicinal products. The result is partial EU harmonisation of requirements and a relatively navigable landscape for the sponsor regarding typical investigational medicinal products.

  3. The Australian Government's Abandoned Infrastructure Outsourcing Program: what can be learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rouse

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Early in 2001, after a damning public report by the Auditor-General, the Australian Federal Government abandoned its highly promoted “whole of government” IT infrastructure outsourcing initiative. This about-face was greeted in the press with reports that the initiative was a “fiasco”. Yet a four-year case study conducted by the authors suggests a more complex picture. Like many other “selective” outsourcers of IT, the Federal Government had been led to believe that it was adopting a relatively low risk strategy that would, if well managed, lead to significant cost savings and operational benefits. Instead, despite having implemented many widely promoted “best practices”, the Federal Government found a substantial discrepancy between what outsourcing promised to deliver, and what was actually achieved. In this respect their experiences were no different from those of many other large IT organizations engaged in selective IT outsourcing, who responded to a substantial contemporaneous survey. This case study examines why the Government’s expectations were not achieved, and arrives at conclusions that have important implications for decision makers confronted with choices about sourcing IT service delivery.

  4. Medical Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    is required, such as taking a blood sample, mailing it to a lab, where it is analysed and the result returned by mail. Due to the continuing size and cost reduction of electronic equipment, future medical sensors will be much smaller, cheaper and often disposable. Furthermore, integration of these sensors...... with the electronic health record (EHR) IT-systems will save a lot of work (and human errors), as the sensor readings will be directly recorded in the patient’s records by the sensors themselves, rather than by a transcription performed by a busy clinician. Although this development has been going on for at least...... a short while. This tension between simple use and security in a low-power clinical environment is the main theme of this dissertation. Un-secure medical equipment will never pass official certification by national health authorities, but on the other hand, experience shows that if using the equipment...

  5. Fast Program Codes Dissemination for Smart Wireless Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart wireless software defined networks (WSDNs, sensor nodes are deployed in the monitored area to sense data. In order to increase the flexibility of WSDNs configuration, sensor nodes use programmable technology. Thus, programming and software engineering that integrate Internet of Things (IoT lead to a smart world. Due to the large capacity of program codes and the limited energy of wireless network, only a subset of nodes is selected to spread program codes, and the remaining nodes are in sleep status to save energy. In this paper, a fast program codes dissemination (FPCD scheme for smart wireless software defined networking is proposed; many nodes in the area far from the sink will be selected to spread program codes; those areas have much energy left, while the area near the sink chooses less number of active nodes to spread program codes to save energy. Thus, FPCD scheme can reduce delay for spreading program codes while retaining network lifetime. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our approach can reduce transmission delay by 10.76%–105.791% while retaining network lifetime compares with previous broadcast schemes.

  6. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  7. Effectiveness of the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM for Infrastructure Development Accelerated and Geoplanology in District of Marpoyan Damai, Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Fatriadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 PNPM Urban realize that poverty is a structural problem and multi-dimensional. In PNPM Urban perspective , the complexity of the various dimensions of poverty -related social , political , economic , and asset . this research aim is to know the Effectiveness of the National Program for Community Empowerment for Infrastructure Development Accelerated. In this research , the authors use an explanatory survey research methods . Selected number of samples in the analysis of the effectiveness of PNPM Urban infrastructure improvements are stakeholders involved in PNPM Urban population in the research area of all stakeholders involved in PNPM Urban in District Marpoyan Damai  , the authors take purposively respondents who meet the criteria and are associated with research. The results showed that increasing road infrastructure with the PNPM Mandiri. The average improvement of road infrastructure after the PNPM Urban amounted to 35.8 %. The average increase in the quality of infrastructure before the PNPM Urban program is only at 4.4 % per year . This indication shows that roads infrastructure and the quality of the road surface to be increased significantly in the presence of the PNPM Urban Marpoyan Damai  in the District . From interviews with relevant stakeholders PNPM Urban, respondents said PNPM Urban was very effective against the improvement of infrastructure in District Marpoyan Damai . Respondents argue that any proposed activity in infrastructure always realized by PNPM Urban . Geological condition of study consists of alluvium Sand, Gravel, Clay, Peat Swamp, Plant Remain in Quaternary age. There are two anticline in this area that is part Western and Southern and fault inferred direction Northwest-Southeast in the middle area of research so that the topography of the area of research a bit wavy and faulted that need observation on land-use planning such as drainage, airport, residential and availability of clean water..

  8. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  9. The Deep Space Network Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    2010-01-01

    The deep space network (DSN)--with its three complexes in Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia--provides the resources to track and communicate with planetary and deep space missions. Each complex consists of an array of capabilities for tracking probes almost anywhere in the solar system. A number of innovative hardware, software and procedural tools are used for day-to-day operations at DSN complexes as well as at the network control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Systems and technologies employed by the network include large-aperture antennas (34-m and 70-m), cryogenically cooled receivers, high-power transmitters, stable frequency and timing distribution assemblies, modulation and coding schemes, spacecraft transponders, radiometric tracking techniques, etc. The DSN operates at multiple frequencies, including the 2-GHz band, the 7/8-GHz band, and the 32/34-GHz band.

  10. Development of a remote sensing network for time-sensitive detection of fine scale damage to transportation infrastructure : [final report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    This research project aimed to develop a remote sensing system capable of rapidly identifying fine-scale damage to critical transportation infrastructure following hazard events. Such a system must be pre-planned for rapid deployment, automate proces...

  11. Large research infrastructure for Earth-Ocean Science: Challenges of multidisciplinary integration across hardware, software, and people networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M.; Barnes, C. R.; Johnson, F.; Pautet, L.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2010-12-01

    nutrient and cross-shelf sediment transport around the shelf/slope break and through the canyon to the deep sea. There and north along the mid-continental slope, instruments on exposed and shallowly buried gas hydrates allow monitoring of changes in their distribution, structure, and venting, particularly related to earthquakes, slope failures and regional plate motions. Circulation obviation retrofit kits (CORKs) at mid-plate ODP 1026-7 monitor real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly as they relate to events such as earthquakes, hydrothermal convection or regional plate strain. At Endeavour Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are quantified at the western edge of the Juan de Fuca plate. Across the network, high resolution seismic information elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami system allows determination of open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and speed. The infrastructure has further capacity for experiments to expand from this initial suite. Further information and opportunities can be found at http://www.neptunecanada.ca

  12. New accreditation program: university health network's experience with Qmentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfers, Anita; Hruska, Christa; Stone, Justin; Moser, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, University Health Network was surveyed using Accreditation Canada's new Qmentum program. The following article describes UHN's experience rolling out the program to over 12,000 staff, physicians and volunteers. The article also outlines key challenges and lessons learned by the multi-site organization, with a focus on staff engagement, on-site survey preparation and sustainability moving forward. Staff feedback on the Qmentum program was extremely positive, and forecast results from Accreditation Canada were excellent.

  13. Learning oncogenetic networks by reducing to mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.

  14. 47 CFR 73.658 - Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial exclusivity in non-network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial exclusivity in non-network program arrangements. 73.658 Section 73.658... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.658 Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial...

  15. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the European Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modeling (IS-ENES), and the Australian National University (ANU). Support also comes from other U.S. federal and international agencies. The federation works across multiple worldwide data centers and spans seven international network organizations to provide users with the ability to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers, and software. Its architecture employs a series of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered and united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The full ESGF infrastructure has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP; output used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), multiple model intercomparison projects (MIPs; endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme [WCRP]), and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME; ESGF is included in the overarching ACME workflow process to store model output). ESGF is a successful example of integration of disparate open-source technologies into a cohesive functional system that serves the needs the global climate science community. Data served by ESGF includes not only model output but also observational data from satellites and instruments, reanalysis, and generated images.

  16. Programming the dynamics of biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Friedrich C

    2013-01-22

    The development of complex self-organizing molecular systems for future nanotechnology requires not only robust formation of molecular structures by self-assembly but also precise control over their temporal dynamics. As an exquisite example of such control, in this issue of ACS Nano, Fujii and Rondelez demonstrate a particularly compact realization of a molecular "predator-prey" ecosystem consisting of only three DNA species and three enzymes. The system displays pronounced oscillatory dynamics, in good agreement with the predictions of a simple theoretical model. Moreover, its considerable modularity also allows for ecological studies of competition and cooperation within molecular networks.

  17. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  18. Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  19. Compiling nested loop programs to process networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turjan, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    New heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms are emerging that are typically composed of loosely coupled components that exchange data using programmable interconnections. The components can be CPUs or DSPs, specialized IP cores, reconfigurable units, or memories. To program such platform, we use the

  20. Space-based Networking Technology Developments in the Interplanetary Network Directorate Information Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren; Clement, B.; Gao, J.; Hutcherson, J.; Jennings, E.

    2006-01-01

    Described recent development of communications protocols, services, and associated tools targeted to reduce risk, reduce cost and increase efficiency of IND infrastructure and supported mission operations. Space-based networking technologies developed were: a) Provide differentiated quality of service (QoS) that will give precedence to traffic that users have selected as having the greatest importance and/or time-criticality; b) Improve the total value of information to users through the use of QoS prioritization techniques; c) Increase operational flexibility and improve command-response turnaround; d) Enable new class of networked and collaborative science missions; e) Simplify applications interfaces to communications services; and f) Reduce risk and cost from a common object model and automated scheduling and communications protocols. Technologies are described in three general areas: communications scheduling, middleware, and protocols. Additionally developed simulation environment, which provides comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the technologies performance within overall, evolving architecture, as well as ability to refine & optimize specific components.

  1. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  2. Energy Assurance Technical Training and Awareness Program/Energy Infrastructure Training and Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara McCabe

    2005-11-15

    This report covers the work completed during Year One (Year One has a 16 month project period) of a five- year Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC26-03NT41895) between the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). This final technical report is being submitted, as required by the Cooperative Agreement, within 90 (calendar) days after the project period ends (December 31, 2004). The resources allocated to Year One of the Cooperative Agreement were adequate for the completion of the required deliverables. All deliverables have been completed and sent to AAD Document Control as directed in the cooperative agreement. The allocation for Year One required 20-25 trainers to be trained in each of five Train-the-Trainer courses and a total of 6,000 workers trained throughout the country. Through cost savings employed for the scheduling and conduct of Train-the-Trainer, instructor refreshers, and direct training classes, 3171 workers have been trained to date. This total incorporates 159 trainers and members from management, local, county, state and federal organizations identified in the Strategic Plan. The largest percentage of personnel trained is heavy equipment operators, and building engineers, which is the largest targeted population identified under this cooperative agreement. The OENHP, using existing curriculum as appropriate, has modified and developed new training modules that have been used to establish four different levels of training courses. The four courses are: (1) EA 500 Energy Assurance Train-the-Trainer, (2) EA 400 Energy Assurance Instructor Refresher, (3) EA 300 Energy Assurance, and (4) EA 100 Energy Assurance Awareness. Training modules cover topics, such as, but not limited to, facility vulnerability and vulnerability assessment, physical security- heating, ventilation, air conditioning, terrorism awareness, weapons of mass

  3. AN APPLICATION FOR EFFICIENT TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS PROVISIONING USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.

  4. Social Networking Tools to Facilitate Cross-Program Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul; Howard, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Students working on a highly collaborative project used social networking technology for community building activities as well as basic project-related communication. Requiring students to work on cross-program projects gives them real-world experience working in diverse, geographically dispersed groups. An application used at Appalachian State…

  5. The Network Form of Implementing Educational Programs: Differences and Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexandr Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article describes peculiarities of implementation and major differences in network educational programs, currently introduced in Russia. It presents a general typology of models and forms for implementing interaction between educational institutions of Russia, including teacher institutes and federal universities, as well as a typology of…

  6. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  7. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  8. Model Servqual Rule Base Asean University Network untuk Penilaian Kualitas Program Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Wijayanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known that AUN (Asean University Network.AUN and ABET (Accreditation Boardb for Enginnering and Technology are non-profit organitatinon which have. AUN (Asean University Network were using variable with refer to AUN’s criteria’s there consist of fifteen which are: Expected Learning Outcomes, Programme Specification, Programme Structure and Content, Teaching and Learning Strategy, Student Assessment, Academic Staff Quality, Support Staff Quality, Student Quality, Student Advice and Support, Facilities and Infrastructure, Quality Assurance of Teaching/Learning Process, Staff Development Activities, Stakeholders Feedback, Output, Stakeholders Satisfaction,and adopted score's scale 7. In there here, we discuss the fifteen AUN’s of AUN in the criterias. There servqual of as can be into five dimensions, assurance, empathy, responsive, reliability and facilty in order to make the assessment's process easier. This research outcome indicated that this proposed method can be used to evaluate an education program. The validation result by using AUN's data and the analysis of servqual rule base Asean University Network almost have the same pattern with correlation value is 0,985 and this is can be accepted because its validity have reach 97%.

  9. Neural network for solving convex quadratic bilevel programming problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing Camera Networks by Convex Quadratic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-05-04

    ​In this paper, we study the problem of automatic camera placement for computer graphics and computer vision applications. We extend the problem formulations of previous work by proposing a novel way to incorporate visibility constraints and camera-to-camera relationships. For example, the placement solution can be encouraged to have cameras that image the same important locations from different viewing directions, which can enable reconstruction and surveillance tasks to perform better. We show that the general camera placement problem can be formulated mathematically as a convex binary quadratic program (BQP) under linear constraints. Moreover, we propose an optimization strategy with a favorable trade-off between speed and solution quality. Our solution is almost as fast as a greedy treatment of the problem, but the quality is significantly higher, so much so that it is comparable to exact solutions that take orders of magnitude more computation time. Because it is computationally attractive, our method also allows users to explore the space of solutions for variations in input parameters. To evaluate its effectiveness, we show a range of 3D results on real-world floorplans (garage, hotel, mall, and airport). ​

  11. 75 FR 21011 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) charter...; implementing security program initiatives; conducting operational activities related to critical infrastructure...

  12. A semantic-web approach for modeling computing infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; van der Ham, J.; Grosso, P.; Dumitru, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhao, Z.; de Laat, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our approach to modeling computing infrastructures. Our main contribution is the Infrastructure and Network Description Language (INDL) ontology. The aim of INDL is to provide technology independent descriptions of computing infrastructures, including the physical resources as

  13. Tanzania's infrastructure : a continental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shkaratan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Tanzania's annual per capital GDP growth during the 2000s. If the country's infrastructure endowment were improved to the level of the African leader, Mauritius, annual per capita growth rates could increase by 3.4 percent. Tanzania has made great progress in reforming its trunk roads, improving the quality of the road network. The countr...

  14. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases...... are Vestergade Vest and Mageløs in Odense (shareduse space in the core of the city); Hans Broges Gade in Aarhus (an extension of a bicycle route linking the suburb to Aarhus Central station) and Bryggebro in Copenhagen (a bridge for bicyclists and pedestrians crossing the harbor). Bridging research and policy......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  15. Intermediate Infrastructure Analyst | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Provides technical support for the daily operations of the corporate information systems servers, network infrastructure (Headquarters and the Regional Offices), system appliances, housed applications and operating systems software to ensure system availability, reliability and performance. Monitors system performance ...

  16. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  17. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  18. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ), transport (typically roads, rail and airports), and telecommunications. The focus of this chapter will be on greening bulk services and roads. Despite the importance of infrastructure to economic growth and social wellbeing, many countries struggle to meet...

  19. Optical Neural Network Models Applied To Logic Program Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Charles D.

    1988-05-01

    Logic programming is being used extensively by Artificial Intelligence researchers to solve problems including natural language processing and expert systems. These languages, of which Prolog is the most widely used, promise to revolutionize software engineering, but much greater performance is needed. Researchers have demonstrated the applicability of neural network models to the solution of certain NP-complete problems, but these methods are not obviously applicable to the execution of logic programs. This paper outlines the use of neural networks in four aspects of the logic program execution cycle, and discusses results of a simulation of three of these. Four neural network functional units are described, called the substitution agent, the clause filter, the structure processor, and the heuristics generator, respectively. Simulation results suggest that the system described may provide several orders of magnitude improvement in execution speed for large logic programs. However, practical implementation of the proposed architecture will require the application of optical computing techniques due to the large number of neurons required, and the need for massive, adaptive connectivity.

  20. A network-based drug repositioning infrastructure for precision cancer medicine through targeting significantly mutated genes in the human cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Zhao, Junfei; Fooksa, Michaela; Zhao, Zhongming

    2016-07-01

    Development of computational approaches and tools to effectively integrate multidomain data is urgently needed for the development of newly targeted cancer therapeutics. We proposed an integrative network-based infrastructure to identify new druggable targets and anticancer indications for existing drugs through targeting significantly mutated genes (SMGs) discovered in the human cancer genomes. The underlying assumption is that a drug would have a high potential for anticancer indication if its up-/down-regulated genes from the Connectivity Map tended to be SMGs or their neighbors in the human protein interaction network. We assembled and curated 693 SMGs in 29 cancer types and found 121 proteins currently targeted by known anticancer or noncancer (repurposed) drugs. We found that the approved or experimental cancer drugs could potentially target these SMGs in 33.3% of the mutated cancer samples, and this number increased to 68.0% by drug repositioning through surveying exome-sequencing data in approximately 5000 normal-tumor pairs from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Furthermore, we identified 284 potential new indications connecting 28 cancer types and 48 existing drugs (adjusted P drugs (e.g., niclosamide, valproic acid, captopril, and resveratrol) were predicted to have potential indications for multiple cancer types. Finally, we used integrative analysis to showcase a potential mechanism-of-action for resveratrol in breast and lung cancer treatment whereby it targets several SMGs (ARNTL, ASPM, CTTN, EIF4G1, FOXP1, and STIP1). In summary, we demonstrated that our integrative network-based infrastructure is a promising strategy to identify potential druggable targets and uncover new indications for existing drugs to speed up molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan--URL Correction AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests...

  2. 78 FR 57845 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program Environmental Assessment. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Notice of Availability (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program...

  3. Scheduling maintenance of electrical power transmission networks using genetic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, W.B.; Treleaven, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Grid Company plc is responsible for the maintenance of the high voltage electricity transmission network in England and Wales. It must plan maintenance so as to minimise costs taking into account: (i) location and size of demand, (ii) generator capacities and availabilities, (iii) electricity carrying capacity of the remainder of the network, i.e. that part not undergoing maintenance. Previous work showed the combination of a genetic algorithm using an order or permutation chromosome combined with hand coded ``greedy`` optimisers can readily produce an optimal schedule for a four node test problem [10]. Following this the same GA has been used to find low cost schedules for the South Wales region of the UK high voltage power network. This paper describes the evolution of the best known schedule for the base South Wales problem using genetic programming starting from the hand coded heuristics used with the GA. (Author)

  4. The Portals 4.0 network programming interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian W.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Riesen, Rolf E.; Underwood, Keith Douglas; Maccabe, Arthur Bernard; Hudson, Trammell B.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4.0 network programming interface. Portals 4.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 4.0 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandias Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4.0 is targeted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enhanced offload capabilities.

  5. The portals 4.0.1 network programming interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian W.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Riesen, Rolf E.; Underwood, Keith Douglas; Maccabe, Arthur Bernard; Hudson, Trammell B.

    2013-04-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4.0 network programming interface. Portals 4.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 4.0 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandias Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4.0 is targeted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enhanced offload capabilities. 3

  6. Settlement in modern network-based payment infrastructures – description and prototype of the E-Settlement model

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Harry; Lumiala, Veli-Matti; Sarlin, Riku

    2002-01-01

    Payment systems are undergoing rapid and fundamental changes stimulated largely by technological progress especially distributed network technology and real-time processing. Internet and e-commerce will have a major impact on payment systems in the future. User demands and competition will speed up developments. Payment systems will move from conventions that were originally paper-based to truly network-based solutions. This paper presents a solution – E-Settlement – for improving interbank s...

  7. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  8. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Christine; de Andres-Trelles, Fernando; Kuchinke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification......BACKGROUND: Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. METHODS: In order to summarise the current situation...... in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching...

  9. The BIRN Project: Distributed Information Infrastructure and Multi-scale Imaging of the Nervous System (BIRN = Biomedical Informatics Research Network)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with "complete" knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their ...

  10. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  11. Momentum in Transformation of Technical Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Current infrastructure holds a considerable momentum and this momentum is a barrier of transformation towards more sustainable technologies and more sustainable styles of network management. Using the sewage sector in Denmark as an example of a technical infrastructure system this paper argues...... that there are technical, economical and social aspects of the current infrastructures momentum....

  12. DASISH Reference Model for SSH Data Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fihn, Johan; Gnadt, Timo; Hoogerwerf, M.L.; Jerlehag, Birger; Lenkiewicz, Przemek; Priddy, M.; Shepherdson, John

    2016-01-01

    The current ”rising tide of scientific data” accelerates the need for e-infrastructures to support the lifecycle of data in research, from creation to reuse [RTW]. Different types of e-infrastructures address this need. Consortia like GÉANT and EGI build technical infrastructures for networking and

  13. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  14. Network interventions on physical activity in an afterschool program: an agent-based social network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-04-01

    We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.

  15. Building infrastructure for mobility: the case of self-service bicycle programs in Paris Construyendo infraestructuras para la movilidad: 
el caso del sistema de bicicletas en libre servicio de París

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martín Tironi

    2011-01-01

    ...'. Drawing from the experience of the Vélib' program in Paris, this essay problematizes the notions of sustainable city and mobility and describes the collective and controversial work needed to elaborate and stabilize this infrastructure...

  16. A virtual infrastructure based on honeycomb tessellation for data dissemination in multi-sink mobile wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erman-Tüysüz, A.; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A new category of intelligent sensor network applications emerges where motion is a fundamental characteristic of the system under consideration. In such applications, sensors are attached to vehicles, or people that move around large geographic areas. For instance, in mission critical applications

  17. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form of organi...... other); generativity (evaluative infrastructures do not territorialize objects but disclose new worlds); and new forms of control (evaluative infrastructures are not centres of calculation; rather, control is radically distributed, whilst power remains centralized)....... of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices...... that enable platform based organization. They are evaluative because they deploy a plethora of interacting devices, including rankings, ratings, reviews, and audits to establish orders of worth. They are infrastructures because they provide the invisible yet essential mechanisms for the flow of economic...

  18. Infrastructural Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2007-01-01

    . Instead, I outline a fractal approach to the study of space, society, and infrastructure. A fractal orientation requires a number of related conceptual reorientations. It has implications for thinking about scale and perspective, and (sociotechnical) relations, and for considering the role of the social...... and a fractal social theory....

  19. Ritual Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørslev, Inger

    2017-01-01

    within urban life. There is a certain parallel between these different locations and the difference in ritual roads to certainty in the two religions. The article draws out connections between different levels of infrastructure – material, spatial and ritual. The comparison between the two religions...

  20. Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer program to deliver a scalable integrated early child development program in Colombia: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio P; Fernández, Camila; Fitzsimons, Emla O A; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Meghir, Costas; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2014-09-29

    To assess the effectiveness of an integrated early child development intervention, combining stimulation and micronutrient supplementation and delivered on a large scale in Colombia, for children's development, growth, and hemoglobin levels. Cluster randomized controlled trial, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with municipalities assigned to one of four groups: psychosocial stimulation, micronutrient supplementation, combined intervention, or control. 96 municipalities in Colombia, located across eight of its 32 departments. 1420 children aged 12-24 months and their primary carers. Psychosocial stimulation (weekly home visits with play demonstrations), micronutrient sprinkles given daily, and both combined. All delivered by female community leaders for 18 months. Cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley scales of infant development-III; height, weight, and hemoglobin levels measured at the baseline and end of intervention. Stimulation improved cognitive scores (adjusted for age, sex, testers, and baseline levels of outcomes) by 0.26 of a standard deviation (P=0.002). Stimulation also increased receptive language by 0.22 of a standard deviation (P=0.032). Micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on any outcome and there was no interaction between the interventions. No intervention affected height, weight, or hemoglobin levels. Using the infrastructure of a national welfare program we implemented the integrated early child development intervention on a large scale and showed its potential for improving children's cognitive development. We found no effect of supplementation on developmental or health outcomes. Moreover, supplementation did not interact with stimulation. The implementation model for delivering stimulation suggests that it may serve as a promising blueprint for future policy on early childhood development.Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN18991160. © Attanasio et al 2014.

  1. Student Support Networks in Online Doctoral Programs: Exploring Nested Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharla Berry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Enrollment in online doctoral programs has grown over the past decade. A sense of community, defined as feelings of closeness within a social group, is vital to retention, but few studies have explored how online doctoral students create community. Background: In this qualitative case study, I explore how students in one online doctoral program created a learning community. Methodology: Data for the study was drawn from 60 hours of video footage from six online courses, the message boards from the six courses, and twenty interviews with first and second-year students. Contribution: Findings from this study indicate that the structure of the social network in an online doctoral program is significantly different from the structure of learning communities in face-to-face programs. In the online program, the doctoral community was more insular, more peer-centered, and less reliant on faculty support than in in-person programs. Findings: Utilizing a nested communities theoretical framework, I identified four subgroups that informed online doctoral students’ sense of community: cohort, class groups, small peer groups, and study groups. Students interacted frequently with members of each of the aforementioned social groups and drew academic, social, and emotional support from their interactions. Recommendations for Practitioners: Data from this study suggests that online doctoral students are interested in making social and academic connections. Practitioners should leverage technology and on-campus supports to promote extracurricular interactions for online students. Recommendation for Researchers: Rather than focus on professional socialization, students in the online doctoral community were interested in providing social and academic support to peers. Researchers should consider how socialization in online doctoral programs differs from traditional, face-to-face programs. Impact on Society: As universities increase online offerings

  2. Multilayer Optimization of Heterogeneous Networks Using Grammatical Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Michael; Lynch, David; Kucera, Stepan; Claussen, Holger; O'Neill, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneous cellular networks are composed of macro cells (MCs) and small cells (SCs) in which all cells occupy the same bandwidth. Provision has been made under the third generation partnership project-long term evolution framework for enhanced intercell interference coordination (eICIC) between cell tiers. Expanding on previous works, this paper instruments grammatical genetic programming to evolve control heuristics for heterogeneous networks. Three aspects of the eICIC framework are addressed including setting SC powers and selection biases, MC duty cycles, and scheduling of user equipments (UEs) at SCs. The evolved heuristics yield minimum downlink rates three times higher than a baseline method, and twice that of a state-of-the-art benchmark. Furthermore, a greater number of UEs receive transmissions under the proposed scheme than in either the baseline or benchmark cases.

  3. The Portals 4.1 Network Programming Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian; Brightwell, Ronald B.; Grant, Ryan; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle; Underwood, Keith D; Riesen, Rolf; Maccabe, Arthur B.; Hudson, Trammel

    2017-04-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4 networ k programming interface. Portals 4 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication betwee n nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded syste ms. Portals 4 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platfor ms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandia's Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4 is tar geted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enh anced offload capabilities.

  4. Largenet2: an object-oriented programming library for simulating large adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschaler, Gerd; Gross, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    The largenet2 C++ library provides an infrastructure for the simulation of large dynamic and adaptive networks with discrete node and link states. The library is released as free software. It is available at http://biond.github.com/largenet2. Largenet2 is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. gerd@biond.org

  5. Successful introduction of an underutilized elderly pneumococcal vaccine in a national immunization program by integrating the pre-existing public health infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kim, Eunsung; Park, Young-Joon; Kim, Dongwook; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Shin, Jae Kyong; Park, Ok

    2016-03-18

    Although pneumococcal vaccines had been recommended for the elderly population in South Korea for a considerable period of time, the coverage has been well below the optimal level. To increase the vaccination rate with integrating the pre-existing public health infrastructure and governmental funding, the Korean government introduced an elderly pneumococcal vaccination into the national immunization program with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in May 2013. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the program in increasing the vaccine coverage rate and maintaining stable vaccine supply and safe vaccination during the 20 months of the program. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the process of introducing and the outcomes of the program in terms of the systematic organization, efficiency, and stability at the national level. A staggered introduction during the first year utilizing the public sector, with a target coverage of 60%, was implemented based on the public demand for an elderly pneumococcal vaccination, vaccine supply capacity, vaccine delivery capacity, safety, and sustainability. During the 20-month program period, the pneumococcal vaccine coverage rate among the population aged ≥65 years increased from 5.0% to 57.3% without a noticeable vaccine shortage or safety issues. A web-based integrated immunization information system, which includes the immunization registry, vaccine supply chain management, and surveillance of adverse events following immunization, reduced programmatic errors and harmonized the overall performance of the program. Introduction of an elderly pneumococcal vaccination in the national immunization program based on strong government commitment, meticulous preparation, financial support, and the pre-existing public health infrastructure resulted in an efficient, stable, and sustainable increase in vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 75 FR 48983 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... security program initiatives; conducting operational activities related to critical infrastructure...

  7. 78 FR 16861 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership update.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Larry May, Designated Federal Officer, Critical Infrastructure...

  8. 77 FR 59203 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of CIPAC meeting. SUMMARY: The Critical Infrastructure... pertain only to matters involving critical infrastructure protection and resiliency. Off-topic questions...

  9. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership update.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Larry May, Designated Federal Officer, Critical Infrastructure...

  10. A recurrent neural network for solving bilevel linear programming problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie; Huang, Junjian

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs.

  11. INFRASTRUCTURING DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie

    one such project, Project Lev Vel, a public-private and user driven innovation project. The central questions posed by the dissertation are: What is welfare technology? How is it imagined, designed, and developed, and by whom? Who are driving the design processes and how? Who are the elderly users...... sites and infrastructures for project communication plays a central role for design and, ultimately, for what welfare technology comes to be. The chapters explore different processes of what I call infrastructuring design; the ongoing crafting of social, material, and technical arrangements......The fact that the average citizen in Western societies is aging has significant implications for national welfare models. What some call ’the grey tsunami’ has resulted in suggestions for, and experiments in, re-designing healthcare systems and elderly care. In Denmark, one attempted solution...

  12. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through a recurrent neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raja

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we study the recurrent neural network for solving linear programming problems. To achieve optimality in accuracy and also in computational effort, an algorithm is presented. We investigate the sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through the neural network. A detailed example is also presented to demonstrate the performance of the recurrent neural network.

  14. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  15. Analyzing Nonblocking Switching Networks using Linear Programming (Duality)

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Hung Q; Le, Anh N; Nguyen, Thanh-Nhan

    2012-01-01

    The main task in analyzing a switching network design (including circuit-, multirate-, and photonic-switching) is to determine the minimum number of some switching components so that the design is non-blocking in some sense (e.g., strict- or wide-sense). We show that, in many cases, this task can be accomplished with a simple two-step strategy: (1) formulate a linear program whose optimum value is a bound for the minimum number we are seeking, and (2) specify a solution to the dual program, whose objective value by weak duality immediately yields a sufficient condition for the design to be non-blocking. We illustrate this technique through a variety of examples, ranging from circuit to multirate to photonic switching, from unicast to $f$-cast and multicast, and from strict- to wide-sense non-blocking. The switching architectures in the examples are of Clos-type and Banyan-type, which are the two most popular architectural choices for designing non-blocking switching networks. To prove the result in the multir...

  16. Do federal and state audits increase compliance with a grant program to improve municipal infrastructure (AUDIT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La O, Ana L; Martel García, Fernando

    2014-09-03

    Poor governance and accountability compromise young democracies' efforts to provide public services critical for human development, including water, sanitation, health, and education. Evidence shows that accountability agencies like superior audit institutions can reduce corruption and waste in federal grant programs financing service infrastructure. However, little is know about their effect on compliance with grant reporting and resource allocation requirements, or about the causal mechanisms. This study protocol for an exploratory randomized controlled trial tests the hypothesis that federal and state audits increase compliance with a federal grant program to improve municipal service infrastructure serving marginalized households. The AUDIT study is a block randomized, controlled, three-arm parallel group exploratory trial. A convenience sample of 5 municipalities in each of 17 states in Mexico (n=85) were block randomized to be audited by federal auditors (n=17), by state auditors (n=17), and a control condition outside the annual program of audits (n=51) in a 1:1:3 ratio. Replicable and verifiable randomization was performed using publicly available lottery numbers. Audited municipalities were included in the national program of audits and received standard audits on their use of federal public service infrastructure grants. Municipalities receiving moderate levels of grant transfers were recruited, as these were outside the auditing sampling frame--and hence audit program--or had negligible probabilities of ever being audited. The primary outcome measures capture compliance with the grant program and markers for the causal mechanisms, including deterrence and information effects. Secondary outcome measure include differences in audit reports across federal and state auditors, and measures like career concerns, political promotions, and political clientelism capturing synergistic effects with municipal accountability systems. The survey firm and research

  17. 77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0046] Protected Critical Infrastructure...), Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program will submit the following Information... of critical infrastructure and protected systems. IICD administers the PCII Program. The PCII Program...

  18. A Matlab Program for Textural Classification Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, E. P.; de Souza, C.

    2008-12-01

    A new MATLAB code that provides tools to perform classification of textural images for applications in the Geosciences is presented. The program, here coined TEXTNN, comprises the computation of variogram maps in the frequency domain for specific lag distances in the neighborhood of a pixel. The result is then converted back to spatial domain, where directional or ominidirectional semivariograms are extracted. Feature vectors are built with textural information composed of the semivariance values at these lag distances and, moreover, with histogram measures of mean, standard deviation and weighted fill-ratio. This procedure is applied to a selected group of pixels or to all pixels in an image using a moving window. A feed- forward back-propagation Neural Network can then be designed and trained on feature vectors of predefined classes (training set). The training phase minimizes the mean-squared error on the training set. Additionally, at each iteration, the mean-squared error for every validation is assessed and a test set is evaluated. The program also calculates contingency matrices, global accuracy and kappa coefficient for the three data sets, allowing a quantitative appraisal of the predictive power of the Neural Network models. The interpreter is able to select the best model obtained from a k-fold cross-validation or to use a unique split-sample data set for classification of all pixels in a given textural image. The code is opened to the geoscientific community and is very flexible, allowing the experienced user to modify it as necessary. The performance of the algorithms and the end-user program were tested using synthetic images, orbital SAR (RADARSAT) imagery for oil seepage detection, and airborne, multi-polarimetric SAR imagery for geologic mapping. The overall results proved very promising.

  19. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). At DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning in...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...

  20. A Software-Based Network Infrastructure for Mobile Ad Hoc Data Networking in Support of Small Tactical Units Using the SINCGARS Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    unencrypted challenge text. Proper encryption of the challenge text proves possession of the shared WEP key and earns authentication. Regardless...17 5. Encryption Data secrecy and integrity are called for in the 802.11b standard. As of this writing, Wired Equivalent Privacy ( WEP ) is the...most commonly used encryption technique in 802.11b networks, though the use of Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is growing. Both WEP and WPA provide

  1. A novel recurrent neural network with finite-time convergence for linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Cao, Jinde; Chen, Guanrong

    2010-11-01

    In this letter, a novel recurrent neural network based on the gradient method is proposed for solving linear programming problems. Finite-time convergence of the proposed neural network is proved by using the Lyapunov method. Compared with the existing neural networks for linear programming, the proposed neural network is globally convergent to exact optimal solutions in finite time, which is remarkable and rare in the literature of neural networks for optimization. Some numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and excellent performance of the new recurrent neural network.

  2. RFID as an infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-01-01

    RFID (radio frequency identification) tags are becoming ubiquitously available in object tracking, access control, and toll payment. The current application model treats tags simply as ID carriers and deals with each tag individually for the purpose of identifying the object that the tag is attached to. The uniqueness of RFID as an Infrastructure is to change the traditional individual view to a collective view that treats universally-deployed tags as a new infrastructure, a new wireless platform on which novel applications can be developed. The book begins with an introduction to the problems of tag estimation and information collection from RFID systems, and explains the challenges. It discusses how to efficiently estimate the number of tags in a large RFID system, considering both energy cost and execution time. It then gives a detailed account on how to collect information from a sensor-augmented RFID network with new designs that significantly reduce execution time.

  3. Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure: the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Kroeze, Willemieke; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene Frost; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Hendriksen, Ingrid; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Loyen, Anne; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; Schuit, Abertine J; Schulze, Matthias; Steinacker, Jürgen; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Van't Veer, Pieter; Lien, Nanna; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-22

    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated 'joint programming'. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda, based on a shared vision of how to address major societal challenges that no Member State is capable of resolving independently. Setting up a Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) should also contribute to avoiding unnecessary overlap and repetition of research, and enable and enhance the development and use of standardised research methods, procedures and data management. The Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub (KH) is the first act of the European JPI 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life'. The objective of DEDIPAC is to contribute to improving understanding of the determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. DEDIPAC KH is a multi-disciplinary consortium of 46 consortia and organisations supported by joint programming grants from 12 countries across Europe. The work is divided into three thematic areas: (I) assessment and harmonisation of methods for future research, surveillance and monitoring, and for evaluation of interventions and policies; (II) determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours across the life course and in vulnerable groups; and (III) evaluation and benchmarking of public health and policy interventions aimed at improving dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. In the first three years, DEDIPAC KH will organise, develop, share and harmonise expertise, methods, measures, data and other infrastructure. This should further European research and improve the broad multi-disciplinary approach needed to study the interactions between multilevel determinants in influencing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Insights will be translated into more effective

  4. Optimization of green infrastructure network at semi-urbanized watersheds to manage stormwater volume, peak flow and life cycle cost: Case study of Dead Run watershed in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Haratmeh, B.; Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) has become widely known as a sustainable solution for stormwater management in urban environments. Despite more recognition and acknowledgment, researchers and practitioners lack clear and explicit guidelines on how GI practices should be implemented in urban settings. This study is developing a noisy-based multi-objective, multi-scaled genetic algorithm that determines optimal GI networks for environmental, economic and social objectives. The methodology accounts for uncertainty in modeling results and is designed to perform at sub-watershed as well as patch scale using two different simulation models, SWMM and RHESSys, in a Cloud-based implementation using a Web interface. As an initial case study, a semi-urbanized watershed— DeadRun 5— in Baltimore County, Maryland, is selected. The objective of the study is to minimize life cycle cost, maximize human preference for human well-being and the difference between pre-development hydrographs generated from current rainfall events and design storms, as well as those that result from proposed GI scenarios. Initial results for DeadRun5 watershed suggest that placing GI in the proximity of the watershed outlet optimizes life cycle cost, stormwater volume, and peak flow capture. The framework can easily present outcomes of GI design scenarios to both designers and local stakeholders, and future plans include receiving feedback from users on candidate designs, and interactively updating optimal GI network designs in a crowd-sourced design process. This approach can also be helpful in deriving design guidelines that better meet stakeholder needs.

  5. Tying Knots: Participatory Infrastructuring at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2017-01-01

    Today, most design projects are infrastructuring projects, because they build on technologies, competencies and practices that already exist. While infrastructuring was originally seen as being full of conflicts and contradictions with what is already present, we find that many contemporary reports...... dispersed within these networks. To illustrate and discuss the process of participatory infrastructuring we use a case study from an educational context. This particular project contains a diverse set of design activities at many organizational levels revolving around technology, decision-making, competence...... of the literature on infrastructuring, participatory design, and activity theory, and leads to a revised understanding of, for example, learning and conflicts in participatory infrastructuring....

  6. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  7. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  8. Robustness and Optimization of Complex Networks : Reconstructability, Algorithms and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.

    2013-01-01

    The infrastructure networks, including the Internet, telecommunication networks, electrical power grids, transportation networks (road, railway, waterway, and airway networks), gas networks and water networks, are becoming more and more complex. The complex infrastructure networks are crucial to our

  9. Assembling networks of microbial genomes using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Catherine; Beiko, Robert G

    2010-11-20

    Microbial genomes exhibit complex sets of genetic affinities due to lateral genetic transfer. Assessing the relative contributions of parent-to-offspring inheritance and gene sharing is a vital step in understanding the evolutionary origins and modern-day function of an organism, but recovering and showing these relationships is a challenging problem. We have developed a new approach that uses linear programming to find between-genome relationships, by treating tables of genetic affinities (here, represented by transformed BLAST e-values) as an optimization problem. Validation trials on simulated data demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in recovering and representing vertical and lateral relationships among genomes. Application of the technique to a set comprising Aquifex aeolicus and 75 other thermophiles showed an important role for large genomes as 'hubs' in the gene sharing network, and suggested that genes are preferentially shared between organisms with similar optimal growth temperatures. We were also able to discover distinct and common genetic contributors to each sequenced representative of genus Pseudomonas. The linear programming approach we have developed can serve as an effective inference tool in its own right, and can be an efficient first step in a more-intensive phylogenomic analysis.

  10. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    To date, much of the accounting literature focuses on control and coordination within and from the perspective of organizations, reflecting what Hopwood described as accounting’s “hierarchical consciousness”. Inspired by the growing phenomenon of network organizational forms such as eBay, Air...

  11. Linear Programming Approaches for Power Savings in Software-defined Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, F.A.; Grosso, P.

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined networks have been proposed as a viable solution to decrease the power consumption of the networking component in data center networks. Still the question remains on which scheduling algorithms are most suited to achieve this goal. We propose 4 different linear programming

  12. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research.... EDT on October 11, 2010. SUMMARY: With this notice, the National Coordination Office for Networking...

  13. Building integrated approaches for the proteomics of complex, dynamic systems: NIH programs in technology and infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeley, Douglas M; Breen, Joseph J; Old, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Proteomics technology and methods remain inadequate. Technological constraints contribute to an artificially static view of complex biological systems and a barrier between quantitative and interaction studies. Several NIH programs combine proteomics technology development with research on challenging biological problems to drive progress. A new initiative of the NIH Roadmap focuses on characterization of dynamic systems. The success of these programs will be judged by their impact on relevant biological problems.

  14. A new one-layer neural network for linear and quadratic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Liao, Li-Zhi

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new neural network for solving linear and quadratic programming problems in real time by introducing some new vectors. The proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and can converge to an exact optimal solution of the original problem when the objective function is convex on the set defined by equality constraints. Compared with existing one-layer neural networks for quadratic programming problems, the proposed neural network has the least neurons and requires weak stability conditions. The validity and transient behavior of the proposed neural network are demonstrated by some simulation results.

  15. Center for development technology and program in technology and human affairs. [emphasizing technology-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The role of technology in nontraditional higher education with particular emphasis on technology-based networks is analyzed nontraditional programs, institutions, and consortia are briefly reviewed. Nontraditional programs which utilize technology are studied. Technology-based networks are surveyed and analyzed with regard to kinds of students, learning locations, technology utilization, interinstitutional relationships, cost aspects, problems, and future outlook.

  16. Network model and short circuit program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Assumptions made and techniques used in modeling the power network to the 480 volt level are discussed. Basic computational techniques used in the short circuit program are described along with a flow diagram of the program and operational procedures. Procedures for incorporating network changes are included in this user's manual.

  17. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  18. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Nuria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.; diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.; and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and

  19. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Christine; de Andres-Trelles, Fernando; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Huemer, Karl-Heinz; Thirstrup, Steffen; Whitfield, Kate; Libersa, Christian; Barraud, Béatrice; Grählert, Xina; Dreier, Gabriele; Grychtol, Ruth; Temesvari, Zsuzsa; Blasko, Gyorgy; Kardos, Gabriella; O'Brien, Timothy; Cooney, Margaret; Gaynor, Siobhan; Schieppati, Arrigo; Sanz, Nuria; Hernandez, Raquel; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte; Johansson, Hanna; Bourne, Sue; Byrne, Jane; Asghar, Adeeba; Husson, Jean-Marc; Gluud, Christian; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2009-10-16

    Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and simplification of the regulatory requirements for clinical research

  20. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kubiak, Christine

    2009-10-16

    Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and simplification of the

  1. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush

    2016-08-01

    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.

  2. Infrastructure and Educational Needs of Newborn Screening Short-Term Follow-Up Programs within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative: A Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecelia A. Bellcross

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening (NBS follow-up protocols vary significantly by state, and there is a need to better understand the infrastructure and communication flow of NBS programs. In addition, assessment of the educational needs of families and providers with regard to the implications of NBS results is required to inform the development of appropriate informational resources and training opportunities. To begin to address these issues, we administered a web-based survey to state NBS coordinators within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative (SERC. Fourteen coordinators responded to the survey, including at least one from each of the 10 SERC states/territories. Over one-third of respondents had never received formal training regarding the metabolic conditions identified on NBS. Most communicated results via telephone or fax, though two centers indicated use of a web-based platform. Only two programs were involved in directly reporting results to the family. Four programs reported a long-term follow-up protocol. Deficits were noted for primary care provider (PCP knowledge of metabolic disorders identified on NBS, and how to inform parents of abnormal results. Close to half indicated that the adequacy of the number of genetic counselors, dietitians, and medical/biochemical geneticists was minimal to insufficient. Respondents uniformly recognized the importance of providing additional educational and informational resources in multiple categories to NBS staff, PCPs, and families.

  3. Operationalization of Software-Defined Networks (SDN) Program Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — U.S. federal investments in networking research and technologies deployment have fostered and accelerated the development of the Internet from its inception. It is...

  4. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY... Information Collection Division (IICD), Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program will...: The PCII Program was created by Congress under the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002...

  5. Research on Propagation Model of Malicious Programs in Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless network faces more security threats than traditional network due to its P2P system structure and the limited node resources. In recent years, malicious program has become one of the most important researches on international network security and information security. The research of malicious programs on wireless network has become a new research hotspot in the field of malicious programs. This paper first analyzed the Ad Hoc network system structure, security threats, the common classification of malicious programs and the bionic propagation model. Then starting from the differential equations of the SEIR virus propagation model, the question caused by introducing the SEIR virus propagation model in Ad Hoc wireless network was analyzed. This paper improved the malicious program propagation model through introducing the network topology features and concepts such as immunization delay, and designed an improved algorithm combined with the dynamic evolution of malware propagation process. Considering of the network virus propagation characteristics, network characteristics and immunization strategy to improve simulation model experiment analysis, the experimental results show that both the immunization strategy and the degrees of node can affect the propagation of malicious program.

  6. Chemically programmed self-sorting of gelator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kyle L; Chen, Lin; Raeburn, Jaclyn; Sellick, Owen R; Cotanda, Pepa; Paul, Alison; Griffiths, Peter C; King, Stephen M; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Serpell, Louise C; Adams, Dave J

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the order and spatial distribution of self-assembly in multicomponent supramolecular systems could underpin exciting new functional materials, but it is extremely challenging. When a solution of different components self-assembles, the molecules can either coassemble, or self-sort, where a preference for like-like intermolecular interactions results in coexisting, homomolecular assemblies. A challenge is to produce generic and controlled 'one-pot' fabrication methods to form separate ordered assemblies from 'cocktails' of two or more self-assembling species, which might have relatively similar molecular structures and chemistry. Self-sorting in supramolecular gel phases is hence rare. Here we report the first example of the pH-controlled self-sorting of gelators to form self-assembled networks in water. Uniquely, the order of assembly can be predefined. The assembly of each component is preprogrammed by the pK(a) of the gelator. This pH-programming method will enable higher level, complex structures to be formed that cannot be accessed by simple thermal gelation.

  7. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning...

  8. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  9. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  10. Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain by Derek Molle, Civ, USAF...20 Converged Enterprise Network...23 Logically Isolated Enterprise

  11. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  12. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  13. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Wireless provides a robust and secure wireless infrastructure that incorporates high-availability and multi-tiered network connections at facilities...Wireless – Second Generation Wireless Local Area Network: Secure wireless infrastructure that incorporates high- availability and multi-tiered...OLSON.CRAIG.S.1164906651, OU=USAF, OU= PKI , OU=DoD, O=U.S. Government, C=US Date: 2/26/2015 01:54 PM Business Case Changes Incorporates latest contract vehicles

  14. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  15. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  16. The Best-of-2-Worlds philosophy: developing local dismantling and global infrastructure network for sustainable e-waste treatment in emerging economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Meskers, Christina E M; Schluep, Mathias; Stevels, Ab; Hagelüken, Christian

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. It demands for a cost-efficient treatment system which simultaneously liberates and refines target fractions in an environmentally sound way. In most developing countries there is a lack of systems covering all steps from disposal until final processing due to limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. This paper introduces the 'Best-of-2-Worlds' philosophy (Bo2W), which provides a network and pragmatic solution for e-waste treatment in emerging economies. It seeks technical and logistic integration of 'best' pre-processing in developing countries to manually dismantle e-waste and 'best' end-processing to treat hazardous and complex fractions in international state-of-the-art end-processing facilities. A series of dismantling trials was conducted on waste desktop computers, IT equipment, large and small household appliances, in order to compare the environmental and economic performances of the Bo2W philosophy with other conventional recycling scenarios. The assessment showed that the performance of the Bo2W scenario is more eco-efficient than mechanical separation scenarios and other local treatment solutions. For equipment containing substantial hazardous substances, it demands the assistance from domestic legislation for mandatory removal and safe handling of such fractions together with proper financing to cover the costs. Experience from Bo2W pilot projects in China and India highlighted key societal factors influencing successful implementation. These include market size, informal competitors, availability of national e-waste legislation, formal take-back systems, financing and trust between industrial players. The Bo2W philosophy can serve as a pragmatic and environmentally responsible transition before establishment of end-processing facilities in developing countries is made feasible. The executive models of Bo2W should be flexibly differentiated

  17. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  18. Resource Allocation Optimization Model of Collaborative Logistics Network Based on Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-feng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative logistics network resource allocation can effectively meet the needs of customers. It can realize the overall benefit maximization of the logistics network and ensure that collaborative logistics network runs orderly at the time of creating value. Therefore, this article is based on the relationship of collaborative logistics network supplier, the transit warehouse, and sellers, and we consider the uncertainty of time to establish a bilevel programming model with random constraints and propose a genetic simulated annealing hybrid intelligent algorithm to solve it. Numerical example shows that the method has stronger robustness and convergence; it can achieve collaborative logistics network resource allocation rationalization and optimization.

  19. 76 FR 76021 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... stability, public health, or safety. This month, we affirm the fundamental importance of our critical... our transportation networks, electricity grid, financial systems, and other assets and infrastructure...

  20. Developing a grid infrastructure in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Aldama, D.; Dominguez, M.; Ricardo, H.; Gonzalez, A.; Nolasco, E.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez, M.; Sanchez, M.; Suarez, F.; Nodarse, F.; Moreno, N.; Aguilera, L.

    2007-07-01

    A grid infrastructure was deployed at Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA) in the frame of EELA project and of a national initiative for developing a Cuban Network for Science. A stand-alone model was adopted to overcome connectivity limitations. The e-infrastructure is based on gLite-3.0 middleware and is fully compatible with EELA-infrastructure. Afterwards, the work was focused on grid applications. The application GATE was deployed from the early beginning for biomedical users. Further, two applications were deployed on the local grid infrastructure: MOODLE for e-learning and AERMOD for assessment of local dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. Additionally, our local grid infrastructure was made interoperable with a Java based distributed system for bioinformatics calculations. This experience could be considered as a suitable approach for national networks with weak Internet connections. (Author)

  1. Neural network design for J function approximation in dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, X

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows that a new type of artificial neural network (ANN) -- the Simultaneous Recurrent Network (SRN) -- can, if properly trained, solve a difficult function approximation problem which conventional ANNs -- either feedforward or Hebbian -- cannot. This problem, the problem of generalized maze navigation, is typical of problems which arise in building true intelligent control systems using neural networks. (Such systems are discussed in the chapter by Werbos in K.Pribram, Brain and Values, Erlbaum 1998.) The paper provides a general review of other types of recurrent networks and alternative training techniques, including a flowchart of the Error Critic training design, arguable the only plausible approach to explain how the brain adapts time-lagged recurrent systems in real-time. The C code of the test is appended. As in the first tests of backprop, the training here was slow, but there are ways to do better after more experience using this type of network.

  2. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  3. Patricia Hyer receives Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network University Change Agent Award

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Patricia Hyer, associate provost for academic administration, was awarded the University Change Agent Award at the Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN) national conference in Austin, Texas.

  4. Cognitive Networking With Regards to NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Vaden, Karl R.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes cognitive networking (CN) and its application to NASA's Space Communication and Networking (SCaN) Program. This report clarifies the terminology and framework of CN and provides some examples of cognitive systems. It then provides a methodology for developing and deploying CN techniques and technologies. Finally, the report attempts to answer specific questions regarding how CN could benefit SCaN. It also describes SCaN's current and target networks and proposes places where cognition could be deployed.

  5. Logistical networking: a global storage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it. This work is supported by the Department of Energy SciDAC Program (esp. Terascale Supernova Initiative) under grant #DE-FC02-01ER25465 and by the Center for Gyokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, under award #DE-FG02-04ER25651. Additional support was provided by the Center for Information Technology Research (CITR) of the University of Tennessee. The infrastructure used in this work was supported by the NSF CISE Research Infrastructure program, EIA-9972889 and Research Resources program EIA-022444.

  6. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...6615 DSN Phone: 244-4900 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 1, 2015 Program Information Program Name Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2... Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a critical enabling technology for Information Assurance (IA) services to support seamless secure information flows

  7. A Critical Agency Network Model for Building an Integrated Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Lee, Jenny J.; Rhoades, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study considers a distinct case of a college outreach program that integrates student affairs staff, academic administrators, and faculty across campus. The authors find that social networks and critical agency help to understand the integration of these various professionals and offer a critical agency network model of enacting change.…

  8. The Structure and Quality of Social Network Support among Mental Health Consumers of Clubhouse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the structure and quality of social network support among a group of adult consumers of community-based mental health programs known as "clubhouses". The structure and quality of social network support was also examined by diagnosis, specifically between consumers living with and without schizophrenia. The study…

  9. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  10. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  11. Policy Subsystem Portfolio Management: A Neural Network Model of the Gulf of Mexico Program

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, George Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study provides insights into the behavior of an environmental policy subsystem. The study uses neural network theory to model the Gulf of Mexico Program's allocation of implementation funds. The Gulf of Mexico Program is a prototype effort to institutionalize a policy subsystem. A project implementation fund is at the core of the Gulf of Mexico Program. The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides the implementation fund and the Mexico Program Office (GMPO) administers it. ...

  12. THE BLENDED LEARNING ACCOMPLISHMENT OF COMPUTER AND NETWORK ENGINEERING EXPERTISE PROGRAM IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Aries Alfian Prasetyo; Setiadi Cahyono Putro; I Made Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to (1) describe supporting and inhibiting factors in blended learning implementation for the students of computer and network engineering expertise program and (2) describe the accomplishment level of the implementation. This study is designed as a descriptive study with quantitative approach. The research object is the blended learning implementation in computer and network engineering expertise program in SMK N 1 Baureno Bojonegoro. The research subjects consist of teachers,...

  13. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in pervasive computing research. Security is usually addressed through the use of encryption and authentication, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: reventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  14. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Sofie Fogh; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in pervasive computing research. Security is usually addressed through the use of encryption and authentication, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: preventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  15. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  16. Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.

  17. A recurrent neural network with exponential convergence for solving convex quadratic program and related linear piecewise equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youshen; Feng, Gang; Wang, Jun

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a recurrent neural network for solving strict convex quadratic programming problems and related linear piecewise equations. Compared with the existing neural networks for quadratic program, the proposed neural network has a one-layer structure with a low model complexity. Moreover, the proposed neural network is shown to have a finite-time convergence and exponential convergence. Illustrative examples further show the good performance of the proposed neural network in real-time applications.

  18. Support Process Development for Assessing Green Infrastructure in Omaha, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluates Omaha’s current process for assessing green infrastructure projects and recommends improvements for comparing green and gray infrastructure. Compares Omaha’s design criteria to other cities. Reviews other US programs with rights-of-way criteria.

  19. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  20. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  1. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  2. A new neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandzadeh, Ziba; Safi, Mohammadreza; Nazemi, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems. The original problem involving random interval variable coefficients is first transformed into an equivalent convex second order cone programming problem. A neural network model is then constructed for solving the obtained convex second order cone problem. Employing Lyapunov function approach, it is also shown that the proposed neural network model is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and it is globally convergent to an exact satisfactory solution of the original problem. Several illustrative examples are solved in support of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustic emission safety monitoring of intermodal transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Safety and integrity of the national transportation infrastructure are of paramount importance and highway bridges are critical components of the highway system network. This network provides an immense contribution to the industry productivity and e...

  4. Strengthening prevention program theories and evaluations: contributions from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Scott D; Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Bierman, Karen L; Moody, James

    2011-12-01

    A majority of school-based prevention programs target the modification of setting-level social dynamics, either explicitly (e.g., by changing schools' organizational, cultural or instructional systems that influence children's relationships), or implicitly (e.g., by altering behavioral norms designed to influence children's social affiliations and interactions). Yet, in outcome analyses of these programs, the rich and complicated set of peer network dynamics is often reduced to an aggregation of individual characteristics or assessed with methods that do not account for the interdependencies of network data. In this paper, we present concepts and analytic methods from the field of social network analysis and illustrate their great value to prevention science--both as a source of tools for refining program theories and as methods that enable more sophisticated and focused tests of intervention effects. An additional goal is to inform discussions of the broader implications of social network analysis for public health efforts.

  5. Performance analysis of railway infrastructure and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Research on performance assessment of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international

  6. 40 CFR 51.353 - Network type and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation to begin no later than 1 year after program start-up. (5) Areas that qualify for and choose to... those stations, or companies owning those stations, are contractually or legally barred from engaging in... subpart. (1) The State shall report the results of the program evaluation on a biennial basis, starting...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  8. Case study and lessons learned for the Great Lakes ITS Program, Airport ITS Integration and the Road Infrastructure Management System projects, final report, Wayne County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-02

    This report presents the case study and lessons learned for the national evaluation of the Great Lakes Intelligent Transportation Systems (GLITS) Airport ITS Integration and Road Infrastructure Management System (RIMS) projects. The Airport ITS Integ...

  9. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  10. A Novel Linear Programming Formulation of Maximum Lifetime Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...... of the maximum lifetime routing problem that considers the operation modes of the node. Solution of the linear programming gives the upper analytical bound for the network lifetime. In order to illustrate teh application of the optimization model, we solved teh problem for different parameter settings...

  11. Feasibility comparison and analysis of the Unix network environment and the Windows NT environment for integration with the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII)

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Mark F.; Smith, Timothy J.; Sprague, John W.; Staier, Joseph E.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The history of the Department of Defense (DOD) information system technical infrastructure includes a collection of stovepipe, single purpose systems. Recently, the DOD has developed initiatives to help promote the development of common target architectures to which DOD information systems can migrate, evolve, and interoperate. The DOD's Technical Architecture Framework for Information Managers (TAFIM) provide system developers guidan...

  12. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  13. Critical infrastructure protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Kim M

    2012-01-01

    Current government policies for protecting the nation's critical infrastructure are described in this article which focuses on hospital disaster planning and incident management and the significant role of Security in infrastructure protection

  14. INDDGO: Integrated Network Decomposition & Dynamic programming for Graph Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    It is well-known that dynamic programming algorithms can utilize tree decompositions to provide a way to solve some \\emph{NP}-hard problems on graphs where the complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes and edges in the graph, but exponential in the width of the underlying tree decomposition. However, there has been relatively little computational work done to determine the practical utility of such dynamic programming algorithms. We have developed software to construct tree decompositions using various heuristics and have created a fast, memory-efficient dynamic programming implementation for solving maximum weighted independent set. We describe our software and the algorithms we have implemented, focusing on memory saving techniques for the dynamic programming. We compare the running time and memory usage of our implementation with other techniques for solving maximum weighted independent set, including a commercial integer programming solver and a semi-definite programming solver. Our results indicate that it is possible to solve some instances where the underlying decomposition has width much larger than suggested by the literature. For certain types of problems, our dynamic programming code runs several times faster than these other methods.

  15. The Czech National Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.; Křenková, I.; Mulač, M.; Ruda, M.; Sitera, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Czech National Grid Infrastructure is operated by MetaCentrum, a CESNET department responsible for coordinating and managing activities related to distributed computing. CESNET as the Czech National Research and Education Network (NREN) provides many e-infrastructure services, which are used by 94% of the scientific and research community in the Czech Republic. Computing and storage resources owned by different organizations are connected by fast enough network to provide transparent access to all resources. We describe in more detail the computing infrastructure, which is based on several different technologies and covers grid, cloud and map-reduce environment. While the largest part of CPUs is still accessible via distributed torque servers, providing environment for long batch jobs, part of infrastructure is available via standard EGI tools in EGI, subset of NGI resources is provided into EGI FedCloud environment with cloud interface and there is also Hadoop cluster provided by the same e-infrastructure.A broad spectrum of computing servers is offered; users can choose from standard 2 CPU servers to large SMP machines with up to 6 TB of RAM or servers with GPU cards. Different groups have different priorities on various resources, resource owners can even have an exclusive access. The software is distributed via AFS. Storage servers offering up to tens of terabytes of disk space to individual users are connected via NFS4 on top of GPFS and access to long term HSM storage with peta-byte capacity is also provided. Overview of available resources and recent statistics of usage will be given.

  16. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Carol Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); West, Grayson Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McBride, Scott Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  17. Internet infrastructures and health care systems: a qualitative comparative analysis on networks and markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séror, Ann C

    2002-12-01

    The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. to identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management.

  18. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The allocation of infrastructure capacity among carriers is a major issue in various transport infrastructure sectors, and therefore a theoretical framework on slot allocation would be desirable to support rati...

  19. An Agglomeration Law for Sorting Networks and its Application in Functional Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Immanuel Schiller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a general agglomeration law for sorting networks. Agglomeration is a common technique when designing parallel programmes to control the granularity of the computation thereby finding a better fit between the algorithm and the machine on which the algorithm runs. Usually this is done by grouping smaller tasks and computing them en bloc within one parallel process. In the case of sorting networks this could be done by computing bigger parts of the network with one process. The agglomeration law in this paper pursues a different strategy: The input data is grouped and the algorithm is generalized to work on the agglomerated input while the original structure of the algorithm remains. This will result in a new access opportunity to sorting networks well-suited for efficient parallelization on modern multicore computers, computer networks or GPGPU programming. Additionally this enables us to use sorting networks as (parallel or distributed merging stages for arbitrary sorting algorithms, thereby creating new hybrid sorting algorithms with ease. The expressiveness of functional programming languages helps us to apply this law to systematically constructed sorting networks, leading to efficient and easily adaptable sorting algorithms. An application example is given, using the Eden programming language to show the effectiveness of the law. The implementation is compared with different parallel sorting algorithms by runtime behaviour.

  20. A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-09-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  1. Taking technological infrastructure seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mair, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Taking Technological Infrastructure Seriously attempts to take stock of a sea-change in the way modern infrastructural resources are provided. Unlike traditional infrastructure, such as roads and electricity cables, where the State has largely been responsible for its provision, much of the key

  2. Changing Social Networks Among Homeless Individuals: A Prospective Evaluation of a Job- and Life-Skills Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Paige M; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

    2016-10-01

    Social networks play important roles in mental and physical health among the general population. Building healthier social networks might contribute to the development of self-sufficiency among people struggling to overcome homelessness and substance use disorders. In this study of homeless adults completing a job- and life-skills program (i.e., the Moving Ahead Program at St. Francis House, Boston), we prospectively examined changes in social network quality, size, and composition. Among the sample of participants (n = 150), we observed positive changes in social network quality over time. However, social network size and composition did not change among the full sample. The subset of participants who reported abstaining from alcohol during the months before starting the program reported healthy changes in their social networks; specifically, while completing the program, they re-structured their social networks such that fewer members of their network used alcohol to intoxication. We discuss practical implications of these findings.

  3. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  4. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being......The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  5. Understanding the infrastructure of European Research Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ERIC...... within the social sciences—the European Social Survey (ESS). We observe that the ESS experienced a decline in the number of participating countries upon its acquisition of ERIC status. We explore the links between methodological, organizational, and financial elements in the process through which the ESS...... became an ERIC using the Bowker and Star’s sociology of infrastructures. We conclude that focusing on ERICs as a European standard for organising and funding research collaboration gives new insights into the problems of membership, durability, and standardisation faced by research infrastructures...

  6. Understanding the infrastructure of European Research Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERICs) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This paper analyses one ERIC...... within the social sciences – the European Social Survey (ESS). We observe that the ESS experienced a decline in the number of participating countries upon its acquisition of ERIC status. We explore the links between methodological, organisational and financial elements in the process through which...... the ESS became an ERIC using the Bowker and Star’s sociology of infrastructures. We conclude that focusing on ERICs as a European standard for organising and funding research collaboration gives new insights into the problems of membership, durability and standardisation faced by research infrastructures...

  7. Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve the constrained optimization problem in two phases. The first phase uses heuristic methods such as the ant colony method, particle swarming optimization, and genetic algorithm to seek a near optimal solution among a list of feasible initial populations. The final optimal solution can be found by using the solution of the first phase as the initial condition to the SQP algorithm. We demonstrate the above problem formulation and optimization schemes with a large-scale network that includes the DSN ground stations and a number of spacecraft of deep space missions.

  8. iOS and OS X network programming cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a recipe-based approach that will heavily focus on the code and how to integrate the samples with the reader's projects.Each recipe consists of one or more methods that you can put directly into your app and use.This book is ideal for developers that want to create network applications for the Apple OS X or iOS platforms. All examples are written in Objective-C using XCode as the IDE. Knowledge of Objective-C and X-Code is essential.

  9. Optimization with PDE constraints ESF networking program 'OPTPDE'

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book on PDE Constrained Optimization contains contributions on the mathematical analysis and numerical solution of constrained optimal control and optimization problems where a partial differential equation (PDE) or a system of PDEs appears as an essential part of the constraints. The appropriate treatment of such problems requires a fundamental understanding of the subtle interplay between optimization in function spaces and numerical discretization techniques and relies on advanced methodologies from the theory of PDEs and numerical analysis as well as scientific computing. The contributions reflect the work of the European Science Foundation Networking Programme ’Optimization with PDEs’ (OPTPDE).

  10. The interaction of social networks and child obesity prevention program effects: the pathways trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Valente, Thomas W; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Huh, Jimi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih-Ping; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Social network analysis was used to examine whether peer influence from one's social networks moderates obesity prevention program effects on obesity-related behaviors: healthful and unhealthful. Participants included 557 children residing in Southern California. The survey assessed health-promoting behaviors (i.e., physical activity at school, physical activity outside of school, and fruit and vegetable intake), as well as unhealthful behaviors (high-calorie, low-nutrient intake and sedentary activity), and peer exposure calculated from social network nominations as indicators of peer influence. Multilevel models were conducted separately on outcomes predicted by program participation, peer exposure, and program participation by peer exposure. Results indicated that peer exposure was positively associated with one's own healthful and unhealthful behaviors. Program participation effects were moderated by peer influence, but only when unhealthful peer influence was present. Results suggest that peer influence can diminish or amplify prevention programs Future interventions should consider peer-led components to promote healthful influence of peers on healthful and unhealthful behaviors, and programs should be mindful that their effects are moderated by social networks. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  12. Networks Analysis of a Regional Ecosystem of Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha G.; Smith, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Case studies have documented the impact of family-school-community collaboration in afterschool programs on increasing awareness about the problems of at-risk youth, initiating dialogue among leaders and community representatives, developing rich school-based information systems, and demonstrating how to build strong relationships between public…

  13. The nitrogen footprint tool network: a multi-institution program ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper uses the nitrogen footprint tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and the upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions to institution N footprints, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals. In this paper, the first seven institution N footprint results are presented. The institution NFT network aims to develop footprints for many institutions to encourage widespread upper-level management strategies that will create significant reductions in reactive N released to the environment. Energy use and food purchases are the two largest contributors to institution N footprints. Ongoing efforts by institutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also help to reduce the N footprint, but the impact of food production on N pollution has not been directly addressed by the higher-ed sustainability community. The NFT Network found that institutions could reduce their N footprints by optimizing food purchasing to reduce consumption of animal products and minimize food waste, as well as reducing dependence o

  14. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. the effect of the european union (mpp6) infrastructural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and ... Key words: rural infrastructure, agricultural productivity, infrastructural index, European Union Micro Project Program .... state is characterized by tropical climate with high humidity and ...

  16. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National... the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, (Sections 211-215, Title II, Subtitle B of the... owners and operators of critical infrastructure and protected systems. The PCII Program is implemented by...

  17. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  18. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  19. Implementation of a primary care physician network obesity management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, S; Bellman, M; Saltsman, P; Garvey, D; Pimstone, K; Skootsky, S; Wang, H J; Elashoff, R; Heber, D

    2001-11-01

    Most primary care physicians do not treat obesity, citing lack of time, resources, insurance reimbursement, and knowledge of effective interventions as significant barriers. To address this need, a 10-minute intervention delivered by the primary care physician was coupled with individual dietary counseling sessions delivered by a registered dietitian via telephone with an automated calling system (House-Calls, Mobile, AL). Patients were seen for follow-up by their physician at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 52. A total of 252 patients (202 women and 50 men) were referred by 18 primary care physicians to the program. The comorbid conditions reported for all patients at baseline included low back pain, 29% (n = 72); hypertension, 45% (n = 113); hypercholesterolemia, 41% (n = 104); type 2 diabetes, 10% (n = 26); and sleep apnea, 5% (n = 12). When offered a choice of meal plans based on foods or meal replacements, two-thirds of patients (n = 166) chose to use meal replacements (Ultra Slim-Fast; Slim-Fast Foods Co., West Palm Beach, FL) at least once daily. Baseline weights of subjects averaged 200 +/- 46 lb for women (n = 202) and 237 +/- 45 lb for men (n = 50). Patients completing 6 months in the program lost an average of 19.0 +/- 4.0 lb for women (n = 94) and 15.5 +/- 8.2 lb for men (n = 26). Physicians reported a high degree of satisfaction with the program, suggesting that a brief, effective physician-directed program with nutritionist support by telephone can be implemented in a busy primary care office.

  20. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  1. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    strategies, such as adding fences, installing electronic access control devices, mounting additional closed circuit television cameras, or conducting random...and 128 different universities have division football programs playing in stadiums with capacities over 35,000 individuals.70 It seems unlikely that...the football stadium at every large university is an infrastructure facility that is essential to the nation. These broad criteria for the NADB

  2. A mixed-integer linear programming approach to the reduction of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, Annika; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2017-01-03

    Constraint-based analysis has become a widely used method to study metabolic networks. While some of the associated algorithms can be applied to genome-scale network reconstructions with several thousands of reactions, others are limited to small or medium-sized models. In 2015, Erdrich et al. introduced a method called NetworkReducer, which reduces large metabolic networks to smaller subnetworks, while preserving a set of biological requirements that can be specified by the user. Already in 2001, Burgard et al. developed a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach for computing minimal reaction sets under a given growth requirement. Here we present an MILP approach for computing minimum subnetworks with the given properties. The minimality (with respect to the number of active reactions) is not guaranteed by NetworkReducer, while the method by Burgard et al. does not allow specifying the different biological requirements. Our procedure is about 5-10 times faster than NetworkReducer and can enumerate all minimum subnetworks in case there exist several ones. This allows identifying common reactions that are present in all subnetworks, and reactions appearing in alternative pathways. Applying complex analysis methods to genome-scale metabolic networks is often not possible in practice. Thus it may become necessary to reduce the size of the network while keeping important functionalities. We propose a MILP solution to this problem. Compared to previous work, our approach is more efficient and allows computing not only one, but even all minimum subnetworks satisfying the required properties.

  3. Computing Assortative Mixing by Degree with the s-Metric in Networks Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens J. Waldorp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of assortative mixing by degree in networks indicates whether nodes with similar degree are connected to each other. In networks with scale-free distribution high values of assortative mixing by degree can be an indication of a hub-like core in networks. Degree correlation has generally been used to measure assortative mixing of a network. But it has been shown that degree correlation cannot always distinguish properly between different networks with nodes that have the same degrees. The so-called s-metric has been shown to be a better choice to calculate assortative mixing. The s-metric is normalized with respect to the class of networks without self-loops, multiple edges, and multiple components, while degree correlation is always normalized with respect to unrestricted networks, where self-loops, multiple edges, and multiple components are allowed. The challenge in computing the normalized s-metric is in obtaining the minimum and maximum value within a specific class of networks. We show that this can be solved by using linear programming. We use Lagrangian relaxation and the subgradient algorithm to obtain a solution to the s-metric problem. Several examples are given to illustrate the principles and some simulations indicate that the solutions are generally accurate.

  4. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  5. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  6. JACoW A new distributed control system for the consolidation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Scibile, Luigi; Villeton Pachot, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The operation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures is carried out via a series of control systems distributed over the CERN sites (Meyrin and Prevessin). The scope comprises: $\\sim$ 260 buildings, 2 large heating plants ($\\sim$ 50 MW overall capacity) with 27 km heating network and 200 radiators circuits, $\\sim$ 500 air handling units, $\\sim$ 52 chillers, $\\sim$ 300 split systems, $\\sim$ 3000 electric boards and $\\sim$ 100k light points. In the last five years and with the launch of major tertiary infrastructure consolidations, CERN is carrying out a migration and an extension of the old control systems dated back to the 70's, 80's and 90's to a new simplified, yet innovative, distributed control system aimed at minimizing the programming and implementation effort, standardizing equipment and methods and reducing lifecycle costs. This new methodology allows for a rapid development and simplified integration of the new controlled building/infrastructure processes. The basic principle is based on open standards...

  7. Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, G. L.; Piechota, T. C.; Lancaster, N.; Mensing, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nevada system of Higher Education, including the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the University of Nevada, Reno, the Desert Research Institute, and Nevada State College have begun a five year research and infrastructure building program, funded by the National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NSF EPSCoR) with the vision “to create a statewide interdisciplinary program and virtual climate change center that will stimulate transformative research, education, and outreach on the effects of regional climate change on ecosystem resources (especially water) and support use of this knowledge by policy makers and stakeholders.” Six major strategies are proposed: 1) Develop a capability to model climate change and its effects at a regional and sub-regional scales to evaluate different future scenarios and strategies (Climate Modeling Component) 2) Develop data collection, modeling, and visualization infrastructure to determine and analyze effects on ecosystems and disturbance regimes (Ecological Change Component) 3) Develop data collection, modeling, and visualization infrastructure to better quantify and model changes in water balance and resources under climate change (Water Resources Component) 4) Develop data collection and modeling infrastructure to assess effects on human systems, responses to institutional and societal aspects, and enhance policy making and outreach to communities and stakeholders (Policy, Decision-Making, and Outreach Component) 5) Develop a data portal and software to support interdisciplinary research via integration of data from observational networks and modeling (Cyberinfrastructure Component) and 6) Develop educational infrastructure to train students at all levels and provide public outreach in climate change issues (Education Component). As part of the new infrastructure, two observational transects will be established across Great Basin Ranges, one in southern Nevada in the Spring Mountains

  8. Automatic construction of image inspection algorithm by using image processing network programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuichiro; Aoki, Kimiya

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for automatic programming of inspection image processing. In the industrial field, automatic program generators or expert systems are expected to shorten a period required for developing a new appearance inspection system. So-called "image processing expert system" have been studied for over the nearly 30 years. We are convinced of the need to adopt a new idea. Recently, a novel type of evolutionary algorithms, called genetic network programming (GNP), has been proposed. In this study, we use GNP as a method to create an inspection image processing logic. GNP develops many directed graph structures, and shows excellent ability of formulating complex problems. We have converted this network program model to Image Processing Network Programming (IPNP). IPNP selects an appropriate image processing command based on some characteristics of input image data and processing log, and generates a visual inspection software with series of image processing commands. It is verified from experiments that the proposed method is able to create some inspection image processing programs. In the basic experiment with 200 test images, the success rate of detection of target region was 93.5%.

  9. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the principle of complexity management as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model developed within the project.

  10. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the Principle of Complexity Management (PCM as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model (DMM developed within the project.

  11. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  12. A dynamic programming approach to missing data estimation using neural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelwamondo, FV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and presents a novel technique for missing data estimation using a combination of dynamic programming, neural networks and genetic algorithms (GA) on suitable subsets of the input data. The method proposed here is well suited...

  13. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  14. Networked Timetable Stability Improvement Based on a Bilevel Optimization Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelei Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train timetable stability is the possibility to recover the status of the trains to serve as arranged according to the original timetable when the trains are disturbed. To improve the train timetable stability from the network perspective, the bilevel programming model is constructed, in which the upper level programming is to optimize the timetable stability on the network level and the lower is to improve the timetable stability on the dispatching railway segments. Timetable stability on the network level is defined with the variances of the utilization coefficients of the section capacity and station capacity. Weights of stations and sections are decided by the capacity index number and the degrees. The lower level programming focuses on the buffer time distribution plan of the trains operating on the sections and stations, taking the operating rules of the trains as constraints. A novel particle swarm algorithm is proposed and designed for the bilevel programming model. The computing case proves the feasibility of the model and the efficiency of the algorithm. The method outlined in this paper can be embedded in the networked train operation dispatching system.

  15. A program for the Bayesian Neural Network in the ROOT framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiahang; Huang, Run-Sheng; Lee, Shih-Chang

    2011-12-01

    We present a Bayesian Neural Network algorithm implemented in the TMVA package (Hoecker et al., 2007 [1]), within the ROOT framework (Brun and Rademakers, 1997 [2]). Comparing to the conventional utilization of Neural Network as discriminator, this new implementation has more advantages as a non-parametric regression tool, particularly for fitting probabilities. It provides functionalities including cost function selection, complexity control and uncertainty estimation. An example of such application in High Energy Physics is shown. The algorithm is available with ROOT release later than 5.29. Program summaryProgram title: TMVA-BNN Catalogue identifier: AEJX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5094 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1,320,987 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer system or cluster with C++ compiler and UNIX-like operating system Operating system: Most UNIX/Linux systems. The application programs were thoroughly tested under Fedora and Scientific Linux CERN. Classification: 11.9 External routines: ROOT package version 5.29 or higher ( http://root.cern.ch) Nature of problem: Non-parametric fitting of multivariate distributions Solution method: An implementation of Neural Network following the Bayesian statistical interpretation. Uses Laplace approximation for the Bayesian marginalizations. Provides the functionalities of automatic complexity control and uncertainty estimation. Running time: Time consumption for the training depends substantially on the size of input sample, the NN topology, the number of training iterations, etc. For the example in this manuscript, about 7 min was used on a PC/Linux with 2.0 GHz processors.

  16. Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure: the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Kroeze, Willemieke; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene Frost; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Hendriksen, Ingrid; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Loyen, Anne; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J.; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; Schuit, Abertine J.; Schulze, Matthias; Steinacker, Jürgen; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; van 't Veer, Pieter; Lien, Nanna; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated 'joint programming'. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda,

  17. Exploring knowledge processes based on teacher research in a school-university research network of a master's program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof dr Theo Bergen; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; dr Frank Cornelissen; Dr. Jacqueline van Swet

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. Outcomes indicate that use of existing network structures in master's programs is complex, but could be a promising avenue for creating succesful school-university

  18. Towards infrastructural architecture and urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pérez López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptually explores notions of architecture, urban planning and infrastructure in order to discover structures that are able to integrate these three dimensions. Within this framework, and based on Stan Allen ́s text Urbanismo Infraestructural (Infrastructural Urban Planning, three categories of study are established. First, Flow Systems, reviews concepts and case studies from the perspective of flow systems, movement networks and architectures that use them as project material. Field Conditions, studies two cases, Berlin Haupstadt and PotteriesThinkbelt, as settings for a new way to build the place itself, supported by infrastructural systems, to generate solutions that leave the system open to new developments and possibilities. Lastly, Infrastructural Architecture and Urban Planning takes as a case study Japanese stations and associated malls, as they are settings where certain conditions are concentrated and expand, thus creating new types and new spatial and programmatic possibilities.

  19. Enhancing infrastructure resilience through business continuity planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald; Norman, Michael; Klett, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Critical infrastructure is crucial to the functionality and wellbeing of the world around us. It is a complex network that works together to create an efficient society. The core components of critical infrastructure are dependent on one another to function at their full potential. Organisations face unprecedented environmental risks such as increased reliance on information technology and telecommunications, increased infrastructure interdependencies and globalisation. Successful organisations should integrate the components of cyber-physical and infrastructure interdependencies into a holistic risk framework. Physical security plans, cyber security plans and business continuity plans can help mitigate environmental risks. Cyber security plans are becoming the most crucial to have, yet are the least commonly found in organisations. As the reliance on cyber continues to grow, it is imperative that organisations update their business continuity and emergency preparedness activities to include this.

  20. Cisco Networking Academy Program for high school students: Formative & summative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford-Wesley, Deanne

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are

  1. Malaysia; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation—Detailed Assessment of Observance of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This report is an assessment of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (PFMI) in Malaysia. The central bank is in charge of the payment and settlement systems and the Securities Commission (SC) is in charge of regulation and securities. The payment and security systems are elaborated along with the roles of Bursa Malaysia Securities Clearing, Bursa Malaysia Depo, and the Bursa Malaysia Derivative Clearing mechanism. The Executive Board comments that Malaysia shows cons...

  2. Center for Infrastructure Defense

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. The Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) focuses on the continued operation of critical military and civilian infrastructure in the presence of accident, failure, and attack. Operations Research (OR) Department in the Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  3. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  4. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  5. Supporting clinicians in infrastructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena

    2015-01-01

    the notion of infrastructuring, we carry out an infrastructural analysis of eWBs and approach our joint efforts as unfolding and continuing the con-figuration of participatory design activities. We identify a need for local support and novel competences among the clinicians in order for them to engage...

  6. Planning multifunctional green infrastructure for compact cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rieke; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; van der jagt, Alexander P.N.

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However....... Further, spatial assessment, strategic planning and site design need to 4) consider synergies, trade-offs and the capacity of urban green spaces to provide functions as part of the wider green infrastructure network; and 5) largely benefit from cooperation between different sectors and public departments...... green space functions or the purposive design and management of multifunctional parks. Based on the findings, we arrive at five recommendations for promoting multifunctional urban green infrastructure in densifying urban areas: 1) undertake systematic spatial assessments of all urban green (and blue...

  7. Research on e-commerce transaction networks using multi-agent modelling and open application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunhui; Han, Xufang; Wu, Harris

    2010-08-01

    We provide a formal definition of an e-commerce transaction network. Agent-based modelling is used to simulate e-commerce transaction networks. For real-world analysis, we studied the open application programming interfaces (APIs) from eBay and Taobao e-commerce websites and captured real transaction data. Pajek is used to visualise the agent relationships in the transaction network. We derived one-mode networks from the transaction network and analysed them using degree and betweenness centrality. Integrating multi-agent modelling, open APIs and social network analysis, we propose a new way to study large-scale e-commerce systems.

  8. A Uniform Publish-Subscribe Infrastructure for Communication in Wireless Mobile Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Thorup, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    provides a good communication abstraction for wireless networks of mobile nodes. In this paper we present PSI, a uniform publish-subscribe based infrastructure, for communication in wireless mobile environments. In PSI the application is divided into software components that each handles a well defined...... systems and therefore it is important to have communication middleware that hides the complexity of low level network programming and presents a clean and understandable abstraction over communication to the application programmer. It has previously been shown that the publish-subscribe messaging paradigm...

  9. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Overview of Aro Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    This program brings together researchers from disparate disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, not only are new and rewarding solutions sought and obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that is, the human dimension of complex networks, but, in addition, collaborations are established that would not otherwise have formed given the traditional disciplinary compartmentalization of research. This program develops the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the physical and human (cognitive and social) domains as they relate to human decision making. The strategy is to extend the recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes that appear to be characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. We also pursue understanding of the phenomenon of synchronization, whose mathematical formulation has recently provided insight into how complex networks reach accommodation and cooperation. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require computer simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process.

  11. The spectral positioning algorithm of new spectrum vehicle based on convex programming in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Lu, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Spectrum resources are very precious, so it is increasingly important to locate interference signals rapidly. Convex programming algorithms in wireless sensor networks are often used as localization algorithms. But in view of the traditional convex programming algorithm is too much overlap of wireless sensor nodes that bring low positioning accuracy, the paper proposed a new algorithm. Which is mainly based on the traditional convex programming algorithm, the spectrum car sends unmanned aerial vehicles (uses) that can be used to record data periodically along different trajectories. According to the probability density distribution, the positioning area is segmented to further reduce the location area. Because the algorithm only increases the communication process of the power value of the unknown node and the sensor node, the advantages of the convex programming algorithm are basically preserved to realize the simple and real-time performance. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has a better positioning accuracy than the original convex programming algorithm.

  12. Object-Oriented NeuroSys: Parallel Programs for Simulating Large Networks of Biologically Accurate Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, P; Miller, P; Kim, J; Leese, T; Zabiyaka, Y

    2003-05-07

    Object-oriented NeuroSys (ooNeuroSys) is a collection of programs for simulating very large networks of biologically accurate neurons on distributed memory parallel computers. It includes two principle programs: ooNeuroSys, a parallel program for solving the large systems of ordinary differential equations arising from the interconnected neurons, and Neurondiz, a parallel program for visualizing the results of ooNeuroSys. Both programs are designed to be run on clusters and use the MPI library to obtain parallelism. ooNeuroSys also includes an easy-to-use Python interface. This interface allows neuroscientists to quickly develop and test complex neuron models. Both ooNeuroSys and Neurondiz have a design that allows for both high performance and relative ease of maintenance.

  13. Barrier Free Internet Access: Evaluating the Cyber Security Risk Posed by the Adoption of Bring Your Own Devices to e-Learning Network Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    E.T. Tchao; Ansah, Richard Y.; Djane, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), also known as Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT), Bring Your Own Phone (BYOP), or Bring Your Own Personal Computer (BYOPC), is a policy which allows people access to privileged resources, information and services available on the private computer network of an organization using their own personal computer devices. BYOD, since its emergence in 2009, courtesy of Intel, is now a common practice in many organizations. Academic institutions that attempt...

  14. Shrinking networks ? : les nouveaux modèles économiques et territoriaux des firmes d'infrastructure face à la diminution de la consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, most European cities have had to face a new and unforeseen phenomenon, a reduction in the consumption levels of urban technical networks (and in particular water systems). The reasons for this phenomenon are numerous, from technical improvements of domestic appliances and deindustrialisation to changes in behaviours of users and the development of policies promoting sobriety and moderation in the use of natural resources. This is however a symptom of a larger proce...

  15. SHRINKING NETWORKS ? Les nouveaux modèles économiques et territoriaux des firmes locales d'infrastructure face à la diminution de la consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, most European cities have had to face a new and unforeseen phenomenon, a reduction in the consumption levels of urban technical networks (and in particular water systems). The reasons for this phenomenon are numerous, from technical improvements of domestic appliances and deindustrialisation to changes in behaviours of users and the development of policies promoting sobriety and moderation in the use of natural resources. This is however a symptom of a larger proce...

  16. Data requirements for road network inventory studies and road safety evaluations - guidelines and specifications. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Candappa, N.L. Schermers, G. Stefan, C. & Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    Improving road safety is and has been a priority in most first world countries with the result that road crashes and resultant traffic injuries have thankfully been declining. However, improvements in road safety have also brought about new challenges for managing the remaining problems. One of these challenges is that the declining number of serious injury crashes mean a sparser distribution on the network whereby traditional reactive approaches such as black-spot analysis and remedial treat...

  17. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures A Guideline for Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Utne, Ingrid; Vatn, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Today’s society is completely dependent on critical networks such as  water supply, sewage, electricity, ICT and transportation. Risk and vulnerability analyses are needed to grasp the impact of threats and hazards. However, these become quite complex as there are strong interdependencies both within and between infrastructure systems. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides methods for analyzing risks and interdependencies of critical infrastructures.  A number of analysis approaches are described and are adapted to each of these infrastructures. Various approaches are also revised, and all are supported by several examples and illustrations. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of various interdependencies that often exist between the infrastructures.  Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides a good tool to identify the hazards that are threatening your infrastructures, and will enhance the un...

  18. Infrastructure for Detector Research and Development towards the International Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kulis, Sz.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Bamberger, A.; Kohli, M.; Lupberger, M.; Renz, U.; Schumacher, M.; Zwerger, Andreas; Calderone, A.; Cussans, D.G.; Heath, H.F.; Mandry, S.; Page, R.F.; Velthuis, J.J.; Attie, D.; Calvet, D.; Colas, P.; Coppolani, X.; Degerli, Y.; Delagnes, E.; Gelin, M.; Giomataris, I.; Lutz, P.; Orsini, F.; Rialot, M.; Senee, F.; Wang, W.; Alozy, J.; Apostolakis, J.; Aspell, P.; Bergsma, F.; Campbell, M.; Formenti, F.; Santos, H.Franca; Garcia, E.Garcia; de Gaspari, M.; Giudice, P.A.; Grefe, Ch.; Grichine, V.; Hauschild, M.; Ivantchenko, V.; Kehrli, A.; Kloukinas, K.; Linssen, L.; Cudie, X.Llopart; Marchioro, A.; Musa, L.; Ribon, A.; Trampitsch, G.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Anduze, M.; Beyer, E.; Bonnemaison, A.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cauchois, A.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Jauffret, C.; Jeans, D.; Karar, A.; Mathieu, A.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Rouge, A.; Ruan, M.; Vanel, J.C.; Videau, H.; Besson, A.; de Masi, G.Claus.R.; Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Morel, F.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Giannelli, M.Faucci; Fleury, J.; Guilhem, G.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Benyamna, M.; Bonnard, J.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Mannen, S.; Royer, L.; Charpy, A.; Da Silva, W.; David, J.; Dhellot, M.; Imbault, D.; Ghislain, P.; Kapusta, F.; Pham, T.Hung; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sefri, R.; Dzahini, D.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Bassignana, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Quirion, D.; Fernandez, M.; Jaramillo, R.; Munoz, F.J.; Vila, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Kvasnicka, P.; Aplin, S.; Bachynska, O.; Behnke, T.; Behr, J.; Dehmelt, K.; Engels, J.; Gadow, K.; Gaede, F.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gregor, I.M.; Haas, T.; Henschel, H.; Koetz, U.; Lange, W.; Libov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mnich, J.; Muhl, C.; Ohlerich, M.; Potylitsina-Kube, N.; Prahl, V.; Reinecke, M.; Roloff, P.; Rosemann, Ch.; Rubinski, Igor; Schade, P.; Schuwalov, S.; Sefkow, F.; Terwort, M.; Volkenborn, R.; Kalliopuska, J.; Mehtaelae, P.; Orava, R.; van Remortel, N.; Cvach, J.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Haensel, S.; Irmler, C.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Valentan, M.; Piemontese, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.; Bulgheroni, A.; Jastrzab, M.; Caccia, M.; Re, V.; Ratti, L.; Traversi, G.; Dewulf, J.P.; Janssen, X.; De Lentdecker, G.; Yang, Y.; Bryngemark, L.; Christiansen, P.; Gross, P.; Jonsson, L.; Ljunggren, M.; Lundberg, B.; Mjornmark, U.; Oskarsson, A.; Richert, T.; Stenlund, E.; Osterman, L.; Rummel, S.; Richter, R.; Andricek, L.; Ninkovich, J.; Koffmane, Ch.; Moser, H.G.; Boisvert, V.; Green, B.; Green, M.G.; Misiejuk, A.; Wu, T.; Bilevych, Y.; Carballo, V.M.Blanco; Chefdeville, M.; de Nooij, L.; Fransen, M.; Hartjes, F.; van der Graaf, H.; Timmermans, J.; Abramowicz, H.; Ben-Hamu, Y.; Jikhleb, I.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Sadeh, I.; Schwartz, R.; Stern, A.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Ward, R.Shaw.D.R.; Daniluk, W.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Oliwa, K.; Pawlik, B.; Wierba, W.; Zawiejski, L.; Bailey, D.S.; Kelly, M.; Eigen, G.; Brezina, Ch.; Desch, K.; Furletova, J.; Kaminski, J.; Killenberg, M.; Kockner, F.; Krautscheid, T.; Kruger, H.; Reuen, L.; Wienemann, P.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Corrin, E.; Haas, D.; Pohl, M.; Diener, R.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Kaukher, A.; Schafer, O.; Schroder, H.; Wurth, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The EUDET-project was launched to create an infrastructure for developing and testing new and advanced detector technologies to be used at a future linear collider. The aim was to make possible experimentation and analysis of data for institutes, which otherwise could not be realized due to lack of resources. The infrastructure comprised an analysis and software network, and instrumentation infrastructures for tracking detectors as well as for calorimetry.

  19. Making the Port of Antwerp more natural; ecological infrastructure network for the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) on the left bank of the Scheldt, Application of the LARCH model to the natterjack toad in the Port of Antwerp on the left bank of the Scheldt as basis for the sustainable conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.; Pouwels, R.; Slim, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    On the grounds of the Antwerp Port Authority, economic activities and nature co-exist in close proximity. To give nature a chance of survival, also into the future, the Port Authority, in collaboration with Natuurpunt, set itself the goal of establishing a network of ecological infrastructure. With

  20. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barrett

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i cellular and mesh networks, (ii transportation networks and (iii mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number

  1. Can social networking be used to promote engagement in child maltreatment prevention programs? Two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents' use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors for maltreatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially beneficial supplement for future parents enrolling in parenting programs.

  2. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1997-04-01

    This article presents a survey of the principal efforts of the DSN Advanced Systems Program and its impact upon the operational Deep Space Network from about 1960 to 1995. The article is structured along two main themes. First is a tour of the fundamental services provided by the Network and the physical elements and technologies that support these services. The second theme is presented as a series of focused case histories of changes inspired by specific missions, such as Galileo, Voyager, or Mariner{Venus{Mercury, or by specific technologies, such as the application of fiber optics. A bibliographic entree to a substantial body of other reading material also is provided.

  3. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  4. Virtual infrastructure planning: the GEYSERS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzanakaki, A.; Anastasopoulos, M.P.; Georgakilas, K.; Garcia-Espin, J.A.; Ferrer Riera, J.; Figuerola, S.; Ghijsen, M.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Vicat-Blanc, P.; Soudan, S.; Anhalt, F.; Peng, S.; Escalona, E.; Nejabati, R.; Simeonidou, D.; Cunningham, P.; Cunningham, M.

    2012-01-01

    The new and emerging IT services require very high network capacities and specific IT resources that cannot be intrinsically delivered by the current Best Effort Internet. In response to this the European project GEYSERS (Generalised Architecture for Dynamic Infrastructure Services) is proposing a

  5. The MEUST infrastructure for neutrino astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destelle, Jean-Jacques [Centre de Physique de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS-IN2P3, 163 Avenue de Luminy-case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vallée, Claude, E-mail: vallee@cppm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Physique de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS-IN2P3, 163 Avenue de Luminy-case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-10-11

    We present the infrastructure of the MEUST observatory (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies) being developed offshore of Toulon in the context of the KM3NeT and EMSO European consortiums, with emphasis on the submarine network and its use for neutrino astronomy.

  6. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  7. Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon

  8. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  9. Next Generation Intelligent Wireless Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    could think the wireless revolution is over. However, future connectivity will be wireless and ubiquitous. Therefore the future of wireless infrastructures seems to be in front of a remarkable evolution as this paper will describe. With a vision of creating continuous seamless user connectivity as well...... as having physical devices/things connected through the wide spread usage of sensor and RFID near field communication technologies the network will increase in size with a order of magnitude compared to today. Additionally having the widespread Internet protocol technologies as a fundamental building block...... efficient ways of optimizing the spectrum usage are necessary. The extent of IP-based sensor networks with explode due to the rapid evolution in the relationship between processing power, cost, power consumption and physical size....

  10. Path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks: a nonlinear programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. E.; Ott, Teunis J.; de Kock, Johan M.; Krzesinski, Anthony E.

    2001-07-01

    Multi-protocol Label Switching extends the IPv4 destination-based routing protocols to provide new and scalable routing capabilities in connectionless networks using relatively simple packet forwarding mechanisms. MPLS networks carry traffic on virtual connections called label switched paths. This paper considers path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks in order to optimize the network quality of service. The optimization is based upon the minimization of a non-linear objective function which under light load simplifies to OSPF routing with link metrics equal to the link propagation delays. The behavior under heavy load depends on the choice of certain parameters: It can essentially be made to minimize maximal expected utilization, or to maximize minimal expected weighted slacks (both over all links). Under certain circumstances it can be made to minimize the probability that a link has an instantaneous offered load larger than its transmission capacity. We present a model of an MPLS network and an algorithm to find and capacitate optimal LSPs. The algorithm is an improvement of the well-known flow deviation non-linear programming method. The algorithm is applied to compute optimal LSPs for several test networks carrying a single traffic class.

  11. Outcomes from the GLEON fellowship program. Training graduate students in data driven network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, H.; Hanson, P. C.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the water sciences there is a massive need for graduate students who possess the analytical and technical skills to deal with large datasets and function in the new paradigm of open, collaborative -science. The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) graduate fellowship program (GFP) was developed as an interdisciplinary training program to supplement the intensive disciplinary training of traditional graduate education. The primary goal of the GFP was to train a diverse cohort of graduate students in network science, open-web technologies, collaboration, and data analytics, and importantly to provide the opportunity to use these skills to conduct collaborative research resulting in publishable scientific products. The GFP is run as a series of three week-long workshops over two years that brings together a cohort of twelve students. In addition, fellows are expected to attend and contribute to at least one international GLEON all-hands' meeting. Here, we provide examples of training modules in the GFP (model building, data QA/QC, information management, bayesian modeling, open coding/version control, national data programs), as well as scientific outputs (manuscripts, software products, and new global datasets) produced by the fellows, as well as the process by which this team science was catalyzed. Data driven education that lets students apply learned skills to real research projects reinforces concepts, provides motivation, and can benefit their publication record. This program design is extendable to other institutions and networks.

  12. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  13. A Federal Response: The President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection Board's purpose, budget, principles, and priorities. Describes the board's role in coordinating all federal activities related to protection of information systems and networks supporting critical infrastructures. Also discusses its responsibility in creating a policy and road map for government…

  14. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  15. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  16. Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure: the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, J.; Ploeg, van der H.P.; Kroeze, W.; Ahrens, W.; Allais, O.; Andersen, L.F.; Cardon, F.; Capranica, L.; Chastin, S.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Finglas, P.M.; Flechtner-Mors, M.; Hebestreit, A.; Hendriksen, I.; Kubiak, T.; Lanza, M.; Loyen, A.; MacDonncha, C.; Mazzocchi, M.; Monsivais, P.; Murphy, M.; Nöthlings, U.; O’Gorman, D.J.; Renner, B.; Roos, G.; Schuit, A.J.; Schulze, M.B.; Steinacker, J.; Stronks, K.; Volkert, D.; Veer, van 't P.; Lien, N.; Bourdeaudhuij, De I.; Brug, J.

    2014-01-01

    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated ‘joint programming’. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda,

  17. LANL: Weapons Infrastructure Briefing to Naval Reactors, July 18, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Frances [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-07-18

    Presentation slides address: The Laboratory infrastructure supports hundreds of high hazard, complex operations daily; LANL’s unique science and engineering infrastructure is critical to delivering on our mission; LANL FY17 Budget & Workforce; Direct-Funded Infrastructure Accounts; LANL Org Chart; Weapons Infrastructure Program Office; The Laboratory’s infrastructure relies on both Direct and Indirect funding; NA-50’s Operating, Maintenance & Recapitalization funding is critical to the execution of the mission; Los Alamos is currently executing several concurrent Line Item projects; Maintenance @ LANL; NA-50 is helping us to address D&D needs; We are executing a CHAMP Pilot Project at LANL; G2 = Main Tool for Program Management; MDI: Future Investments are centered on facilities with a high Mission Dependency Index; Los Alamos hosted first “Deep Dive” in November 2016; Safety, Infrastructure & Operations is one of the most important programs at LANL, and is foundational for our mission success.

  18. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  19. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  20. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Gelenbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF and a cognitive packet network (CPN-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.